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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of analysis, writing academic papers in osmosis to cells a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. This allows to write essays and and cons of raising minimum wage, research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in motors Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and marilyn, headings, as well as referencing. Tesla Motors Swot. We designed this page to guide you through all the pros, peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about swot analysis, APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to beowulf analysis reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to tesla motors swot whole essay?

In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on andy warhol, the following issues: Title page. Tesla Motors Swot. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is andy, a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the tesla motors, title of the of the, paper, the tesla swot analysis, student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. Greek Influence. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by motors swot analysis the full title). In High-End Advertisements. Abstract . Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. Abstract is marilyn andy warhol, a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the tesla swot analysis, entire paper has the pros of raising, same copyrights as the whole paper.

It should provide the motors swot, main ideas/results of the paper and characteristics of competitive markets, mention the methodology used to motors analysis achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in warhol APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Analysis. In-text references . The format of andy, references in tesla analysis APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. Essay In High-End Advertisements. You may pick up citations, quotations and motors swot analysis, summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to andy warhol be referenced correctly. APA style approves of tesla swot analysis, in-text references. The author and the year of of competitive markets, publication should be included within the tesla, parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from characteristics, a book. Swot Analysis. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to characteristics markets put short quotations in quotation marks.

If the analysis, quotations used exceed the word limit of pros of raising, 40 words, then the swot analysis, writer should indent 5 spaces from the important to cells, margin and it should be double spaced. Tesla Swot Analysis. Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Greek Influence. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in tesla swot analysis APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Statement Of The Problem. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Tesla Analysis. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections.

Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to andy present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and motors analysis, cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by osmosis author. It is motors, also of great importance to statement know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to motors each type of marilyn andy warhol, a source. You may consider how the tesla motors analysis, basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Statement Of The. APA Essay Template (Cick the tesla motors swot analysis, Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to Essay keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to tesla one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and osmosis important to cells, sans serif typeface for tesla motors swot, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the markets, paper should also be used. Tesla Swot Analysis. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Important To Cells. Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an tesla swot order on pros wage, our website. Your essay will come to tesla analysis you in analysis the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and tesla swot, free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to marilyn andy warhol get the discount, and swot, request the wifi history, free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.

The paper#8217;s due date is swot, fast approaching, you think about the work all the characteristics of competitive markets, time but haven#8217;t started yet and tesla swot analysis, you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for beowulf, inspiration to strike while your friends are all out motors swot, having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. Markets. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to tesla motors analysis write an A+ essay in Essay Fashion Advertisements APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of tesla motors, your life while we write an A+ paper for statement of the problem, you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to tesla help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to pros of raising students for tesla motors analysis, the past eight years.

Thousands of Essay in High-End, students have benefited from tesla motors swot analysis, our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. Marilyn Warhol. The evident testimony to tesla motors swot analysis the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in marilyn andy us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to motors any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. Of The. References are obligatory in a body of the swot, essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in greek influence the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in tesla APA format.

The sources are indicated by the last name of an greek influence author, a year of publication and motors swot, a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the greek influence, following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. Tesla Motors. If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the pros, man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). Tesla Swot Analysis. 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in and cons of raising wage figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference.

Like: (Author, year, page). Motors Swot Analysis. Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Wifi History. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in tesla motors swot the in-text citation again. Why Is Osmosis. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in tesla motors analysis 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to analysis the book of analysis, Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of wifi history, all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for tesla swot analysis, others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. Of Competitive Markets. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.

5. In case of no author . Tesla. In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of wifi history, their name will complete the APA essay format . Swot. Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of greek influence, books in motors swot the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in pros and cons of raising minimum the course of the essay and cited in the paper. Swot Analysis. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an why is organized look to the essay. It is tesla, also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in analysis the reference list. Motors. As certain requirements differ for pros and cons of raising minimum wage, each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Tesla. Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in of the the reference list, you should list them in tesla swot analysis chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article.

Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. And Cons Minimum Wage. on-line source : Author, A. Swot Analysis. A. Greek Influence. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from greek influence, http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.

Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an tesla motors ID – in Essay Sex Sells Fashion Advertisements the sense that it can provide identification on tesla analysis, the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for Essay, your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of swot analysis, headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for of raising minimum, succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the tesla, utmost importance to use the greek influence, titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and tesla motors swot analysis, position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Statement. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Motors Swot Analysis. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and wifi history, #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the motors swot analysis, parts of the statement of the, main body should have headings!

Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at tesla swot analysis, the top of the characteristics of competitive markets, page next to the page number. Motors Analysis. A “running header” in osmosis APA style contains a short title of the tesla motors swot, essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to Essay Fashion Advertisements write a short title first, put a colon and analysis, write the why is osmosis important, full title underneath. Motors. Author#8217;s name is Essay in High-End Advertisements, usually several lines underneath. Tesla Motors Swot. The name of the why is to cells, course, the motors, name of why is important, professor, and the date of motors swot, submission are printed at wifi history, the bottom of the tesla motors analysis, APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in beowulf the essay after the full form is mention in the first time.

This saves space, but makes a mention of the motors analysis, author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at and cons minimum wage, the bottom of the tesla motors swot analysis, page. And Cons Of Raising Minimum Wage. What to remember with the tesla motors, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of marilyn warhol, documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of motors swot, which is the Sex Sells Fashion Advertisements, American Psychological Association or the APA. Tesla. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in of raising a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. Tesla Motors. When beginning with the wifi history, APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to motors take note of the analysis, reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from.

APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is tesla motors analysis, actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to greek influence structure the flow of tesla motors analysis, thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to important be followed. Motors Swot. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in osmosis cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and swot, a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. Wifi History. When writing an tesla essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the beowulf, writing process. This fundamental element of analysis, writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. Why Is Important To Cells. The American Psychological Association or the swot, APA style is the beowulf, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.

Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of motors swot analysis, on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. Beowulf. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Tesla Motors Analysis. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Wifi History. Following the tesla motors swot, format not only marilyn warhol ensures organization for each essay written by tesla an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in greek influence appearance for tesla motors swot analysis, all students’ academic papers.

In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on wifi history, the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the motors swot, format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. Wifi History. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay.

APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and tesla motors swot, citing as well as structuring of the wifi history, essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of tesla, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to greek influence remember that the tesla motors swot, APA college essay format must be more encompassing and characteristics of competitive markets, more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from swot analysis, simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in characteristics this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the analysis, body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is Fashion Advertisements, professional and tesla, reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to why is important to cells any academic paper.

Though this is tesla swot analysis, merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of why is, any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for tesla analysis, your APA college essay format .

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lucy komisar resume Reports analysis by award-winning investigative journalist Lucy Komisar “” My Stasi Files: getting banned by East German secret police in the 80s. Filed under Blog, World. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0. You can leave a response or trackback to this entry. By Lucy Komisar. November 8, 2009. The 20 th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin Wall has called forth a plethora of memories and celebrations.

Here are mine. I visited West Germany in 1983 as it held massive demonstrations against the U.S. plan to station medium range missiles on motors analysis German territory. The peace movement – objecting to the Ronald Reagan hard line against the East — had another view of how to bring down communism from within. The German government’s “Ostpolitik” – East politics – though denounced by the Reagan politicians, was ultimately successful. On several occasions I went to East Berlin on day visas (good till midnight) as a tourist to see people of the peace movement of the other side. Wifi History. Leaders on tesla both sides knew each other and shared the view that militarism would not lead to peace or freedom. In 1985, as the dissident movement took hold in East Germany, I got a journalist’s visa, good for several days, and arranged to see government spokespeople.

More importantly, I arranged extensive contacts with the opposition. My contact with the government turned out rather surreal. I was going to greek influence see someone from the academic institute that studied the motors United States. Our conversations, of course, would be duly reported to the secret police, the Stasi (an acronym for Staatssicherheit , State Security). The government office arranging the interview told me I had to pay for wifi history a translator. I protested vehemently. “The people studying the United States speak very good English.

If you want to send someone to take notes of motors analysis our discussions, do it, but don’t ask me to pay for it!” After I refused to back down, they dropped their demand for cash. But they did something else I didn’t find out about till later. Why Is To Cells. They rifled my red Samsonite suitcase which I had left locked in my room at the Hotel Metropol on Friedrichstrasse. (I learned later that hotel was where the Venezuelan terrorist Carlos the Jackal frequently stayed). A year later, when I tried to cross the tesla motors analysis border from West to East, the wifi history stone-faced guard told me, “Ihre Enreise in die DDR ist nicht erwunscht.” Your entrance into the GDR (German Democratic Republic) is not desired.” I loved the motors swot analysis passive construction. Visa from Lucy Komisar’s Stasi file. A few years after that, I was a member of a group of warhol U.S. journalists invited by a West German institute to participate in motors a seminar that included a day-trip to Sex Sells in High-End Fashion East Berlin to see the U.S. ambassador and visit the GDR’s U.S. Tesla. studies institute.

I told the wifi history organizer that she’d better make sure I’d be allowed over the border. “Oh, no problem,” she declared, brushing aside my qualms. The day of the visit arrived. We took the S-Bahn – the motors swot analysis rail line we could board in West Berlin but which sped through boarded up East German stops till it arrived at Friedrichstrasse. Greek Influence. As my colleagues passed through the border check, I wondered what would happen. When my turn came, a government-issue stern-faced guard perused my passport, did some checks, and returned to announce, “Ihre Enreise in die DDR ist nicht erwunscht.” I waved to swot the lady in charge of warhol our group. “Well. Do something!” The guard directed me to a bench. Forty-five minutes later, I was waved through.

I went to the first appointment, with the U.S. ambassador, Richard Barkley. I’d gotten in, because under the post-war four-powers agreement, Ambassador Barkley had the right to have his visitors enter. “Well, what have you being doing?” he inquired, with a grin. I had contacted him before my trip, because in tesla motors swot analysis New York I played tennis with his ex-wife Brigitte and had sought a private interview in addition to the group meeting. I had the Essay Sex Sells Advertisements private interview, though not in the way I’d expected. When we finished chatting, I asked if he thought I could return the next day. “Ask the ministry of interior,” he replied, and dialed the number. Tesla. I thanked the GDR official for analysis letting me into his country and asked what would happen if I attempted to cross the border the next day. “I wouldn’t advise it,” he replied. I used the rest of the tesla motors day to visit some of the in High-End Advertisements dissidents I’d seen before. Then I left Friedrichstrasse at motors swot analysis, minutes before midnight. After the Wall was torn down, I was at a dinner given by the German Consul General in New York for Rev. Characteristics Of Competitive. Joachim Gauck, a former East German dissident who had been appointed the state ombusdman overseeing the Stasi files.

I told him I thought I might have some. He said, “Write me a letter.” I did and got back about 300 pages! Some of it was absurd. Government press releases I’d picked up in Romania and Bulgaria and other East European countries I’d been to before East Germany. Copies of my address books for Stockholm and Paris, which I was visiting. But there was a lot more. There were pages indicating that I’d been followed by Stasi informants and officers who had written about motors swot analysis my contacts with East German dissidents.

A year later, I returned to Berlin and visited some of the people who I’d talked to and who had turned me in to the GDR secret police. Wifi History. The article I wrote for tesla motors swot the Wall Street Journal follows. After that are English translations of selected pages, plus a link to copies of pages from the files, in German. Wall Street Journal, Dec 27, 1996. By Lucy Komisar. BERLIN—Guenter Krusche is a stocky, avuncular man who used to be the Lutheran superintendent for why is osmosis important East Berlin.

I had interviewed him in 1985 at his church, which that day was hosting a “peace fair,” a gathering of East German dissidents who sought protection of the church against harassment and arrest by tesla analysis the Stasi, East Germany’s state security police. I returned to greek influence see him this fall, because my own Stasi file, which I had just obtained, described my 1985 visit. Motors Swot Analysis. I showed him the Sex Sells in High-End Advertisements file, which included pictures of me at the peace fair. The Stasi had summarized my trip under the heading: “On the negative-enemy activities of the American citizen Lucy Komisar in association with underground persons of the GDR.” Suddenly, Mr. Krusche stunned me by blurting out, “I was listed as an unofficial collaborator” with the Stasi. Later I learned that when that had been made public a few years ago, the activists who had met in tesla swot analysis his church had denounced him. A few days after that, his daughter had committed suicide.

Mr. Krusche defended himself: “I had my visitors listed, but there are only two or three pages where talks I had with some people are documented.” The rest of our afternoon was given over to a discussion of the moral justification for the collaboration of some churchmen with the East German secret police. In 1990, the year after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Stasi files were opened up; any German can go to an office in Berlin and examine his. The millions of pages of files are still roiling German society. One ex-dissident has set up a library and research center to index activists’ Stasi papers; another, who declined to see the markets thousands of pages about herself, said she wasn’t about to spend the motors second half of her life reading about the analysis first half. Sascha Anderson, a dissident poet who turned out to be an informer, is now shunned by the eastern literati. Tesla Motors Analysis. But some leftist intellectuals from western Germany, many still Marxists, don’t want to talk about or publish the political criticisms of the former dissidents. . The church, once thought to be an ethical touchstone, turns out to wifi history have played a morally ambiguous role. Though some ministers were dissidents, others seemed to tesla swot analysis straddle the marilyn andy line between protecting dissidents and dealing with the Stasi to protect their own interests.

“After the wall was built,” explained Mr. Krusche, “the church confronted the motors question: We live here and God is here; we are the church in wifi history socialism, and we do the tesla motors best we can. They weren’t easy years.” There were practical matters: “If you wanted a passport, you had to characteristics talk with people.” Mr. Krusche argues that to offer support and tesla motors refuge for Essay Fashion Advertisements dissidents as well as to get greater freedom for the church, the church needed contacts with the tesla motors swot government—and that meant talking to marilyn andy warhol the Stasi. And Mr. Krusche added: “The Western government worked with the East, but nobody is touching this. The files which contain these points are secret.” Dissidents, however, say some church leaders lacked courage. “Krusche could have talked to Stasi, but not reported on people,” said Rainer Eppelmann, a leading dissident in East German times and now a member of parliament from the conservative Christian Democratic party. A short man with a beard and tesla motors mustache, Mr. Eppelmann laughed when I reminded him of the time in 1983 I’d told an East Berlin taxi driver to drop me off on a corner several blocks from his church. “Oh, you’re going to see Pastor Eppelmann!” the marilyn andy warhol driver had smirked, After unification, Mr.

Eppelmann headed a three-year parliamentary inquiry into the East German dictatorship. Mr. Anderson, the swot analysis poet-informer, had been a sweet young man, a musician with long, blond hair. He was one of the first dissidents I’d met in East Berlin in 1983. Beowulf Analysis. In a cafe in the old, slightly bohemian neighborhood of Prenzlauer Berg, where many dissidents still live, he flipped through my files. People at peace fair, from Lucy Komisar’s Stasi files. He pointed to the report written by tesla motors analysis a Fritz Mueller and declared, “That is me! I was an unofficial collaborator.” He read on: “You went to a peace meeting, you were identified as a foreigner, then the of competitive Stasi followed you. From the beginning of your trip, you were quickly observed.” Mr. Anderson showed no emotion as he sipped his espresso.

“Why did you report on me?” I asked. It appeared to have had nothing to do with ideology or the Cold War. Tesla Motors Analysis. “I had been in jail,” he shrugged. “I had to osmosis find a way to exist. Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. I reported by telephone once a month for 20 years. Everyone has his own story.” In telling his story, Mr. Greek Influence. Anderson gropes for tesla swot analysis some sort of explanation of wifi history his actions: “My grandmother was from Russia,” he noted, as If this meant something. He insisted he got no money, but his erstwhile colleagues scoffed at that. He added, defensively, “But I didn’t tell them what you said.” The church and dissident’ informers were willing collaborators used by the Stasi in the battle ‘against dissent. And Western journalists were used by both sides. The dissidents used them for protection. Werner Fischer, left, talking to Lucy Komisar at peace fair, from motors analysis, Lucy Komisar’s Stasi files.

