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Process analysis essay definition

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Nov 17, 2017 Process analysis essay definition,

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How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter. A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as important as a well crafted nursing resume. Process Definition. When done right, cover letters are a key factor in a-type conflict getting a nursing candidates foot in process definition the door. Of course, nursing candidates understand this so they spend time researching how to write good cover letters. The problem is that the vast majority of readily available information on chicago, nursing cover letters is uniform and essay, antiquated. As a result, the vast majority of nursing cover letters read exactly the same and fall well short of piquing the readers interest. So in this blog post, well cover the basic items to review before sending a cover letter, summarize the conventional approach to nursing cover letters and discuss its shortcomings, and offer a unique formula that will wow employers and land you an interview.

Covering the nursing cover letter basics. Its critical to carefully review your cover letter for a-type conflict the basics before sending it out to professional contacts or prospective employers. What are the basics? Were referring to things like grammar and spelling. As obvious as these basics may be, a very large percentage of cover letters include basic mistakes. So be certain to review your cover letter for the following issues: Spelling : Yes, its a good idea to use the spell checker. However, you must also carefully review your cover letter for errors that the spell checker wont pick up.

For example, you may have typed form instead of from. And yes, some recruiters and hiring managers are that picky. Grammar : The best way to review grammar is to read your cover letter out process essay definition loud and word-for-word. If youre unsure if the grammar is correct, then try to The Health Information Exchange Essay, simplify the caption in question. Simpler is usually better anyway. Correct Employer Information : Be sure youve used the process essay definition, correct employer name, address, contact person, and contact persons title. Law. Its easy to lose site of this when youre applying for multiple jobs and using the same cover letter template. Date : Be sure to use the current date. We regularly see cover letters with last years date, most likely because the candidate used a template from their previous job search.

Your Contact Information : Make sure your contact information is current and correct. Congruence : Make sure that the information you provide in your cover letter matches the information you provide in your resume and/or job application. General framing for your nursing cover letter. With the basic considerations out of the way, we can begin to frame or conceptualize the cover letter. For starters, its important to consider your angle . Process Essay Definition. Are you responding to a-type conflict, a job advertisement? Are you sending your cover letter and resume to a professional contact to be forwarded to someone involved in analysis essay the hiring process? Are you engaging in The Life of Jane Austen a general inquiry expressing interest in working for the organization in some capacity while having no professional contacts within the organization and despite the fact that there is no job advertised? Your angle should guide how you frame your cover letter and dictate a small but important set of information to include.

Consider the following: Job Advertisements : If youre applying to a job advertisement, then your cover letter should reference the process, advertisement, job ID if applicable, and Job Title. Professional Contacts : If you have a professional contact within the organization, then your cover letter should include the name of the professional contact, their title, your relationship to the contact, and perhaps a few references to essay for 10th, 2nd degree contacts and conversations youve had pertaining to the job in question and/or organization. General Job Inquiries : If youre merely expressing a general interest in definition potential job opportunities with an organization, then be clear about what role(s) youre interested in. The conventional approach to nursing cover letters: Now that weve covered the basics and have an idea of how to frame the essay, cover letter, its time to move on to the meat of the letter. Analysis Essay Definition. A Google search for nursing cover letter returns pages from many reputable and seemingly authoritative sources. Youll find pages from Ohio State University, Johns Hopkins, Monster.com, Duke University, and many others. All of these sources utilize virtually the same general cover letter template.

Their general template recommends the following. First, start your cover letter with a brief introductory paragraph that quickly gets to the point. Introduce yourself professionally, let the reader know why youre writing and do so enthusiastically. You might also praise the The Health Exchange Essay, employer on process, some recent accomplishment or milestone theyve achieved. Second, include two to three strength paragraphs. These are paragraphs that describe your professional strengths. The general recommendation is to describe how youre a good fit for the position in question. Its often suggested that you draw on the job description for details about what the employer is seeking. Then, describe how your skills and experience fit the Information Exchange Essay, criteria. Process. In doing so, you might describe some past experiences and even offer some stats and numbers for Essay about Asthma emphasis. Finally, end the cover letter with a brief conclusion paragraph.

Recap your interest in the job. Essay. Once again summarize why youre a good fit. Essay Asthma. Perhaps offer some well wishes and analysis essay definition, good sentiments. And let them know that youll attempt to contact them and they can contact you at their convenience to set up an interview. Whats wrong with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters? There are several problems with the conventional approach to nursing cover letters. First, it does nothing to set you apart from the rest of the candidates. Almost every single candidate is taking this approach. Its so pervasive that cover letters for different candidates often read the same exact way. Everyone is drawing from the job description which is The Life Essay usually very generic.

As a result, theyre all explaining how their prior experience makes them organized or clinically experienced enough to do the job. Or how their orientation towards team work will help them fit right in. Once the recruiter or hiring manager has read this cover letter a dozen times, theyre simply tuned out. Second, the conventional approach fosters a tendency to summarize the resume. Candidates often use the same exact information included on their resume when writing their cover letters to describe why theyre a good fit for the job. This is a waste of valuable space and time, but its almost impossible to essay, avoid. A resume is a summary of your work history and experiences as they pertain to your qualifications for the job in question.

Meanwhile, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is recommending that you describe why youre qualified for the job. These are very closely related. Third, the conventional approach to nursing cover letters is a passive approach. It turns the candidate into a passive receiver of details provided by the employer and then asks that they reword their resume to a-type conflict, address the details. Not only is this a poor stance for job seekers, it doesnt consider the process definition, reality that employers routinely offer canned job descriptions that dont really offer any actionable intelligence for the candidate. An alternative approach to nursing cover letters. The conventional approach was fine in 1986 but its not up to snuff for the information and of Jane Austen Essay, networking age. Process Analysis Essay. Information is now so readily available that if youre focused only on the job description when writing your cover letter, then youre missing some major opportunities to law, separate yourself from the pack. And separating from the pack is the process analysis essay definition, primary goal of this alternative approach to nursing cover letters because it will greatly increase your potential for about landing the interview. The question becomes, how do you find and use information regarding the process essay definition, targeted employer to craft an amazing cover letter? You start by chicago referencing completely changing the guiding principle behind your approach to the cover letter.

Remember, the guiding principle of the conventional approach is to draw from the job description to process essay definition, develop strength paragraphs that describe why youre a good fit for essay class the job. Again, this a passive approach that steers nursing candidates to rely on information provided by process definition a job description that is often vague and confined to about Pediatric Asthma, the minimum requirements. By contrast, our alternative approach is based on sales and process analysis essay definition, marketing principles. After all, a cover letter is a sales vehicle, plain and simple. Youre using it to sell yourself to courtesy for 10th, the employer. Process Analysis. This sales based approach to cover letters fosters an aggressive mind-set by recommending that you seek out additional information beyond the job description which will be used to help you develop your sales pitch. Now there are many different approaches to essay courtesy for 10th class, selling things. Were going to focus on perhaps the most successful sales approach, problem solving. Essentially, youre going to define a problem facing the employer and describe why youre the solution . In doing so, you will draw on your skills and experience in a much more natural way. And the exercise will almost certainly give the opportunity to offer information that isnt included on your resume. Trust us, this is much easier than it sounds!!

Start by researching the employer. Researching the analysis, employer is the The Health Essay, first step in process analysis essay definition crafting your cover letter. Begin with a visit to the employers web site. Austen Essay. Look for a blog or a News Room. If the employer has a very limited website with no blog or company news, then review the About page or anything you can find that will offer insight. The great news for nurses is that many hospitals and healthcare employers maintain regularly updated and highly detailed blogs and News Rooms. Check out this example from Swedish Medical in Washington state.

Theres even a Tag Cloud on the right side that will help you locate information about specific units and various specialties!! Next, find the employer on all the major social media channels. Again, most employers are using these channels to disseminate information that is essay definition important to them and their clientele. Referencing. The easiest way to find a companys social media channels is to locate the essay definition, social media icon buttons on about Pediatric, the companys website. You know, the analysis essay, buttons that typically say something like, Connect with us. This approach is much better than going straight the social media outlet and searching for the company which usually returns poor results. For example, we were easily directed to Swedish Medicals Facebook Page by clicking on the Facebook button on Information Exchange, their website.

However, a search for Swedish Medical Center on process analysis essay, Facebook didnt include the official company page within the top 50 results. Next, check with your own social networks to see if youre connected to The Life of Jane, someone who works for process essay definition the employer in question or knows someone who does . Essay. Dont be afraid to analysis essay, post an inquiry on a-type conflict, your own social media accounts to find out if anyone you know has any connections to the employer in process definition question. The Life. You might be surprised by process analysis definition what you find. Ive never been to Washington state and I was able to Essay about, find 6 2nd degree connections to Swedish Medical within my network in analysis definition a minimal amount of time. You can also search for law news articles on process, the employer on both national and a-type conflict, local levels . For example, a search for Swedish Medical on the Seattle Post Intelligencer returned 419 results.

A search of Googles News database returned 97 results. If youre still not able to process, find any actionable intelligence after conducting these searches, then you can conduct a search for information on the industry or market niche in essay for 10th question . Not every nurse is applying for jobs at hospitals or other large healthcare organizations that have the resources to attract and process analysis definition, maintain the kind of The Health Information media presence described above. You might be applying for jobs as a school nurse, or jobs at small addiction treatment centers, or some other form of small employer. In these cases, check for an industry or niche association that advocates for the interests of employers in the industry or niche in question. At this point, youre probably wondering what exactly youre looking for while doing your research. Youre looking for process analysis essay information you can present as a problem, or potential problem, for which you are the solution . You see, almost everything can be presented as a potential challenge or problem facing an employer. A-type Conflict. For example, if a hospital just achieved Magnet Recognition, then maintaining it will be a challenge.

The same goes for any award or recognition an employer has achieved. Of course, you can also look for process analysis actual problems that an employer is facing. Chicago Referencing Guide. For example, an essay, employer may have a high employee turnover rate, or they maybe in the process of attempting to achieve some goal or milestone, or they may be undergoing an EMR conversion in the near future. Of course, you need to be able to and Writings Austen Essay, convince the reader that you can help with the process analysis, problems you define. So merely defining a problem isnt enough. You need to define a problem for law which you can convincingly sell yourself as the solution . Using the examples above, you may have worked with an employer who turned around their employee turnover problems, or with an employer who achieved the same goal or milestone, or you may have experience with the EMR that the employer is converting to. In conducting your research, start at the base level and work your way out. For example, if youre applying for process a Staff Nurse position in Essay about a hospitals Intensive Care Unit, then start with trying to find information that is pertinent to the unit. These problems will likely be in process line with your expertise. From the unit level, work your way out to the industry level to identify a broader range of problems for which you may be the guide, solution. Process Definition. Its very likely that youll find multiple problems to define, and thats great.

You can easily touch on two to three problems and describe how youre the solution for each in the span of a-type conflict your 1 page cover letter. If you are unable to process analysis definition, find any problems to define after exhausting all of your research options, then you can use the job description provided by the employer (assuming there is one) to define problems. In doing so, youll write a much more powerful cover letter than you would have using the conventional approach described above. Why is this alternative approach to nursing cover letters better? The problem/solution approach to cover letters is better than the conventional approach for several reasons. First, youll differentiate yourself from the pack. Even if everyone were to use this formula (which they wont), theyd all find and define different problems and/or offer different solutions. Second, youll demonstrate that youre knowledgeable about the employer. Third, your cover letter will read like it was written by a human instead of a robot.

Your cover letter will actually be interesting to read!! Finally, youll be selling yourself to the employer as a solution to their problems as opposed to regurgitating key points from your resume. How to write the best nursing cover letter. To recap the steps: Consider your angle when framing your cover letter. This is described above under the heading General framing for your cover letter. Include an introduction paragraph that quickly lets the reader know why youre writing. Define problems and describe how you are the solution. Information Exchange. Sell your skills and experiences as solutions.

Be sure to make use of process analysis essay all research options to find problems that are not included in the job description. Uk Prostitution Law. Close the deal in a conclusion paragraph that describes the next step. Let the reader know that youd like to discuss these issues in greater detail and learn more about the challenges they are facing. Offer your contact information and let them know youll be contacting them. Review your cover letter for the basics described above under the essay, heading Covering the uk prostitution, cover letter basics. 5 Things that New Grad RNs and process essay definition, Experienced RNs Should Know About the Job Market A New Grad RN recently shared their frustration with us. How to Write an Essay about Pediatric, Effective Nursing Resume Summary Writing an effective nursing resume summary is easier said than. 8 Things Every Nurse Ought to Know About Online Nursing Job Applications Applying online is the norm for process essay nursing jobs.

We provide. Do you have a sample cover letter? I get the problem solving concept but would like to Information Exchange, see an example of how to convey myself as a solution. My apologies, Sarah, but we do not have a sample cover letter. Well work on posting one though! Thank you Kyle!

That helps a lot! Thank you for these blog posts! Im trying to analysis definition, go back to work after staying-at-home for three years with my kids (which seems like an even tougher situation than being a new grad). Prior to that I had very minimal nursing experience (2 years total) in two niche type jobs: school nursing and travel medicine. Id like a job in mother/baby and know people on the unit. A-type Conflict. Trying to draw attention to the extensive CEUs Ive completed recently all related to OB. Definition. Im also working on Information Exchange, certification in a Neonatal Resusitation program (NRP). 1. Is the cover letter a good place to explain the definition, large gap in work history (i.e. being a stay-at-home-mom)? Can I take a moment there to highlight social achievements since I dont have any work achievements?

2. How do I sell myself as the solution when I have so little irrelevant nursing experience? (maybe theres no answer for The Life and Writings Austen this) what i do know is that the competing hospital in process analysis essay definition the area just opened their own Labor and Delivery and Essay about Pediatric, are recruiting OB nurses from the definition, hospital Im applying to. Any advice is uk prostitution law much appreciated! Great questions, Adrienne. Yes, its okay to use a brief portion of essay your cover letter to address your experience as a stay-at-home mom. You may even use some of what youve learned as a stay-at-home mom to relate that youre the solution to a problem the hospital faces, or a goal theyre trying to achieve. Often times, a hospitals/units challenges and goals require more than just technical skills.

You may be passionate about something or have indirect experience that will be an asset to essay courtesy, them. The important thing is to illustrate that you are aware of the process analysis essay, employers challenges and goals and you understand that their employees play a pivotal role in addressing them. I hope this helps!

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Writing the A2 Art Personal Study: examples, help and guidance. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This article has been written for CIE A Level Art students who are working on their A2 Art Personal Study. Definition? It focuses purely on how to write the text of the Essay about Pediatric, Study; a previous article outlines how to come up with a good topic; a future article will address the illustrations and presentation methods. The Personal Study is an area of uncertainty for many A Level Art students. It differs from projects that are usually completed within high school Art programmes, as it involves a substantial written component (maximum 3,500 words) something which can intimidate students, especially if they are unfamiliar with how to critically analyse an artwork, make informed judgements and write personal evaluations. With few examples of quality Personal Studies available, it can be difficult to know what is expected and how to begin.

This article aims to ease this uncertainty and to make the Personal Study a more easily understood Component. This is the cover page of an A* Personal Study by analysis essay definition, Nikau Hindin, exploring the chicago, topic: Identity, Consumerism, Popular Culture: How Composition Conveys a Message. The project analyses artwork by New Zealand artist Kelsy Taratoa. The Personal Study should be comprised of informed personal views that is, views that are supported and shaped by an in-depth understanding of the issues discussed. Before starting the project, students should conduct thorough background research, selecting and recording information from second-hand sources (such as books, websites and other publications) and essay, first-hand sources (interviews with artists, studio visits / gallery visits etc). Interviews with artists should be planned thoroughly, after preliminary second-hand research has been completed (as findings from research will suggest important issues to discuss with the artist). Students are often uncertain about how to phrase questions, so sample questions have been included below (the exact questions asked will depend on the topic and focus of the uk prostitution, study):

Please talk me through the process you follow when designing your paintings. Do you work instinctively, directly onto process essay definition, the canvas, or are your works pre-planned, using sketches and photographs? What influences your choice of colour? I am interested particularly in the colours used in [insert name of painting/s]. Could you explain your thought process behind the use of Exchange Essay colour in process definition, this work, particularly the a-type conflict, [give example]? I notice that your work has been described as [insert relevant comment from second-hand sources]. Do you agree with this statement? How do you respond to this?

I notice that [insert an aesthetic feature of their artwork i.e. angular line or organic form] is a dominant feature of your work. Is this strongly connected to the ideas that you are exploring? Have you used these elements deliberately? Can you show me work in analysis essay, progress or semi-complete artwork? I would love to understand the chicago guide, process you go through and how you apply media at process analysis definition, different stages. Are there any tips you would give to someone who was attempting to emulate your painting style? Which artists have influenced your work?

In what way has your work been shaped by others people, events or situations? 2. Evaluate and interpret research findings. Conducting research is critical for creating an excellent Personal Study, however, it should be noted that submitting research on its own will not gain a student any marks. Exchange Essay? Photocopying, cutting and pasting or transcribing information from other sources is not acceptable. Examiners do not want to read long lists of facts or chronological sequences of events. Analysis Essay Definition? They do not want long-winded technical processes or the inclusion of broad periods of art history; nor entire interviews with artists (interviews can be submitted as part of an appendix if necessary). Students should not include an extensive artist biography (only brief and relevant details are needed) nor include vast passages of text that have been regurgitated from other sources. Instead, students must select the information which is relevant and analyse this in detail, evaluating and interpreting findings in relation to the focus of their study . Research should be used to The Health Information Essay help form intelligent, knowledgeable, personal responses : to explain, justify or support the essay definition, viewpoints, judgements and conclusions that are presented. Evidence of research might be demonstrated, for example, through the use of carefully chosen quotes (to support or contrast the students own ideas) or through the inclusion of correct terminology and background knowledge to chicago communicate an in-depth understanding of relevant issues. Process Essay? Evidence might also be indicated photographically, with images depicting first-hand meetings between the student and about Pediatric Asthma, artist/s. This Personal Study by CIE A2 Level Art and Design student Alice Ham, from process essay definition, ACG Parnell College, shows a cleverly selected quote alongside images by New Zealand charcoal artist Liam Gerrard.

Alice was awarded full marks (100%) for this component (99% overall for A Level). A carefully composed Personal Study page for Information, 9704 CIE Art and Design. 3. Process Definition? Structure the Personal Study in a logical and clear manner. Before writing the Personal Study, students should plan the about, content, order and structure of their study thoroughly (often in conjunction with planning the layout of their project this will discussed in more detail in a subsequent post). This should include headings and definition, subheadings of material discussed and rough diagrams indicating how this will be supported by images. The proposed structure should then be checked and approved by about Pediatric, a teacher, with recommendations and clear guidance given. While the structure of each Personal Study will differ, depending on process essay definition, the topic chosen, every study should follow the basic format outlined below: Introduction . This is where students outline the a-type conflict, purpose, focus or mission of their study.

This may include question/s they are going to process definition answer; themes they are going to explore; issues they hope to address etc. It should set the scene for the project and may include reasons for selecting a topic and Information Exchange, an indication of how / why the essay, topic is of personal relevance or interest to the student. It is important that the intentions of the project are clearly set out in this section, so that the remainder of the project can be structured accordingly. Body . This is the main part of the Personal Study and will need careful thought. It is usually organised into The Health Information Exchange, separate sections (which may be formal chapters, or simply different areas of a visual study), usually with individual headings and sometimes sub-headings. (I recommend wording headings so that they sum up the process analysis essay, material contained i.e. Analysis of Composition: [artwork title] rather than Chapter 3 . This means that the for 10th class, examiner is able to see immediately that the student has covered a range of appropriate areas). Process Definition? The sections should be ordered logically and address the focus of the project; they should NOT ramble haphazardly from one issue to the next. High school Art students have a tendency to write without any preconceived order or structure, discussing issues spontaneously as they think of of Jane Austen them.

While this can be a suitable approach for more creative writing tasks and can pulled off by analysis definition, certain students this strategy runs the risk of about Pediatric Asthma creating a muddled and incoherent Personal Study. Process Analysis Definition? Conclusion . This is where students summarise key points from the project, arrive at final conclusions and essay courtesy class, make considered personal judgements about what has been learnt. This is one of the analysis essay, concluding paragraphs in The Life Essay, a Personal Study by Nikau Hindin (who achieved 98% for CIE A Level Art while studying at essay definition, ACG Parnell College), entitled Identity, Consumerism Popular Culture: How composition conveys a message . The project was focused upon the analysis of Austen artwork by New Zealand artist Kelcy Taratoa, with comparisons made with the work of American artist Bill Barminski: Taratoas use of composition helps convey his message concerning identity construction. The arrangement of elements is symbolic of an unconscious hierarchy within his paintings that forces the viewer to question and analyse them. The contents of the paintings can be identified, as they reflect New Zealand society. Taratoas use of colour is vibrant and modern, echoing the technological era we live in.

Barminski has a more dynamic and humorous approach to conveying his message. He mocks consumerism with his witty and blunt slogans and replications of essay definition consumer products. While these two artists are very different, they both communicate their own attitudes about society. Making a political statement through your paintings forces an audience to engage. Ultimately we want our art to be remembered and admired and Essay, I think if the message of a painting is clear then the viewer is process analysis essay, more likely to go away and think about it.

Paintings are a powerful tool to communicate a meaning that is deeper than the chicago guide, 2mm of paint on a canvas. Paintings are an artists voice. Bibliography / References / Acknowledgements . Process Essay? This should list any resources that students have used in their project, including books, websites, articles and videos. It might also include sources of first-hand information, such as museums, galleries or websites, as well as acknowledgements, thanking the artist for their time. While examiners are sympathetic towards a student whose first language is not English, a similar sympathy does not extend towards those who submit sloppy, poorly edited material.

Just as it is expected that a Coursework project should contain beautiful well-composed artwork, a Personal Study is expected to contain well-structured, well-edited material. Even if a student has chosen to produce a largely visual project, submitting a sequence of guide annotated images, the text should communicate with intention and the writing quality should match that achieved by an A Level English student. Poor grammar, spelling errors and txt speak are inexcusable. As with any important written project, drafts should be rewritten and process analysis essay, refined several times: chapters re-arranged; paragraphs and annotation reorganised; repetitive material, waffle and unnecessary regurgitation eliminated. Teachers, parents and about, friends can all be recruited to read through drafts, highlighting spelling errors and identifying areas where the writing is muddled. While the analysis essay, work must of course remain entirely that of the a-type conflict, student, feedback from a fresh set of eyes is invaluable. A Personal Study should include an appropriate range of Art related terms and vocabulary. Process Definition? While the exact words used will be dependent upon the nature and and Writings of Jane Austen, focus of the study, there are a number of general Art-specific terms which students should be familiar with (these will be listed, with their definitions, in an upcoming article).

Use of appropriate vocabulary helps to fulfil the Knowledge and critical understanding assessment criteria. As the title indicates, a Personal Study must communicate distinctly personal opinions, insights, judgements and responses, demonstrating a clear engagement with the artwork studied. This excerpt from an 100% OCR A Level Art Personal Study by Yantra Scott entitled An investigation into gender roles in analysis, contemporary art illustrates this: I first encountered Sarah Lucas whist briskly strolling through the crowded rooms of the Tate. Amongst oils and finely crafted sculpture my eyes were transfixed in a two-way glare with a slightly butch, totally intense woman, with eggs for t*ts. Ever since then Ive been hooked. It is evident that Yantra not only Essay about Asthma, visited and viewed artwork in the flesh, but had a strong personal reaction to process essay it. It could never be assumed that this segment had been reworded from a textbook: it is absolutely the Essay about Asthma, words of a passionate high school Art student. Although Yantra uses coarse language within her study (something which should be emulated with caution) this project is an exceptional example of an intelligent and personal response to a topic. (More of Yantras work, as well as the entire text of her study, can be read in full on the great Julia Stubbs website). Similarly, this quote from an definition, 88% OCR A2 Art Personal Study (one of the examples given in the OCR A2 Art Exemplar Work Personal Study document) shows a personal response integrated within the analysis of Damien Hursts work, illustrated below. The glass is thick, so thick that it is intimidating.

It is as if it is holding something terrible back. It makes you question the formaldehyde and query, what if the tank did break? The formaldehyde is not clear as I expected but is quite strongly coloured by a blue and Essay, green pigment. This colour is very clinical and has the connotations of process definition a hospital The musings about the tank breaking and the formaldehyde differing from expectations are clearly the individual thoughts of a high school art student. Some Comfort Gained from the Acceptance of the Inherent Lies in Everything 2006, Damien Hurst. Within the Personal Study, students must demonstrate an The Life and Writings Austen, understanding of process analysis essay cultural context an understanding that an artist does not create work in chicago, isolation, but rather creates work that is shaped and influenced by the circumstance/s they finds themselves in. Analysis? This might mean that discussion of the influence of natural, social, political or cultural environments is appropriate, or that as is more common the influence of other artists is discussed, with comparisons made between artwork that has been created in similar or differing contexts. One night in Mong Kok by Akif Hakan Celebi.

The excerpt below is from a CIE A Level Art and The Life and Writings of Jane Essay, Design Personal Study by Tirion Jenkins, of YMCA of Hong Kong Christian College. Titled Alternative Fashion Photography, her Personal Study was awarded Best in Hong Kong (2012) and includes analysis of One night in analysis essay definition, Mong Kok by photographer Akif Hakan Celebi. Tirion demonstrates a clear understanding of the interrelationship between a photographers work and The Health, the setting in process analysis essay, which it was created. The setting itself creates an intoxicating atmosphere with the rows of fluorescent light bulbs and layers of luminous signs that form an endless maze of gaudy colours. However, the setting does not overwhelm the two models who draw my eyes despite the signs above them. They create the focal point of the image through the use of the Asthma, rule of thirds as they are placed off-centre and through their quirky appearance which magnetises the eye towards them.

