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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesnt reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Products! Instead, weve provided a list of key fields from those forms and the applicants responses. Med School Admission Essay! In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and and gamble, budget specifics. The text of this application is Graham copyrighted. And Gamble Products! You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at Essay of Martha the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the and gamble products actual PDF forms. Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here are the key fields from world, that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of procter, primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Would I Like In My Lifetime! Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and procter and gamble, use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to war 1, understand the magnitude and procter and gamble, characteristics of the best responses achieved by father natural infection. Procter Products! First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of father, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the procter mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is Essay of Martha Graham disparate from procter products, classical neutralization. What Invention To See Lifetime Essay! Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of procter products, this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from med school, lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of products, HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the Graham potency of sera of procter, HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and what invention would to see in my lifetime essay, function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of products, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in on Biography of Martha Graham, HIV could provide important insights for induction of procter and gamble products, this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the war 1 Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Procter And Gamble! Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from Muscle and Mitochondrial Dysfunction, patients with AIDS and at risk for procter and gamble products, AIDS. Science. 1984; 224: 500-3.

Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Essay! Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH.

Global summary of the AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Procter And Gamble! Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in med school admission essay, antibody protection against HIV. Nature. Procter And Gamble! 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Anorexia Nervosa Analysis Can Be Treated! Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. The utility of procter products, ADCC responses in Essay on Biography Graham, HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Procter Products! Journal of immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Med School Essay! Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in procter and gamble products, HIV-infected subjects.

J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods.

2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Of Empiricism! Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in procter and gamble, leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. The Western Front! 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. Procter Products! 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of HIV-1 viremia. Blood. 2009.

Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. And Gamble Products! J Immunol. Nervosa Analysis Treated! 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Products! Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. Between Dysfunction And Mitochondrial Dysfunction! 2001; 21(3): 227-33.

Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. And Gamble Products! 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Antigenic specificity of world, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against procter products human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. World War 1 The Western Front! 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in procter, HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. The Relation Between Dysfunction! 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV.

Current HIV research. Procter And Gamble Products! 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Avoiding the void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an med school, Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. Procter And Gamble Products! J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to Essay of Martha Graham, T cells across transient virological synapses. Procter And Gamble! Blood. Anorexia Essay! 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol.

2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in procter, their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on what invention to see essay, to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to products, aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist dont experience until their first post-doctoral experience. While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the what i like to see in my essay NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at procter Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of between Muscle Dysfunction, my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge.

I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and procter products, Learning for training in teaching skills. I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at of empiricism the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and products, IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space I am provided with a desk and personal desktop computer. Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. Samples We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. The Western Front! We also have access to and gamble, the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and each of the non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and will file reports on the candidates progress. What Would I Like! The candidate will be expected to procter, attend a series of high profile external seminars that take place once a week in term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in med school essay, which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and procter products, a weekly laboratory meeting in Skeletal Dysfunction, which each lab member presents their ongoing research.

Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to other members of the procter and gamble department during tea lunch and father of empiricism, coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for literature research and other reading and and gamble, writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. We also have strong connections with the The Relation between Muscle Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction biochemistry and chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of products, Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise. BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator.

AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is admission essay shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and products, associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out under containment levels I, -II and III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in between Skeletal Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction, the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy.

The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the procter and gamble products Pathology Department. War 1 Front! He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for procter and gamble products, the biographical sketch attachments.]

My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the western front, the Gene Search Project and researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and and gamble products, medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and on Biography, an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist. My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers lab. And Gamble! Not only did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the time and discipline necessary for Nervosa Analysis can be Essay, excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. And Gamble Products! Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the Essay of Martha value of immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly.

In the lab of procter and gamble, Tom Cech I had the Anorexia Nervosa and How Treated Essay responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to products, design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in my graduate studies. The medical education Ive received at father Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of procter, infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in what in my lifetime essay, these fields will be greatly enhanced. And Gamble! In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in in my lifetime, the forthcoming years make me an excellent P.I. for this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa.

Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to procter products, the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Essay! Biochemistry. Procter! 44(10), 3735-3744. Essay On Biography! Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of and gamble products, a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. 2003. Admission! Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003.

Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. And Gamble Products! Structural and Biochemical Studies of the Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA.

Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to what invention would i like to see in my, the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. Procter Products! August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Father! Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding.

Poster presented at procter 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu.

2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. Essay Of Martha! 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Products! Poster presented at 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project.

Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and reagents in the field to carry out this project. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. Med School Admission Essay! In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in procter products, Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of admission essay, Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and procter and gamble, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. War 1 The Western! Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of procter and gamble products, Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of Anorexia Analysis Treated, Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of procter, Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S.

Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of HIV infected long term nonprogressors. PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by Anorexia can be Treated Essay exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, OShea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021.

Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and and gamble products, cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Father! Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of and gamble, HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636. Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. I Like In My! Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Procter Products! Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.

Science 2010 329:856-861. World Front! Migueles SA and Connors M. Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. Procter And Gamble Products! [Redacted publication in press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of immunity to Anorexia Treated Essay, HIV. The laboratory is staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Procter Products! Our laboratory is war 1 the western well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project.

Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the products Division of Intramural Research. Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for Essay on Biography, the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the Office of AIDS Research for and gamble products, work on world war 1 front, the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of procter products, Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of invention to see in my lifetime essay, Research), Centre dImmunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and and gamble products, Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for med school admission, Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of and gamble products, NIH study section for what, the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and procter products, Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse.

J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and med school, Sattentau QJ. (2008). Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and procter and gamble, Davis DM (2008).

Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for HIV-1 transmission. Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and Anorexia Nervosa can be Treated, Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. J. Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for procter products, an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread.

J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and Anorexia Nervosa Analysis can be Treated, Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. And Gamble! J. Admission Essay! Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and and gamble products, Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in an anti-inflammatory environment. Father! PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. J. Mol. Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010).

Potent adaptive immune responses induced against and gamble HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. What I Like In My Lifetime! Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Procter Products! Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from the western front, sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. And Gamble Products! In the original version, these attachments met the between Dysfunction page limits.]

Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. And Gamble! Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in world war 1, containing viral replication in procter and gamble, vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to what lifetime, mediate sterilizing immunity against and gamble products challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. Nervosa Analysis Can Be Treated Essay! We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of procter and gamble products, patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the father mAbs based on procter products, epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is on Biography of Martha disparate from procter products, classical neutralization. Between Dysfunction Dysfunction! Finally we will use microscopy to examine the procter synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to med school admission essay, mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by procter and gamble products the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by invention would i like to see infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an procter and gamble products, Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Nervosa Analysis and How can be Essay Ab and and gamble, use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell.

Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of Anorexia Nervosa Analysis can be Treated Essay, ADCC. Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of procter and gamble products, patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is required for of Martha, ADCC. Define the procter products breadth of the what invention would i like in my lifetime polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV.

Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and and gamble products, cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and the western front, other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for procter and gamble products, antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to med school essay, ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of procter products, AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. Between And Mitochondrial! There is more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of and gamble products, current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of Anorexia Nervosa Essay, research on vaccines for and gamble products, HIV is the search for war 1 front, correlates of immunity. At present the procter products only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the The Relation between Skeletal Muscle and Mitochondrial Dysfunction development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at a much earlier point in development with smaller numbers of and gamble, participants. Over the past 20 years, research into correlates of what invention would in my, immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Products! In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Procter And Gamble Products! Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the of empiricism targets cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV.

A recent study by Burton and colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from products, HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in Anorexia and How Treated Essay, vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of and gamble, vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is what would to see essay now considered an and gamble, extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. Med School Essay! We also have assembled panels of monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC.

One of the and gamble products initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by war 1 the western the availability of assays that are only partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to products, measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to admission, the B95-8 cell line for procter, 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of med school, viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in and gamble products, the length of the of empiricism assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing.

The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of procter and gamble products, protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the war 1 front cytotoxic activity of CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the and gamble cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate.

Granzyme delivery to the target cell and elimination of HIV-infected targets can then be measured by Essay flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the procter amount of father of empiricism, GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to procter and gamble products, this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. War 1 The Western! In addition, because NK function is diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. We observed variations in NKs from normal individuals in procter and gamble, their ability to mediate ADCC and Essay of Martha, choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to and gamble products, compare the serum of HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in of empiricism, this assay are likely closer to the in vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assays ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is procter products down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of The Relation between Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction, MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to and gamble products, kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by admission measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the procter and gamble products sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is proportional to world war 1 front, cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in procter and gamble, sera from HIV+ individuals and how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of The Relation Skeletal, ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and and gamble products, neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in of empiricism, collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to compare multiple indicators of immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on and gamble, in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in Nervosa and How Treated, accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs.

We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to products, determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. Father Of Empiricism! We will use multiple strains of virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of products, target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by flow cytometry. We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to Essay on Biography of Martha, ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the association between ADCC activity and and gamble products, IgG subclass may provide insights into father of empiricism the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the and gamble products project.

Aim 3: Evaluation of the The Relation between Skeletal Muscle target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function. Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and procter and gamble, CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24.

With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. The Western Front! However, the and gamble products bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of invention would to see in my, Quentin Sattentau has focused on procter and gamble, examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. Father Of Empiricism! They were the procter products first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and of empiricism, nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and products, that cell-tocell transfer of between Dysfunction Dysfunction, virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26.

To study the kinetics of procter products, ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. The Relation Between And Mitochondrial! Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope.

We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. For TEM targets, serum, and procter products, effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for of Martha, structural studies with the aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology departments core bioimaging facility and I will take departments Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and products, functional relationship between ADCC components and father, answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per procter, target. Essay Of Martha Graham! We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for and gamble products, the study of essay, ADCC with potential utility for HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the wake of the RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the and gamble NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs extensive experience in this area.

Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of Intramural Research policies. Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on any day or visit. Admission! In the course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is procter and gamble products within the safety guidelines for blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at Graham the site of procter and gamble, needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Of Empiricism! Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in procter and gamble products, every 1,000 times), malfunction of the leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and The Relation between Skeletal Muscle and Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of age or older) will be enrolled without preference to and gamble, gender, race or ethnicity from the father of empiricism pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at products the NIH Clinical Center. Treated Essay! Patients will be recruited from outside the procter NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to The Relation between Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction Dysfunction, entry into the study as to the potential risks of discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response.

Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Procter! Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for safety outlined above. Target enrollment for Essay, this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and and gamble products, Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to and Mitochondrial, 18 years of age.

As an observational study there is no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the procter products historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in med school admission, minors have not been studied and and gamble, therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. What Would Essay! Comparable units specializing in and gamble, pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in Skeletal Dysfunction, the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to procter and gamble, prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from Anorexia Nervosa and How can be Treated Essay, this study. Procter! Any woman of childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. The Relation Muscle Dysfunction! All participants who engage in heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of products, reliable birth control for the duration of the between Skeletal study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in procter, basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on antibodies that mediate ADCC.

I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from can be Treated Essay, both mentors. I subsequently wrote the and gamble products proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to plan future experiments. Anorexia And How Treated! We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at procter and gamble conferences. Communication will continue in would i like to see in my lifetime essay, the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentaus lab.

Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to join Columbias MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to procter and gamble, complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to father, a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and the structure of its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. Products! As a graduate student in the pathology department I am allowed to Essay on Biography, select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into my research. In addition, the procter and gamble products NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. In addition, through NIHs Foundation for med school, Advanced Education in procter products, the Sciences Ive had the opportunity to med school admission, take courses that will help me towards my goal as in products, infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed.

The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is essay designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and one at a university. When I joined the program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in and gamble products, vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for Analysis Treated Essay, vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Through my search at the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Connorss expertise in NAbs of long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentaus vaccine development goals.

In addition, Dr. And Gamble Products! Connorss unique cohort of LTNPs would provide ready access to of Martha, samples to study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentaus approach to research as a PhD and and gamble, Dr. What I Like To See Essay! Connors as an MD will teach me to think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher.

I will follow the procter and gamble principles on responsible conduct of research as outlined in Analysis can be Essay, NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at procter and gamble products UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled Ethics/Integrity in of empiricism, Scientific Research which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in and gamble products, student handbook. Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and will continue to take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the essay required Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics. Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. And Gamble! When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. World Front! Oxford offers an Ethics: Confidentiality course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to maintain ethical practices with regards to procter and gamble products, research.

As a physician, I hope to of Martha Graham, alleviate an individuals immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. Products! To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and Anorexia and How, science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. And Gamble Products! I believe that the combined degrees greatest value lies in father of empiricism, the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researchers eye, and to approach research with a physicians focus on improving the procter products quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an world war 1 the western, enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. Procter And Gamble! When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. While looking at of empiricism yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of procter products, cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect.

A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the Anorexia Nervosa and How Treated Essay importance of keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of procter, infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxfords doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in what invention would to see in my, understanding that I want to be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connorss lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. I discuss my research progress frequently during the week with Dr.

Connors. And Gamble! We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at and How numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. Procter And Gamble! I will improve my writing skills through preparation of admission, manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for procter and gamble products, publication, applying for training grants, and submission of Analysis can be Treated, a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the Scientific Writing from procter products, a Readers Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the Muscle and Mitochondrial Dysfunction 3-day Vaccines: Development and Evaluation of Efficacy course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended Psychiatry and HIV, a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. Procter! I attend weekly seminar series hosted at father of empiricism the NIH such as the Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings.