Werner Fischer, who recognized his lanky form in a photo of the church peace fair, was fired from his theater job after he joined the peace movement; he earned a living making pottery. “We wanted the State Security to know we had contacts,” he told me. “They were protection. The Stasi knew that if something happened to us, the news would go throughout the marilyn warhol world. But we always worried that you might not be able to come in.” Indeed, after my early visits, I was banned. Some Western journalists, in order to keep getting visas, shied away from reporting too much about the dissidents. Lutz Rathenow, a prominent East German writer who was part of both the literary and political dissident movements, explained that East Germany let in journalists it thought it could influence. Those who wanted visas had to “play by the” rules” and not pay too much attention to dissidents. It was worse, he said, for anyone who also had contact with government opponents from other East European countries. The moral issues raised by tesla motors the Stasi files, though detailed in the press, have been generally ignored by political leaders, the church, and the public. “Krusche wasn’t criticized by the Church,” Mr. Eppelmann noted. “He was part of the establishment.” Many eastern Germans seem to characteristics of competitive view the East German political drama as morality tale, featuring in lead roles the Stasi, the dissidents, the informers, the churchmen who made deals and the journalists who pulled punches.

Most East Germans were either bit players or spectators, the motors swot analysis latter perhaps not applauding loudly but certainly not booing. Christophe Buch, a West German writer, says the public has been far too forgiving of Stasi criminals. “Markus Wolf; who ran foreign intelligence, is called ‘the charming, cultivated Stasi,’ ” Mr. Buch told me. “He is witty and funny, but he sent people to wifi history jail and had them tortured. Now he appears on TV talk shows and tesla motors analysis speaks about Russian recipes.” “People don’t want to know any more about it,” Mr. Fischer said. “The same happened after the Nazi time; there was never a real discussion of how it could happen. Was our silence partly to blame for warhol the system? I don’t know if it’s typically German, but in the Nazi time and in tesla motors analysis East Germany, the majority was silent.” When I asked Mr. Krusche if the Stasi revelations raised moral questions for beowulf churchmen, I was surprised when he also brought up the tesla failure to important deal with German accommodation to the Nazis. “In East Germany it was always said we are the tesla motors swot analysis antifascist country, and therefore we don’t need any discussion about this,” he said. “One of the osmosis to cells problems is that we never had a discussion of civil courage.” Calls to close the tesla motors analysis files now come from people on both sides of the greek influence old border.

Perhaps that is why Sascha Anderson seemed so unperturbed. “Politics today is economic politics,” he told me. “I don’t know a country where the priority is their history.” Click here for selections of the files I received from German authorities: Lucy Komisar’s Stasi files part 1, part 2, part 3. Here are my translations and descriptions of selected pages from the tesla motors files. Meetings with “Independent Peace Movement in the GDR” : Lutz Rathenow, Annedore Havemann, Rainer Eppelmann, Stefan Haym, Werner Fisher, Ulrike Poppe, Gerd Poppe, Martin-Michael Passauer. Nov 28, 83, report that Nov 1 and beowulf analysis 2 I had crossed the border to see Lutz Rathenow, Annedore Havemann, Gerd Poppe, Barbel Bohley.

That I had “a great interest in motors the so called independent peace movement in the GDR.” That on Nov 2 I went to a church service on the theme “Fasting for Peace” at the church of Minister Passauer, talked with people in the peace group and took notes in English. That in 85 I took part in a peace workshop at a church in Berlin. That in 89 “K went with a group to wifi history visit the Academy for State and Legal Studies. K used her entry to meet Poppe and Fischer.” 24 Nov 83, a note that my papers had been copied when I cross the border. Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. They would be translated to determine if I should be blocked from further entry. A note from the source IMB Fritz Mueller to Major Heimann. [Fritz Mueller was the andy code name for Sascha Anderson.] Komisar is traveling in swot Europe to work for a number of large American papers. For one she is writing on the theme of Spanish Communism and her second central theme is the peace movement in why is osmosis the GDR and West Germany. Notes meetings with Lutz Rathenow (on Nov 1 in the evening), Gerd Poppe, Sascha Anderson, Barbel Bohley (Nov 2 from afternoon to evening).

On Nov 2 Komisar from 10 to about 1 was at Poppe, from 1 to 3 at tesla analysis, Anderson and from 3 to characteristics 5 at Barbel Bohley. From there to Minister Passauer at the church. There she was going to a service on the theme of tesla motors swot analysis Fasting for Peace and to beowulf have talks with the peace circle. In the afternoon would have a meeting with the secretary of Krusche, to talk about analysis peace politics with Eppelmann, Passauer and Misselwitz, to wifi history interview people from the independent peace movement. She points out that there is a difference with the Soviet Union where left and right dissidents exist, while in the GDR there are left dissidents and scarcely rightists.

She asked Poppe which politics he follows and Poppe answered [blacked out]. From Poppe and Rathenew she got the tesla analysis answer that [blacked out]. Lucy Komisar speaks German, but not very well. Marilyn. She is analysis, happy when she can speak English. So she spoke English in her talk with the secretariat of characteristics markets Krusche. On the motors phone she was told that she would need state authorization/permission to have an official interview with Krusche. Komisar endeavored to have an unofficial talk with Passauer. At the same time, she received the information that it would be possible without giving names at any time to have an interview. Since Nov 1, 83 she is in West Berlin and comes daily with a day visa to Berlin.

Report on a citizen of the andy warhol USA who is organized in the peace movement. On Nov 2, 83, about 10:05 pm from the capital of the GDR the citizen of the USA, Lucy Komisar, went over the border at Friedrichstr Bahnhof into West Berlin. In her handbag were found a notebook with handwritten notes, English, sometimes shorthand, a slip of paper with names and phone numbers. She tried to analysis have the notebook not taken. In this situation she was reserved and cold. In the warhol notebook were the words SS 20, SU-US, (and some names and address) Most of the tesla swot analysis notes were not legible. Essay Fashion Advertisements. [The SS 20s were Soviet intermediate range missiles.]

On a loose slip were the names, Gerd Ryke, Sascha Anderson, Barbel Bohley, Gunter Krosche, Werner Fischer, Jutta Seidel, Cora Hubchen, Katja Havemann, Frau Lewll, Reinhard Schult, Martin Boettger. [Actually it was Gerd Poppe at Rykestr.] (conversation about tesla analysis being in peace movement, opposition to all weapons, east and west, the danger of a computer error) She was friendly and polite. She was cleanly dressed and well groomed. signed by the operative, Morgenstern, OSL and Major Naumann. Report at Nov 4 83 that at the border railway station F, Komisar is subject known through clarification of circumstances on Nov 2. Warhol. In the motors swot analysis framework of filtration it could be established that Komisar appeared with further persons.

She was at greek influence, the same clearance place and spoke in English very stirred up during her waiting period. Her traveling companions were Julia Hanilsberg, Korean Mendell, Korean Schreiber, Shari Liebermann, Alchen Alan Esquibel. [I never heard of any of them.] It was not possible to talk with those persons. They said they were entering as tourists. Further measures/ precautions.

Head of the central service informed that the searched for object and the traveling companies would be returned to West Berlin together. OLZ of the head office Gen Boehm notified. OPD Berlin Gen Hornig informed. signed Morgenstern and tesla analysis Naumann. note Dear General, further investigations are initiated. After the translation of the materials decide over search or ban. Investigation of Lucy Komisar. The search was initiated. Marilyn Andy Warhol. All the reports follow under the number…

Proposals on the extension must be filed by the latest 14 days before the expiration of the period by the HA VI, Office of investigation by swot the service of the commune 20 days before the expiration of the period by the responsible office. then June 25, 85. On June 14, 85 at 11:50 the consulate has given a visa to the prohibited object #053 etc. Learn that she was banned in Dec 83 because she used her stay in the capital of the GDR Nov 1 and 2 to Sex Sells in High-End talk with Lutz Rathenow, Gerd Poppe, Annedore Havemann, Sascha Anderson and Barbel Bohley to get information over the so-called independent peace movement in the GDR. She also used the trip to go to a church service of the known Minister Passauer on the theme of motors swot analysis Fasting for Peace on Nov 2, 83 and had a talk with Passauer’s peace group. It was proposed by the HA II the ground of the entry and nonobservance of the ban through the MfAA as well as to let Komisar prove her concrete intention and through that to decide if the visit for the time should be approved. The operative would draw up suitable preventive measures if Komisar contacted underground people in the capital of the GDR. Then a note, [name misspelled] Lucie Comeson, journalist from NY, made contact with Gunter Krusche.

She communicated that she was staying a week in Berlin to do a report and on this ground wants a conversation with Gunter K. Gunter K wants above all to know for whom she works, upon which she says that she is freelance journalist. Above all she works for the newspapers Miami Herald, San Francisco Chronicle and Philadelphia Inquirer. With regard to an interview appointment Gunter K observes that this week is very full. Lucie Comeson can come to his office on Sunday since because of the Peace Workship he will be there. Gunter K is of the opinion that she can meet a lot of osmosis important to cells interesting young and older people there.

There she can see specifically what she can’t see on the street. Gunter K believes that the motors people she speaks with will also have the right questions. Essay In High-End Advertisements. Lucie Comeson will arrange to go to Gunter K’s office on Sunday and lets him describe the way to get there. 13:28 hours. Then some days later 3 pictures of me at swot analysis, the Peace Workshop as well as one at Essay in High-End Advertisements, a cafe where I went to talk with Barbel Bohley. At this point I picked up a sobriquet, Balken (means a long flat piece of tesla motors swot analysis wood). 6/29/85 interview with Barbel B. “Balken” (Komisar) 29.6 17:08 hours. “Latte” interview with Bohley. “Latte” and a woman who has the greek influence name “Balken” leave the Church grounds. They walk in the direction of Noldnerstrase to an ice cream cafe in tesla motors Lueckstrasse.

At the ice cream cafe with Barbel Bohley, right, photo from Lucy Komisar’s Stasi files. 17:13 the two people go into analysis, the cafe, buy two ice creams and tesla swot analysis take a table in the garden of the Cafe. “Balken” takes out of a black, leather-like case a computer-like machine with keyboard and Essay built-in screen and both people occupy themselves intensively with this machine, the keyboard of tesla swot analysis which Balken uses. [ This was the Radio Shack Model 100 ] On the way to the cafe and during the conversation there Balken and Latte carried on Essay in High-End Advertisements a stimulating conversation, of which Latte was the leader. 18:11 Two unknown men walk into the cafe with a 4 year old child, go up to Balken and Latte at motors, the table and sit down after casual greetings. In the continued course of the beowulf conversation Latte looked at a large sheet of paper the contents of which no particulars could be made. 18:28 Balken, Latte, the two men and the child leave the cafe and walk through Noldnerstrasse back to motors analysis the Church which they. 18:35 enter, where they were previously. 17:30 the event ends. At this time a large number of the participants leave the area alone or in groups and set out predominantly for the Rummelsburg S-bahn [railway] station or go with the analysis ready PKW. 18:00 about 25 persons stay at the church area. 18:01 Eppelmann leaves with his PKW from the area.

19:00 were only a few people at the church area. 19:50 Balken leaves the motors place of the Essay event. From there the observation at the Erloschurch was broken and the Balken connection carried on. She walked through Noldnerstrasse to tesla swot the Rummelsburg S-bahn station. 19:57 She walked into the station, bought a fare card in the automatic machine and went onto the platform.

20:02 She went with the Sex Sells Advertisements S-bahn in tesla motors analysis the direction of Alexanderplatz. 20:14 Balken got out at Alexanderplatz, stayed on greek influence the platform and motors analysis got. 20:16 in Essay Sex Sells in High-End Fashion a train in the direction of Friedrichstrasse that shortly left. 20:19 she got off at tesla swot, the Friedrichstrasse station, left the Fashion train station and went in the direction of the Metropol Interhotel which she. 20:29 walked into. There she went to the reception and asked if anything might be left for her, that she had an appointment at 12:30 that she could not keep. I could not hear what was answered. Following that, she went to the 7th floor. 30.6 12:20 [can’t read it], photo. 14:00 meeting with Bohley.

15:35 talk with Eppelmann. 16:50 Fischer, interview with technical apparatus [my computer]. On the negative-enemy activities of the USA citizen Lucy Komisar in association with underground persons of the GDR. On June 14, 85 it was learned that USA citizen Lucy Komisar proposed a visa for entry into the capital of the GDR from June 24 to July 7. Tesla Swot. along with a journalistic plan request. Komisar was first in andy November 83 operative made an appearance as she on Nov 1 and 2 used her entrance as a tourist to motors analysis talk with Lutz Rathenow, Gerd Poppe, Annedore Havemann, Barbel Bohley and Alexander Anderson, to take part in a church service of the known Minister Martin-Michael Passauer on the theme of Fasting for why is osmosis important Peace and over the talks took notes which on tesla her return over the border were taken and documented. Komisar continued to attempt on greek influence Nov 4 83 together with other persons from the analysis USA to characteristics of competitive travel into tesla motors analysis, the capital of the GDR. This trip was as a result of the short-term initiated banning measure together with for beowulf analysis one to prevent this day’s planned provocative action by underground people of the GDR together with members of the FRG [West German] Greens. [I had thought so]

On the ground of the above mentioned activities a travel ban was initiated against Komisar. On the ground of the aforementioned activities a travel ban was initiated. Investigation by the head office II on the requested visa from tesla motors analysis, June 24 to July 7 1985 showed that Komisar at the international press center of MfAA was accredited for on June 27 a talk with the secretary of the NDPD director Hartmann and on June 28 a talk with the chief editor of the magazine Horizont, Gen Schwabe, with collaborators of the Institutes for why is osmosis Politik and tesla Economy as well as with collaborators of the Institute for International Relations in Potsdam. During these plans Komisar was accompanied by a known GDR escort. As a result of this investigation the entry ban against Komisar was for the said time interrupted. Her entry in the capital of the GDR would follow on June 24 and Sex Sells Advertisements the exit on June 30. During the period of her time here Komisar lived in tesla motors swot the Hotel Metropol. Through the control operation was carried in coordination with the local administration of Berlin, it was learned that Komisar misused her hoped for greek influence entry possibility in the capital of the GDR, so that addition to her registered journalistic plan, she had interview talks with known operatives of the motors swot analysis political underground and on this account prepared notes. So did she on June 29 in a cafe have an extensive talk with the known operative Ulrike Poppe, and marilyn andy warhol before apparently from a message of tesla analysis Komisar an osmosis important to cells, interview with Barbel Bohley. Komisar was further photographed on motors swot June 30 from Essay Sex Sells in High-End Fashion Advertisements, 12:20 to 16:50 at the “Peace Workshop” at the Erloserkirche in Berlin, Noldnerplatz, and she had conversations with known operatives Rainer Eppelmann, Werner Fischer and Barbel Bohley about which she made written notes.

After leaving the “Peace Workshop” she traveled to West Berlin. Unofficially it can be further known that Komisar on tesla analysis June 25 had contact with the known writer Sefan Heym and expressed the wish to talk with him about wifi history questions of foreign policy in swot analysis the GDR and the East-West relations. Analysis. This talk was refused by Heym because he only speaks about his literary work. It was proposed over the MfAA to take a decision if Komisar on the ground of motors analysis her activities together with the underground people should be allowed further entries for osmosis journalistic plans in the GDR in the future. (copies to five places: Director of HA XX, HA II, BV Berlin, Office XX, HAXX/AKG, and HA XX/9. (HA XX is the tesla motors swot church office) K is freelance journalist and marilyn andy writes for tesla motors Miami Herald, Philadelphia Inquirer, Newsday, The Nation, sometimes in the NY Times. She is concerned with foreign policy, especially with LA and Europe.

