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orwell burnham essay James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution and The Machiavellians: Defenders of swift Freedom - selections by Peter Myers, December 15, 2001; update November May 16, 2009. My comments are shown . You are at greek influence http://mailstar.net/burnham.html. James Burnham was a Trotskyist who became a leading anti-Communist and Conservative (that is, unlike the Neocons, he opposed Liberalism). His book The Managerial Revolution (1941, 1942) was one of the influences on George Orwell (also a Trotskyist) in writing 1984 . The Managerial Revolution depicted a convergence between Communism, National Socialism and New-Deal policies (in the West) towards what he called Managerial society, where the public services manage the state and the economy. Disparagingly, he branded the bureauracy the ruling class in such managerial economies; a theme taken up by Djilas, in his book about the New Class. Decades later, Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have got rid of the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in any way.

In 1947 Burnham proclaimed that the proposal Cold War was the Third World War; he went on write a number of books about the threat of the definition USSR and swift proposal, the need for Essay on The Function of Literary Criticism, the US to mount a worldwide operation to modest proposal, contain it. Included here are extracts from federalism, Burnham's writings about Gaetano Mosca. I feel that he has misused Mosca, making of him a prop for swift modest proposal, US-style Democracy. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution (2) George Orwell, 1984 (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of Communism (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and The Medical Essay, Destiny of Liberalism. James Burnham, a leading Troyskyist, came to realize that the USSR was never a Workers' State but the modest first of a new type of state run by managers, the Managerial State . Nazi Germany, New Deal America, 50s Australia, Japan in regulated definition, the 1970s, and China in the 1990s are other examples. A Managerial State is socialist, i.e. power is modest proposal taken out of the hands of the wealthy, and vested in public managers aiming at relative equality and full employment. Nazi Germany, like the courtesy for 10th USSR, seems to have issued money without having to borrow it from private banks. That gets around the conspiracy at the heart of Capitalism, by which Governments pay interest on the money they spend. However, centralization of the money-issuing power also gives Government great power, which can lead to Totalitarianism. In Australia of the swift modest 50s, like postwar Japan, Governments borrowed money from private banks, but the The Medical Crimes by Physicians Essay real interest rate was very low.

Many people mistakenly think that Free Trade (= Capitalism) benefits Small Business. Wrong. Swift! Free trade allows Big Business to destroy Small Business. It also allows Big Business to base itself offshore (in tax havens etc) to avoid taxes accountability. An innovate feature of Capitalism, over micro environment analysis, earlier kinds of economy, is that it allows Anonymous ownership, e.g. hiding behind company names, business names etc. Australia owes over $200 billion foreign debt - but to modest, who?

Thatcherism was an attempt to revert to Capitalism; but it may now be on its last legs. Leader! What now? A return to Managerialism? George Orwell's book 1984 (which he wrote in 1948) envisaged a division of the world into three warring blocks, following James Burnham's book The Managerial Revolution . Burnham in that book ( written in 1940 ) predicted that the USSR would split in two. Modest! The more westerly parts would be added to Field: Essay, a Europe dominated by Germany, forming Eurasia; Siberia would be taken from the modest USSR added to Eastsia. With the fall of the USSR in 1991, that process seems underway. The end of the Cold War makes Burnham's thesis credible and interesting once again. The Orwellian state in regulated federalism definition, Britain, as part of Oceania (the Anglo-American block), depicted in 1984 , would be based not on Stalin's system - after all the tripartite world assumed the swift proposal fall of the USSR - but on INGSOC (the Newspeak acronym for English Socialism).

Orwell, like Burnham, was a Trotskyist; H. Essay Courtesy! G. Swift Modest Proposal! Wells probably so. Trotsky certainly had some powerful intellect in his camp. After breaking with Trotsky, Burnham became an anti-Communist and anti-Liberal; many Trotskyists became Neo-Conservative, pioneers of the Marxist anti-Communist ideology : kostel.html. Some co-operated with the CIA: cia-infiltrating-left.html. (1) James Burnham, The Managerial Revolution , Indiana University Press, Bloomingham 1966. Apart from a new Preface (written in 1959 ), the text is the text of the definition 1942 British edition published by Putnam and Company ; an American edition was published in 1941. I come now to the last branch of my charge: that I teach princes villainy, and how to enslave. Swift Modest! If any man will read over my book . . . with impartiality and ordinary charity, he will easily perceive that it is not my intention to recommend that government or those men there described to the world, much less to teach men how to trample upon Essay on The Criticism, good men, and all that is sacred and venerable upon earth, laws, religion, honesty, and what not. Swift! If I have been a little too punctual in describing these monsters in all their lineaments and colours, I hope mankind will know them, the better to avoid them, my treatise being both a satire against greek influence, them, and a true character of them. NICCOLO MACHIAVELLI, from modest proposal, a Letter to essay courtesy for 10th, a Friend . PREFACE TO MIDLAND BOOKS EDITION.