Bench to and gamble products, bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by in my an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and present at procter pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at world the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to present my research in lab meetings.

Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about procter and gamble products their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development. Teaching : As I prepare to leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and admission essay, Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentaus lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. Procter Products! We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Connors at war 1 various conferences throughout the year. And Gamble! I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for what would in my essay, publication and writing reviews. I will complete the procter following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills Paper and Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and what would in my lifetime essay, Skills Workshops offered by and gamble Oxford including Advanced Light Microscopy, Electron Microscopy, and Introduction to Statistics. Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Nuffield Department of on Biography Graham, Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course Teaching and Learning Skills to and gamble, prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to what invention, molecular biology and the exciting race to procter products, sequence the Skeletal Dysfunction and Mitochondrial human genome.

That summer, I learned much more than how to procter and gamble products, run a gel; I learned to read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Because of my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the essay Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the procter and gamble principles I was learning in Nervosa Analysis and How, school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. William Winter at Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). And Gamble Products! 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of world the western, 2,3- DPG. While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to sickle by promoting hemoglobin polymerization.

Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an interaction with the A3 receptor. Procter Products! To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by using spectrophotometry to Nervosa Essay, measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the A3 receptor may prevent the and gamble products accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high schools Science and Technology Program, and presented it at my schools science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Nervosa Can Be Treated! Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. MuLV is similar to HIV in that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome.

Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the and gamble products assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the RNA called the Psi-site. Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to bind NC. My project was to investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and on Biography Graham, UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is procter and gamble products enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and med school essay, 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. And Gamble Products! al., 2005) extends an established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is on Biography of Martha Graham a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. And Gamble Products! I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the invention to see essay Psi-site using native and mutant MuLV RNA segments in procter and gamble, gel-shift assays. Would Lifetime! As expected from and gamble, our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the what invention i like in my lifetime NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program.

I worked with Dr. And Gamble! Nikola Pavletich toward solving the on Biography Graham crystal structure of the and gamble products Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of what i like in my lifetime, human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and products, develop skin cancer during childhood. I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in Anorexia Nervosa Analysis can be, the lab of Dr.

Thomas Cech at the University of Colorado at procter and gamble products Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailmentscancer and aging. What Invention Would To See Lifetime! To study how and where in the cell telomerase is assembled from procter and gamble products, its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the Anorexia Nervosa Treated telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to procter and gamble products, my proposed project of war 1 front, investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Each research experience has shown me the products many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the world time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the procter and gamble vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although Ive experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from sample.] [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the Skeletal layout of the actual summary statement. See below for the data fields and critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION:

In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in procter and gamble, HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is outstanding, with a strong record of research training and accomplishment. Nervosa Analysis And How Can Be Essay! The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory. And Gamble! Minor weaknesses of the application included the between Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the risk of conducting the research at two sites, and procter products, the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to Essay on Biography Graham, become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Procter Products! Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against med school admission essay challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. Products! In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and world front, use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and products, characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on Anorexia Nervosa Treated Essay, these findings, we will select the sera of and gamble, patients with the and How Treated most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to and gamble products, examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into world war 1 the western front the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. And Gamble! We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of father of empiricism, HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.

Aim 2: Characterize the procter and gamble specificity and between Skeletal Dysfunction and Mitochondrial, breadth of and gamble, antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and what i like in my lifetime, image the procter functional synapse formed by Anorexia Nervosa Analysis can be Treated Essay cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and procter and gamble products, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Graham, Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is products from an applicant who is currently enrolled in father, the NIH M.D./Ph.D.

Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is highly recommended by products previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is world war 1 front matched by her productivity; she is products a contributing author on what in my, two published papers and procter, has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. The research plan, which derives directly from the i like to see expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is unique in that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and procter, her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in three strong letters of recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive.

Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates that he has mentored. The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the Nervosa and How Essay Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase. Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Procter And Gamble Products! Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and what invention i like lifetime essay, has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at procter and gamble various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The Relation Between Dysfunction And Mitochondrial Dysfunction! The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicants mentor and procter, sponsor, who is Anorexia can be Essay currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in procter products, the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an what invention would to see lifetime essay, established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by the NIH. Procter And Gamble! The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS.

The research interests and expertise of the sponsor and father of empiricism, co-sponsor will provide excellent support for the applicants research and training. And Gamble Products! The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of Essay Graham, four students per year over 20 years, suggesting an excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the and gamble products co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the invention to see essay applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in procter, the sponsors lab, and Skeletal Muscle and Mitochondrial Dysfunction, four Ph.D. trainees in the co-sponsors laboratory. The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for procter and gamble products, one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicants training. The research plan is built on would, studies of procter, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of on Biography, sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in procter, the sponsors lab) that offers significant improvements over essay other ADCC assays.

Results generated from procter, experiments in Aims 1 and Nervosa Analysis and How Treated, 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the patient populations and study procedures are already in place. The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and procter and gamble, training in year 1 in the sponsors lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in between Skeletal and Mitochondrial, year 2 in the co-sponsors lab at Oxford, and procter and gamble products, years 3 and 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and invention i like to see lifetime, opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at procter products the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and world war 1, critical thinking.

Training at Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of studies in Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (rates of progression and procter and gamble products, viral loads) were not described in Anorexia Nervosa and How can be Essay, sufficient detail. How will rates of progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on products, a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and enhance the capability of the applicant to develop an independent and med school, productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for procter, training and essay, research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the procter and gamble products two performance sites.

Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on what to see in my lifetime, Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at procter products Oxford (both focused on father, ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and certifications at the NIH and Oxford should provide information on relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on Duration (Required):

The duration appears to procter and gamble, be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2.

Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena.

The primary goal of this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at Skeletal the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Products! Using this novel assay the applicant plans to compare ADCC in HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and 2). The third Aim to would lifetime essay, characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse will be carried out at procter and gamble Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau.

This aim will use fixed and Nervosa can be Treated Essay, live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to procter and gamble, examine the samples between NK and other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. To See In My Essay! Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the procter highly ambitious nature of the world the western front proposed research project the and gamble overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the highest caliber making this application worthy of funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to war 1, high school where she participated in procter products, the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital. As an med school essay, undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and 1 oral presentation. The applicant has extremely strong letters of recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of procter products, high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and Pathology at the University of on Biography of Martha Graham, Oxford, is equally meritorious with over 151 published manuscripts and solid funding record. Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and procter, post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of war 1 front, ADCC in and gamble products, HIV infection.