They seem to belong to a different world to the passersby behind them with their flare of red hair and audacious choice of feathered flittered clothes. Akif has further crafted the image through the analysis, use of makeup as their chalk white faces further segregates and emphasises their surreal doll-like appearances. Akifs pictures are reminiscent of Japanese cinema which he says he is so influenced by. I likeits writhed and crazy stories; I feel very close to that way of looking at the world. This photograph is uk prostitution law, particularly mystical due to the vibrant and decorative bokeh of Hong Kongs street lights in the background. The core of the process analysis essay, A2 Art Personal Study is the in-depth analysis of selected artist works. Some of these artworks must be viewed in person, however it is common (and completely acceptable) for a-type conflict, students to analyse work from analysis definition, a combination of primary and secondary sources. In the Essay, best studies, artworks are chosen specifically to facilitate the discussion of issues which are relevant to process analysis the study. The advice in this section is The Life, particularly important and analysis definition, should be read closely by students who are hoping to achieve a high grade for their Personal Study. When analysing artwork, it is helpful to analyse the work in terms of Essay composition, format, structure and visual elements (such as shape, line, texture, colour, space, tone) . Students might de-construct an artwork and view it in terms of a single visual element and/or discuss how the visual elements interact, relate, contrast, balance and connect with one another. Descriptions of important terms have been included below to process aid this process: Composition is the placement or organisation of visual elements within an The Health Information Essay, artwork the way these have been composed, combined or put together.

Composition may be instinctual or the result of elaborate planning (or a combination of both). Process? A compositional device is an aspect of The Life of Jane Essay a composition which has a certain effect (such as the use of frames within frames, which might help create a sense of distance or space within an artwork). Format is the overall shape, size and orientation (portrait or landscape) of an artwork, i.e. whether a work is painted on a long, horizontal oblong canvas, or upon a vertically orientated A4 portrait board. Format can be influenced by practical considerations (i.e. the nature and shape of the object or scene depicted) as well as being an active decision by the artist to help communicate a particular meaning or idea. The structure of an artwork is the organisation of basic forms within a composition (this will be illustrated in more detail in the subsequent post focusing on imagery). Lines are a visual element that can direct a viewers gaze and create a visual path. These can direct attention to a focal point and create depth through perspective or horizon lines. Different lines can create different effects: hard angular lines provoke a different response than soft, organic lines, for example. Repetition of lines can create a sense of movement or rhythm. Shape is a visual element that is created by the junction of lines or changes in process essay definition, tone: the perceived boundaries of form. Larger shapes can become dominant focal points within an artwork; similar shapes can be repeated to create balance and create unity / visual harmony.

Shapes can be symbolic, i.e. A-type Conflict? they can represent more complex forms and carry meaning. Process Analysis Essay? As with lines, the types of shapes used can communicate certain feelings rigorous ordered shapes tend to create a different mood than irregular, free-flowing shapes. Shapes might also be used to create borders / frames and boundaries that connect, overlap or intersect, perhaps helping to draw viewers from the foreground / middle-ground to background. Space the absence of and Writings Austen Essay form is an often overlooked visual element. Described as being either positive (the space contained within the boundary of an process essay, object) or negative (the background space in and around an object), space can determine how busy and cluttered a painting is. A busy composition can overwhelm a viewer; a simple and sparse composition may appear boring. Careful integration of space is fundamental to any artwork.

Form is a visual element that is usually discussed more easily in relation to three dimensional objects (as three-dimensional forms are usually described within two dimensional works in terms of class shape, tone and analysis essay definition, line). A-type Conflict? Colour (or hue) is process, a visual element that is often discussed in combination with tone(how light or dark a colour appears). Colour can affect the mood of an referencing guide, artwork due to colour associations i.e. blue might indicate sadness. Tone can help to communicate a sense of distance (items that are further away generally appear lighter due to atmospheric perspective). Both tone and colour can be used to create contrast within an artwork, attracting the viewers attention and helping to create focal areas. Alternatively, both tone and colour can be used to create harmonious, peaceful non-contrasting areas. Use of light and definition, shadow or warm and cool might also be an important area to a-type conflict discuss. Process Essay? Texture can be real (the result of brush strokes, irregularities in materials, and the application of a range of materials) or impliedi.e. Class? a surface that is made to process analysis looktextured.

As with the other visual elements, texture should be integrated so that it balances and becomes an aesthetically pleasing addition to an artwork. Surface qualities along with other detailed areas and intricate patterns are only able to referencing guide be appreciated fully when viewed in person. It should be noted here that students should not submit reams of text explaining how certain visual elements affect artworks in general, but rather use this knowledge to write informed analysis about the artworks in question. Here is another example by Nikau Hindin, discussing the use of line in analysis essay, paintings by Kelcy Taratoa. Essay? This text was accompanied by diagrams illustrating the linear elements in the artwork. Taratoa uses strong angular forms that create diagonal perspective lines. These lines are called leading lines and direct us to the focal point of process essay definition this painting, which is a portrait of Taratoa. They also lead our eyes past him and a-type conflict, make us look at the background.

This helps to convey Taratoas message that ones identity is linked to process essay social circumstance, upbringing (background) and popular culture. Street markings form white lines and also draw our attention to the focal point. Street markings represent paths and therefore they may be paths to finding and constructing ones identity. They create a sense of movement and highlight the direction ones eyes should travel within the painting. The street markings in a-type conflict, Episode 007 are curvaceous which creates movement.

The curvy lines mirror the organic forms of the superheros muscular body, creating a visual link. Definition? In Episode 0010 the repetition of line of the zebra crossing creates a sense of rhythm and leads us to the portrait of Taratoa in a-type conflict, the left corner. Horizontal lines are repeated in the background of the painting to unite separate parts of the painting. As well as the aesthetic qualities discussed above, most students also include sections where they analyse artwork in terms of materials, processes, stylistic influences, techniques (use of media) . For some, this is the primary focus of the Personal Study. Essay Definition? This might include analysis of the uk prostitution, way an artist has applied paint to a canvas (mark-making, brush strokes), the sequence of building up layers of process analysis definition paint over a prepared ground, or the sequence of uk prostitution events involved in creating a graphic design: from conceptual sketches, development of process analysis ideas, construction in Photoshop, through to proofing, paper selection and final printing. Chicago Referencing Guide? It might involve discussion about the way a composition is planned and designed and then the process, various processes that are undertaken in its completion.

It might include cultural contexts and stylistic influences from other artists. In any sections of the Personal Study which are dedicated to process and technique, it is a-type conflict, important to note (as mentioned above) that the process analysis essay definition, examiners do not want the regurgitation of long, technical processes, but rather would like to see personal observations about how processes effect and about Pediatric, influence the artwork that has been created. In all analysis of artwork, whether this involves discussion of composition, aesthetic qualities, cultural contexts, use of media, or approach to a theme, it is important that students move beyond simple observations and add perceptive, personal insight. For example, if a student notices that colour has been used to create strong contrast in process analysis, certain areas of an artwork, they might follow this with a detailed and thoughtful assumption about chicago guide why this is the case: for essay, example, perhaps the The Health Exchange Essay, contrast was created deliberately to draw attention to a focal point in the artwork, helping the artist to help convey thematic ideas. These personal insights could be backed up by earlier research, confirmed or suggested by the artist, or might be educated assumptions made by the student, based upon their own responses and personal interaction with the artwork.

Some final recommendations are included below: Analysis of artwork does not mean description of artwork . Analysis? Analysis means taking an class, artwork apart (thinking about it in terms of process individual elements, such as line, or colour or technique), analysing these individually and/or in terms of how they relate to one another, and Information Exchange, making personal observations and judgements, connecting this to the theme or focus of the assignment. Saying I like this or I dont like this without any further explanation or justification is not analysis . Definition? Writing should be carefully integrated with the images , so that it is clear which text relates to which images (this will be discussed more in law, the subsequent post). Alice Ham, a Year 13 student at ACG Parnell College (awarded 100% for her Personal Study) has produced some excellent analysis of artwork by Liam Gerrard: In most works (the exception usually applies to process those done in commission) the focus of the piece is centred, surrounded by empty space and never grounded through shadow or the like. The Health Exchange? This is analysis essay definition, another way in which Gerrard plays with commonly held opinions. Typically, a most aesthetically pleasing composition will follow the rule of thirds a well known rule that correlates to the focus of artworks being offset within the composition, and The Life and Writings Austen Essay, the entire image being visually divided into 3 sections. Liam has little care for this standardised rule, yet his compositions are visually pleasing all the same. Process Analysis Essay Definition? I believe this could be because of the negative space, there is no overcrowding and it allows the essay courtesy for 10th class, viewer to focus on the subject. I also think this space is played upon in process analysis essay definition, the display of the artwork.

Galleries in general will have white or very light coloured walls so as not to distract from what is on display. By placing these white canvases on uk prostitution law, the white walls, hung without obvious framing, the artwork is allowed to process essay definition flow into the viewers world, there is no line of separation. This forces the The Life of Jane, viewer to study Gerrards pieces, and perhaps consider the essay definition, personal message they address for the viewer in everyday life. Analysis of artwork within an A Level Art Personal Study by Alice Ham. Some of the text above has been reproduced here to Pediatric aid ease of process analysis reading: The expression on the pigs face is perhaps what would draw the viewer into this picture the most. It directly contradicts the gruesome depiction of decapitation and appears almost to The Health Information Exchange be laughing. This work like most of analysis essay Gerrards others is a single object centred on a stark white background. Information Exchange Essay? The amount of empty space in this picture is very eye catching and directs the analysis, viewers vision inwards, there is no chance of about distraction by details in a menial part of the work.

Once again Gerrard uses charcoal in his personal style, leaving the artwork in black and white. This lack of colour is analysis essay, cold, it presents the reality of the grisly scene without the embellishment of colours. A-type Conflict? This does not allow the audience to process analysis be caught up in what is chicago referencing guide, pretty but forces them to take in every details in its highly realistic, and essay definition, perhaps disturbing, state. The shock factor of this piece is emphasised ten- fold by the sheer size. It cannot be realised until you view this piece in reality, but being dwarfed looking up into a pigs head captured mid laugh brings upon you a bizarre sense of fascination. 9. About Pediatric Asthma? Explain the process analysis essay definition, relationship to Coursework (if appropriate)

As explained in the previous post about topic selection, it is no longer necessary that the uk prostitution, Personal Study relate to a students Coursework project. If there is a strong relationship, however, students may wish to include a section in their Personal Study where relevant comparisons are made with their Coursework project. The maximum word count for CIE Art Design Personal Studies is 3,500 words. This is a maximum and fewer words is more than appropriate (especially in primarily visual studies). If a student is analysis, slightly over Essay the word count, this is unlikely to be an issue (it is rare that examiners would know your exact word count, as no-one is likely to count every word in a project from start to finish); however, if a student is significantly over process definition the word limit, this is obvious and a problem, running the risk that the examiners will run out of time (or enthusiasm) to a-type conflict read your project in its entirety. Almost all cases of word count breaches come from students who have attempted to analysis definition bulk up their study with unnecessary information from second-hand sources. If you are encroaching the word limit, you should immediately ensure that you have not included supplementary research material or unnecessary information summarised from textbooks. If you are still battling with the and Writings of Jane, word count and inclusion of material from second-hand sources is process analysis, not an uk prostitution law, issue, you should re-edit your project, eliminating waffle, and ensuring you communicate succinctly.

I encourage teachers to locate and print the excerpts from Personal Studies that are included in analysis definition, the 9704 Standards booklet on uk prostitution, the CIE Teachers password protected site, which can be downloaded as a PDF document from the A Level Art Design page. Process Analysis? This document is invaluable. Finally, we are actively looking for more examples of high achieving Personal Studies to share on the Student Art Guide. If you or someone you know someone who excelled in this Component, please read our submission guidelines for more information. If you found this information helpful, you may wish to read the previous article in this series: How to Essay select a great A2 Art Personal Study Topic or our overview of the CIE A Level Art: Personal Study. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for analysis definition, the course design and assessment of Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools.

Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of courtesy for 10th class Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Essay? Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from a-type conflict, experienced teachers.

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25 Songs That Tell Us Where Music Is Going. By THE NEW YORK TIMES MAGAZINE MARCH 9, 2017. Essay? By Nitsuh Abebe. Information Exchange? A strange thing you learn about process analysis essay American popular music, if you look back far enough, is that for a long time it didn#x2019;t much have #x201C;genres#x201D; #x2014; it had ethnicities. Law? Vaudeville acts, for instance, had tunes for process essay just about every major immigrant group: the Italian number, the Yiddish number, the law, Irish one, the Chinese. Some were sung in a spirit of process analysis essay definition, abuse; others were written or performed by members of chicago referencing guide, those groups themselves. And of course there were the minstrel shows, in which people with mocking, cork-painted faces sang what they pretended were the songs of Southern former slaves.

This was how we reckoned with our melting pot: crudely, obliviously, maybe with a nice tune and process essay definition a beat you could dance to. Sometime in a-type conflict the 1950s, the mainstream saw its last great gasp of this habit. Process Essay? A nation that considered itself very space-age and worldly enjoyed quaint spins on sentimental Italian music (#x201C;That#x2019;s Amore#x201D; and its pizza pies) and Trinidadian calypso songs about essay courtesy for 10th hard, simple labor (#x201C;Day-O#x201D; and its bananas). You had your #x201C;Latin#x201D; numbers, your Hawaiian ones, your #x201C;Asian#x201D; songs #x2014; light ethnic pastiches laid out cheerily, like an international buffet that serves falafel one day and schnitzel the next, never too bothered about process analysis how accurate the about Pediatric, recipes are. There was a simple notion behind all this stuff, and it was the belief that music, like food, came from someplace, and from some people. Even when it was played in a condescending ethnic-joke burlesque of who those people actually were #x2014; even when it was pretty aggressively racist #x2014; the notion remained: Different styles sprang from different people.

Then all of this changed, and we decided to analysis essay start thinking of law, pop music not as a folk tradition but as an art; we started to picture musicians as people who invented sounds and analysis definition styles, making intellectual decisions about their work. But music is still, pretty obviously, tied to people. How else do you create a situation in which, after decades of hip-hop#x2019;s being the main engine of pop music, it can still be a little complicated when nonblack people rap? That vexed thing we call #x201C;identity#x201D; leans its considerable weight on all kinds of questions: which sounds comfort us or excite us; where and uk prostitution law how we listen to them; how we move our bodies as they play. Watch a mere silhouette of essay definition, a human being dancing to The Life and Writings Austen music, and you can immediately guess things about essay definition who they are and where they came from. In 2017, identity is the topic at the absolute center of our conversations about music. Exchange Essay? There may be times when this fact grates at us, when it feels as though there must be other dimensions of the world to attend to; #x201C;surely,#x201D; you moan, #x201C;there are songs that speak to basic human emotions in ways that transcend the particulars of who we are!#x201D; But if you look through the essays in this magazine, you may notice two things.

One is that, unbidden and according to no plan, they find themselves continually reckoning with questions of identity. Process Analysis Essay? The other is that they#x2019;re doing this because the musicians are, too. A Japanese-American musician writes a song called #x201C;Your Best American Girl.#x201D; An R.B. singer titles one #x201C;F.U.B.U.#x201D; #x2014; or, #x201C;for us, by us.#x201D; Are you part of her #x201C;us#x201D;? The house music in Kanye West#x2019;s #x201C;Fade#x201D;: Does it make you picture the black Chicagoans who helped invent it or the club-going Europeans who embraced it? How does it work when a queer woman matches the sexual braggadocio of class, male rappers, when L.G.B.T. activists sing a country song for a restaurant chain that once fired gay employees, when Leonard Cohen revisits his childhood religious inheritance? This is definition what we talk about now, the uk prostitution, music-makers and the music-listeners both. Not the fine details of process essay, genre and style #x2014; everyone, allegedly, listens to everything now #x2014; but the networks of identity that float within them.

Maybe decades ago you could aim your songs at a mass market, but music does not really have one of those anymore. Artists have to a-type conflict figure out whom they#x2019;re speaking to and where they#x2019;re speaking from. The rest of us do the same. For better or worse, it#x2019;s all identity now. #x2666; Nitsuh Abebe is a story editor for the magazine.

All I want to do is dance #x2014; but it#x2019;s complicated. Definition? By Wesley Morris. Loving Adele shouldn#x2019;t be that hard. The Health Exchange? When a chorus brings her voice to its cruising altitude, it#x2019;s like you#x2019;re up there, flying with it. Down here, on earth, where her third album, #x201C;25,#x201D; made Adele the top-selling artist of 2015 and 2016, she has that realness we say we value in the people we elevate to analysis stardom; last month, during the The Health Information Exchange Essay, Grammys telecast, she cursed as she interrupted a laconic version of George Michael#x2019;s #x201C;Fastlove#x201D; in order to get the tempo right.

But even Adele knows that loving Adele is complicated. Process Analysis Essay Definition? At the law, Grammys, #x201C;25#x201D; won album of the year, and a poignant portion of her acceptance speech was a tribute to Beyonc#xE9;, whose album #x201C;Lemonade#x201D; broke the analysis essay, cultural Richter scale #x2014; and didn#x2019;t win any of the guide, big awards. The moment was poignant because it was earnest: Adele stood just a few feet in front of the woman she called her #x201C;idol#x201D; and spoke of how #x201C;Lemonade#x201D; had empowered her and #x201C;my black friends.#x201D; This was the sort of candor you usually have to wait for Kanye West to deliver, only with none of process analysis essay definition, West#x2019;s biliousness, recrimination and, however myopic, sense of history. Adele didn#x2019;t have to uk prostitution law acknowledge that history #x2014; of definition, a white industry#x2019;s crowning preference for white artists. Essay About Pediatric Asthma? She was living it. Black people have never been necessary to make black music. But it has become obligatory for white artists who do (and who win prizes for it) to pay a public contrition tax to their black peers, whether it#x2019;s Adele to essay definition Beyonc#xE9; or, three years earlier, Macklemore texting (then publicizing) an apology to and Writings of Jane Essay Kendrick Lamar for having won (with Ryan Lewis) the Grammys in the rap category. That#x2019;s the process definition, future of music: recognizing, in The Health Exchange the present, that you#x2019;re permanently indentured to process analysis essay definition the past.

Setting aside its enormous sales, #x201C;25#x201D; is not the artistically catholic landmark that #x201C;Lemonade#x201D; is but an old-fashioned record, built around the bloom and flare of Adele#x2019;s singing. Some of the hooks, though, could catch a whale. And isn#x2019;t whaling pop#x2019;s whole point? Yes, certain cultural institutions have a habit of setting traps that trigger trauma. But when it#x2019;s just me and Adele #x2014; very good Adele, catchy-as-hell Adele #x2014; the triggers lock. #x201C;Send My Love (to Your New Lover),#x201D; the a-type conflict, second track on #x201C;25,#x201D; makes you mad that we live in a world where what happens at analysis, the Grammys can#x2019;t not matter. It makes you mad that we put a political price tag on uk prostitution, this kind of perfection. I must have danced to this song 200 times, in blocks of repeats. (Why doesn#x2019;t this woman make more fast songs?) It starts with her saying, #x201C;Just the guitar. O.K., cool.#x201D; Then comes the analysis definition, rhythmic plink of courtesy class, a guitar Lindsey Buckingham might have picked. The plink is married to a kick drum#x2019;s heartbeat. Then comes The Voice, at a low smolder, the smoke still rising from a crater of disillusionment. By the prechorus, her voice is flanked by other Adeles swooping in, on multiple tracks, to dispel the dismay of having dated someone with cold feet and to process analysis essay wish the best for this person#x2019;s next girlfriend. #x201C;Send my love to your new lover.

Treat her better,#x201D; she sings, going up a note and The Health Essay adding an extra, addictive breath to #x201C;lover.#x201D; Is this a black song? It moves in analysis essay definition dance-hall time. The swelling repetitions are chillingly churchy. A-type Conflict? And the voice itself has what can be only called soul. It#x2019;s in the pews, the rafters and the aisles. I love this song because it makes me feel strong #x2014; as strong as singing #x201C;We gon#x2019; slay#x201D; any time Beyonc#xE9; does. In other words, #x201C;Send My Love#x201D; sets out to catch a whale. This song makes me feel ridiculous for analysis essay definition reacting to institutional biases that pressure us into calling Adele a trespasser. All I want to do when I hear it is call her Ishmael.#x2666; Wesley Morris is a critic at large for The Times and a staff writer for the magazine.

After a long life, he was ready. By Jonathan Mahler. It wasn#x2019;t an email from God, but it was close. Leonard Cohen had written to ask if Gideon Zelermyer, the cantor of Congregation Shaar Hashomayim near Montreal #x2014; Cohen#x2019;s childhood synagogue #x2014; was interested in essay class recording with him. Zelermyer was soon sitting inside the synagogue#x2019;s sanctuary with a few members of Shaar#x2019;s all-male choir, playing with different arrangements for #x201C;You Want It Darker,#x201D; the analysis essay definition, title track of Cohen#x2019;s 14th and final studio album. Some of the words Cohen had given them to work with were familiar; they were borrowed from two of Judaism#x2019;s holiest prayers. Chicago? One is the Kaddish, recited by mourners after the process analysis definition, death of chicago referencing, a loved one. The other is the analysis essay, High Holy Days prayer Hineni #x2014; literally, #x201C;Here I am#x201D; #x2014; a personal entreaty to God, the law, worshiper asking plaintively for process definition mercy. The choir#x2019;s voices are the a-type conflict, first sounds you hear on the album, their ethereal harmonics giving way to sparse instrumentation and process essay definition Cohen#x2019;s weary, subterranean growl, then returning to back up the song#x2019;s choruses and final movement.

This was hardly the first time that Cohen had drawn on his Judaism for his music. Though he had a complicated relationship with his religious inheritance, it provided a natural vocabulary for him; it was what he knew, and its stories of uk prostitution law, human suffering and, occasionally, redemption suited his poet#x2019;s pull toward the existential. But never before have Cohen#x2019;s biblical references felt so charged, so dark, so pointed. Process Analysis Essay? #x201C;Magnified, sanctified, be thy holy name,#x201D; he sings. #x201C;Vilified, crucified, in the human frame. A million candles burning for the help that never came. You want it darker.#x201D; Then, echoing the law, words that Abraham spoke as he answered God#x2019;s command to sacrifice his only process analysis essay, son: #x201C;Hineni, I#x2019;m ready, my Lord.#x201D; You can#x2019;t listen to these words without thinking about the and Writings Essay, fact that Cohen was dying when he recorded them. It#x2019;s one thing to process analysis essay meditate on faith and Information Exchange mortality when death is an abstraction. Process? It is surely another when you can feel it bearing down on Information, you. And yet the choir#x2019;s harmonies manage to transform the song, lifting Cohen#x2019;s solitary struggle into something universal, even eternal. Process Essay Definition? Cohen once said that he did not think of himself as a religious person, but his life was in about Asthma many ways an extended spiritual journey. Buddhism, Scientology, kabbalah, Hare Krishna, Hinduism #x2014; Cohen sampled them all. Yet in his final years, he found himself drawn back to the 171-year-old synagogue where he had become a bar mitzvah, where both his grandfather and great-grandfather served as presidents, where a photograph of process, his Hebrew-school class taken in Essay 1949 still hangs on the wall.

Cohen was living in Los Angeles, but a cousin in analysis essay Montreal sent him a recording of Zelermyer and The Life and Writings Austen his choir, reuniting Cohen with sounds that had never stopped echoing in his head. He and the cantor struck up an email correspondence. #x201C;May your voice reach that Place and analysis essay bring down the blessings,#x201D; Cohen wrote Zelermyer in 2008, before the High Holy Days. (#x201C;He can#x2019;t write anything normally, can he?#x201D; the cantor remembers thinking.) And then several years later came the note, asking for help with a new record. As Cohen put it, #x201C;I#x2019;m looking for a sound like the The Health Information, Shaar choir and cantor of my youth.#x201D; In October, the record-release event for process #x201C;You Want It Darker#x201D; was held at the residence of the Canadian consul general in Los Angeles. Zelermyer was seated with the Essay about Pediatric, other V.I.P.s in the front row. It was the first time he had met Cohen in person.

It would also be the last. Weeks later, Cohen#x2019;s coffin was lowered into essay definition, the earth at Shaar Hashomayim#x2019;s cemetery. Zelermyer stood next to Cohen#x2019;s family as they recited the Kaddish.#x2666; Jonathan Mahler is The Health Exchange Essay a staff writer for process definition the magazine. A rap legend bends the present into a hopeful future. By Julianne Escobedo Shepherd.

When Missy Elliott divines the Essay about, future in her science-fiction-inflected videos, she never envisions dystopia. Even in the oversize jacket bearing the slogan #x201C;Save the analysis essay, Humans#x201D; that she wears in the video for and Writings of Jane Essay #x201C;I#x2019;m Better,#x201D; her optimism supersedes the process essay definition, plea. Positivity feels like an intrinsic part of her message and her temperament, and in a climate of uncertainty and class fear, #x201C;I#x2019;m Better#x201D; is an alien message of hope, full of sneaky inspiration meant to help us get up in the morning, rise-and-grind style. #x201C;It#x2019;s another day, another chance,#x201D; the analysis essay, Miami producer Lamb raps, helping Elliott out on the chorus. #x201C;I wake up, I wanna dance. So as long as I got my friends . I#x2019;m better, I#x2019;m better, I#x2019;m better!#x201D; Released in courtesy the last week of process analysis essay definition, January, the signature futurism of uk prostitution, #x201C;I#x2019;m Better#x201D; was a welcome jolt. The beat is so stark it#x2019;s almost jarring, with a tiptoeing synth melody that makes Elliott sound like some kind of gumshoe on the case, tracking down dudes in the act of creeping.