FROM 1934 until the winter of 1939-40 I was a member of the Trotskyite organization - the Fourth International, as it called itself. In 1937 I began a factional dispute with Trotsky and his orthodox adherents, which centered around the problem of the nature of the Soviet state. Swift Modest Proposal! Although Trotsky was Stalin's most articulate opponent, was exiled from Soviet territory, and had declared for a new Party and a new International, he continued to regard himself as a pure Communist and as the champion of the victories of the Revolution. According to Trotskyite doctrine, the Soviet state, though degenerated under Stalin's bureaucratic misrule, was still a revolutiorary workers' state or proletarian dictatorship As such, the Soviet state was historically progressive in class, relation to reactionary capitalism. Hence it was the duty of revolutionists in all nations, even if they were opponents of Stalin and his regime, to defend the Soviet Union against any imperialist state, including their own fatherland. For some years I had accepted this empty ideological mumbo jumbo. Then, one day, I tried to relate the formulas to reality. On such a scrutiny it did not take long for the formulas to evaporate.

Economically, the actual workers in this mythical workers' state were, the facts showed, a subject class far more heavily exploited than the workers under capitalism. Politically, the swift modest proposal workers had no power at all. Millions of them were in forced labor camps; all of them were herded and regimented by a pervasive, monolithic police and Party appartus. I therefore argued, in 1937, that the Trotskyite organization should abandon its characterization of the Soviet Union as workers' state, and drop the practical political conclusion that revolutionists had a duty to defend it. . I was on Poland's side against the Hitler-Stalin partnership, and for Finland against essay courtesy for 10th, the Soviet invaders. Trotsky, however, clung desperately to his established doctrine and to its practical consequences. . I wrote The Managerial Revolution in 1940 ; the swift proposal American edition was published in 1941. Environment! . I had concluded , on the evidence, that the Soviet Union was not a workers' regime, and at the same time had not reverted to capitalism.

It must therefore, be (in embryo at least) a new form of society not allowed for in Marxism . Swift Proposal! This new form I christened managerial society. . The analogies were especially convincing in the case of Nazi Germany and The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians, New Deal America. Swift Proposal! I thus arrived at a general hypothesis that world society is in the midst of for 10th a major social transformation that may be called the managerial revolution. . The prediction that with the second World War the old system of many autonomous nations would be replaced by a small number of great political aggregates, or super-states, contending among themselves for the less developed regions of the world, has been confirmed . But for this period - which, however, is quite possibly not the last phase, and which may even now be nearing its end - there have turned out to be two rather than three primary superstates. Writing today, I would allow for a greater range of variation within the general form of managerial society. As in all possible forms of human society, past and future, there will be class differentiation within managerial society, coercion, exploitation, struggle. The primacy of corporate property relations will probably make for a greater regimentation (as in ancient Egypt or the swift modest Inca Empire) than where individual private property has a livelier role. The idea of a perfectly free and equal utopia is an illusion that deceives and defrauds the on The of Literary masses, and serves the interests only of demagogues and tyrants. But though perfect freedom and equality are illusory, human beings can achieve a partial, relative freedom, equality and justice ; and within the swift modest developing managerial soci- eties of the present and future, as within capitalist, feudal and even slave societies of the past, many degrees of relative freedom and justice, ranging from unrestricted tyranny to essay for 10th class, a measure of constitutional liberty under the rule of law, will be possible.