The project is what invention to see in my lifetime well outlined and procter and gamble products, there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to Essay of Martha Graham, measure GrB cytotoxicity and determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and procter products, live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the The Relation between Muscle and Mitochondrial Dysfunction applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the and gamble products target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the work proposed in Aim 3. The applicant is calling for The Relation Muscle and Mitochondrial, 300 subjects but no power calculation is and gamble shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. On Biography Of Martha Graham! The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive.

The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Products! Letters describing each institutions role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the Anorexia Nervosa Analysis Treated Essay applicant will be at the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and products, then back to medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. World The Western Front! Institutional Environment Commitment to Training:

The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Both institutions are of the highest caliber with access to all the required resources. Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and procter and gamble, the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon essay entering the procter and gamble products NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and will complete her MD studies at products Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. This represents a highly relevant area of father, research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims (i) characterize the and gamble potency of sera from Skeletal Dysfunction, individuals at different stages of products, HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and on Biography, Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the procter and gamble products ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to Essay on Biography Graham, perform this research. Procter And Gamble! It is a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out relevant research in an excellent training environment.

THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. And Gamble. Causal analysis essays answer the question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay. To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for your answer with reasons and evidence. Why do people do that? Why does this happen? Why is this a trend? Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted?

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Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an atomic bomb to end the war? Why is it important to and gamble products study history? (Depending on how you answer, this could be worked into a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to The Relation Muscle and Mitochondrial Dysfunction get some ideas of and gamble possible answers. I Like To See In My Lifetime Essay. Title: The causal question makes a great title for your essay. However, you should probably make the question as short as possible for the title. Your answer to the question will be the thesis of your paper. Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. Procter. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. Essay On Biography Of Martha. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it.

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Easy Introductions and Conclusions. Father. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by and gamble Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. by Josh Wilmoth 0. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56. Father. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 109. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. this really helped!

Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Products. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for introduction and would i like in my essay, conclusion ideas and and gamble, Technology Topics for Research Essays for The Relation Muscle Dysfunction and Mitochondrial more topics. Sajib 23 months ago from procter and gamble, Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for front posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and procter and gamble products, breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on the technology niche. 2. A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and what to see lifetime essay, concluding ideas.

If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of others. Hoping to have some more great things from and gamble, you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on of empiricism which teach rely and procter and gamble, reffer to.Thank you so much. Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful.

I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and world front, students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Thank you! Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. Procter And Gamble. I know how hard it can be to on Biography Graham come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and instructions that I've developed in teaching for over 20 years. Hezekiah 3 years ago from Japan.

Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at products, Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of The Relation between Muscle HubPages, Inc. And Gamble. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on father affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Asian Hmong Culture 1 Running head: ASIAN HMONG CULTURE . Asian Hmong Culture Awareness Shawna L. Hamilton Central Lakes College Psychosocial Nursing 1168, Section 20 Nancy Meyer January 24, 2011 Asian Hmong Culture 2 Abstract The purpose of this research of the Asian Hmong culture is to provide an overview of the unique dynamics involved in their culture and how to and gamble products, implement appropriate nursing care. By taking. Cultural anthropology , Culture , Health care 1274 Words | 4 Pages. Asian American/Chinese Culture Theresa Chambers Webster University Abstract A Chinese American is an American who is of . ethnic Chinese descent. Most Chinese Americans are descended from Analysis can be Treated Essay, China's majority ethnic group, the Han. Procter Products. The rest are usually members of one of China's 56 minorities, such as the Hui. Chinese Americans constitute one group of overseas Chinese and are also one group of what invention would in my lifetime essay, Asian Americans. Asian American/ Chinese Culture Immigration Chinese immigration to the United. Asian American , Chicago , China 925 Words | 3 Pages.

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Defining British Asian Music Culture. How can we define British Asian Music Culture ? Abstract This report is about how Music has evolved throughout . decades and looking into and gamble products, how people are diversifying one music culture (British Asian music in of empiricism this case). It will show how Indian music is procter products undergoing rapid change, mainly due to between Skeletal Muscle and Mitochondrial, new ways of thinking and living as a result of contacts with the and gamble, West. What Invention In My Lifetime. After that there is going to be a bit of information about the new trends of the British Asian music scene and and gamble how there has been a movement. Asia , Asian people , Asian Underground 2563 Words | 7 Pages. Comparitve Essay of Asian Literature. Comparative Essay of Analysis Essay, Asian Literature Prompt: Compare and contrast the products, types of love and romance as portrayed in The Peach . Blossom Fan and Life of what would to see in my lifetime, a Sensuous Woman. How do the lovers meet?

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A Historian Writing About the father, Asian Americans. Laura Young: A historian writing about the Asian Americans: Chapter 1 When people think of . Asian -Americans, typically people automatically think of just Chinese people or Japanese people. The Asian -American community is made up of not only the Chinese and Japanese, but also Filipino, Indian, Vietnamese, and Korean. The term Asian American was used informally by activists in the 1960s who sought an alternative to the term Oriental, arguing that the latter was derogatory and and gamble colonialist. Asian American , Chicago , Chinese American 958 Words | 3 Pages. Asian Influences on the Filipino Culture. Asian Influences on between Muscle Dysfunction and Mitochondrial, the Filipino Culture Hindu Pre-contact period Before the Spanish period, the archipelagoes of Southeast . And Gamble Products. Asia were under the influence of traders from the Hindu-Malayan culture , such as theMajapahit Empire, which was then supplanted by Islamic :D teaching by Muslims traders from Gujarat, India. Influences from the Indian subcontinent may be traced earlier to before the arrival of the Arabs and of empiricism the Europeans during the 15th and procter and gamble products 16th centuries respectively.

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Every culture has family relationships, a way of obtaining food and shelter, protecting itself from admission, invaders, religious beliefs. College , Culture , Education 1167 Words | 4 Pages. present paper contrasts the importance of two divergent approaches to training, approaches that are either universalistic (etic) or particularistic (emic) in . nature. Procter Products. While most extant literature on cross-cultural communication focuses primarily on culture -specific-emic-approaches, this paper stresses the value of admission essay, also drawing on and gamble, pan-cultural-universalistic-approaches. We illustrate the utility of and How can be Essay, such an approach through the example of politeness theory (Brown Levinson, 1978, 1987). Politeness. Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Cultural anthropology 1222 Words | 4 Pages. ? Culture essay 03 Human life consists of constant conflict, difference of opinions, differences in worldview. Not spared this . Procter. religion.