Characteristically slick, the video features dancers in headgear that mimics light-therapy acne masks. Analysis Essay? Elliott gleams in The Life Austen Essay outlandish feathered adornment and lip gloss the color of a vinyl record, delivering cheeky brags about her coterie of admirers, who watch her #x201C;like he watchin#x2019; #x2018;Scandal#x2019; #x2014; but I#x2019;m just here with my girls.#x201D; Elliott#x2019;s approach has always been an antidote to conservatism, both within music and sometimes outside it. She#x2019;s unwilling to abide by any perceived rules of process essay definition, language. For years, she has bent rhythmic parameters and Essay about Pediatric willfully warped nouns so that they rhyme, as if to prove that there#x2019;s always another, probably far cooler way of going about life and language than the rest of process essay definition, us have recognized. On #x201C;I#x2019;m Better,#x201D; she rhymes the Spanish word for #x201C;fire#x201D; with an English word for about a car #x2014; #x201C;He say I#x2019;m hot, I#x2019;m so fue-eh-go/Pull up on him in my veh-heh-co.#x201D; These tricks carry such uncomplicated joy that they give us permission to celebrate too. #x201C;He say I#x2019;m pretty, I#x2019;m pretty, you must be from Brazil, I must be from M#xE9;xico,#x201D; she concludes, rhyming the Spanish pronunciation #x2014; and giving dap to process analysis definition those of us with origins in the global South, who could use the shout-out these days. #x201C;I#x2019;m Better#x201D; also positions Elliott in Essay about Pediatric Asthma the American South, the Virginia of process essay, her upbringing, as well as Orlando, Miami, Atlanta. Its sound adheres to current trends in Southern hip-hop #x2014; which is curious, because Elliott sets trends but rarely follows them. Yet by uk prostitution law employing the syrupy, stripped-down delivery so many young Southern rappers favor, she establishes a lineage, from her work to theirs: Stylistically, it is difficult to imagine a Migos without a Missy Elliott.

For Elliott to position herself within a style that#x2019;s popular and analysis essay definition yet often derided, usually by Northerners and hip-hop fans over the age of 25 #x2014; for a-type conflict her to sprinkle her flavor on the 2017 iteration of music made for the subwoofers in your Jeep #x2014; does a real service to youth culture. More than most rappers, she seems to bend time to her will. And if she can#x2019;t stop it, she will swerve around it.#x2666; Julianne Escobedo Shepherd is the analysis definition, culture editor for essay courtesy for 10th class Jezebel. Process Definition? Party music for Essay the age of opiates. By Amos Barshad.

I spent a large chunk of 2016 trying to talk to Future. I hounded and process definition pressed his P.R. team. Around the top of the chicago, year, my nagging paid off; as instructed, I flew from New York to essay definition London for law an audience with the rapper. I was set to process essay definition join his tour and follow him for a few days through Europe. Very soon, I would find, things would not break my way. On the first night I found myself at a chicken shop called Nando#x2019;s, directly across the street from his overflowing concert venue, rather than backstage as planned. With great envy, I stared at the crowd flowing in as I munched my breast-and-wing combo. Future had just sat down for an interview with the BBC#x2019;s Charlie Sloth, who asked him about his relationship with Blac Chyna, the and Writings Essay, Kardashian-affiliated reality-TV personality with whom he#x2019;d possibly been romantically involved. #x201C;Are yous two still cool?#x201D; Sloth asked, in a punchy London rumble. #x201C;We great,#x201D; Future responded, in his trademark flat-affect reserve. Definition? Privately, though, the entreaty into The Health Essay, his personal life enraged him. He declared an immediate media blackout.

I was in line for his concert when I got the call from analysis essay definition P.R.: The interview was decisively off. I spent a weekend eating delicious Pakistani food, watching Tottenham play Leicester City, hoping for a change of referencing, mind that never came. At that point, Future was roughly two years into essay, a radical public and artistic reimagining. It started in the fall of 2014, not long after his breakup with the R.B. For 10th Class? singer Ciara and process the soft landing of his pop-friendly sophomore album, #x201C;Honest.#x201D; The failure became an important inflection point. Over the next few years, he created a swelling mass of music with a cloaking grandness to it: Take a step inside, and you were entombed. The songs were lean and Essay about Asthma incessant and almost completely devoid of any other voice but Future#x2019;s.

And what that voice was intimating to us, from behind the thickest of blackout curtains, was that our man had given up on his conscience and that he was guzzling the prescription cough syrup Promethazine and definition downing Xanax and that he was having sex with women he did not really care about and that this was neither making him feel good nor bad but rather it was making him feel nothing. And then, the really weird part: Suddenly, rightfully, Future was considered an artist who could not be ignored, our best next hope for rap-star transcendence. Essay Courtesy? Embracing personal destruction took him there. Was it a meltdown or a rise? What were we to make of a man who made party music out of a death rattle? How should I know? I was stuck at Nando#x2019;s.

This February, after a period of uncharacteristic dormancy, Future #x2014; born Nayvadius Wilburn in 1983 in Atlanta #x2014; returned with a barrage. He released two albums in two weeks, and process there are rumors of uk prostitution law, a third. On the heartbroken #x201C;HNDRXX,#x201D; he gushed and apologized and balladeered. Future has always had a cockeyed crooner alter-ego; here, it takes the whole stage, suggesting one tantalizing path forward for his discography. And on #x201C;Future,#x201D; he boasted and definition bragged and sounded weirdly content.

Take #x201C;Mask Off,#x201D; a down-tempo track built, by the elite producer Metro Boomin, around a bizarre but lovely woodwind sample. Uk Prostitution Law? The song hints at a certain kind of violence and ruthlessness, the kind suggested by a criminal setting off into the night and choosing to leave the ski mask at home. Process Analysis Essay Definition? And yet it#x2019;s the kind of song you would want the D.J. to slip on a-type conflict, right when you#x2019;ve lost count of your drinks and you#x2019;re feeling buzzy and smiley and warm. Historically, M.C.s have treated narcotics as product to process essay definition be moved; today#x2019;s younger, party-happy rappers give drugs a gleeful knucklehead spin. But when Future describes his voluminous intake, he does so with all the zeal of Exchange Essay, a man popping open a days-of-the-week pill organizer. On the hook to process essay #x201C;Mask Off,#x201D; Future rattles off drugs, unsentimentally: #x201C;Percocets/Molly, Percocets.#x201D; For him, sometimes the drugs are great; sometimes, not so much. On #x201C;Mask Off,#x201D; amid rhymes about of Jane Austen how totally fun and good his life is, he calls Promethazine his #x201C;guillotine.#x201D; It feels reductive to try to pin an artist down on the sins of process, his persona. Essay Courtesy? Hip-hop#x2019;s greatest running trick has been blurring the lines of #x201C;real life#x201D; and art. But with the analysis essay definition, rate at which Future was rapping about uk prostitution law drugs, one question was inevitably posed: Is this an addiction?

If so, it was a new spin on a classic trope. The arc of pretty much every drug movie mimics the whiz-bang of the initial high and the eye-blackening horror of the inevitable comedown. Future#x2019;s music acknowledged that drug addiction isn#x2019;t that cinematically neat: It#x2019;s the analysis, high and the comedown over and over again. After London, Future#x2019;s P.R. staff and I got back into our little dance. Emails, calls, texts, pleadings. Soon, I received word that Future was ready to uk prostitution talk again. It was in Toronto that we actually met, and where it was so cold that the streets had a kind of essay, a permafrost hue. And Writings Austen Essay? The pavement felt as if it could, at any point, shatter. For a few days, I tagged along with Future and his affable crew.

The first order of business was an interview with a TV station on the 19th floor of analysis definition, a high-end hotel. The interviewer, a friendly reporter in of Jane Austen Essay all black, was drinking a glass of white wine. She showed Future the tattoos on her arm; I couldn#x2019;t quite see them, but they were apparently inspired by his music. #x201C;Oh!#x201D; he said in analysis essay definition delight, then waved away Shooter, his ever-present personal photographer. Law? #x201C;Let us have this moment.#x201D; Apparently emboldened, the reporter shared more. #x201C;I#x2019;ve been drinking #x2019;cause I#x2019;m nervous,#x201D; she told him. She had ended a long-term relationship, she said, because of his music. In person, Future provides no outward signs that you should approach him with confessionals. Analysis Definition? He#x2019;s imposingly tall and more than a little grave. He is also beautiful. (L.A. Reid, chairman of Epic Records, who signed Future, told me of their initial meeting: #x201C;Usually I ask people to audition.

Future, I didn#x2019;t even want him to about Asthma move. #x2018;Let#x2019;s get you signed while you#x2019;re sitting there looking like that.#x2019;#x2009;#x201D;) But the TV reporter went for it, and process analysis essay definition it was brave. And almost immediately, Future went back to thumbing through his phone. He either hadn#x2019;t heard what she said or he chose to ignore it. A-type Conflict? After a few beats of silence he finally looked up. #x201C;Ay, what#x2019;s the name of this hotel?#x201D; The next day, I finally had my chance to connect. We were upstairs at a middlebrow bistro with a lot of bare wood, and Future had just finished off an impromptu date. Analysis Essay? His partner had off-white blond hair tucked under an referencing, actually white baseball cap and was wearing a combination bodysuit/tunic (also white). She#x2019;d brought him a late Valentine#x2019;s Day gift, a nice puffy coat: #x201C;It#x2019;s that Chanel swag!#x201D; she announced. They ate sushi, chicken wings and steak salad. Process? She told him that when she travels, she likes to stay at Airbnbs because that way you get #x201C;immersed#x201D; in local culture. And I know this because during the totality of the date, the team and I were sitting at the adjoining table. Eventually his date left, and Future announced his verdict on the holiday, to grins from the crew: #x201C;Man this Valentine#x2019;s Day [expletive] a setup.#x201D; Finally, we talked.

I brought up London. He smiled. I guess you could call it a sheepish smile. I told him it really didn#x2019;t seem as if he wanted to do press at all. I asked him why he was going through with it. #x201C;I don#x2019;t wanna do it,#x201D; he said, maybe even relieved to say it out Information Exchange Essay, loud. #x201C;My publicist like: #x2018;Man, why you got a publicist if you don#x2019;t wanna do press?#x2019; I#x2019;m trying to give you the essay, real me, but they want me to be fake, so I#x2019;d rather not even say nothing.#x201D; The conversation rolled on, meandered. It even clicked into gear at The Health Exchange Essay, a few points. He talked about his itinerant childhood, how he never wanted to have a fixed address so no one with an process, antagonistic agenda would ever be able to find him. He talked about the love and care of the family members that sorted him out. He remembered the The Life of Jane Austen Essay, joy of playing #x201C;Racks,#x201D; an early hit, for the first time and how the D.J. loved it so much he didn#x2019;t want to give the CD back.

And he said that it all, eventually, changed everything. #x201C;Back then, I had no feelings,#x201D; he told me. #x201C;It wasn#x2019;t until I started doing music that I started to really have a conscience.#x201D; It was nice, and fleeting. But I never was able to get a hook into him. Essay Definition? I never could formulate a question that made him want to a-type conflict really talk. When I called DJ Spinz, one of analysis essay, Future#x2019;s regular collaborators, he told me about Information Essay Future#x2019;s work ethic, his remarkable ability to unfurl a whole song after 20 minutes of hearing a beat roll. But nothing he said felt as relevant as when he told me this: #x201C;Future doesn#x2019;t speak much.#x201D; I was reminded of a moment back in London. I had stuck around after Nando#x2019;s long enough to try to finagle my way into the show. My move was to sidle close to the stage door, in the alley, hoping for an opening. It never came. Process Analysis Essay Definition? Upon Future#x2019;s arrival, his luxury sedan idled until minutes before his set time.

Then he exited the a-type conflict, back seat and walked directly through the stage door, surrounded by an imposing security detail, with the massive hood of an arctic parka over his head. I never even saw his face. I chased Future through two separate sovereign nations and walked away remembering one thing: I love rappers. They never break character.#x2666; Amos Barshad is a senior writer for The Fader magazine. Analysis Essay? Can choir nerds bring harmony to a divided country? By Amy Phillips.

#x201C;A cappella is cool again,#x201D; declared the Cracker Barrel Twitter account, an unexpected authority on essay courtesy for 10th class, such matters, in October 2015. The occasion was a new sponsorship deal with Pentatonix, the astonishingly popular vocal quintet. Much like Cracker Barrel, Pentatonix is analysis definition one of Exchange Essay, those cultural institutions whose existence you could go your whole life not noticing, until you do, when you realize it is everywhere. #x201C;3x Grammy Award Winning Multi-Platinum Selling Choir Nerds,#x201D; the process analysis essay, group#x2019;s Twitter bio boasts, and it#x2019;s true: Over the course of almost six years, Pentatonix has sold more than six million records, put out the first a cappella album to courtesy class debut at No. 1 on Billboard#x2019;s Top 200 chart and analysis essay definition amassed over two billion YouTube views. The third of those Grammys, for Best Country Duo/Group Performance, came in February, for a collaboration with Dolly Parton on a new version of her #x2019;70s heartbreak classic, #x201C;Jolene.#x201D; The world has Cracker Barrel to thank for this team-up: Both Parton and Pentatonix have partnerships with the chain, which brought them together to record #x201C;Jolene#x201D; as a promotional single. The result sounds like a barbershop quartet singing at an old-timey barn raising. #x201C;We#x2019;re both very family-centric and very wholesome,#x201D; Kirstin Maldonado, the Pentatonix mezzo-soprano, said in 2015, explaining why the uk prostitution law, group#x2019;s image meshes so well with the brand#x2019;s, #x201C;and I think our demographics really integrate well.#x201D; Pentatonix#x2019;s music is indeed relentlessly wholesome #x2014; just five voices cooing and trilling and process essay definition humming cheerily along. There is nothing dangerous or dark or threatening in their work, which consists mostly of chaste covers of pop hits and Christmas songs.

No sex, only kissing. No bad behavior, no cursing and The Health Essay certainly no politics. Process? The five members of Pentatonix, though, represent a rainbow coalition of historically marginalized groups. Essay? Maldonado, the group#x2019;s lone woman, is Hispanic. One of the analysis definition, male lead singers, Mitch Grassi, is law openly gay. Analysis Definition? He and the other male lead, Scott Hoying, have a side-project YouTube series called #x201C;Superfruit,#x201D; which sells tank tops that say #x201C;Marriage Is So Gay.#x201D; Avi Kaplan, the basso profundo, is Jewish, and Kevin Olusola, the for 10th, beat-boxer, is black and a practicing Seventh-day Adventist. This #x201C;Sesame Street#x201D; version of American harmony makes the process analysis definition, group#x2019;s association with Cracker Barrel #x2014; which has a history of discrimination #x2014; particularly fascinating.

Despite looking like a United Colors of Benetton ad styled by the Kardashians, the members of Pentatonix sound like the guide, jukebox at analysis essay definition, a heavily chaperoned sock hop; through them, Cracker Barrel can dip its toes in the waters of inclusion without fearing any backlash. Indeed, if you#x2019;re looking for criticism of Pentatonix, you#x2019;re more likely to find it on liberal music websites trashing its #x201C;nightmarishly hammy#x201D; sound (to quote Rolling Stone) than on conservative sites attacking its politics. Members have appeared on essay for 10th class, #x201C;All Things Considered#x201D; and #x201C;Fox and Friends,#x201D; and nobody batted an eye. Could it be that five choir nerds hold the definition, secret to bridging a divided nation?#x2666; Amy Phillips is the chicago referencing guide, news director for Pitchfork. Who makes the protest music?

Of course it would be A Tribe Called Quest who gave the nation#x2019;s pop body politic its first acidly anthemic counterassault on Donald Trump#x2019;s anti-immigrant sentiments. This is, after all, the Golden Age vintage hip-hop band with respective Trinidadian-American and Muslim founders in Phife Dawg and Ali Shaheed Muhammad, one half of the original team; the one that gave dap to the plight of Haitian immigrants on its 1990 debut album, #x201C;People#x2019;s Instinctive Travels and the Paths of Rhythm#x201D;; the process essay, group whose very name is a panegyric in praise of the hyphenated American dream. Of course they did it. Their performance of that snarky resistance song #x2014; #x201C;We the People . #x201D; #x2014; at last month#x2019;s Grammy Awards, alongside their Jamaican-American fellow traveler Busta Rhymes, didn#x2019;t just split ownership of the a-type conflict, whole showcase with Beyonc#xE9;#x2019;s fertility-goddess spectacular. It had Busta addressing the president by a pungent new name: #x201C;Agent Orange.#x201D; Months earlier, their #x201C;Saturday Night Live#x201D; debut of the song (and its parent project, #x201C;We Got It From Here . Thank You 4 Your Service#x201D;) came in the same week the president blustered his way into the Oval Office, lost the popular vote and set off a resistance movement in analysis essay definition song and dance and Essay sardonic album titling.

That moment made New York rap iconoclasm #x2014; and A Tribe Called Quest #x2014; matter again in one epic, epochal heartbeat: Who else are you gonna call when the dirty work of radical-oppositional boom-bap needs to process analysis essay definition be done, live and direct, in irony-redolent rhyme? By February, A Tribe Called Quest#x2019;s Grammy performance was sustaining the same Black Panther- and Public Enemy-powered momentum that Beyonc#xE9; brought to last year#x2019;s Super Bowl #x2014; the referencing guide, same kind in analysis definition Kendrick Lamar#x2019;s own fire-breathing, flame-throwing, plantation-to-penitentiary salvo at last year#x2019;s Grammys. To the extent that America#x2019;s current protest movement has provoked any pop paeans worthy of about Pediatric Asthma, Bob Dylan or Curtis Mayfield, they have emerged out of process definition, Black Lives Matter #x2014; and in remarkably short order. It has been 31 months since #x201C;we the people#x201D; of Ferguson, and then Baltimore, inspired not just those cities#x2019; urban commandos but a generation of Essay about Pediatric Asthma, youthful-and-truthful hip-hop and R. B. standard-bearers. Whether the definition, white alt-rock left will seize this moment#x2019;s baton as frankly or as fruitfully remains to be seen. We need not hold our breath waiting, though. Uk Prostitution? #x201C;We the People . #x201D; is full of ready-to-rumble pushback. Its lyrics name and process analysis definition gather together all the targeted #x2014; Mexicanfolk, Muslimfolk, gayfolk, womenfolk, #BlackLivesMatterfolk #x2014; under one force field. And under one intersectional, Queens-bred guerrilla meal plan: #x201C;We don#x2019;t believe you #x2019;cause we the people. Are still here in the rear, ayo, we don#x2019;t need you. You in the #x2018;killing off good young nigga#x2019; mood. When we get hungry we eat the same [expletive] food.

Greg Tate is a writer and musician who lives in Harlem. Rap music fully unmoored from its past. By JAMIE LAUREN KEILES. There are two different ways you can keep up with pop. The first is by drifting along with the current, bobbing immersed in the changing of the charts #x2014; so lost from any point of reference on the shore that minor fluctuations (the downfall of an air horn, the outflow of a sound) hardly register. From there, in Essay the tide, you don#x2019;t ask, #x201C;How did pop get here?#x201D; because you were with it the whole time. You, most likely, are in process analysis essay high school, or college, or somewhere that music flows like water all around. Pop, in such places, is understood by osmosis.

The rest of us #x2014; less lucky #x2014; must accept the second system. Somewhere along the way we get busy with work, or prioritize movies, or decide to have kids and look up to find we#x2019;ve lost the The Health Exchange, thread. We emerge from our hiatus and turn on the radio only to wonder, #x201C;How did pop get here?#x201D; We have no idea. It is then that we begin to study pop trends by rote #x2014; by reading reviews and listening to analysis definition podcasts, by chicago guide looking up songs on Shazam in analysis definition the drugstore, by courtesy for 10th class turning to definition Google to ask it: #x201C;Who is The Health Information Exchange Lil Yachty?#x201D; Before I heard Yachty#x2019;s music, I heard that he was awful. Process Analysis? I heard he had no flow and couldn#x2019;t rap, was a meme and a poseur, wasn#x2019;t repping the chicago, culture.

Wiz Khalifa called his style #x201C;mumble rap.#x201D; His sound, I heard, was dinky. When I finally relented and listened to #x201C;One Night#x201D; #x2014; Yachty#x2019;s top-charting song of essay definition, last year #x2014; nothing I heard could dispel what I#x2019;d been told. The Life Austen? Flow? Clumsy. Lyrics? Bland. The beat on the track was the inverse of analysis definition, a banger #x2014; tinny and thin, compulsively looping, like something churned out with a really cool toy. In a voice that was somehow both droning and singsong, the 19-year-old Atlantan wanly shrugged off commitment. It was an anthem for the player who can#x2019;t be tied down, run a thousand times though a Xerox machine. Catchy like a backing track in a commercial, it was sticky for all the uk prostitution, texture it lacked.

I listened on repeat with car-crash infatuation. It wasn#x2019;t good rap by any technical metric #x2014; or at least not by any metric I knew #x2014; but for essay definition some unknown reason, I wanted to a-type conflict like it. Like any pop #xE9;migr#xE9;, I started to process analysis definition study. The hip-hop establishment had little to offer. Chicago? Ebro Darden of Hot 97 took to Twitter to whine about Yachty; #x2019;90s production legend Pete Rock posted online, #x201C;He sucks mud on a rainy day!#x201D; Yachty, meanwhile, seemed to pay little mind to the genre conventions he#x2019;d supposedly betrayed. Of hip-hop forefathers Biggie and Tupac, he told Billboard, #x201C;I honestly couldn#x2019;t name five songs.#x201D; Instead, his influences were Fall Out Boy and Coldplay. He signed an endorsement deal with Target, alongside the Canadian pop star Carly Rae Jepsen. Analysis Definition? In Nautica shirts and plastic-beaded braids, he was an ungraceful hybrid of The Life of Jane Essay, your grandpa and your niece. In the process analysis essay definition, style of Warhol backstage at a-type conflict, WrestleMania #x2014; awkward and quiet, but nonetheless enthused #x2014; he made the rounds, telling press outlets, #x201C;I#x2019;m not a rapper.#x201D; Instead, he claimed he was an artist, a brand. As old-schoolers and gatekeepers scratched their heads and wept, Yachty continued to rise through the ranks, buoyed by process essay definition fans who had no trouble understanding. His come-up was something straight outta LinkedIn, an origin uncaring toward the rap plot as we know it.

Before releasing a single track #x2014; before perhaps even rapping a single bar #x2014; he spent a summer networking with influencers in New York, befriending the internet cool-teen Luka Sabbat and A$AP-affiliate-slash-stylist Ian Connor. It wasn#x2019;t a mixtape or even SoundCloud that brought #x201C;One Night#x201D; to fame but instead the track#x2019;s appearance in a viral comedy clip on The Health Exchange Essay, YouTube. The subsequent music video made a mockery of an older generation#x2019;s rap-vid fantasies. What begins as Yachty on a yacht with three women quickly descends into maritime madness #x2014; jump-cuts from hammerhead sharks and harpoons, to dress-up in wet suits and other nautical garb, to glitch-art graphics of slow-swimming fish, calling to mind the early days of home computers. Process Definition? It#x2019;s a sloppy pastiche of what#x2019;s cool right now: a surging nostalgia for the #x2019;90s, blended with the The Health Information Exchange Essay, net-art aesthetic of today, wrapped in the cachet of an Atlanta pedigree. It might all be a gimmick, but it doesn#x2019;t feel random. If rap music is founded on a process of layering #x2014; autobiography with references and samples #x2014; then Yachty does the analysis essay definition, same for the rap career itself, mixing what#x2019;s trending with the Austen Essay, right group of friends and tying it together with the loose thread of a sound.

If it isn#x2019;t good rap, then it#x2019;s the perfect kind of music for definition those of us barely treading water in the zeitgeist, who can#x2019;t understand new music by ear. Yachty had to do his research, just like the rest of us.#x2666; Jamie Lauren Keiles is essay courtesy for 10th a writer based in Los Angeles. She has found her own corner of R.B. By JENNA WORTHAM. T he 33-year-old musician Kelela favors the kind of fashion aesthetic that science-fiction films sometimes use to analysis essay definition signify characters from the future: gravity-defying materials in iridescent or metallic colors. For a recent rainy night in Strasbourg, the small city in the northeastern corner of France, she strode onstage dressed like a lieutenant in an anime cartoon, in an oversize gray bomber jacket, matching shorts and heels made from a-type conflict white fabric that stretched above her knees. Analysis Essay? She raised her hands and gave a hard stare to the crowd. #x201C;My mission tonight,#x201D; she said, #x201C;is to The Health Information Exchange Essay show the breadth of R.B. music. Process Analysis? It has influenced every genre, pretty much, so anyone who thinks it is guide basic or rudimentary has another thing coming.#x201D; There were no whoops, claps or even smiles. The audience remained passive.

Kelela likes to keep an essay definition, eye out for Essay about Pediatric the edges of the crowd, where her core fans (#x201C;the queer black and brown weirdos#x201D; as she put it to process essay definition me) usually congregate. But tonight, the scene was homogeneous in a very European way: Women favored striped boatnecks, red lips and messy topknots; the men, zipped-up pullovers and spotless white trainers. Kelela nodded at her D.J., Loric Sih, a sweet-faced boy with bleached blond hair and wire-rimmed Harry Potter glasses, and they dove into law, her set. Essay Definition? True to her word, amid the switchbacks of her feathery falsetto voice, there was no mistaking the roots of Pediatric, classic R.B. Process Essay? #x2014; all set to spacey electronic beats far outside the traditional canon. The room became a sound installation of Kelela#x2019;s reverb-y vocals and synthetic #x2019;90s-era Miami bass. Kelela#x2019;s stage was minimally adorned, but her lighting team is adept at creating James Turrell-like lightscapes that drape her figure in rich reds, purples and blues.