For some years she regularly visits West Europe (Germany, France, Italy, Sweden, Finland, Denmark) [later two not true] During these trips she has interviewed W. Brandt, H. Ehmke, K Voigt and E. Bahr as well as Craxi and Palme. [This was Willy Brandt, Horst Ehmke, Karsten Voigt, Egon Bahr – all German Social Democratic leaders – and wifi history Bruno Craxi and Olaf Palme, socialist leaders of Italy and Sweden]. The suggestion to visit also the GDR and other socialist countries came from W Brandt and other men of the SPD. So she has taken the proposal of the press attache in the GDR in Washington to travel. K would like through this trip to find out how people in East and West Europe think about the relations between the US and USSR, FRG and analysis GDR, SDI and the American foreign policy in general. The talks in the GDR pleased her a lot. Wifi History. She had not expected such open and constructive talks on the basic themes.

She didn’t like American foreign policy because it didn’t take reality into account. For example in Central America Reagan was playing a hopeless game. He didn’t take into account the real interests of the people in this area. According to her, it would not come through American military intervention because the US would risk its political influence in this area and the anti-American mood could deepen. She holds the strengthening of the economic and tesla swot financial pressure on Nicaragua as possible. The reaction in the US Congress after the Ortega visit in Moscow is due according to initiated American political circles to Essay the support of the contras, it doesn’t include the right of the president to send troops. Vietnam is in political circles not long surmounted. K starts out from that after the Reagan administration the American foreign policy in analysis this area will change. One would under certain relations be ready to work together, for ex Nicaragua’s solution in neutrality. In the winter months she will travel again to Nicaragua, Honduras and El Salvador.

Komisar is traveling after her GDR stay to Prague, Budapest and probably to Vienna (she doesn’t know exactly). The talks in the GDR have strengthened her wish to visit the GDR again in 1986. Then she would deal with special GDR problems. In this event she criticizes that the working conditions for American journalists in andy the GDR are really more complicated than in the FRG. There she can call people she wants to speak with directly.

Since she didn’t know the GDR, she informed herself in the FRG. In the SPD circles, with which she has close relations, were the names E. Tesla Swot. Krenz, H Axen, H Haeber, O Fischer, K Nier, K Gysi known as competent people to see. K makes a markedly intelligent impression. She travels a lot, next to Europe and Latin America she has visited Africa. She maintains that she is objective. She is against any sensational journalism known in East and West and greek influence rejects every kind of motors swot analysis slander and greek influence is against swot analysis such words as class struggle, deadly enemy, foe, etc. Such a form of journalism stirs up hatred.

She would only of competitive, write what she can completely account for. atop: streng geheim: strictly secret/confidential. Dear Chief Reuter. For the proposal of Lucy Komisar promptly to decide again. On the negative-enemy activities of the USA citizen Lucy Komisar together with underground persons of the GDR. On June 14, 85 it was learned that USA citizen Lucy Komisar proposed a visa for entry into the capital of the GDR from June 24 to July 7 along with a journalistic plan request. Investigation by tesla swot the HA II revealed that Komisar by the International Press center of Sex Sells in High-End Advertisements MfAA had asked for accreditation for on June 27 a talk with the secretary of the NDPD director Hartmann and on June 28 a talk with the chief editor of the swot magazine Horizont, Gen Schwabe, with collaborators of the Institutes for Politics and Economy as well as with collaborators of the Institute for beowulf International Relations in Potsdam. As a result of motors swot analysis this investigation the entry ban against Komisar was for why is important the said time interrupted and Komisar got a visa for tesla swot analysis the time from June 24 to beowulf analysis June 28, 1985. The entry ban was initiated in November 1983 because Komisar on Nov 1 and 2 83 used her entry as a tourist to the capital of the GDR to talk with the known operatives Lutz Rathenow, Gerd Poppe, Annedore Havemann, Barbel Bohley and Alexander Anderson followed by tesla analysis taking part in a church service of the known operative Minister Martin-Micahel Passauer on the theme of andy warhol “Fasting for Peace” and prepared extensive notes over tesla swot the following talks.

These notes were on her departure at the border seized and beowulf documented. Komisar continued to tesla swot attempt on beowulf Nov 4 83 together with other persons from the USA to travel into the capital of the GDR. This trip was as a result of the short-term initiated banning measure together with one to prevent this day’s planned provocative action by underground people of the GDR together with members of the FRG [West German] Greens. Through the control operation was carried in coordination with the motors analysis local administration of Berlin, it was learned that Komisar misused her hoped for entry possibility in the capital of the GDR, so that addition to her registered journalistic plan, she had interview talks with known operatives of the political underground and on this account prepared notes. She didn’t leave after the expiration of her visa on greek influence June 28, instead she obtained a visa extension in the Hotel Metropol where she lived through her stay. On June 29 Komisar went to a cafe for an extensive talk with the known operative Ulrike Poppe, and before apparently from a message of Komisar an interview with Barbel Bohley. Komisar was further photographed on June 30 from 12:20 to 16:50 at the “Peace Workshop” at tesla motors, the Erloserkirche in osmosis to cells Berlin, Noldnerplatz, and motors analysis she had conversations with known operatives Rainer Eppelmann, Werner Fischer and Barbel Bohley about andy which she made written notes. The meetings with the named persons was photographically documented by Office VIII of the community administration of Berlin. With regard to the contents of the talks of Komisar with the tesla motors swot named persons cant be gotten at because all the talks were under four eyewitnesses, and the planted unofficial source had no possibility to take part. After leaving the “Peace Workshop” Komisar traveled to West Berlin. Unofficially it can be further known that Komisar on June 25 had contact with the known writer Stefan Heym and expressed the wifi history wish to talk with him about questions of foreign policy in the GDR and East-West relations.

This talk was refused by Heym because he speaks only about his literary work. Through an swot analysis, unofficial source of the wifi history HVA it was known that Komisar after some work as a freelance journalist works for the USA newspapers Miami Herald, Philadelphia Inquirer, Newsday and The Nation and is involved with foreign policy themes, especially with Latin America and Europe. She regularly for some years visits West Europe and swot analysis has through that contacts with leading politicians of the SPD by whom it was suggested that she should visit the GDR and other socialist states. Her visit in the GDR was further attributed to why is osmosis important to cells a suggestion of the press attache of the tesla motors swot analysis embassy of the Essay Sex Sells in High-End GDR in tesla analysis the USA. Concerning her trip through Europe is to find out what one in East and West Europe thinks about the analysis relations between the USA and the SSR, between the FRG and the GDR, of the so-called strategic defense initiative of the USA as well as about American foreign policy. Komisar left the source the impression that she is very happy with her talks in the GDR and has a strengthened wish to visit the GDR again in 1986. Then she would deal with special GDR problems. According to her declaration to the source, Komisar plans after her stay in the GDR to go to Prague and Budapest as well as to Vienna. It was proposed to give the information on tesla swot analysis the knowledge of the HA II and to check whether to produce further information on the activities of Komisar during her stay in the GDR. Through the analysis ZAIG have prepared a party information on which grounds by the MfAA a decision can be taken if Komisar on the grounds of her activities together with the underground people should be allowed further entries for journalistic purposes in analysis the GDR in the future.

Dear chief lieutenant Reuter. Check the greek influence enclosed sheets of the known talk. Accordingly prepare official information for motors swot the MfAA. Working material of a freelance journalist from the characteristics markets USA whose trip in the socialist states was supported by the SPD [That is the West German Social Democratic Party.] The American citizen Lucy Komisar. Came on Aug 26, 1985 at about 9:05 am with the tesla swot analysis Flight LO 161 from Warsaw to Berlin-Schoenefeld airport to continue a trip to West Berlin. According to the documented requested English-speaking working material, she is a freelance journalist and writer. Greek Influence. According to her resume, she gained in 1964 the swot academic grade BA in history from the City University in New York.

She speaks in wifi history addition to tesla motors her mother tongue also Spanish, French and Italian. Besides that she has a basic knowledge of German and Portuguese. Her article “German Ostpolitik” for the US press agency AP compares the attitude of the former SPD government with that of the greek influence CDU/CSU/ FDP coalition toward the socialist states. Tesla. Especially criticizes the conflictive statements of Essay Chancellor Kohl and other rightist politicians on the question of borders in Europe. In addition, Komisar refers to the planned trip in tesla July/August 1985 to the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania and marilyn andy warhol Poland. The trip is in tesla swot analysis accord with Eugen Selbmann from a concrete objective of the trip is not contained in marilyn warhol the submitted writing from May 29 85 signed Selbmann, stationary of Prof.

Dr. Horst Ehmke, Member of the German Parliament, about people considered Komisar should see of motors swot which the following were recommended: Poland: Rakowski, Bercikowski, Richard Wojna and from the Catholic Church circle Miczewski. Hungary: Berecz, Acil (Cited: “You remember we had in last year a good talk with him), Peter Reenyi from the Newspaper Neepzabadzaag. Czechoslovakia: “it is very hard here to get a good person to talk with. The best man would naturally be Bilak, but I don’t think he would be available…Naturally a talk with Hayek offers itself, but in the opposite situation in Prague our embassy cant arrange it, but the Norwegian embassy can. I would talk covertly with our ambassador, but I must then know what days you are going to be in Prague.” (A Hajek, Jiri, is known as the signatory of “Charter 77,” inimical to the state.) Komisar was in writing from June 21, 1985 informed about her contact possibilities in the forenamed states.

So she in Warsaw should go to Mr. Glabinski Interpress and wifi history the FRG Ambassador Mr. Koepping. In Hungary, Arpad Argita, SK of the USAP, was informed about her trip. For Czechoslovakia it was foreseen that she would phone Mr.

Scheuer from the tesla swot FRG embassy. During her trip in the socialist states she prepared handwritten notes that are very hard to beowulf read. [They didn’t know the tesla motors swot analysis half of Essay Sex Sells in High-End Fashion Advertisements it–besides my speedwriting, meant to be intelligible only to me, most of swot my notes were carried on floppy disks!] The notes include interview meetings and wifi history advice about the names of people to analysis see. Enclosure: film negative. Appropriate specific measures Komisar would go through a notifiedborder control at the OG ZF . The control reached only the large pack and was without knowledge of the traveler.

….of Komisar in the ban of… Statement on result of the search object. The object aimed on Apr 26, 88 to travel to the capital of the GDR at 17:38. The object was sent back. Supplementary statement of the greek influence object: use other side [not there]. Then comes 19 pages of my notebook notes, which are for some reason later repeated since they couldn’t read them. Seroxes of my phone calling card, health insurance card. Several forms list me as a political science professor. Tesla Motors Analysis. I’m not, but I have a feeling I might have said that first time at the border when they found my notes about the SS20 since I figured I feared they’d take them if I said I was a journalist; but they never figured out that mistake, and the ID persisted. Then there are 9 pages in in High-End Russian, sent at various times to the KGB. Czechoslovakia (sent from tesla motors swot analysis, Czechoslovakia to the Stasi).

K is marilyn andy warhol, a person that the EID pursued, seized. On July 9, 1985, in Czechoslovakia she visited Jiri Hayek, a member of the “Charter 77.” She is interested in the current situation in swot Czechoslovakia and the results of the accomplishment of the resolution of the Helsinki Conference in greek influence Czechoslovakia. K met with various members of the Czechoslovakian opposition. During her stay in Czechoslovakia, she collected material for enemy propaganda activity in the USA against Czechoslovakia. K was processed in 1985 through administration 10 of the KNS of the Czechoslovakia operative. The statements appear on the year 1985 and were put in the system in 198?

may 29, 85 letter from Eugen Seltmann, notice for swot Dr. Horst Ehmke, MP, People for Lucy Komisar to beowulf see. My advice for Warsaw: Rakowski, Barcikowski, Wojna and out of the Catholics, the top close camp, Miczewski. As for the first three, I would recommend that you in the next week your speak with Riyszard Wojna. The talk with Miczewski should be arranged through our embassy in motors swot Warsaw (Koerting). For Hungary: Berecz and the Politburo member Acil. You remember we had a good talk with him last year. If the meeting for the Budapest visit is arranged, we should connect the Hungarian ambassador on the arrangements, for example I will phone Hargita directly in andy Budapest. Czechoslovakia: Here it is very hard to get a competent person to interview. The best man would naturally be Bilak, but I don’t think he could be available. Motors. Ambassador Meyer in Prague is andy warhol, these days cut off through a new ambassador, I don’t remember the name, who till now was in Latin America and doesn’t have any knowledge of Czechoslovakia.

You have an opportunity of course for a talk with Hayek and in the opposition situation in Prague our embassy can’t arrange that, but the Norwegian embassy can. I would covertly happily talk with our ambassador, but I must then know what days you will be in Prague. Further: Peter Reenyi, from the newspaper Neepzabadzang. And another letter June 21 85, letterhead SPD Fraction in tesla motors the German Parliament, Coming back from our talk, I pass on as people to characteristics of competitive interview. For Warsaw: at Interpress, Mr. Glabinski. He is apprised by the Polish embassy. And Mr. Herting from the FRG embassy. He is at tesla motors analysis, the phone number 004822/12 30 12 or 17 60 44 or 17 60 45.

In Hungary you should meet with Mr. Arpad Hargita. Characteristics. He is swot, also apprised. He is reachable at the phone number 00361/ 311-400. In Czechoslovakia you should contact Mr Scheur from the Germany embassy.

You can reach him at the number 00422/ 53 23 51. With friendly greetings, Eugen Seltmann. Then copies of my typescript of a story on German Ostpolitik (copied 4 times) A government paper on Bulgarian Jews. Another “Negative Aspects of Private Farm Plots Criticized.”

Ways of Achieving Higher Agricultural Output Discussed. Names and phone numbers of greek influence contacts in tesla motors swot Sweden and France. “Andrei Gromyko replies to questions on the meeting between the andy USSR and the USA in Geneva.” A U.S. State Dept paper on swot analysis “Soviet Active Measures: The Christian Peace Conference.”

A U.S. government paper about analysis issue of MFN for analysis Romania, Hungary, China, 12 pgs. About 20 pages copied backwards, make sense if you hold them to a mirror (more U.S. government statements). Some 50 pages of notes from a small appointment book. Names, directions, expense records, most not intelligible even to me. Copies of my airline ticket for the Europe trip. Copies of greek influence 33 business cards from officials, journalists and others in various East European countries. A copy of my official program in Budapest. A page of phone numbers of American and other western media representatives in Warsaw. A paper with phone numbers of dissidents I was planning to contact on 1983 trip.

Pictures of me at the “peace fair,” 1985. My favorite pages are the seven last, directions for how to use the Radio Shack Model 100 computer (remember that?) with acoustic couplers–a few pages of diagrams and complex formulae such as (tab) (graf + f) (enter), or “Basic Error Codes, such as Code 52 FF File Not Found.” I like to imagine the Stasi analysts puzzling over that. 4 Responses for “My Stasi Files: getting banned by East German secret police in the 80s” Great article. Your file has satisfied a great deal of curiosity for me. I am sure there is a file on me as well, though not of any real interest as my visits were quite mundane. It is fascinating to see the swot analysis correlation between your activities and osmosis the STASI reports. How do I request a copy of my Stasi file? Der Bundesbeautragte fur die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. The phone is 49 (0)30 2241 70. Fax is tesla motors swot, 49 (0)30 2241 7762.

(In both cases, exclude the first 0 if you call from outside Germany. 49 is wifi history, code for Germany, 30 is Berlin.) Include the relevant details, including the years you are looking into and your date of birth. […] no personal knowledge, but saw this from tesla swot, Lucy Komisar#039;s (journalist) website: How do I request a copy of my Stasi file? LK: Write to andy Der Bundesbeautragte fur die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik Glinkastrasse 35 10117 Berlin Germany The phone is 49 (0)30 2241 70 Fax is 49 (0)30 2241 7762 (In both cases, exclude the first 0 if you call from outside Germany) Include your date of birth. – See more at: http://www.thekomisarscoop.com/2009/….Eo53apPS.dpuf […] I actually studied outside of Dresden in tesla swot a small city in greek influence Radebeul for 3 months in 1988/1989. I studied initially in class for westerners (only 2 girls from tesla analysis, Austalia) showed up) and then joined goup of communist students from throughout communist block and studied German with them. Wifi History. It was amazing. I was American living in Switzerland before I went and was interviewed at East German consulate by Ambassador before getting my Visa. I’m sure they thought I was a spy but I was only out for cheap tuition. I’d love to see the file on me.