In the conduct of their social and swift modest proposal, political affairs, there will always be a better and class, a worse for human beings to choose; or at least a lesser evil . . The managers who control the swift modest great power aggregates - big industry, the governmental apparatus, the labor organizations, the military forces - can become, and indeed have already become in most great nations, the dominant class . . Milovan Djilas' book, T he New Class , which (so far as it goes) is a fairly direct application of the theory of the managerial revolution to Soviet developments, undoubtedly gives expression to ideas widely spread not only in Yugoslavia but elsewhere in the Communist sphere. The Managerial Revoluton has itself been extensively circulated and Field: Essay, discussed in eastern Europe, particularly in East Germany, Poland, Czechoslovakia and Russia, and has had the honor of being frequently attacked by the official press and radio. Continuous mass unemployment is not new in history. It is, in fact, a symptorn that a given type of social organization is just about finished. It was found among the poorer citizens during the last years of swift proposal Athens, among the urban proletariat (as they were called) in the Roman Empire, and the perfect leader, very notably at the end of the Middle Ages, among the dispossessed serfs and villeins who had been thrown off the land in order to make way for capitalist use of the land. . The volume of public and private debt has reached a point where it cannot be managed much longer.

The debt, like the unemployed, sucks away the diminishing blood stream of capitalism. And it cannot be shaken off. Bankruptcies, which formerly readjusted the debt position of capitalism, hardly make a dent in it. Only the hopelessly naive can imagine that France fell so swiftly because of the swift modest proposal mere mechanical strength of the Nazi war machine - that might have been sufficient in a longer run but not to destroy a great nation with a colossal military establishment in a few weeks. France collapsed so swiftly because its people had no heart for the war - as every observer had remarked, even through the essay class censorship, from the beginning of the war. And they had no heart for the war because the bourgeois ideologies by modest, which they were appealed to no longer had power to move their hearts. The managers will exercise their control over the instruments of production and gain preference in the distribution of the products, not directly , through property rights vested in them as individuals, but indirectly , through their control of the state which in turn will own and control the instruments of production.

The state - that is, the Function Criticism institutions which comprise the state - will, if we wish to put it that way, be the property of the managers. And that will be quite enough to place them in the position of ruling class. In capitalist society, the swift proposal role of government in greek influence, the economy is always secondary . The government acts in modest, the economy chiefly to preserve the integrity of the market and of capitalist property relations, and to give aid and greek influence, comfort, as in swift, war or international competition or internal disturbances, when these are needed. . The Congress of federalism definition Soviets, in 1917, was made up of swift representatives of local soviets which, in turn, were elected primarily by workers and peasants in the various local districts. The Medical Crimes By Physicians Essay! In the modest proposal Congress of Soviets which met at the beginning of November, 1917, the Bolshevik party had a majority. This Congress then declared itself to greek influence, be the government : that is to proposal, say, it claimed sovereignty and declared that sovereignty was no longer possessed by the Kerensky government which was based upon the remnants of the old Duma. The Soviet Congress then proceeded to enact the chief initial measures of the new regime and to Essay Function of Literary, elect an executive - the Council of Commissars . It would seem, then, that sovereignty was still localized in a parliament; and, for a short time, this was more or less the case. But this state of affairs did not last. Parliamentary sovereignty proved inappropriate for a nation that rapidly developed in the direction of managerial society. Within a few years, well before the death of swift Lenin and the subsequent exile of Trotsky, the Soviet Congress had lost, one by one, all the attributes of sovereignty . Its nominal rehabilitation in the Stalinist Constitution of 1937 changed nothing and left the Soviet Congress the mere minor propaganda instrument which it continues to be. The development was indicated at least as early as the so-called Kronstadt revolt, which took place in greek influence, 1921 . The opposition platform of the sailors and populace of the Kronstadt area had as its key plank, new elections to the soviets.

This demand was in modest proposal, reality an effort to return sovereignty to the soviets and greek influence, the Soviet Congress and an implicit recognition that these institutions no longer possessed sovereignty. The demand was rejected by swift proposal, the true sovereign institutions of the soviet state, and Field: Crimes by Physicians Essay, the dissidents answered by modest, armed suppression. In the new form of courtesy class society, sovereignty is localized in administrative bureaus. Swift Proposal! They proclaim the rules, make the micro environment analysis laws, issue the decrees. The shift from parliament to the bureaus occurs on a world scale. Proposal! Viewed on a world scale, the battle is already over. Micro Environment! The localization of sovereignty in parliament is swift modest proposal ended save for a lingering remnant in England (where it may not last the next few months), in the United States, and greek influence, certain of the swift proposal lesser nations. There is no mystery in this shift. It can be correlated easily enough with the change in the character of the state's activities. The Medical By Physicians! Parliament was the sovereign body of the limited state of swift modest capitalism.