At one point, her face and body were illuminated by an electric shade of cyan, while the background remained shaded in dark azure. About? The effect made Kelela look as ethereal and analysis essay spectral as the music radiating from the speakers. Courtesy? The handful of process essay, times I#x2019;d seen her perform in the United States, the essay for 10th class, audience was rapt for process definition the entire performance #x2014; reverent during her atmospheric songs, breaking into Information Exchange Essay, exuberant, feverish dance during her fast-paced ones. (Her music can keep the lovesick company in bed just as easily as it can shepherd a party past sunrise.) But that night the analysis definition, concertgoers remained inscrutable. When she transitioned into a new song #x2014; #x201C;Blue Light,#x201D; the first single from her long-awaited debut album #x2014; I pulled out The Life and Writings of Jane, my phone and sent the recording to some friends back home. Some 4,000 miles away, they seemed more excited than the people physically present in the concert hall. Finally, about 30 minutes into her set, Sih began playing #x201C;Rewind,#x201D; the analysis, closest thing Kelela has to a pop song. The audience, charmed at last, succumbed to the irresistible beat and danced along. The moment was buoyant but short-lived: It was her last number. She thanked the crowd and Essay Asthma then bounded offstage.

When she was back in her dressing room, the composure Kelela had projected to the audience quickly dissipated. She stood with her hands on process analysis, her hips, chewing on her lip. Her boyfriend #x2014; a filmmaker named Cieron Magat, with whom she shares an apartment in London #x2014; murmured words of courtesy class, reassurance and handed her a cup of homemade ginger tea. #x201C;That was one of the worst ones,#x201D; she said, sighing and analysis definition taking off her earrings. Magat told her not to worry, but Kelela wanted to deconstruct the performance. #x201C;The thing I#x2019;m always looking for are the eyes, or even the face that#x2019;s like, I don#x2019;t know what this is but I#x2019;m into it,#x201D; she said. #x201C;But I got nothing.#x201D; She peeled her clothes off absent-mindedly and of Jane paced around her dressing room. #x201C;I was this guy#x201D; #x2014; she threw her arms up in imitation of the shruggie emoticon #x2014; and sighed again. #x201C;But it#x2019;s unrealistic in this context.#x201D; By context, Kelela meant that she wasn#x2019;t the headliner #x2014; most people were there to see the main act, the moody British band the xx. Analysis? Earlier in essay the day, while roaming around Strasbourg, I noticed that the posters advertising the analysis essay, show didn#x2019;t even mention her name. That night, in the nearly sold-out venue, a space that could hold 4,000 people, only a few attendees were black; her #x201C;queer black and brown weirdos#x201D; were missing. In the United States, Kelela is part of the vanguard of black female musicians who make emotional soul, women like Solange, SZA and Syd tha Kyd. Of Jane Austen Essay? The music of these women is aimed squarely at definition, the heart chakra of young black women; it legitimizes as much as it asserts the guide, value of being yourself #x2014; even if that self is thought to be a little off-center.

Kelela, in particular, explodes the notion that blackness is monolithic, a single Pantone square instead of untold variations. Her music is geared to a generation that lives for juxtapositions and unexpected arrangements, sonically and visually. In 2012, Kelela was performing at a show that Solange#x2019;s manager happened to see. She asked for a demo and gave the song to Solange, who asked Kelela to come on tour with her later that year, introducing Kelela to an audience who could appreciate her innovations in R.B. In October 2013, Kelela released #x201C;Cut 4 Me,#x201D; an impressive mixtape composed of 13 songs that were initially free online. At the time, Kelela wanted to see how far she could push herself as an process analysis, artist and play with the boundaries of Austen Essay, R.B. Kelela#x2019;s uninhibited experimentation, as well as the rich latticework on songs like #x201C;Send Me Out,#x201D; impressed critics. Pitchfork gave the process definition, collection a rare 8.3 rating out of 10 and said she had #x201C;the talent to make herself heard, and the intelligence to get it all together#x201D;; Spin called the collection #x201C;stunning#x201D; and said the singer could #x201C;go anywhere from here.#x201D; That November, Solange chose two of Kelela#x2019;s songs for #x201C;Saint Heron,#x201D; a compilation album released by guide Solange#x2019;s label of the same name. Process Definition? In 2015, she released a six-song EP called #x201C;Hallucinogen.#x201D; Her sound on the EP somehow managed to evoke Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis, Bj#xF6;rk and Donna Summer all at the same time.

It felt like a sonic relic of the past unearthed 100 years in the future. Uk Prostitution Law? Since then, fans have been waiting for her first full-length album, which Kelela expects to definition release this year. In her dressing room, Kelela folded herself into a pretzel on the couch next to me. A candle burned in the background. She knew it had been an off night, but because she loves performing so much, she was still buzzing from the energy. #x201C;The goal,#x201D; she explained, #x201C;is just #x2014; how many people can I put on, just so they can name it, even if they don#x2019;t know what it is yet?#x201D; Kelela Mizanekristos was born in 1983 to Mizanekristos Yohannes and Neghist Girma, students who escaped war-torn Ethopia and immigrated separately to Essay Pediatric Asthma the United States.

She was raised in definition Gaithersburg, Md. Kelela#x2019;s parents introduced her to the violin when she was a child, and for 10th class she practiced singing along to the radio in her bedroom at night and composing medleys in her head. Her father was fond of Blues Alley, an process, all-ages jazz supper club in Georgetown frequented by Dizzy Gillespie and Sarah Vaughan. He often took Kelela with him, and she fell in love with the culture of law, music. She listened to Kirk Franklin on the radio and learned to sing in ge#x2019;ez, an ancient language used primarily in the Ethiopian church, which she attended with her mother. You can still catch the influence in her voice #x2014; the way she turns sounds into process definition, sacred geometry, almost unconsciously stairstepping through the vowels and consonants. In her early to mid 20s, she would go to a Washington bar called 18th Street Lounge for uk prostitution its Sunday-night house sessions. A D.J. named Sam Burns played eclectic soul and deep house music, and after a few drinks, if she heard a bit of process analysis, music that reminded her of another song, she would jump on the microphone and blend the a-type conflict, two in real-time. Process Analysis Essay Definition? #x201C;I would run to the microphone and figure out a way to sing it. I would create a flip,#x201D; she says. #x201C;That is where I live.#x201D; Her first boyfriend, Kris Funn, whom she met when she was 19, played the upright bass, and she sat in bars for Information Exchange hours, watching him and his friends play. She joked to me that she was a #x201C;jazz wife#x201D; but also admitted that she received an unexpected education: She learned to process analysis essay listen to music, to get a feel for it.

Eventually the couple broke up, but Funn encouraged Kelela to trust her instincts and not be intimidated by her lack of a-type conflict, formal music training. By that time, Kelela was a student at process analysis definition, American University, studying international studies and sociology. #x201C;I was the only brown girl, all the time, talking about African politics,#x201D; she told me. #x201C;I thought I was going to be an academic. The Life Essay? In my head, I am supposed to be a college graduate. Analysis Essay? I wanted to finish. But I was not motivated to sit there and do that paper. I had a lot of resistance.#x201D; She felt alienated by the program. She dropped out. This was in 2006, and synthpop, epitomized by bands like the Essay, Knife, was trending. She began recording in a punk house in Washington, a city with a hard-core lineage that included acts like Fugazi and Bad Brains. She thrived in an environment devoid of rules. Essay Definition? #x201C;What#x2019;s so beautiful about punk culture,#x201D; Kelela says, #x201C;is that the whole idea is that you don#x2019;t have to be perfect.

Just try. Let#x2019;s just try to make it ourselves.#x201D; At first she sang over indie rock, but it didn#x2019;t feel authentic to about Pediatric Asthma her. Analysis Definition? She wanted to experiment with electronic music #x2014; #x201C;not real instruments,#x201D; she says. She spent hours on MySpace, scrolling through pages of music and The Health Information Exchange Essay listening to instrumentals. Process Analysis? She recorded herself singing over sounds she liked. Then she would send the artist her sample, along with an invitation to collaborate.

Two notable electronic producers agreed, including Daedelus, who featured her on chicago referencing guide, a track. At the essay, same time, a friend introduced her to the electro duo Teengirl Fantasy, and and Writings Essay they created a song. Will Boston, a founder of the music label Fade to Mind, heard their collaboration and was impressed by what he described to process essay me as her #x201C;wealth of startling honesty, felt through her vocals.#x201D; By then, Kelela was living in a-type conflict Los Angeles, and Boston brought her a thumb drive of analysis essay, sounds from the label and its British counterpart, Night Slugs. Kelela spent the uk prostitution law, next several days poring over the files, improvising lyrics over process essay definition, the sounds she liked, turning them into songs. She loved the otherworldliness of the instrumentals #x2014; staccato mixes that used sound effects like tinkling glass and guns reloading over drum machines. The music complemented the of Jane Austen, gossamer scales she likes to process essay sing in. It was #x201C;exactly what I#x2019;d been looking for,#x201D; she says. Two of the songs she produced during this time were on the mixtape she released in 2013. Kelela took care to describe her role in developing the mixtape, to make certain I knew how active she was in it #x2014; perhaps to and Writings Essay counter the idea that she isn#x2019;t self-made or in charge of her own sound. #x201C;The first thing people want to take away from me is my agency,#x201D; she told me.

Alex Sushon, an electronic producer who goes by Bok Bok, was one of the analysis essay definition, artists Kelela met as she was working on uk prostitution law, her mixtape, and process analysis essay definition these days, she tends to work mostly with British producers like him, possibly because they#x2019;ve been pushing the boundaries of R.B. more aggressively by blending it with grime, the East London style of dance music. Electronica, Sushon told me, is referential in the same way that R.B. tends to be. #x201C;That#x2019;s how we think about music, inserting small samples from other genres, little shortcuts that are saying something by playing something,#x201D; he says. Because of the chicago, internet, he explained, musicians can share references more easily than they did in process definition the past. Google, YouTube and The Health Information Exchange Essay SoundCloud make it easy. Sushon compares this dynamic to #x201C;memes, but in musical form.#x201D; The closest analogy is sampling, but it#x2019;s more complex than that. I watched Kelela and her D.J. Analysis Essay? perform this trick onstage, during one of their songs in Strasbourg. While she was singing #x201C;The High,#x201D; a fuzzed-out, gritty ode to desire, Sih mixed in a few seconds of a 2002 song by law Tweet called #x201C;Oops (Oh My),#x201D; and Kelela segued into its vocals. Here, suddenly, was the thrilling flicker of a decade-old hit that had almost entirely faded from process analysis definition popular culture, tucked into The Health Information Essay, her own noir love song.

It was the perfect encapsulation of analysis essay definition, Kelela#x2019;s odd 21st-century gift for referencing taking familiar sounds and repurposing them in a new context, a kind of lyrical d#xE9;j#xE0; vu. After the process analysis, show , back at referencing guide, her Strasbourg Airbnb, Kelela changed into oversize gray sweatpants and process analysis essay a black button-down crop top, and padded into the kitchen in chicago white slippers. She plugged in an electric kettle and made another cup of ginger tea as our conversation turned to her debut album. I expected her to talk about essay its sound, but she wanted to speak about the intention behind it. She described the album as #x201C;something that speaks to power.#x201D; When I asked her to elaborate, she paused, then said: #x201C;I#x2019;m not talking to black people, to be honest. For 10th? I don#x2019;t need to tell black people that R.B. is deep. It#x2019;s about the music industry. When I say the white gaze, I#x2019;m not just talking about white people at my show. I like that.

I like playing to mixed crowds. For me, it#x2019;s really just the way I#x2019;m treated by people of positions of power who seemingly hold the key.#x201D; The dynamics that bothered Kelela in college didn#x2019;t disappear when she became an artist #x2014; if anything, they intensified. As a student, she was introduced to black academics and feminists like Audre Lorde, Bell Hooks and definition Angela Davis. The Health Exchange Essay? These women helped her make sense of the racial and sexist forces that shape the world, and analysis definition she still turns to them to navigate the Exchange, music industry. She internalized their insistence to not be apologetic for analysis definition her womanhood or blackness and law not be debilitated by exclusion.

Sprawled on the bed in the apartment#x2019;s master bedroom, Kelela told me that Beyonc#xE9;#x2019;s loss at the Grammys depressed her and made her question the metrics of success for process essay mainstream musicians. The Health Information? #x201C;If that#x2019;s the highest we can achieve in that framework, it doesn#x2019;t even make sense to try,#x201D; she told me. A notebook was open to a blank page on the night stand, alongside #x201C;B Jenkins,#x201D; a Fred Moten poetry book that explores the interstitial space among jazz, black aesthetics and politics. Moten#x2019;s work concerns itself with the process definition, #x201C;resistance of the essay courtesy class, object#x201D; and the way that blackness refuses commodification. Analysis Definition? Kelela is a-type conflict aware of how artists like her get co-opted, morphed into something symbolic that they no longer control, and process analysis definition is determined to avoid it. I had already heard the lengths to which she would go to prevent this from happening.

The first night we met, I asked her how she managed expectations as an artist in an age of essay, hyperconsumption. Definition? I mostly meant her reserve on social media, despite the disturbingly insistent demands in her Twitter and Instagram mentions for referencing guide her next release. Instead, she described an encounter with Fendi, the Italian luxury brand, which invited her to perform at its new headquarters in Rome to celebrate the start of analysis definition, a new website aimed at courtesy class, millennials. Definition? Researching the headquarters online, she discovered that the Palazzo della Civilt#xE0; Italiana, the impressive white marble colosseum that Fendi had taken over, was built to be a propaganda tool under Benito Mussolini. #x201C;I#x2019;m Ethiopian,#x201D; she reminded me: Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in The Life Essay 1935, just before World War II. She didn#x2019;t want her body, her blackness, to be used by a brand, even a big fashion label like Fendi, as a proxy for cool in this context. She asked Fendi representatives to agree to process definition release a statement addressing her concerns as a condition of her involvement. Information? #x201C;That flipped the whole damn script,#x201D; she said. Analysis Essay Definition? They#x2019;re still negotiating the partnership, but the interaction speaks to how Kelela views her role: #x201C;If an artist says something, people listen,#x201D; she told me. She sees herself as someone who can wield her status as a celebrity to catalyze change.

As the class, evening wound down, Kelela invited me to essay get comfortable and listen to some of her new tracks. She gave me earbuds and left me alone to listen. (When I pressed her about Exchange Essay a release date, she made a coquettish face and demurred, saying the songs were still being mixed. In reality, she just signed with Warp Records, which will take over the release of the album.) Earlier in the night, she said that as politically aware as she feels she is, she didn#x2019;t make an analysis essay definition, album that addresses those views. #x201C;There was a period after I finished all the songs, I was nervous because I was like: There#x2019;s nothing about my experience as a black woman overtly in this. Chicago Referencing Guide? But I could never not make anything from any other place.#x201D; The songs instead deal with the analysis definition, agony of falling out of love and the ecstasy of finding it anew. A-type Conflict? Her voice is as pretty as ever, rising and crashing like cresting waves over beats that swing from a druggy drone to throbbing bass lines perfect for dance-floor grinding. In their own way, they are a quiet protest: They feel radical in the way a Kerry James Marshall painting or a Ntozake Shange poem expresses the process, humanity and beauty of black life. #x201C;All of that is happening in a world that does not want me,#x201D; she said. #x201C;It is a safe space for us to feel, and not necessarily for anyone else.#x201D;#x2666; Jenna Wortham is a staff writer for Essay Pediatric the magazine. An earworm that nearly eluded its audience. By LYDIA KIESLING. The song, #x201C;This Girl,#x201D; is a result of the analysis definition, (at the time) 19-year-old French D.J. and producer Valentin Brunel, alias Kungs, trawling YouTube videos in his bedroom and finding an obscure 2009 soul-revival tune by the Australian band Cookin#x2019; on 3 Burners. Brunel remixed the song, speeding it up into what he calls a #x201C;happy house track.#x201D; With the aid of Spotify, the song soon became a viral hit, topping charts across the a-type conflict, globe and leaving no one more surprised than its respective creators. Kungs#x2019;s remix was conceived on YouTube, and YouTube also contains a record of its charms.

The video, which has been viewed over process definition, 200 million times and depicts a summer romance on a Greek isle, is followed by hundreds of comments from jubilant global citizens who have finally trapped their earworm. #x201C;This Girl#x201D; now hovers around No.20 on the Shazam Hall of courtesy, Fame, meaning that more than 13 million users of the app were similarly desperate to find it. For nine weeks, it was the most Shazammed song in the world. Essay Definition? What is it about #x201C;This Girl#x201D;? The rich vocals of Kylie Auldist, the singer for Cookin#x2019; on 3 Burners? The retro, cheerful, almost cloying guitar riff? Cynics might say that Kungs left the heavy lifting to Auldist and her bandmates, but this diminishes Kungs#x2019;s inspired additions: his trumpets and his house beat, crucial to the ecstatic danciness of the new version. The result is youthful magic, the aural version of dancing until dawn with a boy you just met. Of smoking cigarettes on a rooftop all hot summer night. These days, an law, enterprising 19-year-old can browse YouTube, find something that catches his fancy, transform it and broadcast it to process essay the world. An algorithm can anticipate my taste so precisely that it serves up the song I#x2019;ve been dying to hear.

There#x2019;s something about the timing: #x201C;This Girl#x201D; is upbeat and and Writings of Jane Austen Essay joyful and nostalgic when the news has been a grim parade. The same year the video#x2019;s young lovers frolicked on the Mediterranean, some 5,000 people died trying to cross the same body of water. Our atmosphere is on track to become one long hot summer night. In harrowing times, this earworm asks little and gives a lot. It#x2019;s an echo of better times #x2014; and one you can dance to.#x2666; Lydia Kiesling is the editor of The Millions. Make Them Die Slowly (John George Haigh) Very good music for very bad feelings. By JOHN DARNIELLE. Sometimes you just want to kill somebody, you know?

Really end their life: make mourners of their friends and family, make orphans of their children, leave a hole in the world where a person once was. You don#x2019;t feel this way all the time #x2014; you#x2019;re not a monster. But sometimes you do. Process Essay Definition? Maybe this didn#x2019;t always happen; maybe you can remember a time when you not only didn#x2019;t want to kill anybody but also hoped, moreover, to never even know what it felt like to law want such an awful thing. But you were a child then, probably, and poets are always making hay about how you can#x2019;t get back to that condition in this world. Process Analysis Essay? You#x2019;re not a kid anymore, and every once in a while #x2014; not every day, except maybe sometimes for several days in chicago a row #x2014; you want to kill somebody. Maybe you don#x2019;t. Process Essay Definition? I don#x2019;t know. Essay? But if you do, when you do, maybe sometimes it kind of process analysis definition, gets away from you, right? Obviously you won#x2019;t kill this person, because you can#x2019;t kill them, because you#x2019;re not that sort of person, and besides, you#x2019;d get caught, and you#x2019;re pretty sure you couldn#x2019;t hack it in prison. Would you cover your tracks?

Try to hide the body? Go into hiding and hear about yourself on the news? Walk through the doors of the police station and turn yourself in? You think about these things when you want to chicago referencing guide kill somebody. You have the occasional dream about them. They#x2019;re not pleasant thoughts, and process essay definition it#x2019;s not a pleasant dream.

What#x2019;s your damage? How did you get like this? Brain chemistry? Trauma? Read too many stories about Ozzy Osbourne biting the heads off bats when you were a kid? It doesn#x2019;t matter. Two things matter: First, you#x2019;re not going to kill anybody, because you are a decent person who wishes no one any real harm; second, you need to do something a little more creative with your feelings than just pretending they#x2019;re not there. For some people, that means hitting the gym. For others, it means a stereo with a volume knob. Heavy metal has been providing people with catharsis for nearly 50 years. There#x2019;s more to metal than that, of course, which ought to go without saying #x2014; not every metalhead harbors some hideous inner sadist.

When I listen to Information death metal, it#x2019;s not for the splatter-gore violence of its themes but for the breathtaking proficiency and relentless musical curiosity of the musicians who play it: To even get your foot in death metal#x2019;s door, you have to be awfully good at your instrument. But Church of Misery doesn#x2019;t play death metal; it plays stoner doom (the band itself prefers #x201C;doom,#x201D; without the modifier), and I don#x2019;t listen to it for the pleasure of immersion in technical wizardry. I listen to it because of how it makes me feel. Process Definition? Who#x2019;s Church of The Life of Jane, Misery? Chiefly, they#x2019;re the analysis definition, brainchild of the bassist Tatsu Mikami.

They#x2019;ve been putting out records since the late 1990s. They have six studio efforts, numerous EPs and a live album to their credit, and every song on every album except one takes, as its theme, a known serial killer. The Health Exchange? (Their first studio recording was made before they settled on their thematic focus and wasn#x2019;t officially released for years.) Songs indicate their subjects parenthetically: #x201C;D#xFC;sseldorf Monster (Peter K#xFC;rten),#x201D; #x201C;Shotgun Boogie (James Oliver Huberty),#x201D; #x201C;Red Ripper Blues (Andrei Chikatilo).#x201D; Some of their subjects are widely infamous #x2014; Charles Manson, Ted Bundy, the process, Heaven#x2019;s Gate cult. Others are so obscure that only essay, true crime buffs are likely to essay definition recognize their names. Look them up at your peril: These are people whose crimes will give you nightmares. #x201C;Make Them Die Slowly#x201D; is the of Jane Essay, second song on the band#x2019;s latest album, #x201C;And Then There Were None . Analysis Essay Definition? ,#x201D; and it is impossibly heavy. Chicago Referencing? It begins with a thudding kick drum all alone, with the central guitar riff ambling in essay definition murderously after two bars #x2014; a figure that lurches methodically through three five-note patterns to resolve on three descending chords that land like boulders being dropped on chicago, a house. My iTunes play count shows that I listened to analysis essay definition it more than I listened to any song in 2016 except for drafts of songs I was writing myself. Scott Carlson of the legendary Repulsion sings it; the 2016 incarnation of the band was essentially a reboot, with Mikami the only original member. Carlson#x2019;s feel for metal forms is instinctive and inerrant; when he sings the initial chorus #x2014; #x201C;I#x2019;ll hang you high and drain your blood/sip on the nectar while your bones reduce to sludge#x201D; #x2014; it#x2019;s as if all that stuff about Ozzy had been true: Here#x2019;s a guy gleefully recounting obscure, unthinkable real-world crimes as if they were fond memories of his time in varsity football.

It#x2019;s seductive and irresistible. Uk Prostitution Law? It has a cowbell. You can bang your head and sing along. I have spent a fair bit of process analysis, idle time over essay courtesy for 10th class, the years wondering what it says about me that I want to indulge this mood at least a few times a week for the rest of my life, occasionally at essay, earsplitting volumes in The Health Information Exchange Essay clubs. Process Essay Definition? I don#x2019;t think I#x2019;m secretly a murderer; I#x2019;m a liberal softy. I can#x2019;t even eat animals. When I was young, if I heard something that sounded too celebratory of uk prostitution, death, it terrified me.

I#x2019;ll never forget seeing the clip for #x201C;Bohemian Rhapsody#x201D; on #x201C;Don Kirshner#x2019;s Rock Concert#x201D; when I was very young, maybe 9 years old, up too late. I listened to analysis definition Freddie Mercury sing the verse about The Life of Jane Austen how he#x2019;d just killed a man by shooting him point blank in the head #x2014; although I thought he was speaking in the third person rather than the vocative, that it was his #x201C;mama#x201D; who#x2019;d just killed a man #x2014; and, horrified, I turned off the television. Process Analysis Essay? Over time, though, that feeling #x2014; the shock, the revulsion #x2014; became an object of The Health Exchange, interior curiosity: What#x2019;s this about? How much time can I spend with it? What part of me is it?

What does it look like up close? The cheap answer is something about the cathartic value of transgression, etc., all old hoary stuff I don#x2019;t really buy into anymore. The truer answer, for definition me, is that sometimes you really wanna kill somebody. Naturally, you won#x2019;t. You mustn#x2019;t. It would be wrong. Referencing? You try not to do wrong. Analysis Definition? But if you spend a little time in the presence of a perfect groove contemplating the wrong directly without moralizing about it, you can ride the for 10th, feeling in safety and go in as deep as you want, emerging later not wanting to kill anybody. When this has become a pattern, it#x2019;s an immense release, as addictive as the pellets they would give us every so often if we were rats in labs.#x2666; John Darnielle is a musician and process analysis essay the author of #x201C;Universal Harvester.#x201D; Two composers beyond category. By RYAN BRADLEY.

O n a gray winter day in London, the composers Mica Levi and Oliver Coates met in a high-beamed former hat factory #x2014; the Essay Pediatric, offices of process definition, Levi#x2019;s manager #x2014; and climbed up to a loft space with an excellent stereo system. They had agreed to listen to #x201C;Remain Calm,#x201D; an album of experimental music that, more than a year ago, they improvised over the course of a single day. A-type Conflict? Each had moved on process, to new gigs since the album#x2019;s November release, writing new work for different orchestras around England and Europe, and this was the a-type conflict, first time since then that they#x2019;d listened to definition it together. Coates sat on for 10th, the edge of process analysis, a couch; Levi took a chair; each looked expectant, borderline anxious. It had been a busy year. Levi is also a producer and D.J. who sings and plays guitar, most recently in chicago referencing the pop-art trio Micachu and the Shapes. She has written two movie scores; the second, for the biopic #x201C;Jackie,#x201D; was nominated for process an Academy Award. Coates has scored films, too, but is better known for his work as a cellist. Uk Prostitution Law? He contributed to Radiohead#x2019;s #x201C;A Moon Shaped Pool,#x201D; released last May, and in the same month put out his own #x201C;Upstepping,#x201D; a very danceable record of house music performed almost entirely on his cello. Analysis Definition? #x201C;Remain Calm#x201D; is an and Writings Austen Essay, odd creation, even by their standards. Its 13 tracks, some less than a minute in length, jump from beat-heavy, densely layered and definition looped orchestrations to a-type conflict atmospheric and analysis essay definition spacey noodlings.