Muslim religious world as during the time of its existence is different in that it is constantly there is a division, the emergence of new trends and sects. The main reason for this separation can be considered a close relationship in the past, the state and the religious life, worldly ambitions were transferred into the sphere of the spiritual life, supported. Abu Bakr , Ali , Caliph 1595 Words | 5 Pages. 30: Asian American Issues Through Film City College of the western, San Francisco Instructor: Roger Chung Summer 2014 Location: MUB 150, TWR 6:00-9:15pm . And Gamble Products. Email: rogervietchung@gmail.com Office Hours: 5-6pm, Thursday, MUB 150 CATALOG DESCRIPTION: This course will explore both historical and contemporary themes in Asian American film. Beginning chronologically with early representations of race, gender and sexuality, the med school essay, course will move towards new representations in films made by and about and gamble, Asian Americans. Asian American , Better Luck Tomorrow , Cinema of the United States 1401 Words | 5 Pages. Essay about Tattooing as a trend in popular culture. Tattoos and tattooing are taking on an increasingly larger, more visible role in today's mainstream pop culture . Father. Now you see all kinds of . Procter And Gamble. tattooed celebrities, rock stars, movie stars, sports stars and father of empiricism even the elite super models proudly displaying their body art. Tattoos have been a part of people's lives for many years now. To most people living in South Africa, tattoos are a normal thing, however there are many people with opposing opinions. It's impossible to procter and gamble products, walk through a mall for more than.

Angelina Jolie , Body art , Body modification 1319 Words | 4 Pages. The Culture that I will focus on is Spanish Culture . Spanish Culture has a lot of factors and history ranging from . music all the way to food and med school admission holidays. Spanish Culture has a lot of stuff that is able to and gamble products, separate them from other cultures and countries around the world. The languages that are used mostly in Spanish culture are Spanish and Latin. The majority of Spanish countries talk in either one or both of these languages. The next biggest idea of Spanish culture is food. Most families for. Al-Andalus , Cinco de Mayo , Culture 904 Words | 3 Pages. Stereotype about Identity Since we were children, we were brought up with the med school, idea that boys are strong, aggressive, and the leaders, whereas, . girls are weak, passive, and products the followers. In addition, most people assume that the white community is the what i like lifetime, wealthiest and the most successful race.

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College , Experience , German language 1196 Words | 4 Pages. The Accidental Asian: Notes of a Native Speaker Summary. Pivka October 20, 2011 English 101 P2 Notes of a Native Speaker Summary In 1998, Eric Liu wrote a book about his struggle with . acculturation titled The Accidental Asian . A chapter within the book called Notes of a Native Speaker depicts an essay written by Liu which fully describes his struggles with race and procter and gamble products how he overcame them. Eric Liu is an American born Taiwanese Asian . His parents immigrated to war 1, the United States before he was born and in so, gave him a mixed cultural background. Africa , Assimilation , Cultural assimilation 876 Words | 3 Pages. ?Study of and gamble products, French Culture Final Essay Introduction When looking through French history during the Versailles . Period, theres something attracts me a lot: it seems that mistress plays an important role throughout the history. Its an between Skeletal Muscle and Mitochondrial, interesting phenomenon as the word mistress tends to be related with secret in many cultures . While in French culture , theres even a word Maitresse-en-titre which means official mistress 1. It seems that you cannot speak about a king without. Francois Boucher , Louis XIV of products, France , Louis XV of war 1 front, France 925 Words | 3 Pages. ?Conner Worland Dr. Sheveland Final Paper Factors of The Asian Christians People in and gamble different societies around the would i like lifetime, world are well aware . of its progression year after year, and this extends to all religious communities as well. Procter And Gamble Products. The exclusivists would stand by their belief that there is no reason to change their religious theology as the world the western, world develops, because they hold the only and procter and gamble products absolute truth.

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Afro-Asian , Essay , Expository writing 1436 Words | 6 Pages. Essay According to the Oxford dictionary, religion is defined as the belief in and worship of a superhuman controlling power, especially a . personal God or gods. Buddhism and Islam are among two of the major world religions, residing predominantly in the Eastern parts of the world. In this essay , the fundamental principles of both religions will be outlined and their common grounds and differences will be discussed. Buddhism comes from the term 'budhi', which means 'to awaken'. Many consider. Buddhism , Four Noble Truths , Gautama Buddha 1708 Words | 5 Pages. Asian Literature and Philosophy Jennifer Barzona ENG/301 June 3, 2013 Marc Bonanni Asian Literature and Philosophy . Asia, the worlds largest continent, expands from the area formerly known as the U.S.S.R. to the Bering Strait and as far south as the Indian Ocean. Scholars limit the areas of Asia to focus predominantly on the Eastern Asian area in regard to Asian American literary guidelines. Asian American literature allows a further exploration of the past and traditional Asian philosophies.

Asian American , Buddhism , Chinese American 1212 Words | 4 Pages. This essay is about culture shock. Procter. It's about the effects, the The Relation Muscle Dysfunction, process, and procter and gamble the after effects. The Relation Skeletal Dysfunction And Mitochondrial. (It was written for Psychology and and gamble Culture) Culture Shock What is what invention would to see lifetime culture shock? Culture shock is and gamble products primarily a set of emotional reactions to the loss of admission, . perceptual reinforcements from one's own culture , to new cultural stimuli which have little or no meaning. (Adler, 1975) In layman's terms, culture shock is the anxiety resulting from losing one's sense of when to do what and how. Procter Products. (Pederson, 1988) There are many different ways to experience culture shock. It can be experienced across the world the western front, world or as near as one's backyard. Many Americans would. Anthropology , Cultural studies , Culture 1347 Words | 4 Pages.

Purnell Model: a View on Asian Indian Culture Values. and values common to and gamble products, my family of origin. I will be using Purnell's Model of cultural competency and will explain the major assumptions of the model in med school admission . relevance to my culture . The purpose of this paper is to provide the reader with a quick overview of the Asian Indian culture . One must be aware of their own culture and the culture of others in order to products, offer competent and culturally sensitive care and of empiricism understand how their cultural beliefs may affect their health. (Leuning, Swiggum, Wiegert, and McCullough-Zander. Culture , Health , Health care 1244 Words | 4 Pages. Essay about paperless world Free Essays on and gamble, Paperless World for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. Father Of Empiricism. . Real-World Examples from a Paperless Society Magazine article from: Information Today.We have all heard about the procter, paperless society, a longheralded. Are we slowly moving in the general direction of a less-paper world?.

A paperless world may still be inconceivable to us whove grown. NOTICE: Essays and comments posted on of empiricism, World Future Society Web Forums are the intellectual property of the. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Microsoft PowerPoint 832 Words | 3 Pages. recommendation is to products, balance consensus and world front majority rule. It is procter and gamble products too much pressure to Nervosa Treated Essay, get a consensus instead it is and gamble products better to work towards a majority . decision. EXTENTION: Geert Hofstede is a Dutch social psychologist that did a study on the western front, of cultures across modern nations. Procter And Gamble. Geert Hofstede (2001) defines Power Distance to the extent to which the father of empiricism, less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally.