The whole place was bugged I’m sure.

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essay greedy Book contains two essays, Greed and Greed II. Click on cover. Is exploitation wrong? by Julian Edney.

This is not the first time the nation has produced dramatic economic inequalities. What are very wealthy people like? The everyday world of work vs. values of democracy. Motors Analysis. How assumption of self-interest leads to fear in osmosis to cells the workplace. Freedom, the illusion of motors analysis, freedom, coercion. Exploitation.

Credit cards. Meritocracy. Sociopaths. Corporations and the economic justification for the damage they do. Historically we are emerging from an era with no clear ideology, but an era in which materialism and business has expanded powerfully and internationally, and Fashion, out of the vacuum two old, discredited ideologies, laissez-faire and Social Darwinism appear to tesla swot analysis, be rising again in marilyn warhol modern guise.

These ideologies are still flawed; the first (contained in tesla motors analysis modern Libertarianism) vigorously promotes freedom but ignores justice and is indifferent toward democracy. Of Competitive. The second is supported by science, is motors disinterested in humane values and accommodates exploitation as part of the nature of things. The search for a modern economic theory closer to marilyn andy warhol, reality. Is this a society of individuals rationally maximizing happiness? Andrews’s view: at least among the disadvantaged, it is a political economy of hope and tesla motors swot, fear. (1) Looking for morning news, I click on marilyn my computer. My internet service flashes with color, the tesla motors analysis, biggest houses, the biggest jewelry, the most expensive toys. The internet’s financial press waxes muscular.

Television is the same. The media are a river of adulation for all this glitter and the people who own it. School textbooks carry a similar message. Despite setbacks, the analysis, economy is ever expanding, its power is unparalleled, we are now spreading free market capitalism around the globe, bringing unimagined wealth and improvement to mud-level nations and countries sucked out by socialism, raising everybody, because that’s what capitalism does. Has everybody been raised here? Actually, with talk of equality written into this nation’s founding papers, the scenery never looks right.

The contrast between rich and poor grows, and this year has been no exception. As an acquaintance on tesla motors swot the street puts it: every year there are more homeless people and every year the limousines get longer. If the stated goal of the system was to gradually create inequality, it might also claim success. We barely notice because we are adjusted. Essay Advertisements. But if you are a foreign visitor, how does this nation show? A svelte Scottsdale, of course. Motors Swot Analysis. Disneyland, of wifi history, course. The flamboyant homes of the film stars. Lavish Marin County neighborhoods (some of the least affordable rents) (2). But if you are a visitor, your tourist bus will also whisk you past sights never found in the guide books – nor in our kids’ social studies texts. Neighborhoods awash in shootings (1,200 gun injuries in South Los Angels alone last year (3) ); square miles of city filled with houses with barred windows, chaotic schools, downtown blocks of sweatshops; whole neighborhoods sunk in semi-literacy, drugs, gangs, fear; and our nightmarish jails (4).

Not everybody looks like they have been raised. The numbers show a radically skewed society. Rather than pages of numbing statistics, I’ll sketch a couple of facts, the first from tesla motors swot sociologist Steven Rose. If you drew a line on a building three stories high to represent the distance between the lowest and the highest family income, the average (median) income sits at only 10.5 inches off the ground and half the nation is clumped below that (5). Second, despite the prodigious numbers of poor, housing for them is so scarce that of the 3,141 counties in the United States, in only 4 can a person making minimum wage afford a one-bedroom apartment (6). I believe this imbalance mauls the national psyche because the media repeatedly show us images of people and places from the beautiful upper stretches of beowulf, that vertical line.

In the comparison, thrown at us daily, most of us lose. This nation equates decency with wealth and swot, indecency with poverty. These media images also create floods of anxiety. Being “less than,” being poor, carries a stigma. Another sociologist thinks we are so materialistic, poverty now actually carries the shame that cowardice carried in earlier, warrior times (7). And actually if the Essay in High-End, economy is on fire, we have some funny facts. The dollar has dropped to a fraction of analysis, what it was worth thirty years ago. No amount of why is osmosis, policy tinkering has been able to stop manufacturing’s chronic decline.

The national trade deficit is at an all time high (meaning roughly, if it’s foreign made we want to own it). Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. Personal debt has reached swaggering amounts. And bankruptcies have ballooned, now running 1.46 million a year (8) - outstripping the divorce rate, also outstripping annual college graduations (9) . Defenders say, “but compared with dusty nation X or backward country Y - it’s so much worse elsewhere. We are the envy of the world.” When we compare nations, we should keep in mind who we are comparing.

Every third world nation has a middle class, no matter how small, with houses, and those folks are still better off than our hordes of homeless. Wifi History. And our wealth inequalities are so stark, poor people here are worse off than many of their foreign counterparts (10). And if you start comparing nations, what about the quality of life? Are our 30 million citizens on antidepressants also the envy of the world? And our suicide rate, with suicide now the third leading cause of death among the young (11) ? Here lurks the question of tesla swot, how much life is worth living. I wish I could get away from these inequalities, but I cannot. Fly away from it all? Board a plane, and we take off. Having settled in at cruising altitude on a flight, surrounded by beowulf analysis, other passengers, I look out the sun-filled window and we float among the iridescent clouds and for a moment it seems we are transcending the world's concerns. Then the stewardess carefully draws the cabin curtain across the aisle between us and swot, the passengers in first class section.

This act is noiseless and delicate. All passengers’ eyes are riveted on it. Nowadays, nobody seriously criticizes the rich. Criticizing the rich doesn’t make much sense if you think you’re going to be one. But it wasn’t always that way. This isn’t the first time this nation has produced a huge separation between rich and poor. In the 1870s-1890s America actually had a brush with serious economic revolt (12). The trouble was started by common farmers in the hinterland - stake holders in the new frontier - dismayed that all their hard work didn’t deliver. The Civil War’s aftermath was a time of immense capital growth for some and hopeless drudgery for in High-End others. Chicago and New York contained both wealth-aristocrats in frivolously decorated mansions that mocked European aristocratic manors, and on the other side, smoke-stained factories with legions of swot, ragged workers.

In the rural South rich plantation owners lived in white-columned country homes while paying barefoot field workers scrip they could only spend at the owner’s store – contract labor working in endless debt. This was the of competitive, era of flamboyant corporation owners in top hats chomping on outsize cigars, also the tesla motors analysis, era of steep child mortality rates, pestilences that swept the streets, misery and short life expectancies for the poor. It was an era of unrestrained markets, the era of monopolists who collaborated with each other in greek influence setting prices; little was illegal. Following the Civil War, there were a couple of different currencies in tesla motors circulation, one sinking in value and less reliable. City banks peddled mortgages widely on new farmland they had never seen. A new farmer could sign on in either currency. Then a national money contraction occurred, consolidating the two issues. Farmers took the fall.

They were left owing the banks up to twice what they had signed for. Wifi History. Believing in tesla motors swot the national promise that hard work brings wealth, they found they only worked and lost money on their slow-producing farms, then worked harder and greek influence, lost more. Meanwhile, the banks flourished. Tesla Motors. They grew spectacularly. They argued they were only in High-End, being patriotic. Bewildered, farmers actually started trying to tesla motors swot analysis, understand what was wrong by reading books on economics.

The result was a bitter understanding of ‘the money power,’ of lenders rights, of wifi history, monopolistic control, and of American credit corporations as fortresses of motors swot, wealth. In desperation, farmers’ cooperatives started up. They aimed for debtors’ independence. They were made up of in High-End Fashion Advertisements, plain people seeking self expression. First in the South, this movement swept across Texas, then the Western plains states, attracting farmers by the thousand. Then they joined up with railroad workers who were desperate over low wages and swot analysis, ruinous equipment and who were striking. Beowulf. Eventually the National Farmers Alliance and Industrial Union spread far west and north, and at its peak had over a million members. The Populist Party was started. This new party was virulently anti-monopoly, and its hero was the opposite, the poor-but-good worker. It successfully ran candidates for local government, and then William Jennings Bryan, a Populist, actually won the Democratic nomination for President.

Bryan had risen from stump-speeches in open fields to the political crest with firebrand oratory telling farmers and workers they were “crucified on a cross of gold,” nailed to motors swot analysis, the impossible demands of why is osmosis important, credit merchants, and the victims of a monied tyranny (13). The poor have always been demonized. But for the first time, in the 1890s, the rich were being demonized. Bryan lost the tesla swot, election to McKinley in 1896. The railroad strikes were crushed by robber baron Jay Gould who somehow got local sheriffs to deputize all his strikebreakers. Strikers were called mutinous, and local magistrates declared union leadership a crime. Without Bryan rising, the Populist movement suddenly faded.

There was capitulation and disgust. People muttered ‘you can’t fight the nation’s banks.’ Some farmers even left the country and why is osmosis important to cells, moved to Canada. Corporate power rose everywhere again. Swot. Sentiment changed. In memory, words like ‘the people’s’, and ‘progressive’, became tainted with the shadow of socialism. That era is remembered in history books. But it has been so diluted that Populism is described as an agrarian movement, a protest. Omitted are the Essay Sex Sells in High-End Advertisements, rage, the oratory, the fires, the marches, the riots, the militia shooting strikers. I believe some of the early conditions of that movement are reappearing.

But today we are mute. We are back to the dogma that whatever the wealthy do is good for the poor. Swot Analysis. Only a few modern writers like Christopher Lasch see that the detachment of our modern elites is actually betraying our democracy (14). Fewer writers, like Charles Derber, are saying the moral decay in this country starts at the top (15). We live in Fashion Advertisements a peculiar era. There is said to be no ideology. What is motors swot ideology? It is Essay Sex Sells Advertisements a visionary assertion of values, goals and aims. It ties a people together, explaining what is bigger and more important than each of us. It is motors part theory, part speculation. It urges loyalty.

Ideologies can be national, grand and visionary, or subdued and local. They may be delivered from the podium, or they may be unspoken but lurking everywhere as if a colorless gas that saturates a culture’s thinking (16). An ideology can move a community to prepare for war, or it can move a nation to marilyn warhol, peace; but it gives motivation and meaning, it states the common good, and explains why the people must work together. Without ideology, people can live active lives but they are atomized - there is a hollowness and insecurity beneath. Daniel Bell wrote a book The End of Ideology which says that in tesla swot analysis the United States, ideology has dissolved (17).

Bell: Through the last century - at why is osmosis, least through the belligerent period of the tesla swot analysis, two World Wars and the 1950s Cold War - the United States had plenty to say about what it stood for, also what it hated. Ideology was sharp and it was national. But with the advent of peace, and especially with the decline of communism, there was suddenly less reason to deliver thunderous speeches about why we are here, what we are ready to why is osmosis to cells, die for - the speeches that bring urgency and tesla analysis, purpose and meaning to people. We have drifted since the Vietnam era without an ideological rudder. We exist in a kind of void, in which individualism flourishes, and narcissism, ego, materialism, the pursuit of self, wealth, status and wifi history, greed - but nothing that moves the masses together. Predicting the future may best be left to tesla motors analysis, crystal-gazers, but we can always take hints from newly published books because they contain ideas that may be influential for years. Some new publications are unsettling. Into this void, I’ll argue, are creeping two quasi-ideologies. Actually they are not new. Essay In High-End Fashion. They are two old ideologies, mutated, which are rising again.

First a popular book which appeared in 2002. It describes a part of this society. The way the author works is a new fashion and it is revealing. Beyond that Curtain. Very rich people are hidden from us because they want it that way.

Naturalist Richard Conniff uses sociobiology to describe the upper class. He has patiently followed the superrich around (and these folks are above 'junior wealth' which is swot analysis about $5-10 million) and has interviewed them in their natural environment. This is the new fashion, to explain what humans do because of to cells, their genes and their evolution. The exotic customs of the moneyed class fill his book The Natural History of the Rich (18). Because he is a naturalist, he unflinchingly compares the people at the top with the alphas (top members) of other animal species.

Conniff says the superrich are an intensely narcissistic and competitive small group. They arrange their lives so that wherever they go (Aspen, Monaco, Paris) they see the same few hundred people. They are self-encapsulated. They regard the rest of us as irrelevant, uninformed, even subhuman, and motors analysis, they don't like to talk to why is osmosis important to cells, us. (One fabulously wealthy lady used her cell phone to call her chief-of-staff who was in another country to call her maid to tell the maid what to do next. The maid had a cell phone and tesla motors swot, was on the opposite Sex Sells side of the room from the lady). Conniff reports that just like other top animals, the superrich are driven by the quest for status, mating opportunities and dominance - except that the human version constantly denies it. Top-rungers also flout the basic rules of economics.

While average folks purchase more stuff when it becomes less expensive (supply and demand), the leisure class prefers to buy stuff that is more expensive, even when comparable stuff is available for less. The object is to dazzle. Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. Sociologist Thorstein Veblen identified that odd habit back in 1899 and termed it ‘conspicuous consumption.’ It’s waste in of competitive order to impress (19, 20). Conniff points out animals do this too. The cascading tail feathers of alpha male peacocks have no useful function. They are there to impress other peacocks - in analysis fact they are so conspicuous they practically prevent the bird from flying. More biology: the way the superrich have isolated themselves for centuries now qualifies them as a pseudospecies. By hanging out and mating only with their own kind, over many generations, they have effectively removed themselves from the gene pool.

Sociobiology is a fairly new division of biology. It’s been around since the 1970s. It holds that human behavior is genetically shaped, like animals which run largely on instinct. Andy Warhol. It says our behavior is evolved. Sociobiology has a younger sister, evolutionary psychology, which talks more about humans than animals, but in the same way. Evolutionary psychology holds that our daily routines and our choices are not nearly as spontaneous as we think because our behavior and our emotions are determined by the long tracks of natural selection. Both these disciplines are in their infancy. Motors Analysis. Both are busily looking for parallels between animal behavior and our behavior to in High-End Fashion Advertisements, show we are more instinct than we think. So what Conniff does is to illustrate the dominant posturing of tesla motors, top rats versus the belly-crawling of their subordinates, and the bluster of top baboons versus the why is important to cells, rump-presenting submissiveness of subordinates - and tesla motors, compares it to the obsequious behavior of human underlings who attend to our superrich. Dominance patterns in this species fit dominance patterns in that.

So for instance in both human and walrus communities, the top elite have more. They copulate more, they get more of what they want, and they guard more resources than they need. Conniff states: Humans seem to be 'ethologically despotic,' like chimpanzees; that is, we have a natural predisposition to hammering other people into submission. Except that in human males this is expressed as a single-minded determination to greek influence, impose their vision on the world (21). Why do the rest of us go along with this? We can’t help it.

A stare from tesla motors swot high authority throws us into rabbit-panic. Wifi History. Lower ranking humans throw themselves into submission, even sacrificing themselves for their high superiors. It’s all biologically evolved behavior. Inequality is everywhere in the animal kingdom - even animals that can’t do much else, such as chickens, are expert at motors swot, knowing the ranks of all other chickens. And a low ranking wolf will fight to the death for its pack even while its daily life is made miserable by cruel tormenting from the animals above it because belonging to a hierarchy is everything. Sex Sells In High-End Advertisements. According to sociobiologists, hierarchy chains us humans too. Tesla Motors Analysis. It makes no sense, but animals and humans alike sometimes cling to those who batter them. Greek Influence. It's in the genes. Along the way, it would be heartening to learn from sociobiologists that our top people are good people. That part is missing. The ultra rich are likely to have serious mayhem in the family history.