Often, Coates#x2019;s cello seems to emerge, pure and essay courtesy class acoustic, out of a stew of sonic burbles. It is a sketchbook in which every figure gestures toward newer, more exciting ideas to come, outlining musical rules (a key, a beat, a melody) one minute only to abandon them in process essay the next. Before they listened to the record, Coates reached into his backpack and pulled out a coloring book. And Writings Austen? He showed Levi one of the images he had colored in, a mandala filled with bright blues and greens, thin wisps of gold, bursts of coral pink. Levi leaned in for a closer look, drawing her finger across the page. #x201C;Bruv, this is nuts,#x201D; she said. #x201C;It#x2019;s what I wish composing was,#x201D; he said. Process Essay? #x201C;The form preordained.#x201D; Levi nodded in agreement. It was a visual cantus firmus, she said: a fixed melody providing a structure for a limited range of Essay about Asthma, improvisation. They had each studied classical composition: Coates at the Royal Academy of Music, where he received the highest marks in the school#x2019;s history, Levi at analysis, Guildhall School of Music and about Pediatric Drama, where, at process analysis definition, 21, she was commissioned to compose a piece for the London Philharmonic. The first song began, Coates playing a solo figure, then Levi#x2019;s electronic textures trickling in, like an orchestra tuning up. The pair sat in silence, pleased enough but also distracted. A few tracks later, Coates looked up at Levi, who was looking at his mandala. #x201C;I#x2019;d like for courtesy for 10th it to be music,#x201D; he said.

It seemed like a familiar conversation. Levi massaged her temples, thinking, listening. #x201C;You just get a set of analysis essay definition, rules,#x201D; she said. #x201C;Each color could be a different pitch.#x201D; Coates frowned. The idea of #x201C;algorithmic music#x201D; troubled him. Maybe, Levi said, you set up the The Life and Writings of Jane, rules and then find a way to process analysis essay break them; color inside the lines, so to speak, and then scribble a face over the results. The Life? Coates liked it. The breaking of the rule, he said, is analysis #x201C;what makes a moment, musically.#x201D; In fact, he added, his coloring was loaded with mistakes already, but the mistakes were what made the thing come together, in a subtle way. He turned the page, exposing the blots where the pen ink bled through to the other side and the sharp lines of the pattern were barely visible.

He said they reminded him of one of Levi#x2019;s works. Coates and Levi met almost a decade ago. Coates had come to perform student string quartets for a class Levi was taking, and he was struck by her compositions. They were written so well, he said, #x201C;that you knew immediately what you needed to do to courtesy make them come to life.#x201D; From then on, the two stayed in touch. Coates sent Levi a video by the electronic producer Daniel Lopatin, also known as Oneohtrix Point Never; Levi sent Coates a mixtape she made with some tracks by process definition Harry Partch, a composer who created new musical scales and built his own instruments. Essay For 10th Class? In 2011, Coates was working on a commission for the London Sinfonietta and suggested a collaboration with Micachu and the Shapes, who were already trying to, in Levi#x2019;s words, #x201C;smudge a whole lot of things together.#x201D; For the Sinfonietta collaboration, Levi and her bandmates, following in Partch#x2019;s footsteps, deployed a new instrument she had built with a friend called the essay, chopper #x2014; a hollow box with strings on top and a rotating wheel to pluck them, like a turntable that strummed. The live album that resulted, filled with wobbly, off-kilter strings, was called #x201C;Chopped and Screwed#x201D; (a nod to screw music, the Houston hip-hop style). It landed in law the hands of the filmmaker Jonathan Glazer, who was looking for someone to score #x201C;Under the Skin,#x201D; his film about an alien exploring earth in a woman#x2019;s body.

He wanted an experienced composer who had never written music for analysis essay a movie, someone who would come at the task differently. #x201C;I think he wanted someone who was, you know, cheap,#x201D; Levi said. For 10 months, she worked on almost nothing else, worried that if she listened to anything #x2014; particularly another soundtrack #x2014; she would unintentionally steal from it. She focused instead on the challenge of scoring the emotional development of the film#x2019;s unknowable alien, played by Scarlett Johansson. Courtesy Class? Levi#x2019;s stark themes all spring from a dense void, abuzz in discordant strings (including Coates on cello), then synthetic and hollow with muffled drums and distant drones. Analysis Essay? As the film progresses, though, the music becomes more melodic, reflecting the alien creature#x2019;s struggle with humanity, with the untidiness of human emotions. Essay Pediatric? The soundtrack is unsettling, but also strangely empathetic. Levi describes much of analysis definition, her work as mixtapes. For #x201C;Jackie,#x201D; she imagined classy melancholy, loads of strings, the occasional flute, clarinet and piano #x2014; the kind of music that Jacqueline Kennedy might listen to, a mixtape for private mourning made for guide a woman in the center of essay, so much public chaos. The day Levi and Coates recorded #x201C;Remain Calm,#x201D; Levi arrived with two CD turntables and chicago guide thumb drives full of samples and premade digital files #x2014; all of which, in one way or another, had reminded her of Coates.

She was thinking of music not in terms of classical or hip-hop or any other genre, but in terms of people. Some music was Oliver Coates music. Process Analysis Essay Definition? Some music was Mica Levi music. Listening to #x201C;Barok Main,#x201D; one of the longest tracks on #x201C;Remain Calm,#x201D; Coates and Levi agreed that it was also probably the a-type conflict, most unified piece. #x201C;This was a nice peaceful moment, just after lunch,#x201D; Coates said, recalling the rainy day they recorded it. Levi said: #x201C;I was thoughtful of what could fit here. Something that wasn#x2019;t too thick, too full of information.#x201D; They listened a bit longer. The track swelled and echoed, and analysis definition it was hard to courtesy know where Coates#x2019;s cello stopped and Levi#x2019;s sound began. #x201C;It#x2019;s just happy music making,#x201D; Coates said, and they sat, listening silently, waiting for their track to end.#x2666; Ryan Bradley is a writer based in Los Angeles. Putting out analysis definition, fires by law day, music by night. I f you buy a record on definition, brownsvilleka.com, the website of the Essay Pediatric Asthma, rapper Ka, it is Ka himself who packs up your purchase and puts it in the mail. Every few days, Ka sits in a study in his home near Prospect Park in Brooklyn and goes through the process analysis definition, orders on his site. He was there on a morning not long ago, with a MacBook propped on The Life Austen, his knees. #x201C;This guy, from California, he bought the whole discography,#x201D; Ka said.

On the floor were cardboard boxes holding copies of his five full-length albums. Essay Definition? He placed five CDs in The Life of Jane a padded envelope. #x201C;I#x2019;ll try to get those out tomorrow,#x201D; he said. A message on the website warns: Please have patience with your order, I don#x2019;t go to process analysis essay the post office every day. There was a time when Ka took a guerrilla approach to promoting his music. In 2007, he had 1,000 CDs made of his debut album, #x201C;Iron Works.#x201D; #x201C;I gave them to my cousins, my friends. I still had, like, 990 CDs left.

So I started giving them away. I#x2019;d drive around the city, and if I heard music coming from the next car at chicago referencing guide, a red light #x2014; boom-boom-boom #x2014; I#x2019;d say, #x2018;You like hip-hop?#x2019; Then I#x2019;d toss a CD in their window.#x201D; By 2012, when Ka released his second album, #x201C;Grief Pedigree,#x201D; he had a sizable-enough following to make an announcement on Twitter and hold a curbside sale in Greenwich Village. This has become a tradition: On the day that Ka drops a new album, he tweets, turns up on a street corner and sells a few dozen records out of the trunk of his car. When music writers use the word #x201C;indie,#x201D; they generally have a certain kind of recording artist in mind: a white bohemian, with a battered guitar and analysis definition a tricky haircut, who dwells on guide, the distant outskirts of the pop-industrial complex. Analysis Essay Definition? Ka, whose given name is The Health Exchange Kaseem Ryan, doesn#x2019;t quite fit that description, but he may be the platonic ideal of an independent musician in 2017.

It would be hard to find a more thoroughgoing D.I.Y. musical enterprise. Ka is the rare rapper who handles both rhymes and beats, writing his lyrics and producing the music that accompanies them. He has directed most of his videos, and he self-releases his music, on his own label. It is not a profitable venture. Ka spends as much as $15,000 per album and has never broken even. #x201C;I make music, but I#x2019;m not in the music business,#x201D; he says. #x201C;It#x2019;s my hobby.#x201D; #x201C;It#x2019;s my hobby#x201D; is one of Ka#x2019;s mantras. Analysis? It#x2019;s accurate, but also an understatement. Over the past several years, Ka has released some of the about Asthma, most gripping music in analysis any genre.

His records offer a poignant, distinctive take on classic New York hip-hop: vivid stories of Essay about, street life and struggle narrated in virtuosic rhymes over music of bleak beauty. His output has won him a small but passionate fan base and critical raves in Pitchfork and Spin. The magazine The Fader, an influential arbiter of musical cool, proclaimed Ka #x201C;New York rap#x2019;s greatest living treasure.#x201D; Praise has also come from well-known musicians. Process Analysis? In 2015, the Los Angeles M.C. Earl Sweatshirt took to Twitter to exult in caps-lock mode: #x201C;REAL TALK, I HAVE NO PROBLEM ADMITTING THAT @BrownsvilleKa IS THE BEST RAPPER.#x201D;

For Ka to have won even modest recognition is an improbable underdog triumph. He spent much of the 1990s trying to make it as a rapper, quit music altogether and a-type conflict returned a decade later, releasing his solo debut at age 35. Today he is 44. This career trajectory defies one of the seemingly immutable laws of pop, and process essay of hip-hop in Essay about particular, a genre in which the cult of youth and novelty is especially pronounced. Process? Then there is the matter of Essay Pediatric, Ka#x2019;s day job. He is a captain in the New York City Fire Department.

It#x2019;s a story that has the ring of folklore: One of the great recording artists of the current decade is a musical moonlighter, a middle-aged man who earns his living as the decorated company commander of process, Engine 235 in Essay Pediatric Bedford-Stuyvesant. #x201C;I try to keep my job and process analysis definition music separate,#x201D; Ka says. #x201C;I never wanted be #x2018;The Rapping Captain.#x2019; I try to be a good firefighter. And when I come home, I try to make some dope music.#x201D; Last Aug. 21, Ka#x2019;s photo appeared on the cover of The New York Post under a lurid headline: #x201C;FLAME THROWER: FDNY Captain moonlights as anti-cop rapper.#x201D; The article purported to be an expos#xE9;, but the facts of what The Post termed Ka#x2019;s #x201C;double life#x201D; have long been known to his Fire Department colleagues and to a-type conflict readers of the music press. Ka put it succinctly: #x201C;The Post don#x2019;t like rap. They don#x2019;t like firemen.

And they don#x2019;t like black people. With me, they had all three.#x201D; In fact, Ka#x2019;s music bears little resemblance to the #x201C;gangsta rap#x201D; caricature of essay, tabloid fulminations. In Ka#x2019;s songs, crime and violence are omnipresent but deglamorized. It#x2019;s here that Ka#x2019;s age shows: He raps in the voice of referencing, a world-weary O.G., looking back at #x201C;the hustle#x201D; with regret and dismay, and analysis definition reckoning with its spiritual toll. Ka#x2019;s lyrics are cinematic, training a grit-caked lens on scenes of poverty and desperation.

In #x201C;No Downtime#x201D; (2012), he raps: #x201C;I admit, not from environment that let a child flourish/In the street, slim physique, wild courage/Five deep, trying to eat, looking malnourished.#x201D; These stories aren#x2019;t fictional. Ka grew up poor, in Brownsville. As a teenager, he drifted into the drug trade, dealing crack and Asthma selling firearms. It was a #x201C;scary and process lonely#x201D; existence, Ka says, one that left a legacy of trauma and a wealth of material, a burden that#x2019;s also a muse. #x201C;This man has experienced so much pain, seen so much death,#x201D; says Ka#x2019;s wife, Mimi Vald#xE9;s. #x201C;It#x2019;s all over his music.#x201D; If Ka is not in referencing the music business, his wife definitively is. Vald#xE9;s is the former editor in chief of Vibe, the process analysis definition, music magazine.

Today she is chief creative officer for i am OTHER, a multimedia company founded by Pharrell Williams, the superstar rapper-singer-producer. Vald#xE9;s#x2019;s professional circle includes some of the world#x2019;s most famous musicians. It is conceivable that Ka could trade on Essay, his wife#x2019;s connections to essay raise his profile. But a commercial breakthrough is far-fetched, and a prospect for which Ka seems constitutionally ill equipped. Uk Prostitution? He has performed just a few live shows and professes little interest in playing more. Process Analysis? He#x2019;s a homebody who prefers to sit in a closet-size work space and make records. Those records are, in law the best sense, strange. Critics often call Ka a revivalist of rap#x2019;s #x2019;90s golden age.

But he is by no means #x201C;retro.#x201D; He takes the rudiments of #x2019;90s rap and fashions them into an eccentric other thing. His albums have idiosyncratic conceptual frames: #x201C;The Night#x2019;s Gambit#x201D; (2013) is full of chess imagery; #x201C;Days With Dr. Process Analysis Essay Definition? Yen Lo#x201D; (2015), a collaboration with the producer Preservation, is an elaborate gloss on uk prostitution, the novel #x201C;The Manchurian Candidate.#x201D; But it is the sound, the vibe, that sets Ka#x2019;s music apart. His songs are unnervingly quiet and still; they hold a listener in thrall because they hold so much back. Ka#x2019;s beats do not boom, they slither and slink and creep.

Often the songs discard drums altogether, opening vast spaces that are filled by samples in brooding minor keys. The most arresting sound is Ka#x2019;s voice, a guttural rasp that sometimes dips into a whisper. Analysis? It is an unshakable voice of experience, delivering hard-boiled tales and hard-won wisdom. Referencing Guide? #x201C;Mourn at analysis definition, Night,#x201D; from the uk prostitution, 2016 album #x201C;Honor Killed the Samurai,#x201D; is process a typical Ka mood piece #x2014; a rap-noir, burnished to lustrous dark hue. The song#x2019;s title establishes the terms: The mood is elegiac, the setting nocturnal. #x201C;Mourn at Night#x201D; has more of a beat than many Ka songs, which is not to say that it has much of one. A snare drum knocks out a steady pulse, like the sound of an unseen man#x2019;s footfalls trailing down a low-lit street, or a time bomb ticking to an explosion.

The music is nudged forward by guitar and keyboard arpeggios, which chime and toll behind a somber refrain: #x201C;He gone/We mourn at night.#x201D; In the final verse, the action erupts: Gunfire blasts out law, of the process analysis definition, shadows, strafing a street corner crowded with young drug dealers. On the block with the rock. Up nights, dribbling. Time spent getting bent. Hard to be upright citizen. It#x2019;s more than troubling. Same corners are bubbling. A-type Conflict? The pawns are huddling. Then all of a sudden it#x2019;s. Ka excels at this kind of writing, brisk storytelling that unfolds in a pileup of rhymes and puns. What you won#x2019;t find much of on analysis essay definition, his records is the meat-and-potatoes of rap: trash talk. #x201C;What do I have to brag about?#x201D; Ka says. #x201C;I ain#x2019;t winning.

I#x2019;m a working man, with a blue-collar job. A-type Conflict? I#x2019;m running into analysis essay, burning buildings for for 10th a living. Process Analysis Essay Definition? So I speak about the things that I did, the things I pray I never have to do again. How do I finish my life in grace? That#x2019;s what I rap about.#x201D; On those occasions when Ka does slip in a mild boast, it#x2019;s about The Health Information his skills as an M.C. In #x201C;Mourn at Night#x201D; he permits himself one such moment, the testimony of process analysis essay definition, a bootstrapper who has survived untold trials to ply his trade #x2014; as he would have it, his hobby #x2014; in the soundproof booth of a recording studio. #x201C;We was born in the thorns, few arose,#x201D; Ka raps. #x201C;Once in town#x2019;s noose/Now in soundproofs/Pursuing goals.#x201D;#x2666; Jody Rosen is a contributing writer for The Life of Jane Austen the magazine . Process Essay? When gospel goes viral #x2014; with an abundance of pure joy. It was 29 years ago that the legendary gospel artist Shirley Caesar first recorded the song #x201C;Hold My Mule.#x201D; It was a banger then, and Essay about Pediatric it still is. She has performed it many times, and at least once, 10 years ago, someone filmed her in process analysis definition a church.

About midway through the a-type conflict, nine-and-a-half-minute video, the band and the organ, which riff all the way through, fall quiet. Caesar hunches over, gazes into process analysis, the distance and, playing the role of the song#x2019;s protagonist, Shouting John #x2014; a farmer who has been reprimanded by the deacons at his local church for celebrating too much, dancing too wildly, speaking too loudly (and sometimes in law tongues) #x2014; enumerates the many blessings God has bestowed on him and his farm. She counts each blessing off on her fingers and process analysis essay definition raps: #x201C;I#x2019;ve got beans, greens, potatoes, tomatoes, lambs, rams, hogs, dogs, chickens, turkeys, rabbits#x201D; #x2014; and then she shouts, #x201C;you name it!#x201D; The band kicks in again, and a slew of sonic histrionics, pyrotechnics and acrobatics follows. But that list is the climax, the moment when Caesar basks in the warmth of God#x2019;s grace, when she and you both feel closest to The Health Essay him. Process Analysis Essay Definition? This was the moment that stood out to a-type conflict a musician called DJ Suede the analysis essay definition, Remix God, who just before Thanksgiving took that snippet #x2014; just eight seconds in all #x2014; and chicago referencing laid it over a trap-style hip-hop beat of his own making. The story of Shouting John and analysis definition his fussy deacons disappeared, leaving behind nothing but that list of blessings and Caesar#x2019;s euphoric #x201C;you name it!#x201D; completely stripped of context. Suede then offered the beat to the internet, calling it the law, U Name It Challenge and inviting others to put their own spins on it. The singer Chris Brown recorded a video dancing to it. Analysis Essay Definition? Countless other dancers and rappers followed him. The challenge went megaviral.

The trick was that the snippet Suede chose had Caesar talking about food #x2014; and about giving thanks for that food #x2014; convincingly, joyously and at the exact right time of year. Her ecstatic cry made it universal. The best came a few days before Thanksgiving, when an Atlanta-based rapper named Grey responded to Suede#x2019;s challenge with a verse of The Life and Writings Austen, his own. Process Definition? Grey is a vegan, unlike Shouting John, but a quick jaunt through his social media identifies him as every bit the evangelist of his philosophy that Caesar is for Christ. Chicago Referencing Guide? From inside a parked car, Grey unleashed a verse describing the Thanksgiving feast he was preparing for his friends and family: #x201C;Jump into the whip and process essay definition hit Whole Foods early/Get everything to get that soul food working.#x201D; There would be vegan cornbread, vegan stuffing, #x201C;greens with no ham in Essay it,#x201D; pies whipped up with almond milk, #x201C;mac and cheese to process analysis definition collard greens to black-eyed peas/Get a roast of for 10th, that tofu turkey.#x201D; Then the sample of Caesar#x2019;s list, with a little amendment from Grey: He endorsed the #x201C;beans, greens, potatoes, tomatoes#x201D; part, then noted that he wasn#x2019;t messing with the process analysis essay, #x201C;lambs, rams, hogs, dogs.#x201D; It#x2019;s almost certainly the best and funniest verse of his life.

While taking a gospel sample and warping it into a trap song not about Christ but about the a-type conflict, wonders of soy and fake meat scrubs Caesar#x2019;s joy of its context, the joy embedded in essay her voice still translates, is about Pediatric still familiar. Process Essay Definition? I#x2019;m not religious. But I grew up going to of Jane Austen Essay church, dancing and singing to raucous gospel bands and choirs nearly every Sunday. Once, after a particularly rousing concert, I walked from my seat to the front of the auditorium to be baptized and process analysis essay definition join the church, only to come to referencing guide my senses once I got to essay definition the altar. I never truly believed in Caesar#x2019;s God, but I was swept away as so many nonbelievers can be, in referencing flashes of euphoria ignited by family and tofu and trap and everything else that sustains us.#x2666; Greg Howard is process analysis essay definition a David Carr fellow for The New York Times. He soothes the anxieties of life as a gay man. By ALEXANDER CHEE. For more than a year now, I have listened to Pediatric Asthma little else in my car other than the process analysis essay definition, albums of essay for 10th class, Rufus Wainwright.

This obsession began when my husband and I bought a car for weekend trips: a 2009 AWD Subaru hatchback with what in retrospect seems like an ancient playback machine, a 5-disc CD player. Analysis Definition? We pulled all our old CD wallets out to chicago referencing guide the car, loaded the changer and set off for process analysis definition our first drive. And what had been my self-imposed exile from music came to an end that day. A-type Conflict? Sometime between 2009 and 2015, without ever noticing it was happening, I stopped listening to music regularly. I was alienated, in part, by the new ways of listening: I don#x2019;t like streaming music, or #x201C;social#x201D; music platforms, my private whims made public. Around the essay definition, same time, my doctor told me I had mild depression, which would respond to exercise and a change in habits. Uk Prostitution Law? But this mild depression did not feel mild. I felt trapped at the bottom of a swimming pool, immobilized.

Everything I had to process analysis do, everything I needed to take care of, was up at the surface, and the soundtrack to this situation was silence. During one of essay for 10th, our first drives, we loaded the changer solely with Rufus Wainwright albums, and I still haven#x2019;t changed those CDs out. I was always a fan of Wainwright#x2019;s, but I#x2019;m something more now: His lighthearted way of process analysis definition, penetrating my anxieties about gay life became essential. In my year of carbound listening, I played through his songbook over and over. I gained a new appreciation for his extraordinary voice, and Information the way its nasal timbre humanizes him, as if someone ordinary had been given extraordinary powers, midnote. I am often tricked into trying to sing along, but I#x2019;m always outclassed.

I never care. Wainwright is process essay a storyteller, and his albums work on my imagination the a-type conflict, same way short-story collections do #x2014; poetically, dramatically. Singing along with his secrets became like telling mine to essay definition myself, and somehow, this helped me up from the uk prostitution, bottom of process analysis definition, that pool. A change of habits, then. Joan Didion has written of how the Exchange Essay, ability to process analysis make a note #x201C;when something came to mind#x201D; was the #x201C;difference between being able to write and Pediatric not being able to write#x201D; #x2014; a sign of life.

For me, looking for process analysis new music from favorite musicians is also a sign of life. This fall, I finally thought to look for a new Wainwright album. What I found was #x201C;Take All My Loves,#x201D; released early last year. Wainwright adapts nine Shakespearean sonnets into a kind of variety show, with William Shatner; Helena Bonham Carter; Carrie Fisher; Florence Welch; the soprano Anna Prohaska; his sister, Martha Wainwright; the BBC Orchestra; and the Berlin String Section. He is on the cover in full Queen Elizabeth I drag, flowers in law his hair. Process Analysis Essay? My favorite track is #x201C;A Woman#x2019;s Face #x2014; Reprise (Sonnet 20),#x201D; which Wainwright first interpreted in 2010 on #x201C;All Days Are Nights: Songs for Lulu.#x201D; That first version is a would-be lover#x2019;s complaint, sung softly over slow piano; it#x2019;s elliptical, haunting, slight. A new version on #x201C;Take All My Loves#x201D; is almost a torch song #x2014; teasing, raunchy, openly seductive, as if Wainwright were seated on a piano in Asthma a slinky gown and process analysis essay Elizabethan collar, all made up and Information Essay beckoning. The poem is, famously, the process essay definition, locus of academic debates over for 10th class, Shakespeare#x2019;s queerness.

His misogyny too. The sonnet is analysis about an impossible love for a young man who the poet claims has all the The Health Exchange, beauty of a woman, but for the #x201C;one thing.#x201D; I had read it, but I never really understood it the way I did when I heard Wainwright sing it: It#x2019;s a refrain many gay men know from waiting out the passion of a man who doesn#x2019;t #x201C;think of himself that way,#x201D; despite his feelings for you. Process Analysis Essay Definition? #x201C;If only you were a girl#x201D; becomes #x201C;You#x2019;re better than a girl#x201D; before either fear or desire wins. Essay About Pediatric? Wainwright knows this territory well. His second album, #x201C;Poses,#x201D; was dedicated to one of these reluctant, not-quite-queer lovers, stories from when Wainwright was the kind of seductive youth the sonnet describes. Now, for the duration of this song, he is the reluctant lover. Process Analysis Essay Definition? As a storyteller, Wainwright has always been more of a memoirist than a novelist. He made his reputation singing wise songs of impossible loves and rejection, turning personal pain into public art. Wainwright is now married to J#xF6;rn Weisbrodt, an arts impresario, and he has a daughter with his friend Lorca Cohen, a photographer and the daughter of for 10th, Leonard Cohen.

Listening to #x201C;A Woman#x2019;s Face,#x201D; I wonder if happiness has made him more private, happier telling fictional stories than true ones. His next project is an opera about the Roman emperor Hadrian, who, out of process, grief at the death of The Life and Writings, his lover Antinous, created a religion around him. I intend to be there when it opens, wearing a tuxedo in an opera box #x2014; no Subaru this time. I#x2019;ll try not to sing along.#x2666; Alexander Chee is the author of the novels #x201C;Edinburgh#x201D; and #x201C;The Queen of the Night.#x201D; The danger of process analysis essay definition, being a singer-songwriter. F ifteen minutes after finishing an acoustic concert one evening in January, the Texas singer-songwriter James McMurtry was backstage talking about about Pediatric his great-grandfather. Process Analysis? The man had lost his own father and grandfather to post-Civil War skirmishes in Austen Missouri, McMurtry said, so he and his wife fled the state.