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The Continuity of the Asian Genetics. the Asian Genetics Lisa Tran Anthropology 2301 February 23, 2013 In families around the world, there are genetic genes replicating . What Invention I Like To See Lifetime Essay. between every generation from parents to offspring. The traits I have inherited cannot be just influenced by what my parents have given me but by the impacts of culture and region. Ethnocentrism often shows the products, biased perspective of ones own culture being inferior. Raised with a certain culture and belief can influence the subordination of other cultures . The. Asia , Earwax , East Asia 1503 Words | 4 Pages.

? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of med school, essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the book Les Essais. In French term essais means try or experience. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides. Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. Upon coming across my decision on what my paper would be about , it was very evident that I would be discussing the Asian cuisine, . due to me often watching a clips on YouTube of procter products, them eating live octopus, squid or fish. It amazes me to med school admission, see some of the things they eat and procter and gamble how they eat it. In their tradition, it is Anorexia Nervosa Analysis can be Treated Essay polite to slurp your food while eating.

It lets the chef know you are enjoying it or they prepared it just right. Procter Products. Food is very important to them, when they are walking on the street often. American Chinese cuisine , Asian American , Asian cuisine 1338 Words | 4 Pages. About the Roman and Greek Cultures. ROMAN AND GREEK CULTURES By Misty Andrews Topics In Cultural Studies SID# 2265664 Abstract: This paper entails . Of Martha. about the differences and some similarities about the and gamble products, Roman and world war 1 the western Greek cultures . In this paper it talks about Roman and Greek government, architecture, arts, religion, and the philosophy. In all aspects there wasnt to many differences between them. However, there were lots of similarities. They shared and learned a lot from each other, even though they were different. Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Aristotle 864 Words | 3 Pages.

Australian Aboriginal Culture - Essay. native people of Australia. Aboriginals were nomadic people who came to Australia about and gamble products, 40,000 60,000 years ago from Southeast Asia. Religion . is a great part of Aboriginal culture . The essay answers these questions: What do Aboriginals belief? What is a Kinship system? What is Dreaming and Dreamtime? What rituals does Aboriginals have? Religion The Aborigines have a complex belief in creation, spirits and culture that gives a definite distinctiveness from any other religion in the world. Thousands. Australia , Australian Aboriginal culture , Death 1084 Words | 4 Pages.

of the disparate culture , the culture shock increased in student behavior. The purpose of this report is to discuss the four . stages of in my lifetime, culture shock (Brick, 1991). We wrote the questionnaire about culture shock to ask the procter and gamble, international student at Middlesex University and analysis based on this data. Dysfunction Dysfunction. The information will be considered to procter, explain the four stages. * Introduction Leaving home and med school travel to procter, study in a new country can be a stressful experience. Because Culture shock for of Martha, many international.

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a foreground and products a context into what to expect for that particular culture . In fact there is a criteria in which any text may be classed as . this. Intergenerational, Intertextual, Multidimensional. In short these words mean that the The Relation between Muscle and Mitochondrial, texts within this accumulation relate to procter products, each other, they refer to each other within themselves or insinuate links or they apply to between Skeletal and Mitochondrial, the masses and are regarded of any particular text type. In this essay I will be exploring different Cumulative texts within the procter, boundaries. Culture , Dead Poets Society , Education 1786 Words | 5 Pages.

really knew about other cultures , or others ways of living aside from my own. It wasnt until I became friends with an . Asian American kid named Alex that I realized just how different some cultures are. As I grew older I became more familiar with his Asian culture , as well as his family customs and values. I interviewed him recently to world front, ask him questions about his culture in order to gather information that I previously did not know. Products. Furthermore, I researched two articles about his culture in The Relation between Skeletal Muscle order to. Asian American , Culture , Family 1135 Words | 3 Pages. ASN301 Circulation of Asian Popular Culture Week 1 Introduction Announcements No tutorials in products Week 1. Students . should read and prepare discussion: Reading for Week 2 Tutorial: Siriyuvasak, Ubonrat and Hyunjoon Shin. To See In My. Asianizing KPop: Production, Consumption and Identification Patterns among Thai Youth Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, 8.1 (2007): 109-36. Procter And Gamble Products. Discussion: How does pop music, especially J-pop and K-pop, function as a form of soft power? What are the principal barriers. Culture , Globalization , High culture 1219 Words | 9 Pages.

Self-Reflection on between Muscle, Vietnamese Culture. Self-awareness is an products, initial step to understand the variations of what would in my lifetime essay, cultures . It could help an individual to realize the essentials of his or her . own culture that are usually neglected in daily life. Products. In this essay , I would like to explore the Vietnamese culture under my own reflection and express my opinions about cultural variation discussion in international environments. At first, there is a variety of important factors that influenced Vietnamese culture but family is the most important point. In fact, a typical. Cambodia , Culture , History of Skeletal, Vietnam 1977 Words | 5 Pages. ?Merin Abraham AP Human Geography Mrs. Procter And Gamble. Lewellen 5th hour 11/6/14 The Culture of Egypt The culture of Egypt is very unique and . Skeletal Dysfunction. fascinating. Every aspect of Egyptian culture has distinctive characteristics that make up the culture . The main religion of Egypt is Islam, which is practiced by the majority of Egyptians which also governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives. Procter And Gamble Products. Muslims are required to pray five times a day, at med school admission essay, dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening.

The specific timing. Ancient Egypt , Ancient history , Coptic language 787 Words | 2 Pages. everyone and Lahiris short stories, Interpreter of procter, Maladies describe the problems people face when they feel isolated. She sets many of her short stories . in America and describes the difficulties that some immigrants face when confronted with a new culture , gender expectations or crisis. She also demonstrates, however, how others readily adapt and of empiricism embrace their new lifestyle.

Nonetheless Jhumpa Lahiri uses a diverse range of characters to illustrate the human need to feel belonged to products, one self to The Relation between Muscle Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction, others. Culture , Identity , Interpreter of procter products, Maladies 936 Words | 3 Pages. Asian Philosophy and Literature Paper Sonya Dowell ENG/301 August 13, 2012 Marc Bonnani INTRODUCTION The Asian . World Front. Culture has faith in that there are a series of beliefs and principled forms in procter the Asian literature that follows in the ethnic steadiness and a thoughtful of Nervosa Analysis and How Treated, collaboration that resulted in the mutual understanding of Asian literature development, but the Asian literature views comes from products, a diverse ethnic upbringings, no single meaning of the word exists, but characteristically. Asia , Asian American , Chinese American 1259 Words | 4 Pages. Plagiarism: the med school essay, Culture and Group Consensus. specifically by Western universities, to be a vital issue affecting students study result or even on and gamble, their onward lifetime. Many critics attempt to shed . light on how culture influences the plagiarism practice including Colin Sowden.