The bureaus are the sovereign bodies of the unlimited state of managerial society . Sovereignty for a nation implies that the nation makes laws for itself and recognizes no superior lawmaker . It means that the nation sets up tariffs and other import and export controls, regulates its own foreign policies and its own currency, and maintains civil, diplomatic, and military establishments. The simultaneous existence of many sovereign nations in the modern world necessarily means an anarchic situation in Essay Function of Literary Criticism, world politics . This must be because, since each sovereign nation recognizes no lawmaker superior to itself, there is in the end no way except by force to mediate the swift deep conflicts that are bound to regulated federalism, arise among the various nations. Experience has shown that the existence of a large number of sovereign nations, especially in Europe (and with somewhat less acuteness in Latin America), is incompatible with contemporary economic and swift modest, social needs. The system simply does not work. In spite of the fact that the post-Versailles European arrangements were set up and guaranteed by the most powerful coalition in history, which had achieved victory in the greatest war of history, they could not last. The complex division of labour, the flow of trade and raw materials made possible and Essay on The Function Criticism, demanded by swift modest proposal, modern technology, were strangled in the network of greek influence diverse tariffs, laws, currencies, passports, boundary restrictions, bureaucracies, and independent armies . It has been clear for swift modest, some while that these were going to be smashed ; the only problem was who was going to do it and how and when. Now it is being done under the prime initial impulse of Germany. Even if , by a lucky chance, some one power might win what would look like a world victory , it could only prove temporary. The disintegrative forces would be sufficient to pull it rapidly to pieces. . A world state.

would presuppose a large measure of general social unity anong men: in interests, in courtesy for 10th, culture, in education, in material standards of life. Swift! No such unity exists . The comparatively large number of sovereign nations under capitalism is being replaced by a comparatively small number of great nations, or super-states, which will divide the world among them . Some of the many nations which are eliminated in fact may be preserved in form ; they may be kept as administrative sub-divisions, but they will be stripped of sovereignty . Sovereignty will be restricted to the few super-states. Greek Influence! . Advanced industy is concentrated in three , and only three, comparatively small areas: the swift modest United States, especially its north-eastern and north-central regions; Europe, especially north-central Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, northern France, England) ; and class, the Japanese islands together with parts of eastern China . It is advanced industry, needless to say, which makes the goods with which modern wars are fought and won, as well as the other key goods upon which modern culture depends. The economic map suggests dramatically what is probable on many other grounds: that the world political system will coalesce into three primary super-states , each based upon one of these three areas of advanced industry . This does not necessarily mean that these three super-states will be the United States, Germany, and Japan as we know them to-day . Swift Modest Proposal! This may well be the case, but it need not be so. In these nations there may be internal convulsions which, together with foreign military struggles, will seem to break their continity with the past. New names may be used . This would, however, be of secondary importance in the long run. It should go without saying that the mechanism whereby this new political system will be built is and will be war. From the war of 1939 are coming more major political leaps. But this is only the first, not the last, war of managerial society . There will be much still to be decided after the present struggle is over - though, since war and peace are no longer declared, it may be hard to know when this struggle is over and the jesus the perfect leader next one begins. The immediate war will not even complete the consolidation of the managerial structure of society; and after it is completed there will still be wars, for there will remain plenty to fight about.

The fundamental theme of the wars of the future - into one of which the second world war was already evolving by the latter part of 1940 - will be the swift modest clash among. the three areas which constitute the three main strategic bases. Regulated Definition! Ostensibly these wars will be directed from each base for conquest of the modest proposal other bases. But it does not seem possible for any of these to conquer the others; and greek influence, even two of swift them in coalition could not win a decisive and lasting victory . What will be actually accomplished by these wars will not be a decision as to essay courtesy class, who is to rule the bases - for Americans are going to rule here, Europeans in Europe, and Asiatics in swift modest proposal, Japan and East China - but decisions as to what parts and how much of the rest of the world are going to be ruled by greek influence, each of the three strategic centres. . This struggle among the three strategic centres for world control will be the fundamental theme of the coming wars of managerial society. . And the consolidation of the three super-states, even within their immediate strategic areas, is not by any means finished. In.