They settled in Denton County, Tex., 40-some miles northwest of the renovated Art Deco theater in Dallas that their great-grandson headlined that night. #x201C;They had to time it just right, because if you went West at that time, you could get into analysis definition, more violence because the Comanche were still active,#x201D; he said. #x201C;They farmed there for five or six years, waiting to make sure the courtesy for 10th class, Comanche weren#x2019;t coming back.#x201D; The story was a good example of how forces like politics and war can affect regular people#x2019;s lives, which is a running theme in process essay definition McMurtry#x2019;s work. McMurtry, who has released 12 albums over a 28-year career, has a reputation in some quarters as a political songwriter, in part because one of his most popular songs is an Information, angry-lefty anthem. That song, #x201C;We Can#x2019;t Make It Here Anymore,#x201D; laments that minimum wage #x201C;won#x2019;t pay for a roof, won#x2019;t pay for a drink,#x201D; and that the children of the poor are the ones who end up fighting in rich men#x2019;s wars. Released shortly before the 2004 election, the analysis essay definition, song swept through an America hollowed out by essay courtesy for 10th class departed manufacturing jobs and the middle-class stability that went with them. A few years after its release, the critic Robert Christgau named it the best song of the decade. But McMurtry more often writes about how seemingly distant political concerns nudge his characters#x2019; choices and prod at their psyches: the stretched budget of the process analysis essay, Veterans Affairs Department, or the The Health Information, birth of analysis essay definition, a new national park#x2019;s consuming the law, neighbors#x2019; land through eminent domain.

In #x201C;Sixty Acres,#x201D; the narrator laments that when his grandmother died, he inherited a plot of unpromising farmland while his cousin got #x201C;the good land,#x201D; zoned commercial: #x201C;Looks like a Walmart waiting to happen/I mean to process essay definition tell you it#x2019;s a pot of gold.#x201D; McMurtry#x2019;s father is the great Texas novelist Larry McMurtry, and his mother, Jo Scott McMurtry, is a-type conflict a former English professor specializing in definition Shakespeare. McMurtry calls his parents #x201C;first-generation-off-the-farm academics.#x201D; He was raised in secular urban homes and even attended boarding school for a spell. But he dropped out of the University of Arizona, and he remains fluent in his extended family#x2019;s dialect of ranches, oil fields and The Life and Writings Jesus Christ. He has been on tour almost constantly since the late 1980s, and he just takes note of what he sees through the windshield, he said, like banners welcoming home soldiers in small towns. Essay Definition? At an upscale barbecue restaurant near his hotel in and Writings of Jane Dallas, where we met before his concert, our talk turned to process analysis tribalism and anti-intellectualism. His grandparents wanted their children to Essay go to college to get better jobs, he said, but they didn#x2019;t want them to become intellectuals. Later he referred to the broader middle-American #x201C;hatred of anyone who is perceived to be getting a free ride of any kind#x201D; and the racism woven into that ethos: #x201C;The image of the black welfare queen driving the Cadillac while good white folk drove Oldsmobiles was the boogeyman of the #x2019;80s.

Now I suppose it#x2019;s Mexican immigrants getting free health care.#x201D; Over the course of an hour, he talked about the military-industrial complex, #x201C;embedded#x201D; war journalism and the role of process analysis definition, charisma in courtesy class electoral politics. I didn#x2019;t know whether to believe him when he said he didn#x2019;t read many books. Process? McMurtry had ordered black coffee and a plate of fried oysters. In a few hours, he would take the stage alone with his guitar, and in a few weeks, he and his band would leave for a European tour that would carry them from referencing guide Ireland to Italy, playing 33 nights in a row. McMurtry#x2019;s music is usually classified as #x201C;Americana#x201D;; it#x2019;s at process analysis definition, turns jagged and raucous, and at guide, others deliberative and process analysis wistful. Other singers have smoother voices.

But a movie star#x2019;s perfect face can work against his authenticity as an actor, and and Writings Austen McMurtry#x2019;s unassuming vocal style and process analysis stage presence bring to the foreground the voices populating his songs. #x201C;There#x2019;s a danger in being a singer-songwriter,#x201D; he said. #x201C;You#x2019;re writing a character#x2019;s point of view, and you#x2019;ve got to sing it yourself. It comes out of your voice, so everybody thinks it#x2019;s your opinion.#x201D; Although I#x2019;ve been listening to him for years, I have begun to a-type conflict think of him as interpreter of the process essay, places #x201C;out here in the middle,#x201D; as he puts it one song. Uk Prostitution Law? He has written about Cheyenne, Wyo.; Tulsa, Okla.; and Wewahitchka, Fla; about crab fishermen, soldiers and process analysis definition Walmart stockers. His songs tap into a-type conflict, resentments about things like coastal attitudes of superiority and political correctness. His narrators are often white men who know the Bible, own guns and give their kids a nip of essay definition, vodka in their Cherry Coke to get through long road trips. A Texan friend of mine likes to say that McMurtry writes as though he has spent time eavesdropping on conversations in law every Dairy Queen in America. Definition? Stephen King, who owns a classic-rock station in uk prostitution Maine, has written that he #x201C;may be the analysis, truest, fiercest songwriter of his generation.#x201D; McMurtry has seen things change in rural America over the last few decades, he said, the curdling of patriotism and self-reliance into something uglier. Gun ownership, for uk prostitution law example, has become an identity, or even like a cult.

He#x2019;s a hunter #x2014; deer, turkey, wild hogs #x2014; and process analysis definition he said gun shows and shops used to courtesy class be friendly spaces. But now there#x2019;s a suspicion in process definition the air if #x201C;you don#x2019;t have the right hat or the courtesy class, right haircut.#x201D; McMurtry himself has both, but he also has the kind of detachment required for skeptical reportage. #x201C;Copper Canteen,#x201D; the opening track on his 2015 album, #x201C;Complicated Game,#x201D; is the song I#x2019;ve returned to most since Election Day. The narrator is a hunter, a fisherman and a small-business owner. He doesn#x2019;t go to church, but his wife does. Although retirement is in sight, and he has a pension, he hasn#x2019;t been able to save as much money as he would like, in part because the store he owns is getting squeezed by #x201C;the big boxes out on analysis definition, the bypass.#x201D; But like most of McMurtry#x2019;s best songs, #x201C;Copper Canteen#x201D; eventually resolves into a portrait of a relationship.

The long marriages and old love affairs he favors eschew the hot and cold dramatics of contemporary country music, a world in which you#x2019;re either swooning over your one true love or bashing in your ex#x2019;s windshield with a baseball bat. The #x201C;Copper Canteen#x201D; narrator is singing to The Health Information Essay his wife; they#x2019;re grandparents now, reflecting back on what it meant to #x201C;grow up hard#x201D; in a life that has moved by in analysis essay definition a blur: #x201C;This life that we craved so little we saved between the grandparents#x2019; graves and the grandchildren#x2019;s toys.#x201D; Like many McMurtry characters, he sounds nostalgic even though he knows that the past was often bad. The song opens with a bang, or the suggestion of one: #x201C;Honey, don#x2019;t you go yellin#x2019; at me while I#x2019;m cleaning my gun,#x201D; he drawls. A-type Conflict? #x201C;I#x2019;ll wash the process analysis definition, blood off the tailgate when deer season#x2019;s done.#x201D; Defying Chekhov, the gun never goes off, and the song sweetens #x2014; barely #x2014; as it moves along. Though that line about the gun got a big laugh when McMurtry played it in Dallas, I still don#x2019;t know whether to hear it as a joke or a threat, and McMurtry has never been one to offer the easy comfort of a straight answer.#x2666; Ruth Graham is a contributing writer for law Slate. Process Analysis? How a song can make its audience feel seen. By ANGELA FLOURNOY. A song should not shut a door in a listener#x2019;s face. Of course, many songs do drive listeners away #x2014; through objectionable lyrics, a vocalist#x2019;s nasal intonation, a grating hook #x2014; but generally not on purpose.

Still rarer is a song that identifies its audience in uk prostitution law explicit, demographic terms. Analysis Essay? But in the first line of Solange Knowles#x2019;s song #x201C;F.U.B.U.,#x201D; she welcomes black listeners #x2014; #x201C;one for us,#x201D; she proclaims #x2014; and she shows white listeners the door. Once this metaphorical point of entry is closed, an important conversation ensues. #x201C;All my niggas in the whole wide world/Made this song to make it all y#x2019;all#x2019;s turn,#x201D; Knowles sings in the opening chorus. The word #x201C;nigga#x201D; (along with its #x201C;-er#x201D; counterpart) is so fraught with negative history that the N.A.A.C.P. held a funeral for it in 2007. Not every black person can hear it in a song and feel the exultation that Knowles intends. Still, words take their own sweet time to die, and right now, #x201C;nigga#x201D; remains a go-to, often-affectionate phrase in uk prostitution law many black circles. In #x201C;F.U.B.U.#x201D; Knowles uses it to draw a line in essay definition the sand: If you aren#x2019;t supposed to say it, then this song isn#x2019;t for you. #x201C;For us,#x201D; she sings #x2014; #x201C;this [expletive] is for us.#x201D; The song#x2019;s title references the chicago guide, clothing line of the same name #x2014; F.U.B.U., For Us By Us. At its height in the late #x2019;90s, F.U.B.U. Process Analysis Essay? was synonymous with black cool: I wore it in essay courtesy for 10th high school despite the essay definition, clothes being impractical for a-type conflict my too-tall, too-thin frame.

And the analysis, song appears on Knowles#x2019;s recent album, #x201C;A Seat at the Table,#x201D; after an interlude featuring the chicago referencing guide, rapper Master P., whose stories of success as an independent music artist and executive help provide thematic shape to the project. Process Analysis? For many of us who were young and black, or young and black and Southern, like Knowles, during the years when he dominated the a-type conflict, rap charts, his story has always been inspirational. #x201C;If you don#x2019;t understand my record, you don#x2019;t understand me, so this is not for you,#x201D; he says. Songs that can be described as #x201C;black-empowerment music#x201D; make up a genre as diverse as that of black music itself. Definition? There are the time-tested tracks that focus on pride, like James Brown#x2019;s #x201C;Say It Loud #x2014; I#x2019;m Black and I#x2019;m Proud,#x201D; and Nina Simone#x2019;s #x201C;Young, Gifted and Black.#x201D; There are anthems that speak to struggle and protest, like Bob Marley#x2019;s #x201C;Get Up Stand Up#x201D; and Kendrick Lamar#x2019;s #x201C;Alright.#x201D; And there are a plethora of doggedly sunny ditties like Nas#x2019;s #x201C;I Can#x201D; and Jaheim#x2019;s #x201C;Fabulous.#x201D; Knowles#x2019;s #x201C;F.U.B.U.#x201D; hews closer to the first two categories, and a majority of its messages of pride and protest are nuanced, centering the individual over uk prostitution, the collective. She allows that not every black person will relate to the experiences she recounts: #x201C;When you feeling all alone/And you can#x2019;t even be you up in your home/When you even feeling it from analysis essay your own.#x201D; The song pushes past one litmus test for the black-empowerment anthem #x2014; that it present itself as made for black listeners, broadly #x2014; and tries to reach an even more elusive audience: the black listener who maybe hasn#x2019;t felt included in such messages before. And Writings Of Jane? Art finds who it finds, and the white gaze lands where it lands. The more you try to ignore it, the more it seems keen on dissecting you. Knowles is definition aware of this. The deliberate rejection of white scrutiny is part of a long tradition of black art-making. In his famous 1926 essay, #x201C;The Negro Artist and the Racial Mountain,#x201D; which would serve as the young poet#x2019;s artistic manifesto, Langston Hughes declared that younger black artists should create #x201C;without fear or shame.

If white people are pleased, we are glad. If they are not, it doesn#x2019;t matter.#x201D; It#x2019;s the sort of thing emerging black writers #x2014; me included #x2014; have to remind themselves when putting pen to paper, lest we succumb to pandering for white attention. In #x201C;F.U.B.U.#x201D; Knowles doesn#x2019;t just eschew the white gaze for the sake of creating her art; she performs that rejection in song, to pull her black listeners close. It#x2019;s a rhetorical invitation for black folks to grab a chair and settle in for chicago real talk about lives like theirs. To her white listeners (who are listening, after all), she offers a tongue-in-cheek indictment as consolation: #x201C;Don#x2019;t feel bad if you can#x2019;t sing along/Just be glad you got the whole wide world.#x201D; The verses in #x201C;F.U.B.U.#x201D; outline microaggressions, but the song isn#x2019;t #x201C;about#x201D; microaggression; it#x2019;s about recognition. #x201C;When a nigga tryna board the plane/And they ask you, #x2018;What#x2019;s your name again?#x2019;/#x2019;Cause they thinking, Yeah, you#x2019;re all the process analysis definition, same,#x201D; Knowles sings.

This is the sonic equivalent of shaking out class, your hair after long hours of wearing it pulled back and tied down for work, putting on your sweatpants and calling your girlfriend to tell her about the day you had. Between black folks, recounting microaggressions can offer valuable confirmation that you#x2019;re not crazy, that someone else sees you. It#x2019;s commiseration, but without the misery, because the analysis essay, slights are both hurtful and numbingly commonplace. Referencing? Knowles isn#x2019;t listing racial slights on process, #x201C;F.U.B.U.#x201D; to essay courtesy class educate those who perpetuate them; she does it to foster intimacy with her listeners. Process Analysis Definition? I first heard the song at the gym, on a cheap pair of a-type conflict, headphones, so the bass on the record wasn#x2019;t at the forefront as it should have been. The warbled notes of the piano and organ sounded muffled, as if underwater. On even very good headphones, the song#x2019;s dragged-down pace is reminiscent of analysis essay, screw music #x2014; the slow-motion, purposefully warped aesthetic born in The Health Essay Knowles#x2019;s native Houston. The featured artists are a nod to R.B. over the past two decades. The-Dream sings in an airy falsetto, making the line #x201C;I didn#x2019;t come back down to earth to die#x201D; sound resolute instead of definition, bitter. The relative newcomer BJ the referencing, Chicago Kid#x2019;s delivery #x2014; by turns exuberant and plaintive #x2014; is like that of a soloist during Sunday praise and worship. Process Analysis Essay? The backing vocals by Tweet are a special treat for those of us who sometimes shake our fists at The Life and Writings of Jane, the sky, wondering what ever happened to essay that singer and her hypnotizing voice.

For all its angst and exasperation, #x201C;F.U.B.U.#x201D; is a party song, just not one for the nightclub. Its measured cadence and dragging bass are perfect for Essay about a spontaneous, low-key house party. You might be able to pull off a drawn-out, stylized two-step to #x201C;F.U.B.U.,#x201D; but really it#x2019;s a rhythm tailored to the simple head-nod #x2014; an appropriate move for a song about recognition. Its boisterous horns call to mind the analysis, New Orleans second line, those musical parades marched both for chicago referencing celebration and for definition mourning. Knowles wrote lyrics for #x201C;A Seat at the Table#x201D; in New Iberia, La., where her mother#x2019;s family hails from. Her mother, Tina Lawson, has said that her family was essentially run out of town following a salt-mine collapse involving her father. In the contentious aftermath, a Molotov cocktail was thrown through the window of their home. Information Exchange? They didn#x2019;t go far #x2014; less than 300 miles west to definition Galveston, Tex. Hasty separation leaves a generational longing all the same. It follows that an album created in chicago guide a town once fled for fear of white violence should include #x201C;F.U.B.U.,#x201D; a song that creates a space where black listeners might feel prized just for being seen.#x2666; Angela Flournoy is the author of #x201C;The Turner House#x201D; and a fellow at the New York Public Library#x2019;s Cullman Center.

Bubble-gum-pop queen turns tongue-in-cheek sex bomb. When a young pop star outgrows the process definition, wholesome, teeny-bopper sound that made her career, we tend to watch the results while peeking through our fingers, terrified of what we#x2019;ll see. A-type Conflict? This is how we watched as Christina Aguilera put on her #x201C;Dirrty#x201D; leather chaps, as Britney Spears stepped out of her #x201C;little girl#x201D; world on #x201C;I#x2019;m a Slave 4 U,#x201D; as Miley Cyrus awkwardly fraternized with a stripper pole at definition, the Teen Choice Awards. Essay Courtesy? What makes these moments so cringeworthy is their self-seriousness, their declaration that to be adult is to be sexy #x2014; and to be sexy is to be straight-faced, preferably with a well-oiled body, writhing and pining for process analysis essay definition male approval. Ariana Grande, pop music#x2019;s tiny, adorable diva, could easily have found herself in such a position. A former Broadway actress and uk prostitution law the former star of the Nickelodeon show #x201C;Sam Cat,#x201D; she has an unabashed theater-kid spirit and a flair for costume #x2014; you often find her wearing cat ears and thigh-high vinyl boots. Her songs are brassy, retro numbers that deal with gushy PG-13 love, and she has a tendency to analysis essay definition oversell them with the The Life and Writings of Jane Essay, zeal of a collegiate a cappella singer, her impressive vocal range pushing against the edges of her bubble-gum hits as if trying to pop them entirely. Grande, still straddling the line between child star and adult hitmaker, is in the prime risk group for hypersexed transition songs.

And on process, #x201C;Side to referencing guide Side,#x201D; the biggest single from her excellent third album, #x201C;Dangerous Woman,#x201D; she#x2019;s aiming for analysis something grown-and-sexy. Information Essay? #x201C;Side to Side#x201D; has her tapping the same watered-down dancehall trend that fueled songs like Justin Bieber#x2019;s #x201C;Sorry#x201D; and Drake#x2019;s #x201C;Controlla,#x201D; with lyrics about sleeping with a bad secret boyfriend she keeps hidden from her friends. Process Definition? #x201C;I#x2019;ve been here all night/I#x2019;ve been here all day/And boy got me walking side to side,#x201D; she sings. Walking that way, Grande hinted in an interview last year with MTV #x2014; just in case anyone didn#x2019;t get it #x2014; is a result of having too much sex, too vigorously. It#x2019;s a huge hit. Essay Courtesy Class? The song, in which Nicki Minaj coolly raps about riding a bicycle as if it were a male member (or vice versa), as if she were starring in some psychosexual Cronenberg horror film, has more than 420 million plays on Spotify. But #x201C;Side to Side#x201D; isn#x2019;t exactly sexy. With its coy innuendo, as well as a video that uses SoulCycle-esque bikes as a metaphor for process analysis Grande#x2019;s sexual workouts, #x201C;Side to Side#x201D; plays more like a giggly inside joke.

We#x2019;re in a golden age for things like this: media made by women, aimed at The Health Essay, women, in process essay which sex is explicit, messy and, most important, funny. Listening to and Writings Austen #x201C;Side to Side,#x201D; I#x2019;m reminded of essay definition, Issa Rae#x2019;s HBO series #x201C;Insecure,#x201D; in which Rae#x2019;s eyes continually wander to an ex named Daniel, whom her best friend describes as Rae#x2019;s Achilles#x2019; heel #x2014; except instead of #x201C;heel,#x201D; she uses a certain nickname for a phallus. On shows like #x201C;Broad City#x201D; or Amazon#x2019;s #x201C;Fleabag,#x201D; female protagonists dig into their worst and raunchiest sexual impulses. Last year, the Swedish pop star Tove Lo named her record #x201C;Lady Wood,#x201D; a goofy, equal-opportunity reinvention of chicago referencing, stereotypical male arousal. With its brazenly over-the-top premise, #x201C;Side to Side#x201D; joins them, beating you to the punch line about process essay Grande#x2019;s revamp as Sexy Adult. It doesn#x2019;t feel as if it#x2019;s designed to stir anyone#x2019;s arousal #x2014; only their laughter. Does this song sound ridiculous? Well, that#x2019;s the point. In a genre that fetishizes sexual passion that lasts for eternity, Grande#x2019;s song happily delivers comic realism, with a surprisingly smart wink.#x2666; Hazel Cills is a staff writer for MTV News. What would black music sound like in guide an alternate universe?

By THOMAS CHATTERTON WILLIAMS. The genius of #x201C;Fade,#x201D; the penultimate track on Kanye West#x2019;s living work of art, #x201C;The Life of Pablo,#x201D; is evident from the process analysis, opening lines, a sample from the uk prostitution law, white Motown group Rare Earth. Process Essay Definition? But it was a half-minute in, at that first unmistakable rip of bass, that I lost my mind. The Health Information Exchange Essay? Like many of definition, West#x2019;s songs, #x201C;Fade#x201D; is built around several commingling samples. Its rhythmic backbone is the deceptively simple arrangement from the 1985 classic #x201C;Mystery of guide, Love,#x201D; by Larry Heard, better known as Mr. Fingers. Process Analysis Essay? That track, along with a handful of Austen, others, marks a seminal moment in the history of deep house #x2014; a rich and criminally neglected chapter in the book of black music. Analysis Essay? Today it#x2019;s easy to Pediatric forget that in the early and mid-#x2019;80s there existed a window when New York rap, Chicago house and Detroit techno #x2014; as well as a slew of other fledgling genres and subcultures #x2014; functioned more or less as equals, each as likely as the analysis essay, next to flounder or thrive. New York won the contest handily, and now hip-hop has so thoroughly subsumed mainstream black culture that it often feels as if earlier artistic forms have either been eradicated or retrofitted to its preferences (see: funk, R.B. and jazz). House music #x2014; much like West himself #x2014; is unabashedly black and Chicago-bred, but somewhere along the line, it grew cozy in a-type conflict Europe and process analysis essay definition came to be seen as catering to Essay about Asthma white people. And though it has only ever managed to find significant audiences overseas, this transfixing style of minimal electronic dance music was pioneered by Midwestern D.J.s spinning mainly for black and gay audiences looking to #x201C;jack#x201D; their bodies at process analysis, Windy City nightclubs like the Muzic Box and the Warehouse (where, under the uk prostitution law, stewardship of Frankie Knuckles, the style was birthed and named).

While trailblazers like Mr. Fingers #x2014; a virtuosic multi-instrumentalist #x2014; are worshiped in London, Paris and essay Berlin, they are barely remembered back at about Pediatric, home. #x201C;Fade#x201D; sets out to correct this. Onto the wide-open surface #x201C;Mystery of Love#x201D; provides, West spreads out his own sparse raps alongside what grows into an aural smorgasbord of samples, allusions and guest appearances spanning eras and ethnicities #x2014; #x2019;90s Nuyorican house, the process definition, white rapper/singer Post Malone #x2014; a subtle reminder of the outsize influence of black aesthetics on all manner of referencing, American and global culture. Which is process analysis definition why, as a radio-friendly hit (with an awe-inspiring video to boot), #x201C;Fade#x201D; feels not only generous but subversive: In the span of Essay about, a little over three minutes, it gives the lie to simplistic conceptions of musical borders. West has always displayed a rare encyclopedic and intuitive grasp of both mainstream and process essay regional black sounds, from traditional gospel and R.B. to chicago college-inflected spoken word and process analysis definition even black Greek stepping, not to a-type conflict mention dance, reggae, trap and drill music. Process Definition? He knows that, glimpsed from the proper vantage, these are but facets of the same, constantly shifting whole.

I don#x2019;t think there is another pop star who could conceive of such a medley, let alone bring it to life in a way that coheres. Yet #x201C;Fade#x201D; doesn#x2019;t just cohere; it functions as a sly and infectious meditation on the variety of formal possibilities of black sound #x2014; as invented and Essay about Pediatric Asthma interpreted by black people themselves as well as Latinos and white people. It also serves as a bittersweet thought experiment: Things could have been otherwise. Definition? Imagine, if you will, a world in which Mr. Fingers got his due.#x2666; Thomas Chatterton Williams is about Pediatric a contributing writer for the magazine. The counter-diva who brings a comedian#x2019;s timing and process definition sensibility to jazz. Pediatric Asthma? By MARGO JEFFERSON. Process Essay? H ow can you tell the singer from the song?

On a good day, you can#x2019;t #x2014; so let#x2019;s start with the Information Exchange Essay, singer. She#x2019;s C#xE9;cile McLorin Salvant, a 27-year-old with an exhilarating command of the jazz vocal tradition, which has long been dominated by women, many of process essay definition, them black. Essay Courtesy? Salvant#x2019;s parents are French-Guadeloupean and Haitian; she grew up in Miami studying classical music, then moved to Paris and added jazz to her studies. In 2010, she won the Thelonious Monk Institute International Jazz Vocals Competition; three albums later, #x201C;For One to Love#x201D; won the jazz vocal album of the year at analysis essay definition, the 2016 Grammy Awards. I said she#x2019;s in #x201C;command of#x201D; the jazz tradition. Better to Exchange Essay say she#x2019;s in communion with it. I like how she listens.

I like how she tests herself and learns as she performs. Salvant has a supple, well-trained voice with spot-on pitch. Process Essay? (No vibrato-teases; no meandering warbles passing as melisma.) Her low notes go from husky to full-bodied; her high notes float purely and essay cleanly. When she scats, it#x2019;s not an ego trip but a musical game, where notes and syllables get to shape-shift. Process Essay? Like many young jazz singers, she does the Great American Songbook #x2014; the Gershwins, Rodgers and a-type conflict Hart or Hammerstein, Sondheim, Ellington. The risk? Sounding decorous and derivative. Process Analysis Essay? Like some other young jazz singers, she does the guide, black vaudeville hits of Bert Williams and Bessie Smith, even some of the exotica that female musicians once tossed out to keep their fans tantalized. Here the risk is analysis definition archness: the knowing postmodern wink. I wouldn#x2019;t be writing about Salvant if she had fallen into either trap. But mainstream success has other traps.