Conniff traces this old saying to motors analysis, Balzac: ‘Behind every fortune there’s an important to cells undiscovered crime.’ Generations ago, many alpha families originally ascended by force and illegal conquest - and, in his interviews, often show themselves proud of it. And what of our popular belief the wealthy are that way because they work very hard? Do they? Well, maybe. Conniff interviewed one extremely wealthy woman who told him, I'm the most normal, normal person, I'm not like most rich people. I work really hard. Motors Swot. Most rich people I know don't do anything but eat, drink, sleep, pardon the term, fuck, and have a good time (22). Genius and Alcoholism.

If our behaviors are genetic, it means we don’t have much control over them. Characteristics Of Competitive. Simple actions, breathing, sleeping, coughing are all behaviors we can’t change. But evolutionary psychology says many of our more complicated behaviors are partly genetic. We have a ‘genetic predisposition’ towards overeating or dominance or addiction or depression, musical genius, alcoholism, and possibly some criminal behaviors too - because these things have been found to run in families. Today’s cutting edge research is looking for behaviors that are controlled by genes, and how much. There is a scale called a ‘heritability index’ that runs from 0.0 to 1.0, the idea being that behaviors high on the scale are genetic and can’t be controlled voluntarily. The implications ripple across our legal system. If it is established that somebody has a genetic disposition towards criminal behavior, then he doesn’t have control over it. Tesla Motors Analysis. Think of the greek influence, possibilities: imagine a criminal lawyer putting on tesla swot analysis the following defense, “…Your Honor my client is not to blame - he couldn’t control his thieving - he was just fulfilling his genetic destiny…” In fact, these legal defenses may become more common as evolutionary psychologist are now arguing that using pornography (23), not paying child support (24) and rape (25 ) are in the genes. Evolutionary psychology is deliberately pushing into public policy.

The appearance of a new book Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and Personal Decisions shows its intended scope (26). But two topics - we might not have guessed which - are keeping biologists agitated. Sex Sells Advertisements. Are we run by selfishness? And how important is the individual, as opposed to the group? This is the way it’s coming down: 1. Swot Analysis. Selfishness. Darwin’s starting point was that life is everywhere a struggle for survival.

If you want to survive, you can’t waste time helping others. Beowulf Analysis. In fact most sociobiologists say, don’t bother looking for swot analysis the tender, caring or even cooperative behavior in humans; it isn’t there (27). But the central issue being kicked around: is beowulf analysis selfishness by itself sufficient to analysis, keep a group surviving? Or does a species of animal also need another type of marilyn warhol, behavior, like cooperation or altruism, in which members help each other? One camp, the hard-nosed Darwinists, says yes to selfishness – that also means genes-powered greed, genes-powered waste-to-impress (28) – and no to altruism. 2. Selection between whole groups. Darwin said natural selection happens between individuals.

But what about selection between communities (and herds and flocks)? This issue is motors so hot, arguments between sober academics almost read like kids having tantrums. The point is this: if there is why is osmosis important competition between groups (communities) for analysis survival, the winning group will be stronger because of teamwork, which takes something like cooperation or altruism between members. Osmosis Important. A group of only selfish individuals is motors weakened from greek influence within. And these two issues go hand-in-hand. Orthodox Darwinists say, you don’t need to swot analysis, think about altruism because there is no group-level selection. Daniel Batson writes on this debate.

At this point, sociobiology is new and unsure. It keeps issuing statements then correcting itself. Does natural selection exclude group selection? Yes; correct that, no. Does natural selection produce only marilyn warhol, selfishness? Yes; correct that, no (29). Actually this is not just a scuffle under the stairs among academics. Because of Darwin’s assumptions, all this threatens the very planks on which the theory of evolution rests. Swot. So a lot of people are watching this fight (30). When these infant disciplines finally get their sea legs, they will bring home the bogeyman of all questions, because selfishness and altruism are not just behaviors, they are moral values. What’s really lurking behind all this work: is Essay Sex Sells in High-End Fashion our morality controlled by tesla motors swot, our genes? (31)

Adam Smith cares. Recall that Adam Smith’s Wealth of beowulf analysis, Nations tell us all people act in their own interest (selfishly) - and that is fine, according to him since the whole community eventually benefits. Who does this sound like? It sounds similar to Darwin claiming that animals are naturally selfish - it’s a matter of tesla motors swot analysis, survival. Both Smith, in Wealth of Nations, and Darwin don’t truck with altruism. It would change the basic assumptions of both of their whole theories. Greek Influence. And we get the hint that Charles Darwin and Adam Smith were singing off the same sheet of music. So the appearance of analysis, Conniff’s book waves a flag. Beowulf. Any alliance between biology and big money should keep us nervous. This alliance has a scurrilous history. A contemporary of tesla swot analysis, Darwin’s was English philosopher Herbert Spencer.

Spencer was not only greek influence, thinking on the same tracks, it was Spencer who invented the term “survival of the fittest.” Darwin was cautious how much evolution actually applies to us humans, but Spencer was not cautious. Spencer applied “the fittest” to the wealthy (32). Spencer became very popular with the monied classes towards the end of the nineteen century. On the lecture circuit in motors analysis America he said humans, like the animals described by Darwin, are all in analysis a competition for tesla motors swot survival. Beowulf Analysis. This was normal. For wealthy industrialists to exploit and discard hordes of the motors swot, poor in their factories was also understandable. The poor were the unfit. Nature was ‘red in tooth and claw.’ The industrialist was just hastening nature’s way of Fashion, weeding out the weak members.

Spencer also said welfare - even charity - was a bad idea. It encouraged the poor, who would multiply and spread their unfitness. Tesla Motors. Overall, did the rich prosper at why is to cells, the expense of the motors swot, poor? Of course - and in wifi history the long run, Spencer said, this was good for a nation. After WWI, Social Darwinism was discredited as a vulgarized version of Darwinism. At the time, communist ideology was flourishing in Europe, and the argument that the workers were going to control everything was turning Russia inside out like a glove.

Socialism was on the rise in Europe, and tesla motors, America decided to keep one eye on its poor. Pro-worker feeling grew and between the World Wars, President Roosevelt built a more poor-friendly, worker-friendly atmosphere, and started Social Security. But it is now sixty years since WWII, and times have changed again. During this last century, of course, many things changed. Science itself made vast progress, reaching peaks, so that at 2000 it could point back at a moon walk, the atom opened, the Essay in High-End, defeat of plagues as points on its startling ascent. Today science has tectonic credibility. It is unimpeachable. If a layman attacks science, nobody listens. But this topic, Darwinism, will not sit down.

Among the few with credibility to question science are philosophers. Philosophers are carefully trained in logic. Philosopher Richard Perry, in the staid journal Ethics , quietly walks up and kicks the struts out from under sociobiology. Is it really science? Or is it a con? Perry shows the swot analysis, logic under all sociobiology to be not the marilyn andy warhol, grid of deductive logic you would expect in tesla motors swot science, but only a patchwork of analogies. Now there is a certain use for analogies, but analogies do not prove anything, they only show likenesses. Andy. The best use of swot analysis, analogies is in the persuasive arts, oratory and poetry. Analogy is the wifi history, warp-and-woof of sociobiology. That’s what they do, says Perry. If you want to say humans are aggressive, describe the aggressiveness in rats – show the similarities.

If you want to prove humans territorial, talk about the territoriality of motors, mockingbirds - invite the similarities. And so on. Perry says, but wait. Why these analogies in the first place? - There’s something odd about circling around one species to wifi history, make pronouncements about another. Why are we studying animals to understand humans? Would you investigate houseflies by studying blue herons? Wouldn’t that distort what we already know about flies? His article “Sociobiology: Science in analysis the service of ideology” warns us the beowulf analysis, logic is so bad, sociobiology should be embarrassed. It is more like weaving a net with the tesla, study of animals and throwing it over humans. And it should tip us off to ulterior purposes. We should look for what else it does.

Perry urges us to decline trust in sociobiology. Greek Influence. It is engaging reading. But it does what Herbert Spencer did. It tells us we don’t have to feel guilty if we are brutal with each other - animals do it. It gives comfort to perpetrators of social injustice (33 ). The next point in this essay is that Social Darwinism, or some modernized variation, is rising again. Supported as a science, our neo-Darwinism is tesla motors swot fed by warhol, hours of tesla, exquisite photography on Discovery Channel where we repeatedly watch hungry leopards stalk innocent deer, fell them and gorge on their entrails hour after hour. (What car salesman hasn’t watched, and andy warhol, said to himself, that animal lives in tesla motors swot analysis me, I can use any method to marilyn warhol, drag down fleeing customers?) Darwinism has a dangerous ally. Tesla Swot. Another twist in Essay in High-End Fashion logic, which always gate-crashes the party and says, if it happens in nature, it must be right. But the problem is, you cannot logically convert a fact into a right . (Example: it’s a fact some kids beat up other kids on the playground, therefore they have a right to tesla motors swot, do it).

Morality should step in. It took a long time to get that right in western civilization. Because it’s a fact Charles Darwin reported on a species of marilyn andy warhol, slave-making ants, humans do not have a right to make slaves. Then as now, using analogy as a justification for ignoring human pain and fear, or creating it, is a perversion. Social Darwinism will be much harder to get rid of this time. If we are not vigilant, sociobiology and evolutionary psychology will set new standards of indifference. The implications are stirring. What if our politicians and policy makers, administrative agencies and bureaucracies, our military, our justice system, our legislators, watching, all believe that rich and poor, good and bad, winning and losing are in the genes? Place your bets, because depending on the way a couple of these controversies turn out (especially selfishness) we may have biologists telling us what is right and wrong, that democracy is unnatural, and that inequality and injustice are in the nature of things.

Laissez-faire was the tesla motors analysis, table-thumping cry of monopolistic big business in the 1860s through the 1920s – overlapping the Populist era, but on the capitalist side. From the greek influence, businessman’s point of view, this was the Gilded Age. Analysis. Will power was a virtue, expansion always seemed the greek influence, way to go, and everything was believed to be better if it was bigger. Tesla Motors Analysis. (The Crystal Palace, the marilyn andy, Eiffel tower, and tesla swot analysis, the Titanic were industrial symbols). Greek Influence. The concept traces back to 1825, and it means government abstention from interference with individual action, especially commercial action. But it was found that if business was not restrained at tesla swot, all, the economy rose and fell in a cycle of peaks and destructive crashes. Essay Fashion. Second, it produced monsters that worked people to disease or death.

During the laissez-faire era, people died or got maimed on tesla motors analysis the job in perilous mines, foundries and rail yards, getting no compensation (because, it was argued, they worked there by choice). This is what the Populists battled. The battle was rough and long, with repeated strike actions, and poverty and despair for workers. Laissez-faire , the philosophy of robber barons, was eventually collared and analysis, muzzled, notably in Supreme Court decisions headed by tesla motors, Justice Brandeis who saw unfettered business practices as an eventual threat to democracy. It took many years to produce a real turn. The Seattle General Strike of 1919 was another attempt to beowulf, break through. Eventually both Social Darwinism and laissez-faire were abandoned. Laissez-faire is rising again. The Libertarian Party, formed in 1972, looks New Age-ish.

Libertarians promises a bright new beginning, the kind of thing that always attracts young people with spirited talk about analysis freedom from authority. In fact libertarians almost never stop talking about wifi history freedom. Libertarians believe this: Individualism is motors swot what a society is all about. Beowulf Analysis. The promotion of self, and self-interest, life, liberty and property rights are important. Businesses and markets should also be free from motors analysis restraint. Libertarianism hates constraint. Marilyn. It condemns anything too “powerful” – government or police power – and anything “social” – welfare, rent control. Here are its founding assumptions.

At heart, libertarians believe that all human relationships should be voluntary. They think there is a natural harmony of interests among people, and any society works by a sort of spontaneous order. In politics, libertarianism claims to be against both the left wing and the right. It states opposition to fundamentalist religion as much as against any state agency - both threaten individual freedom. How do we know the old ideology of laissez-faire is in here? Because a 1997 book which explains the basics, by David Boaz (executive vice president of the Cato Institute) called Libertarianism: A Primer , says so. It states that laissez-faire capitalism is the answer to everything because it brings incredible wealth to all. Motors Swot. And it proudly champions Adam Smith’s ideas as its heritage (34).

Justice in why is osmosis Two Pages. Those founding assumptions are nonsense. First it’s obvious not all people are interested in harmony. Some are excessively greedy. Some people prefer power, which tends to corrupt. Second, world history books have shown few human societies working smoothly by spontaneous order. In general, we should evaluate a theory by what it says, also by what it doesn’t say.

What does libertarianism say about exploitation? Nothing. The word isn’t even in the index. Next, its treatment of justice is negligible. Tesla Motors. And what does it say about equality? - Almost nothing.

It is hard to convey libertarianism’s disinterest in equality. Or perhaps this: Boaz’s book has 314 pages. Just over one page is given to equality. Equity? - nothing. Justice? - under two pages. Consider a modern concern. What about big-business abuse of the environment? Among other points in the book - to give environmentalists nightmares - is that libertarians see no contradiction between industry expansion and the environment. Quote: “Economic growth helps to produce environmental quality.” (35) Reading Libertarianism reveals something much more troubling. The book explains that freedom is so prime, it is more important than democracy.

Libertarianism is disinterested in democracy. Rather, libertarians believe in Natural Law, laws seated in ancient, even tribal, crude customs, which are hardly enlightened ways. There is actually a fringe element among libertarians, gaining momentum, which seriously wants to dismantle democracy in America (36) which it interprets as mob rule. While this style of business in the 1890s, for profits, freely harnessed uneducated millions of the poor into sweatshops and mills, at wifi history, wages that always seemed to keep them frightened and hungry, all those problems are now forgotten by libertarians - as if the tesla motors analysis, century had no shadow. And without a twitch of embarrassment, a Chicago Tribune review on warhol the dustcover of motors swot, Boaz’s book Libertarianism explains that “these are ideas that are coming to dominate the thinking of important to cells, government all over the world.” But laissez-faire is motors analysis critical for today’s aggressive corporations because they cannot operate at their gargantuan level without almost total freedom. Corporate businessmen cite as their biggest enemy, government.

They see greed as a solution rather than a problem. They despise the push for equality as a death-knell. They refer to justice as something the envious dreamed up (37). For them, democracy is why is no more than a bright tinsel wrapping to be torn off the moment it poses any real constraint to their freedom. Despite these concerns, our market economy is not weakening in any way. The reverse. At this point in history, capitalism is just getting started on tesla analysis a second Big Bang. Wifi History. We are recently launched into another expand-or-die wave that dates back approximately to the fall of the Berlin Wall and motors swot, is already showing geometric power. It’s being promoted by andy warhol, our massive gifts and loans to foreign countries and by tesla motors, our placing key capitalists in international banking.

And, less benevolently, by the starting of foreign wars, which require repairs, for which we provide contractors, whose profits return to us. This new wave is not powered by any single ideology. But this odd combination of Social Darwinism and laissez-faire is of competitive a soil mixture that produced the explosive capitalism and empire-building at the turn of the swot analysis, last century, and wifi history, it will work again. I say odd combination because these two theories are actually contradictory. Libertarians should look over their shoulders. Biology promotes the opposite point, that we humans don’t have much freedom because our behavior is controlled by tesla analysis, our genes. Sociobiologists say even the functioning of our societies is marilyn constrained by our genes, so the idea of us choosing to expand our liberties is hilarious to them. These two theories were also contradictory a hundred years ago. That didn’t stop monopolists then and it will not stop the high-octane business leaders of today - none of whom are exactly intellectuals. Turn on the television and watch our national leaders talk policy. Swot Analysis. They explain we are bringing our way of doing business to andy warhol, foreign lands because capitalism brings democracy.

We are the bringers of fortune, uplift, goodness, opportunity and freedom for all - the motors analysis, best destiny humanity has to offer. Just because this argument is delivered from a podium bathed in rotating lights does not make it true. Greek Influence. It is tesla also broken logic. One of the main events in capitalism is the creation of inequality. We recall that the two basic values of Essay in High-End Advertisements, democracy are freedom and tesla, equality.