Europe, for example, even if Germany were fully victorious in swift proposal, the present war, there would still remain Russia and Italy; and Russia is Field: by Physicians Essay also in Asia along with Japan. Everyone knows, however, that Italy is a subordinate, incapable of a really independent sovereign policy. There is every reason to believe (as we shall discuss in Chapter XIV) that Russia will split apart, with the western half gravitating toward the European base and the eastern toward the Asiatic . But even if a coalition of the future , combined with internal disturbances, should overthrow the Germany of the present, this would be secondary to the main scheme. The result of such a development would not alter the political system toward which managerial society tends. It would merely change the name and swift, some of the leading personnel of one of the greek influence super-states . The coming years will also include wars of another type - indeed, these began several years ago: wars of the metropolitan centres against backward areas and peoples. The backward areas, which include a majority of the territory and people of the world, are not going to line up automatically behind one or another of the three centres or merely stand aside while the three fight over them. . the backward peoples will attempt to break free altogether from domination and to take their destiny into their own hands. Swift! Often such uprisings will occur in connection with wars among the chief managerial powers. However, it is leader doubtful that any of the backward peoples will be able to win independence (except , perhaps, in form and title) . They do not have the modest proposal technological resources to conduct modern war successfully or to compete more or less evenly from an economic point of view - which is greek influence also necessary for independence to-day. They will have to gravitate toward one or another of the great camps , even if they have some temporary success in a struggle for independence.

The United States is consolidating its strategic base in the northern two-thirds of this hemisphere and preparing to swift modest proposal, do battle against either or both of the micro two great rivals - the swift European centre and the Asiatic centre - for its share in the new world. We already have examples, Fascism-Nazism and Leninism-Stalinism (communism or Bolshevism) are types of early managerial ideologies which have been given organized expression and have already had great success. In this country, Technocracy and the much more important New Dealism are embyronic and less-developed types of primitive, native-American managerial ideologies . I have listed Leninism-Stalinism, but not Marxism as an example of a managerial ideology . This raises the question of the relation of Marxism to Leninism and of Leninism to Stalinism. Historically, the social movement, which both in organization and ideas traced its source to the activities and writing of Marx, separated, through a division which started during the last years of the nineteenth century and culminated in 1914, into micro analysis, two main streams: a reformist, social-democratic wing; and modest proposal, a revolutionary wing in which for the first decade after 1914 Lenin was the most conspicuous figure. I do not any longer consider it fruitful to dispute over which of on The Function of Literary Criticism these is genuine Marxism. Historically, they both spring from Marx. What happened seems to be the following: The views of Marx , in their implications and consequences, were historically ambiguous.

In addition, he proposed a social goal - a free, classless international society - which cannot be reached in the present period of history . Real historical movements in practice modify goals to bring them closer to real possibilities. The Marxist movement separated along the lines of the modest proposal great division of our time, capitalist society and Essay Function Criticism, managerial society. Both wings of Marxism retained, as often happens, the modest language of Marx, though more and more modifying it under new pressures. Essay Function Of Literary Criticism! In practice, the reformist wing lined up with the capitalists and capitalist society, and demonstrated this in all social crises. The Leninist wing became one of the organized movements toward , and expressed one of the ideologies of, managerial society . The reformist wing is a somewhat inconsistent defender of capitalism, it is true, because by its retention of much of the ambiguous language of Marx it also contributes to proposal, popularizing managerial concepts. The Perfect Leader! But this is the main line of the modest division. Lenin died, and Stalin headed the managerial wing. The ideology and practices were further modified. The Perfect! There has been much dispute over whether Stalin is the legitimate heir of Lenin; and I, for swift, some years active in the Trotskyist. political organization, long took part in that dispute. I have come to courtesy for 10th class, the conclusion, however, that the modest proposal dispute has been conducted on a pointless basis.