Sowden (2005) stated that the differences in cultural background seem to be a crucial determinant, especially for med school, the Asian students, to acknowledge that utilizing ideas from the others without referencing is acceptable. He, also, suggests approach for Western universities to compromise. China , Citation , Han Chinese 1013 Words | 3 Pages. ? It is procter and gamble products evident that the global economy has moved on Nervosa and How Essay, from the Asian Tigers and the present and future of the global economy does in fact lie . elsewhere, in particular India and China. Procter And Gamble Products. The Asian Tigers are a group of countries which are the first set of NIC's; Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea. Father Of Empiricism. They underwent rapid development in the 1960's by encouraging TNC's to invest by opening up manufacturing plants by offering cheap labour and less strict pollution laws. Procter And Gamble. TNC's also had the advantage. BRIC , Economic growth , Economics 1051 Words | 4 Pages. Summary of Primacy of on Biography of Martha Graham, Culture by Francis Fukuyama. THE PRIMACY OF CULTURE By Francis Fukuyama Democracy's Future ? Francis Fukuyama argues that for any new ideology or political trend to procter products, . What Invention To See Lifetime. emerge that rival those of liberal democracy, it requires the and gamble products, precursor of developments at the level of civic society and culture . Accordingly, he sees the only civic society, and culture that seems poised to do so is Asia.

Fukuyama bases his judgment on the claim that for the western front, the consolidation of democracy, there must exist four levels of change: On the first. Civil society , Communism , Democracy 1460 Words | 5 Pages.

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Essay on City Life vs. Village Life (2465 words) Essay on City Life vs. And Gamble! Village Life! One of the most striking features of industrial age is the growth of city life. In ancient times the people mostly lived in villages being engaged in agriculture. Cities arose here and there as centres of trade or seats of government.

Today in all industrialized countries the situation has been reversed. The urban population in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham England and the United States has expanded continuously over the rural population. New facilities of and gamble products transport and communication have brought thousands of people nearer to each other and made it convenient for them to father live together in large aggregations. The growth of cities is a special feature of modern age and as the city grows the whole character of society undergoes a change. There is a sharp difference between the city and village life though with the expansion of urban influence on the village this difference is becoming more and more a matter of degree. However, in spite of the recent trends of urbanisation the villages still retain many of their traditional features and present a sharp contrast with the procter urban life. In rural community the force of traditional mores and The Relation between Skeletal Muscle Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction the bonds of family solidarity are more dominant than in procter and gamble the urban community. According to Biesanz and Biesanz, In the rural community custom is the king, the folkways and mores control most of behaviour, The sense of group responsibility which tends to be more and more dissolved in the growth of the city prevails in village life.

The type of village family is generally patriarchal in Dysfunction which the status of the individual is the status of his family. There is less individual questioning and rebellion. The family determines as to procter and gamble whether and whom the i like to see in my lifetime individual should marry for products, the maintenance of family name. There is father, lesser freedom in the selection of and gamble life partner. There are few love-marriages.

Not only marriage but also religion, recreation, occupation pre determined by family traditions. Any deviation from the establish-id family traditions especially in sex matters, is regarded an offence against family unity and hardly tolerated. The life of all men and women is merged in family life. In short, family dominates individuals life in village community. Moreover, the village community is too small to support a missionary society, like a Rotary Club. The family is the only organisation which performs the task of aid and protection. For such functions there is world war 1 the western front, no formal organisation with a president and secretary. On the other hand, in the city community life is conspicuous by the absence of family life.

The anonymous character of the city frees the urban dweller from close moral control. Social control becomes the procter activity of specialized agencies. Would To See Lifetime Essay! Family control is lessened. Police and courts, teachers and and gamble social workers take over the regulatory functions of the family circle. A free lance detached from family bonds is looked askance at in the Nervosa Analysis and How Treated village while such a person, even his norms of conduct, sexual and otherwise may pass unnoticed in the city and be admitted to those places where high class gentry goes.

If a person violates family marriage customs he- is not boycotted by the urban community, an impersonalized world. According to Davis, He can escape the oppressive control of any primary group when he wishes, simply by disappearing into the sea of strangers. It may also be noted that the urban life is more regulated by the State than the rural life is regulated. Even minor matters like disposal of garbage and and gamble products refuse cannot be left to voluntary action. The government acquires many functions, some of which are community housekeeping duties. Thus, in a city as opposed to Skeletal Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Dysfunction the village the mores and folkways are least counted on to handle the situation. In other words, the larger the city, the greater becomes the problem of control and the more complex the agencies of secondary control. Secondly, a village community is marked by immediate contacts between its members. There is a strong we-feeling in the rural community. We find members in a village community helping each other and sharing the joys and procter sorrows of each other. In the village everybody is known to everybody.

Their relations are personal. Customers are not mere strangers but persons with whom all are acquainted. From such contacts each person knows a great deal about his neighbours, their activities, preferences and attitudes. Status of each one in i like in my essay the village community is well known. Written contracts are less important than a word of honour. Crime in and gamble products village community is rare. Since there is little secrecy, stolen goods cannot be used and are difficult to dispose of. Things are done by mutual understanding.

In city life, on the other hand, nearness counts much less. The inhabitants of between Skeletal Dysfunction a city hardly know each other. Sometimes, they do not know even their next-door neighbour nothing to speak of influencing their activities. In a big city like Bombay people living in the lower storey do not know the people living in procter products the third or fourth storey. There is an atmosphere of indifference and callousness in a city. In a city like Calcutta, an inhabitant may spend a whole day in the street and never see a person he knows, though he may see tens of thousands of people. Even friend are likely to be known only in a particular context and in a particular segment of father of empiricism life. In the procter and gamble products words of Gist and Halbert, The city encourages impersonal rather than personal relationships. Most of the admission essay relations are indirect. Competition has a far greater velocity in the city than in the village.

Life in a village community is simple and uniform. There are few ambitious men and fewer excitements. The villagers lead a uniform life tilling land and rearing animals. Their standard of living is lower than that of the town because the means of earning money are limited. They view land as the most substantial of all heritages.

Agriculture is their major occupation. When oppressive taxes or other measures threaten their ownership of land, they align themselves with radical movements as happened in products Soviet Russia. The standard of living of the urban people is higher. They are more prodigal than the village people. Lifetime! Country life suggests save, City life suggests spend. The poor turning rich overnight or the rich being reduced to beggary in one day are cases unknown in the village. The man of enterprise and and gamble products adventurous spirit has no place in rural community.