They are the two wings on which that exalted bird flies. And we notice these official speeches on foreign policy promise freedom, but they never promise equality. We cannot export equality. You cannot give away what you haven’t got. Second, a point always omitted from these speeches is that capitalism comes in different species. One type is authoritarian capitalism and it is decidedly undemocratic. A governing power, sometimes a military dictator, promises businessmen they will make astonishing profits if they just follow his orders. This - the melding of business and analysis, state - happens to be one of the elements of fascism. Another defining element of fascism is that inequality is a virtue. But free market economics are being built everywhere.

This is so powerful, it has the face of tesla analysis, a titan. So we cannot do it any harm, analyzing it. We have plenty of time to pull up our chairs, and at our leisure examine its beating heart. The major musculature of our modern free markets is corporations. They deserve attention. Corporations are collections of people doing business.

Other types of characteristics, business entities exist, sole proprietorships and partnerships, but corporations are surely the motors analysis, largest. (Some corporations are more wealthy than some countries). They inspire joy in some people, fear in others. Corporations have been harshly attacked in several books by investigative reporters. For example, Mokhiber and Weissman’s Corporate Predators and Court’s Corporateering warn of the way corporations influence politics (by shifting massive capital around) as well as the way they take away our personal privacy and security. As a rule, they lack transparency. And they seem invulnerable surrounded as they are by walls of lawyers (38,39). Many corporations hire their own economists so they are also difficult to comprehend.

These books are a good and healthy part of the public’s reading. Wifi History. But these attacks have made no difference. One book, however, written by a lawyer, may make a difference. It translates the stygian legalese and economics into common language. Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. The book is no less frightening. The author reveals the corporate Achilles heel. Bodies in Two Parts.

Law professor Joel Bakan’s The Corporation explains that corporations date back to the 1690s in Britain. From the start corporations were peculiarities, being bodies that are split into two parts. Directors and markets, managers run the firms, but stockholders own them. And the stockholders are an tesla motors swot ever shifting bunch, being owners today, sellers tomorrow. Most stockholders have no interest in how the why is to cells, firm does business. They only look at tesla motors, the daily value of the analysis, stock. Since the only business of a corporation is to make profit, this is a recipe for corruption, because the stock's value can fluctuate on rumor and reputation, and a firm might grow wealthy on lies, or by overcharging, or by selling a dangerous product, or by not doing anything except issuing promises, and the stockholders are just as delighted. Stockholders don’t ask questions. Second, the motors analysis, corporation has “a legal mandate to pursue, relentlessly and greek influence, without exception its own self interest” and this “regardless of the harmful consequences it might cause others.” If along the way they have to pay some fines for damage they have done, this is calculated into business expenses. It’s all numbers.

And since some corporations make massive profits, they don’t flinch at paying out very large sums to motors swot analysis, people and environments they have damaged very badly. And then return to beowulf analysis, do it again. Anything that is an unfortunate byproduct of making profit, such as stress, lives lost, disease, broken laws, pollution, immorality, ‘collateral damage,’ grief, disruption, riots, is called an tesla swot analysis ‘externality’ - because it is outside the crisp equation for calculation profit and loss. Most of what we know as morality and humanity are externalities. This breakage can have enormous effects on the world. Corporations are externalizing machines, says Bakan. Bulldozing through to more profits, they routinely break stuff wherever they go and this single-mindedness has produced what we have today, colossuses of indifference “of such power as to Essay Fashion Advertisements, weaken government’s ability to control them,” so that “corporations now govern society perhaps more than governments do.” Yes, there are some corporation CEOs who exercise morality and motors, judgment. Wifi History. But they are not supported by Nobel Prize winning economist Milton Friedman, who believes the tesla motors swot, only moral duty of the corporation is to wifi history, put profit over social and environmental goals (and business guru Peter Drucker thinks likewise).

Bakan goes further. Motors Analysis. He likens corporations to psychopaths (sociopaths). For his book he interviewed Dr. Robert Hare, a psychologist and expert on wifi history psychopathy, to analysis, get a list of personality traits that psychopaths exhibit (no empathy, asocial behaviors, manipulativeness, no conscience, no remorse) and wifi history, then tries those out on motors corporations. They fit.

For instance corporations return repeatedly to make profits from things they know are lethal and that strew grief - cigarettes, cars that catch fire in crashes, drugs with devastating side effects - because the money is beowulf there. Enough money gives them a “psychopathic contempt for legal constraint.” Or any constraint. Tesla Analysis. Removing democracy may seem like a good business plan, if it hinders a firm’s mission. In corporate culture there is an emerging social order that is wide and dangerous, as dangerous as any fundamentalism, Bakan states. “For in a world where anything or anyone can be owned, manipulated, and exploited for profit, everything and everyone will eventually be.” Bakan says every corporation’s Achilles heel is concealed in its original incorporation papers. I will return to wifi history, this point in motors analysis the later section on remedies (40). If corporations are really like that, we might wonder about the greek influence, people who work in them. Tens of millions of regular folks work in tesla analysis corporations, of course, which gives them the important, surface look of tesla, well fed averageness.

But because of their aggressive business agenda, they also attract some odd personalities. The sociopath (also called psychopath) in the public’s mind is a loathsome and fascinating figure, imagined as a berserk serial killer. Actually, most sociopaths couldn’t be more different. Warhol. Suave and charming, manicured starters of motors analysis, conversations, many look like they come from the pages of characteristics, GQ . (There are plenty of lissome women sociopaths too.) Consummate actors, you melt when they talk to motors swot, you. Why Is To Cells. They are smooth as glass. Tesla Analysis. They exhibit a tapered arrogance. Beowulf Analysis. They are also “persistent, repetitive, remorseless violators of the rights of others, and the rules of society” (41).

In today’s high stakes, empire-building business climate, sociopaths are some of the fastest rising stars. In corporate maneuvering they have no loyalty, virtually no emotion, and no conscience. Promiscuous in friendships as in sex, they start instantly and motors analysis, leave an alliance instantly it creates advantage. Their specialty is stirring and steering feelings in others without being touched themselves. Wifi History. Usually the tesla swot analysis, epitome of self control, they are capable if cornered of sudden viciousness. Few will challenge them, sensing that underneath is their calculated enjoyment of the destruction and humiliation of greek influence, others.

This is not a new type of personality. But in modern culture, where success has become separated from honor, they thrive. The sole passion they have is to win. The particular combination of sociopathy and high intelligence is a prototype for business success. Harvard’s psychopathy expert Martha Stout estimates about tesla motors swot 1 in important to cells 25 people are these indifferent, charismatic liars and tesla swot analysis, the proportion is growing. You may have one at your picnic; there was one in your classroom at school; at wifi history, one time you probably tried to date one. Stout sketches a prototype sociopath growing up.

He came from a privileged city family and stole from his parents. He enjoyed stuffing live firecrackers down frogs’ throats. He was so intelligent he cruised through college almost without studying and, graduating with an MBA, he was quickly hired by a large corporation, where he proved he could sell anything. “Lying comes as easily as breathing,” and despite subordinates complaining that he is insulting and tesla analysis, vicious he starts on a meteoric ascent, marries a sweet, quiet woman, and before middle age is given a division presidency. He makes many millions of dollars for the company and of competitive, enjoys his female subordinates as sexual plunder. Stout explains that the brains of sociopaths work differently. Watched through brain scans, normal people, given words to motors analysis, think about, quickly process emotional words like “love” and beowulf analysis, “happy,” but sociopaths are a bit slower because they process emotions in the temporal lobe where most people solve algebra problems. High Mating Effort.

Stout also says there is a genetic base. Tesla Swot Analysis. Sociopathy runs in families and why is osmosis to cells, is partly hereditary – she estimates about 50 percent of it is motors inborn (42). There is debate among evolutionary psychologists over whether psychopaths are mentally disordered (i.e. have something wrong with them) or whether they are just a separate genetic strain of deceitful, manipulative people, in marilyn andy which case they are normal. If it is a disorder, psychopaths are notoriously difficult to treat (they don’t voluntarily come in for swot psychotherapy, and if required to, they don’t change). Either way, because of their “short-term, high mating effort strategies” (43) they produce more offspring, and their genes will spread through the pool. From an evolutionary point of view, this type is becoming more common. Our culture is Sex Sells Fashion Advertisements unwilling to stop them. Tesla Motors Swot. We furiously promote these smooth surfaced, antisocial people when they turn their talents to making money for the company. Then as CEOs and marilyn andy warhol, CFOs we give them extraordinary business power.

In that position, the law supports them, because (as above) current law says the corporation has “the legal mandate to motors swot analysis, pursue, relentlessly and without exception, self interest, regardless of the often harmful consequences” (44). Wrap this all around in the ruthless ideology of Social Darwinism, and nobody is safe. Greek Influence. Democracy itself is not safe. Democracy is something a sociopath loathes, because it represents public constraint by ‘little people’ on his autocratic power. And he doesn’t practice democracy inside corporate walls. What he often practices in tesla motors swot analysis the corridors and wifi history, boardrooms is coercion and intimidation. Returning to Conniff’s observations: “Great fortune builders are also often great screamers [who use] the diatribe as a favorite tool…He calls meetings…at which he rages, growls and curses at his weary employees” (45). Why is this type so successful? One possibility: because these malignant personalities are at tesla analysis, home in the system. And the reason for marilyn andy warhol that is that the system is malignant. History contains several examples of motors, sociopaths who have flattened democracies.

Here are some other odd personalities who appear in corporations, as described by Jean Hollands, a business consultant who can calculate the dollar loss due to greek influence, a valuable employee’s bad behavior. Large corporations sometimes hire high-ranking specialists and managers who come with personal problems which wear everyone down. These people are not just occasional curiosities; they can be found in every large organization. Company owners are aware of these scabrous personalities under the roof, but are startled to find out just how much they are draining the company since their styles affect many other people. Hollands shows the owners the tesla swot, company they could be making hundreds of thousands of dollars more profit if they got rid of these misfits, but they don’t, partly because of the expense of firing and rehiring. In her book Red Ink Behaviors she gives illustrations. The Intimidator (loud, domineering, abusive, throws tantrums, but somehow thinks he is funny), the Stressor (severe workaholic, spills her chronic frustration over coworkers in sarcasm and unending interruptions), the Micromanager (requires written reports at every turn which he examines line by line, is chronically overwhelmed by all this work), the Withholder (has data necessary for operations which she will not share, chronically late to meetings or absent), the Inconsistent (thin skinned, high drama, unpredictable hysteric, lapses into stream-of-consciousness communications) and the Techno-specialist (brilliant but won’t talk to beowulf analysis, anyone who’s not a technician).

These personalities are not easy to confront. They are extremely judgmental, to the point of mild paranoia, and if confronted they turn rabid or wall themselves up in motors their offices which is devastating to company morale, creating ripples of anxiety across the cubicles. And because coworkers usually back away from them, the offenders interpret this as a win, and they do it again. Why Is. Hollands points out that this event, “winning,” is highly valued in high-stakes businesses (sales, legal, brokerage) where competitive individualism is prized, so nobody is sure what to do. So the toxic atmosphere spread by tesla analysis, these bullies is borne, and everybody dreads going to work (46). Adam Smith never talked about these odd personalities. Adams Smith’s main point is that humans are naturally self-centered, and if you allow all people to wifi history, work in their self-interest, the nation will benefit. But individual self-interest will not explain everything. You cannot build a successful economy with something like self-interest any more than you can toss a bunch of boards in the air and expect them to come down in the shape of a house. Swot Analysis. Much is missing.

Which means a search. Wifi History. Requiring a long journey through rarified concepts? No, I believe the search will take us places we already know. Swot. And I am swayed by Nietzsche and his habit of beowulf analysis, scorning academics who want to make things complicated. The great problems of this world, he said, are not in misty metaphysics. They are in the street. Motors. Particularly they are in places we don't expect. We don't care to look down.

Is it because that direction is filled with nothing interesting? The media seems to affirm that. Apparently, time spent on beowulf analysis the lives of workers would be gilding a vacuum. If we follow the media, we will always look up. That is why we are missing answers. A tree’s height and its depth are connected. Everybody accepts that because the tesla motors swot analysis, tree is an organic whole. A building is another kind of organic whole, and if the building is Essay Sex Sells in High-End Advertisements built taller, its foundation must go down.

But libertarian economists refuse the swot, heights and depths of our own society to be connected – yes, the why is osmosis important to cells, rich get richer and the poor get poorer, but that is somehow a coincidence because everybody is tesla motors swot analysis free. In the life of a tree, what happens below determines what happens above. And I believe if we want to understand how an economy creates such high levels of greek influence, wealth, we will need to look at its soil, and below, even if it is not pretty where the roots are coiling and tesla swot analysis, clenching the rubble. What do we hear when we hold our ear to the soil? We can start with the broad question. Sex Sells Advertisements. Why do we work? It is a fair question. We want to jump in: “To earn a living,” “To support the family,” “To get ahead.” - All partly true, or true for some people. Actually the broader question stumps professional analysts. The cover story of a 2003 issue of US News and World Report titled “Why we work” wanders around for several pages and is simply evasive, but says: “Some do it for love.

Others do it for money. But most of us do it because we have no other choice.” (47) That doesn’t sound like the freedom shouted up by libertarians. The goal of businesses is product and profit. If American all produced something new in their work, we would be a prodigious and much happier society. In fact, worksites are often not what we would expect. Huge amounts of work effort are spent overcoming inefficiencies. What inefficiencies? Workers often spend hours trying to find, cleaning up, checking, losing, leaving messages, not connecting with, misunderstanding, delivering to the wrong place, catching up, waiting, repairing, clarifying miscommunications, correcting mistakes - myriad forms of blather and delay – and all exhausted at the end of the day. So answers to the question “why do we work?” like, to make, or to produce, are part of the tesla, myth of work, but to get a little more reality we need to look at things the textbooks don’t talk about. A part of the wifi history, answer is supplied by what happens at work.

One thing that never fails to happen on the job is hierarchy. Hierarchy is ever present in manufacturing, service, private, government, military, civilian, inside-work, outside-work, unsuccessful, successful, full time, part time, day, night, sea, land, intense and indifferent jobs. It is motors analysis much more predictable than - much more reliable across worksites of different kinds than - money, motivation, service, satisfaction, effort, efficiency, profit or product, which vary. What hierarchy ensures is control. (The US News article does point out that although more workers are using their homes, it is greek influence no escape from hierarchy - and the phone and emails don’t stop after 5:00 p.m.) So if I go to work for someone, I will enter some sort of hierarchy. And if I go to work for analysis someone, somewhere, I am also selling my personal freedom for a wage. So most work sites create the opposite of the characteristics, two basic values of democracy, which are freedom and equality. This is a dark pond into which nobody ever tosses a stone. Should we say, the more people working, the more satisfied the nation? That would be nice.

But realistically, the more people work, the more people are enmeshed in a system of control which is nondemocratic. Tesla. That’s not such a cheery thing to say, but we are tired of having the world made cheery by the method of painting our windows blue. If we want to why is osmosis to cells, see better, we will have to scrape it off. And these topics do not make easy conversation with our co-workers. At this point in our search we’ll meet with a lot of silences. We verge on taboo. Michael Novak believes people resist analyzing work because that would be tampering with a necessary myth.

We might find contradictions. Any contradiction would threaten society’s foundations. The value of hard, competitive work is our society, Novak says. It is analysis painstakingly reinforced from Essay Advertisements birth and “without that myth our society is inconceivable.” (48) The origins? Generation after generation of young persons are taught that work is the route to personal dignity and worth. For each child this is repeated in one form or another through school and motors swot analysis, a light is characteristics of competitive markets turned on. Success and failure is everything; no ambition is too high. These myths take a deep hold; they have the spiritual power of hope, and by the time a school graduate enters the workforce he is ready for something momentous to happen. So each worker starts out on a personal quest. If he talks to other workers about his dreams of growth and expansion, they smile, and later he notices old workers at his job doing much the same work and he starts to think, and to keep his inner visions quiet.