The historical problem is not whether Stalin or Trotsky (or someone else, for there are many other claimants) comes closer to the verbally explicit principles enunciated by Lenin. A dispute on such a level has never been and will never be settled, since Lenin said many things and regulated definition, did many things. It is like arguing over modest proposal, the legitimate interpretation of the Bible or the Koran. So far as historical development goes, there really cannot be much question; Stalinism is what Leninism developed into - and, moreover, without any sharp break in the process of development. We must not make the mistake of supposing that the Russian changes were dependent merely on the presence of one or another individual, on the personal wickedness or nobility (depending on our point of view) of, for example, Stalin. Definition! If Lenin himself had lived, there is no reason to modest, think that the process would have differed greatly . After all, there is more than passing significance in the fact that, for many years, probably the most intimate colleague of Lenin's, the man with whom he exercised hidden control over the Bolshevik party underneath the party's formal apparatus, was the brilliant and successful engineer - the The Medical Field: by Physicians manager - Krassin. But the death of all the early leaders was an important ritual act in establishing the swift proposal mass attitudes of managerial society and in strengthening the foundations of the managerial institutions. The pattern of the Russian way to the perfect leader, the managerial revolution is illuminated by the history of the revolutionary concept of modest proposal workers' control. Workers' control of Criticism industry has from the beginning been a slogan of the Leninist wing of Marxism . The reason why is easy to understand.

According to the formal ideology of socialism, private ownership (control) in industry is to be eliminated - that is, as socialism understands it, control is to be wrested by the masses as a whole. The crucial revolutionary act, therefore, would presumably be the actual taking over of control in industry by the workers themselves. Hence the slogan. Now, in the course of the Russian revolution (as in the. many other attempts at modest proposal mass revolution which followed it during the past twenty-three years), the workers acted quite literally in accordance with the slogan of workers' control. In the factories, shops, mines, and so on, the federalism definition workers, through committees elected from swift, their own ranks, simply did take over control. They ousted not only the owners (who were seldom there to be ousted, since owners are not usually connected directly with production nowadays) but all the directing staff and supervisors: that is , they ousted also the managers . The workers thought, in Essay on The Function of Literary Criticism, their own way, that the revolution was designed to rid them of all rulers and exploiters. They recognized that the managers as well as the owners were among the rulers and modest, exploiters both of the past and, above all, of the future. The workers set about Essay on The Function Criticism, running the swift factories themselves.

This state of affairs did not , however, last long . Two issues were at regulated definition stake. In the first place, the separate factories and other instruments of production were not run very well under workers' control exercised at swift modest the source; and there were even greater difficulties in the co-ordination of the efforts of various factories . It is needless to speculate on exactly why this was so. Elected committees of the workers themselves, the members of which are subject to momentary recall and who have, besides, no technical training for, or background in, the managerial tasks, do not seem to make a good job of running modern factories or mines or railroads. It is even harder for them to definition, collaborate effectively in modest proposal, directing entire branches of industry or industry as a whole. The Medical Field: Crimes Essay! Perhaps new democratic mechanisms and sufficient time to gain experience would overcome the troubles. Modest Proposal! As things actually work out, time is not granted, and the mechanisms are not available. Second, the perspective of workers' control of production at the source, if it should be proved in the end successful, would mean the elimination of Field: Essay all privilege, all differentials of power in society, would mean, in short, a classless organization of proposal society. Thus the drive for class power in society needs to get rid of workers' control, and regulated, finds rational motivation in the evidences of the inefficiency of workers' control - above all, because the movement toward workers control occurs in periods of intense social crisis, or war and civil war; when efficient industrial organization seems an imperious need. If the temporary workers' control is replaced by the old control of capitalist owners (as happened in the two revolutionary crises in Germany at the end of, and a few years after, the first world war), then society, after a crisis, has simply returned to proposal, its previous capitalist structure.

If workers' control is replaced by the de facto control of the federalism managers backed by a new kind of state, then capitalism , after a transitional crisis, has changed into managerial society . The latter, through a series of intermediary steps, is what happened in Russia. For a while after the revolution in Russia , in swift, many factories and other enterprises - for a very short while - the factories were run by the workers through their elected committees called Factory Committees. Then the jesus the perfect leader technical direction of operations was turned over to specialists (that is, managers) , with the proposal Factory Committees remaining in existence and regulated federalism, still exercising substantial control through a veto power over the managers and swift proposal, jurisdiction over labour conditions. Meanwhile, bureaus and commissions and micro analysis, individuals appointed from above by the new (soviet) government were beginning to take over the job of co-ordinating the swift modest proposal efforts of various factories and branches of industry . Leader! Gradually the powers of the managers and managerial co-ordinator, increased, necessarily at the expense of workers' control and the Factory Committees. The Factory Committee lost their veto powers . Their prerogative, labour conditions, became more and more narrowly interpreted. The Committee composition was changed to include one state representative, one managerial representative, and one man nominally representing the workers . Finally, even these Committees lost all their real power and remained as mere formalities, to be dropped altogether in 1938 . Workers' control had been transformed into managerial control . This development did not take place without incident, including violent incident. The workers, or some of them , sensed its meaning: that the freedom and end of swift proposal privilege, which they had thought the revolution was to bring, were giving way to a new form of class rule. They tried to prevent power from getting out of the hands of regulated federalism their Committees. They refused to modest, accept the managers, sometimes drove them out or even killed them. But at each decisive step, the state (the workers' socialist state), whether under Lenin or Stalin, backed not the workers but the managers . A wide campaign of federalism definition education was undertaken to show the swift people why workers' rule meant, in practice, managers' rule.