And while it has been a long time since jazz was at the center of Austen Essay, pop commerce, the process, star- (or cult-) making machinery still labors to essay courtesy class produce familiar types. Process Analysis? Especially for women, and even more especially for black women. For black women in pop music, the uk prostitution, dominant and preferred model remains the Diva. Here#x2019;s my personal theory. The black diva#x2019;s obverse is the black matriarch, that forceful mammy, maid or housekeeper, whose mythic reign lasted through a century of film and television. And yes, it#x2019;s a long way from mammy to diva, but there#x2019;s one constant. Process Essay? Racially and socially, this figure is considered lower and lesser. Theatrically, then #x2014; it#x2019;s the law of and Writings Austen, fantasy compensation #x2014; she must appear greater. In the old days, that meant she was literally bigger, louder, bossier. Now she#x2019;s symbolically bigger: more expansive, more intense, more outrageous. Call the roll of the last half-century, from Patti LaBelle to Fantasia, Jennifer Holliday to Jennifer Hudson.

My favorites are Aretha Franklin and Tina Turner because of definition, their contradictions. There#x2019;s a core reserve, even sadness in Franklin, while Turner channeled her lust-goddess intensity through the dance moves of essay courtesy for 10th, a gritty pugilist. Beyonc#xE9; and process analysis essay definition Rihanna are the grandest of contemporary divas. Their social, financial and cultural riches are vast; they command global kingdoms. They aren#x2019;t prey to traditional diva narratives of abuse or self-destruction; they turn all vulnerabilities into victories. Beyonc#xE9; is the gracious sovereign, Rihanna the cocky bad girl turned It Girl. But they share a mandate: The Black Diva must flaunt, court and rule.

Jazz divas have tended to have alter egos. Billie Holiday was a laconic wit before she was the Lady with the Gardenia; Sarah Vaughan could counter her Divine One with up-tempo Sassy. Dinah (The Queen) Washington was also a salty good-time gal. I hear their traces in Salvant#x2019;s singing, and it gives me great pleasure to watch her revise the Pediatric, tropes of black divadom. Essay Definition? Don#x2019;t misunderstand #x2014; she#x2019;s not an anti-diva. I#x2019;d call her a counter-diva: the heroine as ebullient comedian. Listen to her version of law, #x201C;The Trolley Song#x201D; from the 1944 hit film #x201C;Meet Me In St. Louis.#x201D; This is a song that could give any singer acute Anxiety of Influence symptoms. It began as Judy Garland#x2019;s clarion love call, then entered the jazz repertory to analysis be taken up by Sarah Vaughan and Betty Carter. A-type Conflict? Vaughan#x2019;s version is speedy and pristinely seductive; Carter#x2019;s is a daredevil blend of swing and abstract expressionism. Salvant pays homage to all three with touches of loving parody #x2014; Garland#x2019;s girlishness, Vaughan#x2019;s love for her own silky vibrato, Carter#x2019;s near-manic tempo changes #x2014; finding her own interpretation.

The train rhythms stop, start and stutter; so does Salvant#x2019;s voice. Our heroine is thinking and feeling her way, note by note, word by word, into exuberant infatuation, fashioning a romantic-comedy monologue in which the analysis, woman surprises herself with each turn of phrase and tempo. Salvant, like all counter-divas, constructs her look with care. Hers is gamine glam: Her face is round, her hair close-cropped. She wears big, blocky white glasses #x2014; a droll trademark, like Fats Waller#x2019;s derby; a red fascinator with feathers that look like insect feelers. The black counter-diva is now making her way into Essay, the culture at large. I hear her when the mezzo-soprano Alicia Hall Moran builds a song around nothing but a repeated #x201C;Shhhh#x201D; or arranges to fuse John Dowland#x2019;s #x201C;Flow My Tears#x201D; and Smokey Robinson#x2019;s #x201C;Cruisin#x2019;.#x201D; She#x2019;s in the mischief that snakes through Corinne Bailey Rae#x2019;s rueful feathery songs too. I see her when Tracee Ellis Ross goes goofy on #x201C;black-ish.#x201D; (It#x2019;s as if she has reclaimed the soubrette wit her mother renounced for lofty grandeur.) I like how Rashida Jones uses cheerful slapstick to counter her sweet-girl prettiness in #x201C;Angie Tribeca.#x201D; As Lucca Quinn, the clever lawyer on #x201C;The Good Wife#x201D; and #x201C;The Good Fight,#x201D; Cush Jumbo seems to process analysis essay be letting us in on uk prostitution law, a private joke; a tiny pause, the hint of a double-take, suggests a quizzical #x201C;Can I get away with this?#x201D; and analysis definition a gleeful #x201C;OMG, I just did.#x201D; And won#x2019;t it be fun to a-type conflict watch Lupita Nyong#x2019;o in process analysis definition the film version of Chimamanda Adiche#x2019;s #x201C;Americanah#x201D;? Freed from period dramas that stretch from slavery to the Empire galaxy, she will bring her talents to a here-and-now comedy of morals and manners. John Gielgud once said that style is knowing what play you#x2019;re in.

It#x2019;s true for all performers who work with varied traditions and repertories. And it means that the performer must know what age she is performing in, and why. Along with a merry band of counter-divas, Salvant is thinking hard about what conventions, habits and desires need revising #x2014; in her art, and in a-type conflict her audience.#x2666; Margo Jefferson is the process analysis definition, author of #x201C;Negroland: A Memoir.#x201D; A boozy toast to friendship. A-type Conflict? By BOBBY FINGER. When Lady Gaga, draped in what looked like the silver uniform for a sport that hadn#x2019;t yet been invented, jumped off the process, roof of NRG Stadium at the Super Bowl this year, she reaped the referencing guide, benefits of process analysis essay, a safe-but-exciting performance almost immediately. Essay? Fireworks shows and rip-roaring acrobatics and dancing in front of a group of second-rate backup dancers in capes are the analysis definition, kind of broadly appealing theatrics that generate awe without shock, intrigue without the threat of controversy. Exchange? Her albums shot to the top of the music charts, her performance was roundly praised by analysis essay fans and critics and more than 111 million viewers were reminded that her 2009 single #x201C;Bad Romance#x201D; still bangs. This wasn#x2019;t Lady Gaga#x2019;s comeback, as many claimed: She never really left us, nor had she abandoned the music that made her famous. About Pediatric? Two of process essay, Gaga#x2019;s early albums, #x201C;The Fame#x201D; (2008) and #x201C;Born This Way#x201D; (2011), were bursting at the seams with instantly memorable dance-pop hits. But after her fourth solo album, the both fairly and unfairly maligned #x201C;Artpop#x201D; (2013), failed to deliver that kind of instant success, Gaga redirected her focus from an ostentatious existence #x2014; she wore a dress of raw beef to the 2010 MTV Video Music Awards, after all #x2014; to less-bombastic acts of musical bravura that showcased her virtuosic skills as both a singer and a-type conflict a pianist. Last October, she released her much-anticipated fifth album, the deeply personal and country-tinged #x201C;Joanne.#x201D; So when she fell to Earth during last month#x2019;s Super Bowl and performed the essay definition, hits that made her famous, fans who thought #x201C;Joanne,#x201D; with its stripped-down production and abundance of twang, was yet another sign that she had abandoned her old ways were able to breathe a sigh of relief: Gaga#x2019;s verve hadn#x2019;t gone anywhere.

It#x2019;s a message she made clear in #x201C;Grigio Girls,#x201D; a midtempo acoustic bonus track and the album#x2019;s best song. In #x201C;Grigio Girls,#x201D; Gaga recalls a moment in her early 20s when she was #x201C;spiraling out,#x201D; only to The Health Essay be saved by the contagious spirit of her 30-something friend Sonja Durham, who was battling breast cancer at the time. #x201C;Grigio Girls#x201D; is an ode to friendship and essay singing along to your favorite songs off-key. But through some strange alchemy involving pop-culture references and cheap wine, it manages to Essay Asthma do more than just celebrate sisterhood: It#x2019;s proof that Gaga is still fundamentally Gaga, whether she#x2019;s wrapped in process analysis essay meat or the arm of Essay about, her recent collaborator, Tony Bennett. Though explicitly about Dunham and the inspirational #x201C;tough girl#x201D; persona she shared with Joanne Germanotta (Gaga#x2019;s aunt, who died in 1974 and for process analysis essay definition whom the album is named), #x201C;Grigio Girls#x201D; becomes something more universal once Gaga#x2019;s own voice is and Writings of Jane Essay joined by the backing harmony. #x201C;Sisters never pack up,#x201D; the singers reassure us. #x201C;We always run back.#x201D;#x2666; Bobby Finger is process analysis definition a staff writer for Jezebel and co-host of #x201C;Who? Weekly.#x201D; A woman#x2019;s unabashed appreciation of women. By HANNAH GIORGIS. Y oung M.A#x2019;s music sounds like summer: It buzzes, bumps, burns. It#x2019;s hot. The Life And Writings Austen? #x201C;OOOUUU,#x201D; the Brooklyn artist#x2019;s single from last May, both soundtracked the essay, sweltering season and cemented its place in party rotations well into the colder months, and well beyond New York. It finds the Essay Pediatric, confident East New York-born newcomer relaxed, but not sedate. Her opening line is #x201C;Yo, bro, I think I had too much Hennessy, man#x201D; #x2014; and M.A has said she was intentionally #x201C;smizz and drizz#x201D; (that is, drunk) while recording it, #x201C;so it feels authentic.#x201D; Hennessy is not known for encouraging rest, and M.A rides the beat with an energy that is at once frenetic and hazy.

A slew of clever punch lines invite you to rap alongside her #x2014; to feel yourself too. Process Analysis? And with spacey, futuristic production from U-Dub of chicago referencing guide, NY Bangers, #x201C;OOOUUU#x201D; insists you respect its groove by dancing with your whole body. When you hear it in process the club, muscle memory takes over. For 10th Class? Like some of the best New York rap that preceded it, the process analysis essay definition, track emboldens. Law? M.A told the analysis definition, website Genius that the song wasn#x2019;t modeled after fellow Brooklyn rapper Bobby Shmurda#x2019;s #x201C;Hot Nigga,#x201D; but the two share similar beats #x2014; and #x201C;OOOUUU#x201D; lends itself perfectly to Information Exchange Essay the #x201C;Shmoney Dance#x201D; that took over Vine in 2014 and analysis turned Shmurda into a viral star.

The city#x2019;s rappers took note: Less than a year since its release, the track has been remixed by local heavyweights like Nicki Minaj, French Montana, 50 Cent, Jadakiss and a-type conflict Remy Ma. The original song is full of references to M.A#x2019;s own life in Brooklyn, where she#x2019;s #x201C;in these streets more than Sesame.#x201D; While the track#x2019;s narrative might span only one day, it feels firmly grounded in the habitual: Young M.A raps what she knows. Analysis Essay? She#x2019;s not only a woman rapping but also a masculine-presenting queer woman in a-type conflict an industry that is dominated by heterosexual men. Queer hip-hop artists are hardly new; rappers like Le1f, Zebra Katz, Mykki Blanco, Cakes Da Killa and many others have been at the forefront of shifting the genre#x2019;s landscape in process analysis essay definition recent years, and rumors of essay class, sexual fluidity have always surrounded many of hip-hop#x2019;s biggest stars, both despite and because of the analysis essay definition, industry#x2019;s reputation for homophobia. Uk Prostitution? (Queer women in particular must grapple with intersecting axes of misogyny and homophobia.) Still, M.A seems refreshing, and process essay definition quintessentially New York, in her frankness. A-type Conflict? She is who she is. The #x201C;OOOUUU#x201D; punch lines that inspire the most raucous singalongs are those in which she speaks, openly and matter-of-factly, about sex with another woman.

Rapping about women is not the entirety of her catalog, nor is analysis definition it a gimmick; she simply traffics in the same kind of braggadocio the The Life and Writings, industry#x2019;s men are often known for, which is to say she#x2019;s your average Bed-Stuy stud. M.A is process analysis seductive #x2014; even to women who don#x2019;t identify as lesbian, queer or bisexual #x2014; and she knows it. If M.A#x2019;s contemporary Remy Ma is Information Exchange conceited, M.A is analysis essay cocky: #x201C;If that#x2019;s your chick, then why she textin#x2019; me?/Why she keep calling my phone speaking sexually?#x201D; The lines that follow are salacious, but they#x2019;re not performative. M.A may be a commanding, bite-her-lip-when-she-looks-in-your-direction queer woman, but her music neither starts nor ends there. What#x2019;s more significant than M.A#x2019;s queerness is the way she deftly weaves references to sex with women into her music without overstating or explaining them. If you know, you know. The Life And Writings Of Jane Austen? And if you don#x2019;t, you can still enjoy her music #x2014; but M.A isn#x2019;t going to waste her bars enlightening you.#x2666; Hannah Giorgis is the special-projects editor for The Ringer. A #x2019;70s rock star#x2019;s troubles, and a 68-year-old soul singer#x2019;s.

By CHARLES AARON. A chord from a Hammond B3 organ quavers, and Charles Bradley#x2019;s head snaps up, his eyes locking with the camera. When the woozy accompaniment hits, his deep-creased face wrenches; he shakes his head, places his palms together and gazes Godward. So begins the process analysis definition, remarkable video for class Bradley#x2019;s soul rendition of Black Sabbath#x2019;s 1972 gloom-folk lament #x201C;Changes#x201D; #x2014; no lip-syncing, just the 68-year-old singer in process analysis a black turtleneck against essay courtesy for 10th a blank backdrop. For six minutes, as his sculpted rasp wails, Bradley uses his face and hands to silently act out a vast grief, one at which the plain-spoken lyrics, originally written about the Sabbath drummer Bill Ward#x2019;s breakup with his first wife, only hint. Bradley conceived his version while comforting and reconciling with his dying mother, but even if you didn#x2019;t know that, his pantomime would still rip you up. #x201C;Changes#x201D; was originally the product of rock#x2019;s early-#x2019;70s commercial largess. Process? After three albums spent forging heavy metal in the unglamorous English Midlands, Sabbath was afforded a Bel Air mansion to record its fourth. The house was filled with equipment and uk prostitution law enough drugs to get #x201C;coked out of process analysis essay, our brains every day,#x201D; as the bassist Geezer Butler recalled in #x201C;Black Sabbath: Doom Let Loose,#x201D; Martin Popoff#x2019;s illustrated history of the band. One debauched night, the uk prostitution, guitarist Tony Iommi wandered over to process analysis definition a grand piano in the manse#x2019;s ballroom and tapped out the melody of #x201C;Changes.#x201D; Butler wrote the lyrics, and Ozzy Osbourne, the singer, found some gentle nuance in guide them, despite being in process analysis essay such a drug-freaked state that he was #x201C;dreaming there was, like, a tape machine coming into my room and eating me.#x201D; When Bradley#x2019;s guitarist, Tom Brenneck, raised the idea of Essay Pediatric, covering #x201C;Changes,#x201D; he had never heard of definition, Black Sabbath. #x201C;But as I was learning the song, my mom was very ill, and she was talking to me a lot, and what she was saying fit the Pediatric, lyrics,#x201D; he told me. #x201C;Before that song, I was just trying to forget about her dying. But how can you forget the deepness of your mom finally telling you about her personal life and process what she#x2019;d gone through?#x201D; Osbourne was so impressed by Bradley#x2019;s version that he sent an appreciative email. Bradley#x2019;s relationship with his mother was deeply fraught.

She left her 8-month-old son to move from Gainesville, Fla., to Brooklyn, then sent for him when he was 8. The Life Of Jane Austen? He left at 14, saying she was abusive. Decades later, she begged him to come home to Brooklyn and take care of her. He agreed, reluctantly, but time didn#x2019;t soften his resentment. It was only when she finally shared the terror she experienced in the Jim Crow South of the 1930s and #x2019;40s #x2014; and her struggles as a single mother of three in analysis definition Bed-Stuy #x2014; that he was able to see his mother clearly. By 2011, when Bradley released the uk prostitution law, first of three top-shelf albums for the Brooklyn label Daptone, he was 62 and badly scarred by analysis definition his own misfortunes. Even his ensuing, 11th-hour success has come at a cost: He has been pressured to support family and friends, and because his artistic method demands a deep emotional connection with his material, he has found himself revisiting buried memories of Information Exchange Essay, homelessness and violence. Process Analysis Essay Definition? Late last year, he underwent a debilitating operation for stomach cancer. When I spoke with him in and Writings Austen February, he was making plans to analysis definition sing again, but his voice was practically a whisper. Still, he eagerly testified about #x201C;Changes.#x201D; #x201C;Oh, my God,#x201D; he said, #x201C;when I heard the middle of the song, where it#x2019;s, #x2018;It took so long/To realize/That I can still hear/Her last goodbyes,#x2019; that really touched my soul, truthfully.

I used to think my mom was evil, but we were able to find forgiveness at the end of uk prostitution, her life. Now I can go out into the world without animosity or anger and analysis essay show people the a-type conflict, love in my soul.#x201D;#x2666; Charles Aaron is a contributing writer for process analysis MTV News. On the boldness and cowardice of chicago, love. By JASON PARHAM. Five years ago, on a sticky July afternoon, I stood in the kitchen of a friend#x2019;s apartment, face jammed to an iridescent iPhone screen, poring over Frank Ocean#x2019;s #x201C;coming out letter.#x201D; What seemed radical then now feels so achingly true to Ocean#x2019;s uncategorizable spirit: He#x2019;d posted a screen shot of a TextEdit file to his personal Tumblr page and, in the echo of a Lucille Clifton or Countee Cullen poem, detailed his summers-long relationship with another man, his first love.

Five years later, one passage in process analysis it has yet to unhook itself from me: #x201C;HUMAN BEINGS SPINNING ON BLACKNESS. ALL WANTING TO BE SEEN, TOUCHED, HEARD, PAID ATTENTION TO.#x201D; Whether you have the Pediatric Asthma, emotional bandwidth to admit it or not, all of us, at definition, some point in chicago guide our volatile existence on Earth, want to be acknowledged by process analysis another human being #x2014; seen, touched, heard and paid attention to, and uk prostitution not just platonically. Maybe those two lines jolted me because I live in an ebb-and-flow of denial about my own romantic relationships. Of the four semi-serious ones I#x2019;ve had, not one has lasted longer than a year. (Once I asked an process analysis essay definition, ex, with whom I#x2019;d remained on chicago referencing, good terms, to process analysis send me a favorite sentence of hers for a collaborative writing project I was working on; maybe half-jokingly, but probably not, she responded with the St. Vincent lyric #x201C;Your heart is a strange little orange to peel.#x201D;) And if music, like all art, should be an exercise in just how honest you are willing to be with yourself, then here are two truths: One is that I have never once known the texture of love #x2014; its nirvana-inducing high, its valley of a-type conflict, heartbreak. The other is the logical, dead-on explanation for essay this #x2014; I am a coward. I refuse to take my guard down and open up. The Health Information Exchange Essay? Cowardice is also something you innately recognize in another. And on #x201C;Seigfried,#x201D; a moody, astral slow burner from Frank Ocean#x2019;s #x201C;Blonde,#x201D; I see an ideal palette for Ocean to mask cowardice as love.

Has self-confliction ever sounded this divine? Over a bed of essay, drowned-out guitar chords, he sings: #x201C;Maybe I#x2019;m a fool/To settle for Essay Pediatric a place with some nice views/Maybe I should move/And settle down, two kids and a swimming pool/I#x2019;m not brave.#x201D; But it#x2019;s the end of the song that finds Ocean sounding his most tormented. #x201C;I#x2019;d do anything for you,#x201D; he croons in the final minute, pausing for a beat and then adding, #x201C;in the dark.#x201D; He repeats the line five or six times. Essay? It#x2019;s such a pure exchange, and a beautiful one too. Feelings run up against one another: vulnerability and intimacy, the for 10th, possibility of love. But there#x2019;s also that undercurrent of cowardice. It#x2019;s a deep, genuine promise with a built-in provision. I am yours, but only when the lights are low and no one is looking. Perhaps it#x2019;s not a surprising admission in process a song that borrows from the singer-songwriter Elliott Smith, himself an chicago, effigy of melancholia, who died in 2003. But Ocean has always seemed so unafraid to analysis definition me, both in his personal life and in the way his music emerges from the Pediatric, inside out. I suppose the bravery we see in him is evidenced by process essay his very promise: though cloaked in a haze of emotional discord, it is one offered on his terms (Ocean has insisted on this position of uk prostitution law, self-authorship and ownership with increasing brazenness ever since the definition, success of courtesy class, his first LP, #x201C;Channel Orange#x201D;). Maybe he has become more of the man he has always wanted to be in the years since the summer of 2012.

I certainly haven#x2019;t. The truth is, many of us are still #x201C;spinning on blackness#x201D; in our day-to-day lives #x2014; at times lost, afraid, uncertain. But tonight, here in process analysis essay definition the dark and away from everybody else, Ocean#x2019;s orchestral psalm is a reminder that you can still be in full control, even if that means retreating to a place you vowed never to return to. It is only with this kind of startling humanness #x2014; wading through life#x2019;s moral gray #x2014; that Ocean could deliver such a promise. Because, really, this isn#x2019;t about love or lust; it#x2019;s about power.

Harness it. Hold it close. And don#x2019;t let go.#x2666; Jason Parham is a senior editor for chicago The Fader magazine. Growing up wondering if the American dream is for analysis essay definition you. Essay Courtesy? G rowing up in America, I experienced two puberties.

The first opened me up to the possibilities of analysis essay definition, adulthood. The second reinforced that for referencing someone like me #x2014; an immigrant, a minority, an Asian-American #x2014; there were limits. In this second coming-of-age, I had to contend with the process analysis definition, pain of wanting a beautiful white body, not out of some misguided vanity, but because I saw over and over how whiteness conferred an instant legitimacy. So when the indie musician Mitski Miyawaki titled her fourth studio album #x201C;Puberty 2,#x201D; I felt an immediate flicker of recognition. I felt another when she released the Essay, first single, #x201C;Your Best American Girl,#x201D; last March. Coming from someone like Mitski, who was born in Japan to process analysis a Japanese mother and an American father, the title alone was powerful enough to courtesy class reopen a wound that had been rotting inside me ever since I came of age as an Asian girl in America: an analysis definition, old hatred for law myself, my culture, the way I looked and the way I was raised. The simple bass line that opens the song should feel familiar to anyone who ever bobbed along with #x2019;90s indie rock while indulging in self-pity (as I most certainly did). Mitski murmurs and sighs and sings about a lover. #x201C;If I could, I#x2019;d be your little spoon/And kiss your fingers forever more.#x201D; Did it mean something to me to hear another Asian-American woman refer to herself in the diminutive? Of course it did, and even more to hear her sing, #x201C;But big spoon, you have so much to do/And I have nothing ahead of me.#x201D; The guitar and drum beat join in, adding bulk, while Mitski#x2019;s voice remains at a steady, low ache, elevating him to the status of essay, a god, unable to imagine that anything could be off-limits to him: #x201C;You#x2019;re the sun, you#x2019;ve never seen the night.#x201D; She denigrates herself again: #x201C;Well, I#x2019;m not the chicago, moon, I#x2019;m not even a star.#x201D; Then, after the power chords kick in and the chorus lifts off: #x201C;Your mother wouldn#x2019;t approve of how my mother raised me/But I do, I think I do.#x201D; Mothers have always held such symbolic weight in determining a person#x2019;s worth. Your mother tongue, your motherland, your mother#x2019;s values #x2014; these things can qualify or disqualify you from attaining myriad American dreams: love, fluency, citizenship, legitimacy, acceptance, success, freedom. #x201C;You#x2019;re an all-American boy,#x201D; Mitski sings. #x201C;I guess I couldn#x2019;t help trying to be your best American girl.#x201D; I wanted to hear Mitski#x2019;s story in process analysis this song, but I only Information Exchange Essay, heard my own.

Listening brought me back to essay the fuzzy #x2019;90s D.I.Y. Uk Prostitution Law? scene of my adolescence in the suburbs of Long Island, back when no one much questioned why a subculture that saw itself as rebelling against the establishment was quite so dominated by white men. I grew up in analysis definition that scene, as far as someone like me could #x2014; a self-hating Asian kid with strict immigrant parents who wouldn#x2019;t let me go over to white people#x2019;s houses for The Life and Writings of Jane Essay fear that their values (laziness, selfishness, drug abuse, sexual promiscuity) would infect me. My mother had two unshakable beliefs that she tried to drill into me. The first was that I had to study and work twice as hard as my white peers if I wanted to survive in America, and process essay definition the second was that it was delusional and dangerous to believe I possessed the same freedom white people had to pursue my dreams. Courtesy? We never actually said #x201C;white people#x201D;; we used the Chinese term for #x201C;American,#x201D; mei guo ren . But it was clear which Americans we were referring to. For over a decade, she and my father worked two and sometimes three jobs, on top of night classes, until they saved enough to move us into an upper-middle-class, mostly white neighborhood. #x201C;You#x2019;ve trapped me,#x201D; I used to process analysis essay argue to her in high school. #x201C;You brought me to this place but you won#x2019;t let me be a part of it.#x201D; When I told my mother I wanted to be a writer, she reacted as if I had said I wanted to a-type conflict kill myself.

She vowed that she would do everything humanly possible to stop me. Essay? Compared with how she had behaved as a teenager, I was ungrateful; compared with the white mothers I knew, she was a dictator. At her most cutting, she asked me, #x201C;Who#x2019;s ever going to read your stories?#x201D; I was stumped. I couldn#x2019;t say. At that point in my life, kids were still shouting my last name back to me in the hallways as if it were a punch line and asking me if Chinese people really ate dogs. For 10th Class? For the first time, it occurred to me that maybe my mother wasn#x2019;t trying to stop me so much as she was trying to protect me. There#x2019;s a line in the second verse of process definition, #x201C;Your Best American Girl#x201D;: #x201C;You#x2019;re the one/You#x2019;re all I ever wanted/I think I#x2019;ll regret this.#x201D; It hints at essay for 10th, what so many nonwhite Americans have long suspected: that our desire to be loved may be truly masochistic.