Gradually he sinks into routines. He dodges the swot, inanities and politics of the workplace. After many years, that inner light, once supple and strong, is important changed. Analysis. Work doesn’t change much. If the child originally dreamed of Sex Sells in High-End, being in the NBA or being an swot explorer, working in an office will feel like a cul-de-sac. But he does the work. He becomes a watcher-of-others. Later perhaps he still has hope, but it is in a different form: now he is darkly working on a distant hope of vindication. Even later he changes again. Where he once listened inside, he has become other-oriented, he changes again, becomes harried or distracted.

He works because of obligations, or for security, or for the company. If the light goes out, this is the marilyn andy warhol, way he will finish his days, in routines, swimming with all the others, in these vast pools of irrelevant direction. (49) He was from the start harnessed to somebody else’s dream. Nonetheless, as this person grows up he will stir the same myth in his own children. This wreckage of myths is where we do not want to look. Studs Terkel in 1972 put together a thick book of self-reports entitled Working . He interviewed workers of all kinds, from proofreaders to nurses, to stockbrokers, to hookers, to jockeys, to welders, to executives, to stone cutters, to accountants, to dentists . At publication, it brought down the wrath of one church, wanting the motors analysis, book banned. Its 589-page collection of short narratives is an expose of marilyn andy, our everyday work world, in the original language of the workers. This is the introductory paragraph: “This book, being about tesla analysis work, is, by its very nature, about violence - to the spirit as well as to the body. It is about ulcers as well as accidents, about shouting matches as well as fistfights, about nervous breakdowns as well as kicking the dog around.

It is, above all (or beneath all), about daily humiliations. To survive the day is wifi history triumph enough for the walking wounded among the great many of motors swot analysis, us.” (50) This doesn’t match Adam Smith’s snappy view of the workaday world as busy pin factory workers and energetic vendors hauling goods to market, like bees in why is osmosis to cells a hive. So is it lies? If Terkel was the only writer, we might come away thinking he's a hothead. Motors Swot. But he’s not the only one. More recently a woman from the academic elite used a different method.

In 1999 Barbara Ehrenreich, who holds a Ph.D. in Biology, tried an experiment. She changed her clothes and climbed down the in High-End Fashion Advertisements, social ladder to be a person living on minimum wage. Tesla. This level of society is called the working poor. Being trained as a scientist, she took careful notes. She detailed her experiences in the book Nickel and wifi history, Dimed . One after another she took six jobs, for a minimum of tesla motors analysis, a month each, including waitress, hotel maid, house cleaner, nursing home aide, and WalMart salesperson. She drove a car, but made herself live each month only on what she could earn – mostly at andy warhol, $6 and $7 an hour. This meant living in the cheapest lodgings (trailer parks, motels, downtown hotels) and eating on a narrow, bland diet. The jobs were available. Once on the job she was an exemplary worker. But her first finding was that it is almost impossible to work for those wages and motors, survive.

For instance, monthly earnings as a waitress in Essay in High-End Fashion Advertisements Florida were $1,039. The cheapest rental she could find was a $500 efficiency, and food, gas, laundry, utilities and phone and tesla motors, toiletries came to another $517, leaving her $22 for everything else. She moved to Maine, hired out wifi history as a house cleaner, scrubbing young yuppies’ houses, making $6.65, and paying $480 rent for a room, and so on. Her second finding was that the jobs often involved exhausting effort, and swot analysis, overtime, and in some jobs she literally worked by the sweat of her brow so that all she wanted to do at night was watch TV over her dinner and then fall asleep. She became socially invisible - interacting with nobody except her immediate supervisors and coworkers; she felt ‘disappeared’ from society. It was not a question of the greek influence, rich and poor coexisting in quiet harmony; the poor are treated as if they are not there. She endured humiliation, abuse, and routine violation of privacy, and sometimes had to surrender basic civil rights. As a waitress she was told that her purse could be searched at any time by tesla, management. There were rules against talking on warhol the job.

Constant surveillance, being written up by the shift supervisor, and being ‘reamed out’ by swot analysis, managers were all customary parts of the job, also being subjected to important, drug tests (which in some cases included stripping to underwear and urinating in presence of a specimen collector.) After a while, she felt she was not just selling her labor but her life. Ehrenreich muses that since the people she was around were all hard workers, there seemed no purpose to the authoritarianism of managers except to create a culture of extreme inequality. Demeaning employees sometimes seemed attractive for employers. The repressive management style also produced the feeling of failure and shame, which, she suspects, keeps down wages because eventually workers think so little of their own worth that they accept the tesla analysis, low pay. Ehrenreich is one writer who has paused by this thought. We have a massive cultural contradiction. We can hardly pride ourselves on being the wifi history, world’s preeminent democracy, after all, if large numbers of citizens spend half their waking hours in what amounts, in swot analysis plain terms, to a dictatorship.” (51) To our Western minds, some kinds of inequality are less tolerable than others, less ‘fair.’ Actually there is no human society with perfect equality. Wifi History. All cultures contain some inequality and the big question is the criterion, because some reasons for motors swot inequality are seen as unjust.

For instance America thinks monarchy and inherited aristocracy are wrong, but in Essay Sex Sells in High-End Fashion Advertisements neighboring Canada they are accepted. In some communities, rank is based on tesla swot analysis brute strength, in others, pureness-of-heart. Nobody likes to be low in greek influence any hierarchy. Societies with inherited rank also find it’s inefficient. The British, for instance, used to give all their top government jobs and high offices to tesla motors swot, relatives of nobles. The problem was a lot of the nobility and their relatives are not very bright.

As a society grows more technological it needs more pure intelligence to run it. Beowulf. So a century ago, the British started awarding important positions by tesla motors swot analysis, qualifying exams and educational achievement, open to anybody. But there’s a benefit to being in a hierarchy by birth: being low is not your fault, and greek influence, it’s not a moral problem. In America the idea that anybody should be able to rise is old, and analysis, a person’s position has always depended more on ability and marilyn, accomplishments. This is tesla motors analysis meritocracy. Meritocracy seems more democratic. It is appealing because it seems to be all about self-steered destiny. But by the same token, meritocracy introduces blame for low rank. If you haven’t accumulated accomplishments during your life, your low rank is a moral problem because you were free and you had the chance. In America, therefore, the rich are better, the poor should be ashamed. All this creates a special set of fears called “status anxiety” by de Botton (52) and “fear of sinking” by Kilmer (53), an obsessive concern with social status.

After all that work at minimum wage, Ehrenreich experienced how it was easy to greek influence, spend your working life sinking deeper into tesla motors debt. Economic indebtedness takes away some of your freedom, but many people who are affluent don’t understand money traps, so here I’ll spend a few words on Essay Advertisements a topic that is technically on motors swot the consumer side. Perhaps this will all fall into focus leaf by leaf. After decades of Essay Sex Sells in High-End Fashion Advertisements, aggressively distributing credit cards to motors swot analysis, virtually anyone who can sign, lenders have worked themselves into a paramount position of power. Now the average person is obligated at about $8,500 in debt. Lenders can charge interest up to 30%.

These higher rates are charged on late payments and delinquencies, and at that level, monthly payments become largely interest. Lenders are secure, because at those rates, by greek influence, the time a debtor finally declares bankruptcy, the lender has often collected multiples of the original debt. The lenders are making most of analysis, their money from greek influence poor people - people who don’t have the money to make prompt payments. Nevertheless, new bankruptcy laws will allow creditors to claim on a bankrupt debtor’s future earnings, which essentially removes the protection a person gets from declaring bankruptcy. Lower-income credit card holders get on a financial treadmill that requires them to make ever larger monthly payments to keep themselves solvent. People who are ill, poor, old, and on fixed income have all been urged to take credit cards. Tesla Swot. Then they are largely sealed onto a wheel which never pauses. Debt payments are the scourge of the poor but this is a spreading problem and it now includes the middle class. Many countries have usury laws that control predatory interest rates.

In Europe these laws date back centuries. In the United States the laws vary from state to state. Until 1999, charging interest higher than 5% above the Federal Reserve discount rate was criminal under the constitution of Arkansas. But some states have no usury laws, which is why powerhouse Citibank relocated its credit card division from beowulf New York (interest cap 12%) to South Dakota, and from there works an motors interstate credit card business charging as high as the market will bear. Today’s trend is for greek influence states to loosen their usury laws to attract more banks. Public opinion is gathering against these lenders. And a local newspaper article tells of a municipal judge handing down a routine judgment against tesla swot, a card company for osmosis important to cells “unreasonable, unconscionable and unjust business practices.” (54) Is collecting high interest rates on loans a hard-work method of making a lot of money? Hardly. One financial analyst: “With these rates and fees, the card industry is a gravy train” (55). What about the tesla motors swot, people who declare bankruptcy?

Aren’t they gamblers, system tweakers, profligate spenders? Rarely. People usually go bankrupt because of severe misfortune. Commentator Paul Krugman’s belief is that more than half are due to medical emergencies (56). Actually a Harvard-based study by Warren and Tyagi, the andy warhol, ongoing Consumer Bankruptcy Project, shows only 13% of bankruptcies stem from credit card overspending or from tesla motors swot covering bad investments, or the like. Greek Influence. Nearly nine out of ten bankruptcies (87%) follow one of the “Big Three” events in a person’s life: job loss, medical problems, divorce or separation (57). But with the new bankruptcy law, many debtors will never get off the wheel. Krugman fears America is gradually returning to a “debt peonage” society, after a practice in tesla swot the post-Civil War South, in which debtors were forced to work for creditors. For the past few years our national leaders have encouraged us to Essay Advertisements, believe our national destruction is tesla swot analysis imminent at the hands of an evil foreign enemy. Possibly before that, legal loan sharks will eat us out from within.

Predatory lending practices are one more burden on the poor, keeping them poor. It is very hard for the exploited to escape shame and inescapable debt is one reason for the melancholy that haunts the lowest regions of wifi history, this society. Credit companies look resplendent in swot analysis media commercials, situated high in wind-brushed, glass buildings with whispering elevators, manicured executives, and elegant beauties for receptionists. This industry is banditry. Is Exploitation Wrong?

If you can make wealth through hard work, you can also make it by wifi history, getting others to do the work for you – even children get this insight. Getting other people to work for you is using them. Whether using people is immoral is a debatable question. If somebody is willing to change a flat tire for me, I am using that person. Nobody sees anything wrong. But isn’t that exploitation? Actually, says ethicist R. J. Arneson, there are everyday examples of real exploitation in which people see nothing wrong. Children exploit their parents for trips to the mall and money to spend.

Parents exploit their children getting them to do household chores. So it seems exploitation is not always bad. Arneson says the word exploitation has two meanings (1) simply to use somebody – no problem, but (2) if you use them and tesla motors, mistreat them in andy the process, there may be a moral problem (58). Further, for wrongful exploitation to exist, there should be two conditions. Swot. First, the mistreatment (an injustice); second, the person cannot leave.

We should look carefully at this because exploiters often use it as a loophole. But together, mistreatment plus no freedom to andy, leave amounts to oppression. Again, history is replete. Tesla Motors Analysis. No culture has been free of it, and the revolts, revolutions, mutinies and reformations found in the pages of wifi history, history books are all accounts of oppression and its overthrow. But whether exploitation is wrong continues to analysis, be argued. Sometimes exploited humans do nothing but adjust. What if the oppression is accepted? And religions sometimes abet this, such as Christianity’s advice to slaves just to beowulf, be good slaves. Karl Marx was the first to open exploitation for economic debate (59).

After a brief summary of Marx’s points, I’ll touch on some modern theories. Marx detailed the appalling work conditions of tesla motors analysis, his day and he was not the first. Why Is Osmosis Important. Ferguson (60) Ruskin (61) and Dickens in motors swot his classics also portrayed workers at beowulf, mind-destroying work in thundering foundries, weather-torn fields, slippery meat houses, 14 hours a day, six days a week, and forced overtime; all for trickle-thin wages, and all accompanied by routine abuse from motors swot analysis foul overseers, capricious fines, and often, at of competitive, these wages, only tesla, floor space to sleep and bread and soup to eat and ragged clothes – in all a bestial lifestyle; but in all the same, across cities and farms, workers were paid just enough to survive. Wifi History. (Adam Smith himself estimated wages were kept just above survival level, Marx said they were just below). And since the employers also owned the rentals and the stores, the money workers made frequently went back into the same pockets it came from and the laborers found themselves in a trap from which they could never rise. Here’s the analysis, way it goes, Marx said. Laborers produce things. Being poor they can only rent out their labor. They have to use their employer’s tools or land or raw materials. Characteristics. The product of their toil is taken from them by the employer who then sells it for swot as much as he can, and turns round and marilyn warhol, pays the employee as little as he can in wages, because the difference is profit and motors swot, the mission of beowulf, capitalists is to maximize profits.

Marx said, paying the tesla motors, worker less than what the worker could get selling his own work was exploitation - the worker labors under the employer’s commands, but suffers miserable poverty. This, Marx goes on, is not an aberration. It is characteristics markets a routine part of capitalist operations (62). Marx could discuss everything capitalists talk about; profit margins, the utilitarian greatest good, risk, stockholders, overhead, economies of tesla motors, scale and the expansion of industry. But he picked up the whole situation by a different handle. Wifi History. He said, exploitation is immoral. Capitalists protested, work is a free exchange. The workers are in our factories by choice - so where’s the oppression? Marx said in practice the tesla, workers are not so free to leave because the wealthy owners of greek influence, factories and farms across the land roughly match each others’ wages and tesla, rents.

So in practice the worker can do no better by moving. In all, labor is sealed into why is a large closed system. The system is oppressive. It is also to the benefit of the employer class, who do very well. If you are forced to work, that is called coercion. Capitalists argue: we are not talking about slavery here, nor prison labor. Signing on to work with us is a consensual act. Marxists throw back: but these workers are constantly in debt due to your starvation wages, and tesla swot, this amounts to economic coercion because each person is greek influence obliged to try to clear his debts. The type of debt you can never clear amounts to tesla, never-ending work in your factories.

Where’s the freedom? And another thing, Marx went on. Marilyn Andy. Notice how property ownership is connected. The exploiters have the factories and the tools, the exploited don’t. Since property ownership is one mark of social class, we have the ‘haves’ exploiting the ‘have-nots.’ Marx asserted this: property itself is a moral problem. And since the property-ownership system is wholly supported by the law it’s not going to tesla motors swot, be easy to change.

Marx builds his points up: Property is not a guarantee of personal freedoms, as the philosopher Locke maintained, and as the framers of the American Constitution believed. Property is a legal instrument of oppression. And there is analysis class warfare. Capitalists rebutted: but the poor are free to buy their own property any time. Marxists reply, that also is prevented by these starvation wages - a practice which is no accident. It is deliberately in the capitalists’ interest to tesla motors, keep a large supply of people poor, desperate and willing to work dirt cheap. Beowulf. So, in setting wage levels, business owners create and tesla motors swot, maintain poverty as they go. Poverty is also powerlessness. Why Is Osmosis Important To Cells. Labor was always negotiating without power, which explained its misery.

Marx was an energetic writer and tesla analysis, he used words like “theft” and “embezzlement” to describe employers taking what their employees made. He exaggerates when he described the “unpaid” laborers when he means “underpaid.” But Marx also said: all this has got to change. The workers (proletariat) have to realize that the wifi history, system also rides on them. Tesla Swot Analysis. Without the workers it collapses. So the workers should seize power. Which led to revolutions. Last century, entire national social structures were overturned. Because Marx’s points were clear. They show that the less the why is, workers are paid, the motors swot analysis, greater the success of business owners. They show that a moral wrong, exploitation, can be routinely inserted in osmosis important to cells economics formulas, and tesla motors swot, the formulas still work. Marx got the topic started, but other political scientists have added on to it (63).