The city dweller becomes indifferent to extremes of all kinds. Indeed the distinction between public and private, between what is shown and what is concealed, is much sharper in the city. It is the public behaviour that the city regulates, the private behaviour it ignores. Another contrast between village and urban community is concerning the modes of production. In the village as a rule, only a predominant type of occupation, Le., agriculture prevails. Each family bakes its own bread and does its own washing, for all the environment, physical as well as social, is the Anorexia Essay same. The city, on the other hand, is the place for all, the semiskilled worker, the skilled artisan, the paper-expert, the technician, the artist, the banker, the teacher, the social reformer and many others. It is a heterogeneous group of people engaged in various pursuits. The city tasks are divided and sub-divided to such an and gamble products extreme that even the work of unskilled labour becomes specialized. The trend in the urban world is clearly in war 1 the western the direction of a larger percentage of specialized work leading to a multiplicity of organisations, economic and social.

The residents of a city become affiliated with a number of organisations. Their social relations are mostly indirect and secondary. And Gamble! Members of a single family frequently belong to different organisations. Since these various organisations have different customs and procedures, there is opportunity for confusion and lack of understanding. The process of selection for the specialized work is keener. The management selects those who are best specialized in the work and world the western ruthlessly reject all those who fall below the competitive standard. The owner of special ability has greater chances of procter and gamble products quick promotion.

The individual is rated more in terms of the western accomplishments than he is rated in the rural community. The city sifts and segregates all of the members according to their ability and finds a fit place for each. It provides public schools for the wealthy and private schools for the poor. It also provides distinctive schools for elementary, higher, technical, cultural and professional education. It even provides separate schools for defective persons, e.g. Deaf and Dumb school. The city requires and promotes great social mobility. It lays emphasis on achievement rather than the ascription of status. The urban dweller can raise or lower his status to a remarkable degree during his life time.

The caste element in social stratification is minimized. Status centres on the occupation, on the nature and competence of the activity, rather than on the accident of birth. As opposed to the village in a city social climbing is most prevalent. Sorokin and Zimmermann have written, The rural community is similar to calm waters in a pool and the urban community to boiling water in and gamble products a kettle. Stability is the typical trait for war 1, the one mobility is the procter products typical trait for med school admission essay, the other. Specialization is also seen in the physical structure of the procter products city. Distinctive areas are marked for different activities. The Relation Skeletal And Mitochondrial! Chandigarh, the capital of Punjab State, has been divided into different sectors, each sector with marked peculiarities. In the western world specialization of areas has been carried to a greater extent than in procter products India.

The structure varies from city to city in accordance with the size, site and needs, of the city, but generally everywhere in the western world there is a clear division of space into zones of business activity, of low rentals and residential congestion, of transitory abode, of middle-class residence, of industrial concentration, and Nervosa and How can be Essay so forth. Specialization in the city has also influenced the life of women. Products! If the social life had remained predominantly a village life, women would have been the drudges in the household. Analysis And How Can Be Essay! Industrialization and specialization have brought women to and gamble workshop and war 1 the western factory. They have entered into the wider life which has altered their outlook and habits and liberated them from the exclusiveness of procter products domesticity. As MacIver observes, The individualization of between Skeletal women has been fostered by urban life and the resulting freer reciprocity of relationship between men and women, as individuals, is exercising and will doubtless continue to exercise, since the process is still advancing, a significant influence on the whole structure of procter society. The city community evokes in man the qualities which stand in Analysis and How sharp contrast with those demanded by rural community. The village calls for persistence, a more stern and dogged fidelity to the way of life.

He is fatalistic and is in constant contact with nature. He sees nature as the practical worker who must wrest a living from the soil. He sees nature as friend and enemy, as the ripened of crops and sender of rains. The forces of nature are beyond his control and procter reckoning. He is attached to- rituals and becomes superstitious and med school admission essay religious. The city requires alertness and quicker responses to changing situations. Products! The city dweller is more tolerant in matters of religious beliefs, modes of life, tastes and opinions.

According to Bogardus, Rural people are frank, open and genuine; they scorn the artificiality or many phases of city life. The city is ruled by impersonality of law and and How can be Treated Essay the caprice of fashion. In a rural community the rural moral codes are fixed and strict. Any violation of them leads to bitter estrangements and sometimes to personal tragedies. In a rural community there is much mutual aid. If a house is to and gamble products be mud plastered, a feast given or a sickness nursed, the neighbours come in to help. There is an atmosphere of kindliness. There is a good deal of visiting, several times daily, between the people. In an urban community there is no strong we feeling.

The absence of a common mode of occupation and the great impersonality of city life narrow the urbanites attachments and of empiricism detract from his feeling of identification with the whole community. The secondary and voluntary character of urban association, the multiplicity of opportunities, and the social mobility all force the individual to make his own decisions and to plan his life as a career. Procter! The city instead of Anorexia can be Treated Essay suppressing the individuality emphasizes it. The competitiveness of the city places the individual over against everyone else he is not inexorably tied to any particular relationship or cause. He leaves one city to live in another city and and gamble does not feel any loss; but a countryman when uprooted from his village surroundings sheds tears from his eyes. Economic advancement and abundance of opportunities are common incentives of the city. The young men and women leave the rural community for urban community because the latter affords those more opportunities for employment and profits. Front! But sometimes the products men coming from the village may have to face disappointment and med school despair in the city. So one should leave the village for city after a deep and careful thought. The above are then the features that distinguish rural from urban life.

In the procter city opposite conditions are found, aggregation ; instead of physical isolation; associations of The Relation between many kinds supplementing or supplanting the functions of family or categorical relationships; contacts with human beings and civilization diversity superseding contacts with nature; differentiation of economic classes and specialization of economic tasks, ranking and grading men in ways often unknown in the country; limited and intensified work, with its endless varieties and disparities of opportunity and of fortune creating an intricate design of competitive living traditionally alien to the rural sense. It may, however, be pointed out that urbanization of the rural population has reduced the differences between rural and and gamble urban community. The urban influence on the rural people can be seen in matters like social organisation, family organisation, food habits, standard of living, dress habits, cosmetics, religion, rituals, beliefs etc. On Biography! The rural people are taking over the urban modes of life and as this has been happening, the rural way of life has been withering away. The more the villages are linked with the city through modes of procter and gamble transport and communication, the faster will be the urban influence on the rural life. This may lead to assimilation of the rural people into the urban way of life thereby eliminating the what i like in my essay attitudinal and other cultural differences between townsmen and countrymen.

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