It goes unquestioned that the non-American girl would want to assimilate into the all-American boy#x2019;s world. But she cannot. That world is not for her. Racism thrives when the essay definition, people being harmed by it blame themselves and one another. As a teenager, I blamed my parents for failing to secure me admission into whiteness, which I was certain was a prerequisite to The Life of Jane Austen Essay being loved. I was mad at analysis definition, them, not at the cruelty of the American dream or the essay courtesy class, ways in which white supremacy had warped each of process essay, us.

My privileged upbringing and about education and linguistic fluency gave me such proximity to whiteness that it stung all the more to still find myself outside of it. My mother, on definition, the other hand, not only accepted that she would always be an outsider in this country but also believed it to be a finer fate and home than any other she could have had. As I grow older, I find myself trying to turn to her more, to ask the The Life Austen Essay, questions I never asked when I was too busy feeling sorry for myself: why she came here, what it was like to uproot a life and move across the world, whether it was hard to raise me here. Does Mitski#x2019;s narrator really approve of how her mother raised her? It#x2019;s unclear, but you can hear in her voice just how much she wants to.#x2666; Jenny Zhang is the author of the process analysis, forthcoming short-story collection #x201C;Sour Heart.#x201D; Raindrop. The Health Information? Drop top. Is rap music the new punk rock? By NAOMI ZEICHNER. Ever since the election in November, I#x2019;ve gone out process analysis definition, more and stayed out later.

This doesn#x2019;t feel glamorous or especially healthy. People who go to clubs regularly are usually there to work #x2014; whether they make or manage or write about music or just labor to look great. You spend more money than you have and try not to think about it, because late at night, positive energy is the a-type conflict, most valuable currency. If anything made the hangover the analysis definition, next morning worth the trouble, it was Migos#x2019;s #x201C;Bad and Boujee,#x201D; which dominated parties of all kinds this freakishly warm winter. The Atlanta rap trio #x2014; made up of the rappers Quavo, Offset and Takeoff #x2014; have been around for years, but #x201C;Bad and The Health Information Essay Boujee#x201D; represents their most significant foray into the mainstream, and it#x2019;s still a slightly awkward fit. Process Analysis Essay Definition? For a recent music-video shoot, they wore heavy-metal tees and studded leather; Quavo#x2019;s jacket was painted with the skull logo of the Misfits. Information Exchange? This is an increasingly common trope in rap these days; many hip-hop artists insist they are rock stars to signal that they are at the center of today#x2019;s counterculture #x2014; which is process analysis true.

The trio records constantly and has worked the live circuit hard. First the rappers conquered Atlanta#x2019;s strip-club scene, then the V.I.P. booths of the surrounding states and then the Austen Essay, money of corporations. On their recent album #x201C;Culture,#x201D; Quavo reflects on analysis essay definition, their lifestyle: #x201C;All this pain, we can live through it. It#x2019;s called success.#x201D; #x201C;Culture#x201D; triumphed on The Health Information Essay, the back of #x201C;Bad and Boujee,#x201D; which hit No. Process Analysis Essay Definition? 1 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in January after months of gestation, thanks in part to internet memes that parroted back its most memorable parts. Migos is courtesy for 10th known for process essay building songs around catchy lines, and #x201C;Bad and Boujee#x201D; is expertly crammed with them, from its opening preamble to its abstract poetic #x201C;raindrop, drop top#x201D; hook and the five ecstatic woos that announce the beginning of Exchange Essay, Offset#x2019;s verse. Process Essay Definition? The song is nearly six minutes long, and these noises are like souvenirs collected by everyone who has traveled through it, a trip that usually happens at the pinnacle of a night out, when the dance floor is uk prostitution law packed and analysis definition the women in the crowd are ready. #x201C;You can just tell,#x201D; one D.J. friend said, when I asked how he decides when to play it. #x201C;It#x2019;s almost as if someone whispers in your ear, #x2018;It#x2019;s time.#x2019; #x201D; With all its parts to latch onto, #x201C;Bad and Boujee#x201D; draws people together. When its bass shakes, people do, too; you could cut the music off and everyone would still be yelling in unison.

Surrounded by that kind of collective precision, you might find it difficult not to feel less alone. If Migos has to law pose in punk-rock outfits to be recognized as a voice for its generation, at least it#x2019;s an authentic pose: The punks I know love their music deeply. Whether they meant to or not, with #x201C;Bad and Boujee,#x201D; Migos created a space of essay definition, refuge for guide people who needed a break and were willing to work for it. The song offered a sanctuary: Settle in, stay a while, belong here for definition as long as you need.#x2666; Naomi Zeichner is the editor in chief of The Fader. Guide? By Steven Hyden. Process Analysis Essay Definition? Last November, Metallica did something extraordinary: It put out a new album, #x201C;Hardwired .#x2009;.#x2009;. to Exchange Self-Destruct,#x201D; that actually sounded like Metallica. On paper, a band acting like itself seems normal. But consider Metallica#x2019;s output since its megaselling self-titled LP in process analysis essay 1991, better known as #x201C;The Black Album.#x201D; There was the #x201C;alt-rock haircut#x201D; phase of #x201C;Load and a-type conflict Re-Load.#x201D; The #x201C;Let#x2019;s stop playing guitar solos#x201D; phase of #x201C;St.

Anger.#x201D; And, most regrettable, the #x201C;Collaborate with Lou Reed on a confounding art-rock opus about a 19th-century German femme fatale#x201D; phase of #x201C;Lulu.#x201D; Contrast those digressions with #x201C;Spit Out the Bone,#x201D; the kinetic seven-minute closer of #x201C;Hardwired.#x201D; Dueling riffs by the guitarists James Hetfield and Kirk Hammett race forward at analysis essay, a frightening velocity. Lars Ulrich bashes out a martial beat that sounds like a velociraptor trapped inside a washing machine. And Robert Trujillo#x2019;s melodically sinister bass snakes below the courtesy for 10th, maelstrom, a demon lurking in process analysis essay the shadows. Referencing? #x201C;Spit Out the Bone#x201D; epitomizes the thrash-metal formula that Metallica helped invent in the early #x2019;80s and then tried to avoid for process the past quarter-century. On #x201C;Hardwired . to Self-Destruct,#x201D; it#x2019;s almost as if those 25 years never happened. Not giving the people what they want has been admired as a gesture of artistic fortitude in music, going back at least to Igor Stravinsky, whose premiere of his dissonant masterwork, #x201C;The Rite of Spring,#x201D; caused a riot at of Jane, the Th#xE9;#xE2;tre des Champs-#xC9;lys#xE9;es in Paris in analysis essay definition 1913. More recently, a boxed set collecting every known concert recording from Bob Dylan#x2019;s 1966 tour #x2014; 36 discs in all #x2014; was released last fall. The exhaustive document chronicles a pivotal period for rock#x2019;s poet laureate, who angered folk fans by #x201C;going electric.#x201D; Now it#x2019;s possible to hear nearly every instance of an audience jeering loudly as Dylan introduced #x201C;Like a Rolling Stone#x201D; and other songs into his live repertoire. Metallica once embraced a foundational idea of #x201C;progressive#x201D; popular music: Change constantly or become instantly irrelevant, even if those stylistic shifts alienate your fans. But in an age when a plurality of niches has supplanted the mainstream that Metallica once conquered, there#x2019;s a new kind of street cred that comes with sticking to essay courtesy for 10th what you#x2019;re known for. Analysis? Now it#x2019;s listeners who contain multitudes. It#x2019;s up to us to a-type conflict create eclectic playlists designed for a variety of moods and situations.

For a veteran band like Metallica, that means being rewarded for process analysis essay definition playing to type. A-type Conflict? #x201C;Hardwired . to Self-Destruct#x201D; debuted at No.#x2009;1 and was the best-selling rock album in years. Is it antithetical to process art to suggest that #x201C;know your brand#x201D; is the Essay about, future not just of music, but also all of entertainment? George Lucas sold the #x201C;Star Wars#x201D; franchise to Disney in 2012, and now J.#x2009;J. Abrams makes the sort of #x201C;fun#x201D; #x201C;Star Wars#x201D; movies that Lucas was trying to get away from with his little-loved, self-serious prequels. Lucas never recovered after making his versions of #x201C;Load,#x201D; #x201C;St. Anger#x201D; and process essay definition #x201C;Lulu.#x201D; Metallica should be grateful that it still gets to make Metallica records.#x2666; Steven Hyden is cultural critic for Essay about Pediatric Asthma Uproxx.

We talk with some of the great writers in this issue about the songs that spoke to them over the past year, and what those songs might tell us about the world right now. 1 3 songs, one audio experience. Digital Design: Rodrigo de Benito Sanz and Linsey Fields.

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Forensic Science Toxicology Essay Sample. There are several techniques used in the detection of drugs during systematic toxicological analysis. These techniques are useful methods for analysis, the detection and identification of drugs that are valuable in a variety of a-type conflict, contexts such as the criminal justice system, and pre-employment screening. The suitability and availability of each technique varies depending on the drug being studied. Each technique has a different sensitivity and specificity available for the class of process analysis essay definition, drug. Gas Chromatography and The Health, Thin-Layer Chromatography Gas Chromatography (GC) is an instrument used to analysis definition separate volatile components of a liquid sample. The sample is drawn into a syringe and is injected into a hot injector which vaporizes the sample into the gas phase. An innate carrier gas (mobile phase) sweeps gaseous components of the sample onto a-type conflict the GC column (stationary phase). The components of the sample partition between the two phases and are individually recorded as they reach the detector at end of the column at different times. Each component of the sample is then identified using its retention time in process essay definition the GC column (WFU n.d.).

Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC) is a simple and Essay Pediatric Asthma, inexpensive procedure that is often used to provide information on number of process analysis, components in a compound or to indicate the extent of chicago referencing, progress of process analysis essay, a chemical reaction (WPI n.d.). In this technique, a small quantity of a sample is a-type conflict, blotted on a TLC plate which moves up via capillary action of a solvent. The substances are then identified using by process definition their their so-called Rf values. The Rf value for a substance is the ratio of the distance that the substance travels compared to the distance that the solvent travels up the plate (WPI n.d.). Methadone Methadone is a synthetic narcotic analgesic which is used in many countries as substitution therapy for heroin addiction (Horakova and Valentova, 2004, p.1). However, when abused, methadone may cause severe intoxications and fatalities. It is classified among the drugs that cause central nervous system depressant effects, which can impair driving ability (Bureau of Forensic Services, n.d.). Several methods can be used in methadone detection which includes GC and TLC. In a study on the determination of methadone in urine (Horakova and The Health Essay, Valentova 2004, p.1), gas chromatography was shown to be suitable for methadone therapeutic drug monitoring. However, whereas the chromatographic separation was completed within 13 min, the whole procedure from the extraction to determination of definition, methadone and EDDP in urine took 4 5 hours to complete.

An early study showed that TLC is suitable as a routine screening procedure for methadone. McIntyre et al (1975, p.1) showed that TLC can isolate at least four metabolites of L-acetyl methadol and detect methadone by the presence of the unmetabolized drug and its metabolites in the urine. Using the technique, the investigators showed the TLC can be used as a simple means of distinguishing methadone-containing specimens from those that contain L-acetyl methadol. Codeine is used as a narcotic analgesic drug prescribed for pain relief and relief from coughing (Bureau of a-type conflict, Forensic Services, n.d.). A study on the determination of codeine in blood and analysis essay definition, bile by GC showed that the method is a-type conflict, highly sensitive to the drug (Lee, H. Lee C. 1991 p.1). An earlier study showed that urine sample can also be used to detect codeine using GC and TLC.

Jain et al. (1975, p.1) showed that gas chromatographic and thin-layer chromatographic analysis positively identified as little as 0.5 mg of codeine in urine. Diazepam is a benzodiazepine-type drug which is prescribed for its anticonvulsant and muscle relaxing effects (Bureau of Forensic Services, n.d.). An early study on the use of electron-capture GC for analysis, the analysis for diazepam in serum showed a high chromatographic sensitivity and peak symmetry for the benzodiazepine (Wallace, Schwertner Shimek 1979, p. 1296). Chicago Referencing? A methodology using high performance TLC has also been developed for the detection of diazepam. Sarin et al. (1998, p.332) conducted a study based on this method and found that TLC is a rapid and reliable qualitative and quantitative tool in the analysis of cold drinks adulterated with diazepam and can be used by law enforcement laboratories for routine analysis. In some cases, a presumptive test may be helpful especially where rapid detection and analysis essay, identification is uk prostitution law, required. Lu and Taylor (2006) studied the efficacy of analysis essay, two commercially available drug-screening tests: Online KIMS assay and EMIT II assays. The sensitivity and specificity of two immunoassays were evaluated using a total of 738 urine samples that were collected from adult arrestee. The results showed that both the EMIT II and Information Exchange, KIMS assays have strong capabilities to accurately detect the process essay definition, presence of methadone from urine samples (Lu Taylor 2006, p.116). Gas Chromatography and chicago referencing, Mass Spectrometry. Gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS) is routinely employed in process forensic toxicological analysis.

GC is used to separate the chemical components of a sample by vaporizing the sample with a carrier gas before it is run through a normal separation processes. MS is used to detect specific compounds based on their mass spectrum (Bureau of and Writings of Jane Austen, Forensic Services n.d.). The separation power of GC combined with the selectivity of the detection of MS make the use of GCMS the technique of choice among other tools of drug detection (Paterson, Cordero Burlinson 2004, pp.323). Barbiturates are prescription sedatives also known as depressants. Definition? Depressants act as downers which affect the central nervous system. They are often used to essay courtesy for 10th class counteract the unpleasant effects of process analysis essay definition, illicit stimulants or to a-type conflict reduce anxiety (GDCADA n.d.).

GCMS is commonly used with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in the detection of barbiturates. Process Definition? A study on the simultaneous determination of Essay about, seven barbiturates in human whole blood and urine showed the technique is simple and sensitive enough to process analysis essay be used in the fields of clinical and forensic toxicology (Iwai, M.et al. 2004). Using the method, the essay courtesy, investigators showed that the analysis essay, barbiturates could be rapidly and courtesy for 10th, simultaneously determined even at process, the therapeutic levels. TLC can also be used as a presumptive test for barbiturates detection. The WHO suggests that the Essay about Pediatric, qualitative analysis of barbiturate is best performed by TLC using a solvent extract of urine, stomach contents or scene residues. TLC should also permit identification of the type of barbiturate present, if not the actual compound ingested.

However, accurate measurement of individual barbiturates normally requires GLC or high-performance liquid chromatography (WHO n.d.). Solid Phase Extraction. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) is a method of extraction used to isolate and concentrate organic analytes from the process essay, sample matrix and to provide a suitable sample extract for instrumental analysis. SPE techniques are used process samples quickly and Exchange, provide more reproducible results. Process Definition? Basically, the process of SPE involves the pumping a sample through a disk or cartridge in order to trap organic analytes and then eluting the organic analytes from the solid sorbent using an chicago organic solvent. Ketamine is a tranquilizer commonly used to sedate animals.

Its liquid form can be injected, consumed in drinks, or added to materials that can be smoked (DEA n.d.). Process Essay Definition? The use of ketamine causes delirium, amnesia, depression, and long-term memory and for 10th class, cognitive difficulties. The drugs ability to cause dissociative amnesia, which makes a person unable to remember while under its influence, have been commonly reported to being used in date-rape cases (DEA). A study presented a method for the detection of ketamine using samples that were extracted by an automated SPE procedure (Leong et al. 2005, p.314). The extracts were subsequently analyzed using GC-MS. Analysis Definition? The results showed that the limit of detection for ketamine was found to a-type conflict be at analysis, 0.4 ng/mg while the limit of quantitation was found to be 0.6 ng/mg. Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) involves all methods used in gas chromatography using a liquid dispersed on a solid support as the chicago guide, stationary phase. The separation of the components of the sample is achieved by partition between the mobile and stationary phases of the GLC (IUPAC). According to the Center for Disease Control, in 2004, about 1 in process analysis essay 3 adult drinkers in The Life and Writings of Jane the U.S reported to have past-month binge drinking (Serdula cited by process analysis essay definition CDC 2004).

Binge drinking has been associated with a number of adverse health effects, including unintentional injuries including motor vehicle accidents (Naimi 2003 cited by CDC). About Pediatric Asthma? In a study conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in analysis essay 2002, 41% of uk prostitution, all traffic-related deaths in the U.S. Process Analysis? were alcohol-related motor vehicle crashes (2003 cited by CDC). Gas liquid chromatography has been used by most forensic laboratories in the determination blood alcohol concentrations (BAC). A study suggested that GLC is the most reliable method in BAC determination compared to enzymatic procedures often used in hospital laboratories, although no significant difference has been found in BAC values obtained using both methods (Wineka et al. 2004, p.1). Using GLC method, linear detector response was observed at ethanol concentrations of 0300 mg/dl.

HPLC and UV Spectrophotometry. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a form of liquid chromatography that is used to separate compounds found in a solution. Courtesy For 10th Class? HPLC instruments are made up of a reservoir of mobile phase, a pump, an analysis definition injector, a separation column, and a detector. The presence of analytes in the column effluent is uk prostitution, recorded by several detection methods such as UV Spectrophotometry, which is the measurement of the wavelength and process analysis essay definition, intensity of a-type conflict, absorption of UV light by a sample. Morphine, Codeine, Oxycodone, Hydrocodone. Morphine, codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone are opiates commonly used for pain relief.

Morphine is a narcotic analgesic pain reliever most often found as an active metabolite of various opiate drugs such as codeine or heroin. Definition? Codeine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone are semisynthetic narcotic analgesic commonly prescribed as pain relievers and cough suppressants (Bureau of courtesy, Forensic Services, n.d.). According to the DEA, aside from their medical use, these narcotics produce a general sense of well-being by reducing tension, anxiety, and analysis definition, aggression which may be helpful in a therapeutic setting but contribute to their abuse. A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of common drugs including morphine, codeine and hydrocodone using reversed-phase HPLC (Achilli et al. 1996, p.273). It was shown that it was possible to identify and to The Life Essay determine these drugs in the same chromatographic run in just 50 minutes. The combination of HPLC-UV has also been applied in the simultaneous determination of oxycodone and its major metabolite, noroxycodone (Cheremina et al. Analysis Essay Definition? 2000, p.777). Another study used UV detection in the simultaneous determination of codeine and its metabolites in plasma and urine samples after separation using HPLC (He et al. 1998).

Investigators have shown that the method was highly sensitive and Essay about, selective and showed good reproducibility and accuracy after external standardization (He et al. 1998). Methamphetamine is process definition, a stimulant drug that causes increased heart rate and blood pressure and irreversible damage to blood vessels in referencing guide the brain, producing strokes. Respiratory problems, irregular heartbeat, and extreme anorexia are among the other effects of methamphetamine. Methamphetamine use can also result in cardiovascular collapse and death (NIDA 2003). UV detection can also be used in combination with HPLC in the detection of illicit methamphetamine use. A study showed that this method provides a good run-to-run repeatability and has the capability to distinguish impurities in the samples (Lurie et al.

2000, p.53). However, the same study showed that HPLC with fluorescence (FL) detection gave more than 60x increase in process analysis sensitivity over UV detection for certain impurities in the study. Further, the use of Essay, FL detector was more rapid which make it an ideal presumptive test for methamphetamine detection. Several techniques have been established as reliable tools for the detection and analysis of drugs of abuse. Studies have shown that these methods further improve their sensitivity and specificity when used in combination. Other studies have also demonstrated that some of process definition, these techniques are rapid enough to be used as presumptive test.

While certain methods have distinct advantages over other techniques, they nevertheless have their own disadvantages. Therefore, careful evaluation should be made on the choice among these methods to ensure proper drug identification and courtesy class, analysis. Achilli, G., Cellerino, G.P., Melzi dEril, G.V. Tagliaro, F. Process Analysis? (1996). Determination of illicit drugs and related substances by high-performance liquid chromatography with an electrochemical coulometric-array detector. Journal of Chromatography A . 729(1-2), 273-7. Barbiturates, Greater Dallas Council on Alcohol Drug Abuse, retrieved 12 May 2006, from http://www.gdcada.org/statistics/barbiturates.htm. Bureau of Forensic Services. An Introduction To Gas Chromatography / Mass. Spectrometry.

Office of the Attorney General, Dept. of Justice. State of California. Retrieved 12 May 2006, from http://caag.state.ca.us/bfs/toxlab/index.htm. Cheremina, O., Bachmakov, I., Neubert, A., Brune, K., Fromm, M.F. Hinz, B. The Life Of Jane Austen Essay? (2000). Simultaneous determination of oxycodone and its major metabolite, noroxycodone, in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Biomedical Chromatography. 19(10), 777 782. Department of Health and Human Services 2005. Analysis? General Alcohol Information: Measures of.

Alcohol Consumption and AlcoholRelated Health Effects from Excessive Consumpti o n . Centers for Disease Control and Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/factsheets/general_information.htm. Gas Chromatography , Wake Forest University, retrieved 12 May 2006, from http://www.wfu.edu/chemistry/courses/organic/GC/index.html. Girod, C. Staub, C. Law? Analysis of drugs of abuse in hair by automated. solid-phase extraction, GC/EI /MS and GC ion trap /CI /MS. Forensic Science International, 107, 261271. He, H., Shay, S.D., Caraco, Y., Wood, M. Woodm AJ. Process Analysis? (1998).

Simultaneous. determination of codeine and its seven metabolites in plasma and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrochemical detection. Journal of Chromatography B . 708(1-2),185-93. Horakova, R. Valentova, J. (2004). Pediatric Asthma? Gas chromatography determination of methadone. in urine. Process? Acta Facult. Pharm. Univ.

Comenianae. 51, 106-111. Iwai, M., Hattori, H., Arinobu, T., Ishii, A. Essay Courtesy For 10th? Kumazawa, T. Noguchi, H.et al. (2004). Simultaneous determination of barbiturates in human biological fluids by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B. 806, 6573.Jain, N.C., Sneath, T.C., Budd, R.D. Leung, W.J. (1975). Gas chromatographic/thin-layer chromatographic analysis of acetylated codeine and morphine in urine. Clinical Chemistry. 1(10),1486-9. Lee.

H.M. Lee, C.W. (1991). Determination of morphine and codeine in analysis definition blood and bile by. gas chromatography with a derivatization procedure. Journal of essay courtesy for 10th class, Analytical Toxicology. 15(4),182-7. Leong, H.S., Tan, N.L., Lui, C.P. Analysis Essay Definition? Lee, T.K (2005). Evaluation of Ketamine Abuse Using. Hair Analysis: Concentration Trends in a Singapore Population.

Journal of uk prostitution, Analytical Toxicology. 29(5), 314-318. Lu, N.T. Taylor, B.G. (2006). Drug screening and confirmation by GCMS: Comparisonof EMIT II and Online KIMS against 10 drugs between US and England laboratories. Forensic Science International. 157, 106116.

Lurie. I.S., Bailey, C.G., Anex, D.S., Bethea, M.J., McKibben, T.D. Casale, J.F. (2000). Profiling of impurities in illicit methamphetamine by high-performance liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography. Journal of Chromatography A . 2000 870(1-2), 53-68.

Mcintyre, JA., Armandi, A.E., Risen, L.P., Ling, W., Haberfelde, G.C. (1975) Thin-layer Chromatography and process analysis, Enzyme Immunoassay of L-Alpha- Acetyl Methadol and Methadone Metabolites in Urine. Clinical Chemistry. 21(1), 109-112. Moore, C., Guzaldo, F., Hussain, M.J. Chicago? Lewis, Galenson, D. (2001), Determination of methadone in urine using ion trap GC/MS in positive ion chemical ionization mode. Forensic Science Journal International, 119, 155-160. Musshoff, F., Driever, F., Lachenmeier, K., Lachenmeier, D.W., Banger, M. Madea, (2006). Results of hair analyses for essay, drugs of abuse andcomparison with self-reports and urine tests.

Forensic Science International, 156, 118123. National Institute on Drug Abuse (2003). Nida infofacts: methamphetamine. Retrieved 12 May 2006, from http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/methamphetamine.html. Paterson, S., Cordero, R., Burlinson, S. Courtesy For 10th Class? (2004), Screening and semi-quantitative. analysis of post mortem blood for basic drugs using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B , 813(1-2), 323-330.

Sarin, R.K., Sharma, G.P., Varshney, K.M., Rasool, S.N. (1998). Determination of diazepam. in cold drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. Analysis Essay Definition? Journal of Chromatography A . 822(2),332-5. Thin Layer Chromatography , Worcester Polytechnic Institute, retrieved 12 May 2006, from http://www.wpi.edu/Academics/Depts/Chemistry/Courses/General/tlc.html. Wallace, J.E., Schwertner, H.A. Shimek Jr., E.L. (1979). Analysis for diazepam and nordiazepam by electron-capture gas chromatography and by liquid chromatography. Clinical Chemistry. 25, 1296-1300.

World Health Organization (WHO), Basic Analytical Toxicology, The International Programme for Chemical Safety (IPCS), retrieved 12 May 2006, fromhttp://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/training_poisons/basic_analytical_tox/en/index7.html. Wineka, C.L., Wahbab, W.W., Windischc, R.M. Winek, C.L. (2004). Serum alcohol concentrations in trauma patients determined by immunoassay versus gas chromatography. Forensic Science International. 139, 13. Is this the perfect essay for for 10th, you? Save time and order Forensic Science Toxicology. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!

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