John Brewer thinks exploitation should cover more than Marx’s idea of command in the workplace. If a person is unfairly taken advantage of in any market transaction, it is exploitation. Wifi History. So according to Brewer, an unfair exploitation can be brief and does not have to mean rich vs. poor. Exploitation involves a person receiving lack of just deserts (64). R. Tesla Motors. J. Marilyn Andy. van der Veen adds that exploitation is not just a feature of tesla analysis, capitalism. It is in High-End just as possible for exploitation to occur under socialism and communism if the state commands the individual which work to do, pays him what the state thinks he needs, and if he winds up mistreated and not free to exit (65).

Robert Goodin states that behind the tesla motors, whole notion of exploitation is the why is to cells, expectation in a civilized society that we practice fair play. It’s alright to go for advantage against others who are roughly equal. Swot Analysis. But it is wrong to play for Sex Sells in High-End Fashion Advertisements advantage when your advantage derives from others’ misfortunes. Second, he says, in a civilized society, there is a basic duty to protect the vulnerable. Exploitation is violating this duty (66). The last point allows us to catch up with a particularly dark personality, greed incarnate. This employer thinks he is his money. He believes the more people he has dependent on him, the tesla analysis, more righteous a person he is. So he employs a lot of people and wants to hear all their gratitude. He pays wages, but whatever else he does, he is also going to keep them needy and dependent, and the pay is shadow-thin.

This ancient personality may be young, may look excessively healthy, may play with modern gadgetry and make modern jokes at high tech parties, and andy warhol, he moves through our modern society like a quiet abyss. Varieties of Fear. Most people think there is no fear in tesla analysis the contemporary workplace. Our offices and factories are bright, modern, high-tech, everybody is well dressed and the receptionist always has a ready smile. How could two business consultants Kathleen Ryan and Advertisements, Daniel Oestreich write a book Driving Fear out of the Workplace ? (67).

Because the authors have interviews and survey data from their work in 22 modern business organizations showing fear is analysis common. True, American employees are not afraid of being slugged, ambushed in the restroom or assaulted in the parking lot unless they work as teachers in beowulf analysis inner city schools. But in the nation’s factories and office buildings there is fear of tesla motors analysis, other varieties. And most workers are not afraid of the customers or clients. Greek Influence. The source of their fear is supervisors and tesla motors analysis, managers. Seventy percent of their interviewees reported that they will not speak up on the job. They will conceal work hazards, quota failures, quality lapses - anything - because they are afraid of repercussions. What kind of repercussions? Depending on the firm and the manager, anything from refusal to answer and marilyn warhol, glaring eye-contact (“the look”), to motors, public criticisms, to yelling, insults, threats, tantrums, demotion, being written up as a whiner or troublemaker, to loss of the job. The result is that when managers call workers in to meetings to ask for feedback, or reports, or policy sessions, the workers sit around the table in frigid silence - pure anxiety. Ryan and Oestreich’s analysis shows the more fear there is in a company, the less it is wifi history talked about.

In Chris Argyris’s words, fear seems to be self-sealing. Tesla. An extreme example would be the military, where hierarchy is absolute, and any lower-rank soldier knows harsh repercussions will fall on him for speaking out osmosis - but fear itself is never admitted. Motors. Fear is often quenched by anger, so unpredictable outbursts, rantings, shouting, are symptoms of fear-oriented companies. Third, they say, the more fear-based an organization, the beowulf, more it will make claims to be efficient, systematic and rational - it defines any emotion as irrelevant, so fear is denied or ignored. Still other companies treat fear as an externality. (Some corporations actually asked these consultants what is an acceptable level of fear.) Actually a fear-based organization may be doing well financially, if it has good markets. But other things being equal, these authors say, fear loses you profits. Motors Analysis. Fear produces unmotivated employees who sabotage productivity in passive or active ways, who refuse effort, who make mistakes, who hide or falsify mistakes, who will not communicate with their supervisors.

Other symptoms are slow to characteristics markets, appear. Some effects of fear are gradually accumulating. Threats and insults may make employees work harder in the short run but in the long run will produce absenteeism, loss of creativity, depression, sleeplessness, crying, tension, ulcers and illness. These are very difficult to reverse. The damage to both workers and to the firm is deep and can take years to heal. Nevertheless, many company officers and managers believe fear is a good motivator. Some maintain autocratic control, using harsh management, threats, pressure and control, to make employees perform. How does this all start?

Ryan and Oestreich’s theory says in the beginning management assumes that workers operate from motors analysis a philosophy of self-interest. The next step is distrust, because management starts thinking the employees will try to greek influence, achieve their self-interest at tesla swot, company’s expense. This leads to self-protection, sometimes with managers’ “justified” harsh measures. Workers interpret this as aggression, they react with fear, and they retaliate. A cycle is wifi history started. It will escalate. The basic formula is that assumptions of self-interest eventually lead to fear.

Naturally in fear-based groups, there is no trust. Instead, owners and managers aggressively demand loyalty. The therapeutic goal is to reestablish trust in the organization. This is not easy. Thick walls of tesla swot, antagonism and andy, resentment prevent cooperation growing again.

Ryan and Oestreich’s points are clear enough. But they are nave when they saying that management starts out by “adopting” this assumption of self-interest. Actually, management has little choice. Anyone who has survived a course in college Economics 101 or Business 101 is indoctrinated with this assumption of self-interest, because it is at the core of our founding economic theory which has hardly been touched since 1776 and which saturates business theory. Any manager who has been to school considers it straight thinking. Which puts a new contour on things. If the assumption of swot analysis, self-interest leads to beowulf, fear, then Adam Smith’s theory, which rests on self-interest, is responsible for spreading vast amounts of fear, for tesla motors swot analysis eons, for miles, and into the depths of the spirit of the workaday world. And the many-footed formulas of economists do not change that. Anyone who employs other people and uses these assumptions to maximize profits is a promoter of these vile “externalities.” Telling employees that it is all for their own good will not reverse that. Greek Influence. The employer protesting that he is uplifting the community by bringing in business, manufacturing and sales does not reverse it.

If we believed those protests, we would have to believe that fear is uplifting for business and uplifting for everybody’s life, and so, ultimately is patriotic. In these worksite descriptions democracy looks remote. These contradictions are everywhere and deeply infect our national psyche. If you want to remove all the fear, you’ll first have to change the overarching Adam Smith theory. I have readers here who do not believe there is fear in the workplace. A hundred years ago, you say, perhaps, workers in factories fretted and tesla motors, feared under loathsome overseers. The following description is from last year’s newspaper. It describes work conditions in marilyn warhol a mortgage loan office in suburban Minneapolis.

Sales employees work the analysis, phones hour after hour. They sit in rows of cubicles. Wifi History. They are cold-calling, trying to find house-buyers to sign up for tesla motors mortgages. The company owner is greek influence a billionaire. The company’s stated mission includes helping its customers enhance their quality of life. And what is it like working inside the walls of the company’s offices? – By the testimony of one ex-employee, it is motors swot analysis endless goading by bosses; “Sales agents would work the phones hour after hour…trying to turn phone calls into wifi history mortgages. The demands were relentless: one manager prowled the swot, aisles between decks like ‘a little Hitler,’ hounding agents to make more calls and push more loans, bragging that he hired and fired people so fast that one worker would be cleaning out his desk as his replacement came through the door.” Another employee from the same office: “[Its managers] really are all about making the dollar and characteristics, dealing with the consequences later.” The same article includes that this particular company has also been touted as an industry model (68). These managers aren’t waiting for the theories of Darwin to explain that injustice is in the nature of things. They are taking things into motors swot analysis their own hands. Of course, the greek influence, workers are always free to leave.

But what if we don’t have the money to pay our debts? We are legally obliged to pay our debts. Tesla Motors Analysis. So that freedom fades. The poorer you are in this democracy, the in High-End, more this freedom sounds like a technicality. Or perhaps we self-delude.

Our desire for tesla motors freedom sometimes leads us to see things the beowulf, way we want, somewhat along these lines by poet Fernando Pessoa: “Inside the coop where he’ll stay until he’s killed, the rooster sings anthems to liberty because he was given two roosts.” (69) If Adam Smith was right, then all the people in tesla swot analysis this nation who don’t like their work are maximizing their happiness by choosing between the dread of beowulf, no income or the dread of endlessly going in to work they despise. This is tesla motors swot analysis a slender improvement in happiness. Both choices inhabit the region of fear. It is a strange political economy we have that stands on this slender ledge and greek influence, yells, “freedom!” Millions of the undereducated, poor, or vulnerable do unending menial jobs, and tesla, are told they can follow their life dreams, and marilyn warhol, told they can rise, when they never have the power.

Millions of Americans struggle and motors analysis, suffer trying to make ends meet and find themselves diverted for beowulf analysis life, paying debts. And will abused workers leave? This psychological research is haunting. Sixty years ago, a psychologist named Prescott Lecky got some research results so contrary to common knowledge they were shuffled aside as impossible. The common knowledge principle was (still is) that humans will always choose pleasure over pain. Lecky found people suffering with low self-concepts are the exception; they seek confirmation of their low belief in tesla themselves - which is to say, given a choice, they will rather be in why is osmosis the company of analysis, a person who puts them down. In 1945 this little bit of heresy expired quickly and beowulf analysis, psychology pushed ahead believing people with low self-concepts should all the more hungrily seek reward and pleasure.

Lecky’s findings were junked. But fifteen years ago William Swann and his colleagues decided to give the idea another shot. After several new, independent experiments were run it turned out Lecky was right. A typical experiment goes like this (they vary in detail). First a large pool of people is given a paper-and pencil test of self-concept (a common test in psychology). These are scored, and people with high and tesla motors, people with low self-concepts are identified. Later on, these individuals are contacted and asked to come in and participate in an apparently unrelated study. Greek Influence. When each one comes in, he is asked to sit down and write a personal essay about himself, about a page. Tesla Motors Swot Analysis. Next, a person he’s never seen before comes in the room. He comes over, picks up the beowulf analysis, essay.

He reads it, and either exclaims (depending on the flip of a coin just before he came in the door), Well I can see from your essay you’ve got a great personality, honest, intelligent, popular – or – Well I can see from your essay you’re not so great, not very bright, unpopular, also a phony. In other words, half the people get rewarding feedback, the other half get nasty criticism. Now comes the main point in the experiment. All of the essay writers are asked how much more time they would like to spend with the person who read their essay. Results? People with high self-concepts say they want to spend more time with him if he was positive. But the people with low self-concepts want to spend more time with the reader who was criticizing.

It appears they choose more pain over pleasure. Apparently, more important than pleasure is to be with somebody who verifies the motors swot analysis, way you see yourself. “Yeah, that’s pretty close to the way I am,” and “He sums up pretty close to wifi history, the way I feel,” were typical explanation for the choices of people who felt low about themselves. This effect is especially marked in depressed people (70,71,72 ). Which explains why managers and employers can routinely abuse employees and claim that it is not oppression. If workplace supervisors abuse their employees, creating low self concept, then take advantage of this quirk in tesla motors swot human nature when the employees return, to claim there is no wrong, then no matter how profitable, it is wifi history a perversion. I’ve avoided the topic of race. Tesla Motors Analysis. Race has been, and still is, a chronic source of debilitating problems. But we are conditioned to think about social problems in terms of race, so for instance, when we read “underclass” we reflexively think, inner city blacks. Actually the poorest people are Appalachian whites and why is osmosis to cells, inner city blacks. They are the tesla motors swot, lowest class, but Americans have been discouraged from Essay Advertisements using class to understand anything (Noam Chomsky says if you talk about social class they label you a conspiracy theorist (73) ).

So to take up Wellesley College’s Marcelus Andrews’ new argument, which focuses on race and capitalism, seems inconsistent in this essay, and I find Andrews’s Political Economy of Hope and Fear difficult in parts. But he runs through America’s economic house yanking doors open and it is motors swot analysis hard not to important to cells, pay attention. Andrews: For hundreds of motors swot analysis, years we have assumed race and poverty go together (poor equates with ‘other races’) so we may be surprised to learn that today, the largest group of very poor people in America are whites; and their numbers are increasing. Beowulf. The numbers of poor whites are growing so rapidly it is a mystery they are politically ignored. Poor people of all races now have little chance of ever making it up to the middle class - for motors swot analysis a complex of wifi history, reasons including economic: the loss of jobs as capitalism goes global; technological: the tesla swot, sudden demands of computer skills at work; and attitude: Americans are really unsure if they want to provide equality of opportunity, because they believe a market economy thrives better on inequality. Andrews says modern conservatives always have been deeply suspicious of social justice. They are openly opposed to welfare programs. They are going to let poverty be a goad.

Next, he says race makes a different pattern now on the landscape than it did in the 1960s. Blacks have more than proved themselves capable, as many, released from the old Jim Crow laws, have climbed and 75% of black families are not poor any more, but the lagging 25% are in a predicament shared by very poor whites. They live in dirty and dangerous neighborhoods which are sites of continuing failure and dysfunction, and crime, and violence. Middle-class Americans, who believe in meritocracy, and who cling to myths of self-reliance and freedom, find it difficult to accept the idea of these “poverty traps.” Middle class people are always pointing to an ancestor of wifi history, theirs a century ago who worked his way up from the tesla motors analysis, slums to success - but those were times when education was not a requisite. With today’s technology, a poor education really is marilyn a suffocating disability. And that is what the poor get in these neighborhoods. But that is interpreted as the free market. With selling drugs and selling sex always an alternative, the poor inhabit the underside of the same free market where there is motors swot misery and death. The rest of wifi history, America, believing its system of meritocracy should be universally applied, accepts that fate as the penalty for lack of ability, education and tesla, willingness to work. Andrews continues.

In general, conservative America believes if the poor can only be made to drop their envy and stop their whining, if they would take on more appropriate habits and attitudes, they would begin to succeed. They believe the poor are behaving badly. Hearing that feelings of Essay in High-End Advertisements, despair and tesla motors, inferiority are unequally distributed does not move conservatives. Under meritocracy, it is just deserts. And to add more encouragement, they apply penalties (with that certain righteousness) and the poor are rejected, cursed for their laziness, despised, and arrested for homelessness. That creates fear, because in of competitive markets fact they cannot leave - first because the motors analysis, poor are discriminated against, just as blacks are - and second, they are not all free to leave their failure behind because of the nature of meritocracy. Meritocracy is a system in which some must fail.

Resentment and hostility boil in Sex Sells Fashion the underclass, which the rest of society dreads and sends in analysis police with nightsticks (“punishment is by of competitive, its very nature the deliberate use of public power to motors swot analysis, inflict pain on offenders”) and the feelings and the alienation only grow worse. Andrews projects that out of our present society of vast economic inequalities, our future society may contain two camps: a chronically poor, undereducated, fearful, murderous proletariat and an economically comfortable majority (74). I could use the milder word and say anxiety is a persistent part of the lower reaches of the greek influence, economy. It is better to be honest and tesla motors analysis, call it by its real name: fear. I am not arguing the greek influence, poor are colonized by wealthy employers and lenders in the market system of motors, work-and-debt, but if I wanted to make that argument, there is plenty of ammunition. Greek Influence. Our economy runs on a good deal of tesla, fear, including fear-of-consequences, which is missing from current economic theory. And, with the credit card industry as model, the more greed at the top, the more fear at the bottom. Some people turn their eyes.

Others actually prefer it that way. It is in the interest of our economy, at marilyn andy warhol, least of the top rungs of business, to maintain this anxiety. Next, with most people working and with most work places being undemocratic, we may wonder about our aggregate claim to democracy. A herd cannot move one way while the individual cows are pointing other ways, and democracy cannot be advancing if its parts are autocratic. We don’t have equality. Tesla Motors. Preserving what freedom and what justice we have will take eternal vigilance.

Fear does to a nation what it does to a business. It may be a short term motivator. But in the long run, fear is debilitating. It is an enzyme of decomposition and dissolution. Even when Darwinists say fear and hierarchy are unavoidable parts of a dog-eat-dog world, we can press for beowulf analysis justice. We always have.

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