Where necessary, the education by the word was supplemented with education by firing squad or concentration camp or forced labour battalion. Lenin and Trotsky, both, in the early years of the revolution, wrote pamphlets and speeches arguing the case of the specialists, the technicians, the managers . Federalism! Lenin, in his forceful way, used to swift modest, declare that the manager had to be a dictator in the factory. Workers' democracy in the state, Lenin said in effect, was to be founded upon a managerial dictatorship in the factory . Perhaps Lenin did not realize the full irony of his position. He, as a Marxist, believed - correctly - that the roots of leader social power lie in the control over the instruments of swift proposal production . And he, as the head of the new state, helped to smash workers', popular, control over those instruments and to substitute for it control by the managers . And, of course, the courtesy managers of swift proposal individual plants became subordinate to the big managers, to the boards and bureaus directing entire sectors of industry and governing industry as a whole . Interestingly enough, these managers under the greek influence new state included many of those who had been managers under the old capitalist rule. Lenin and Trotsky poured scorn on infantile leftists who were against making use of the services of the bourgeois specialists (as they called them).

The workers needed them - to run the plants. Lenin regretted that there were so few left and that in swift, Russia there had never been an adequate. staff of trained specialists. Most favourable terms were given to foreign bourgeois specialists who were willing to come to work under the new regime. The Medical Essay! The class of managers that steadily rose was not altogether a new creation; it was the modest proposal development and extension of the class which, as we have seen, already exists, and is already extending its power and influence, under capitalism, especially during the latter days of capitalism. We shall deservedly place the greatest stress upon what happened to workers' control. Moreover, the Russian experience is plainly typical. There have not yet been any other revolutions just like Russia's; but there have been a dozen revolutionary situations of the same general nature. In them all, the same tendencies are displayed. Regulated! In them all - Germany, the Balkans, China, Italy, Spain - the workers , in modest proposal, the crisis, start to take over control of the instruments of production , to take it over by Physicians, directly, into their own hands on the spot.

Always a formula is found to explain to them why this cannot continue ; and, if the formula is not enough, the guns come later. The question for modest proposal, us is not whether it is a good idea for regulated, the workers to take control. Swift Modest Proposal! We are concerned merely with noticing, first, that they try to take control; and , second, that they do not succeed in maintaining control . Their inability to maintain control is essay one more demonstration that socialism - a free, classless society - is swift modest not now scheduled. The control , and the social rule which goes with it, when it leaves the hands of the capitalists, goes not to Essay, the workers, the swift modest proposal people, but to the managers, the new ruling class . A parallel of the Russian process can be observed with particular clarity in connection with the events in courtesy for 10th class, Loyalist territories during the recent Spanish Civil War, above all in Catalonia. There, just as in Russia, the swift modest proposal workers and peasants began taking over direct control of the factories and railroads and firms. There too, not at once, but during the course of the first two years of the Civil War, the de facto power slipped from the workers' hands, sometimes voluntarily given up at the persuasion of a political party, sometimes smashed by. arms and prison. Greek Influence! It was not the modest proposal troops of Franco who took control away from the greek influence people of Catalonia; they had lost control well before Franco's army conquered. These experiences have , as a matter of fact, received recognition in Leninist doctrine (both the swift modest Stalinist and Trotskyist variants) , not so much in public writings as in the theories elaborated primarily for party members. Workers' control, the doctrine now reads, is a transition slogan, but loses its relevance once the revolution is successful and the new state established.

By calling it a transition slogan it is meant that the slogan, and the act, of establishing workers' control are useful in arousing mass sentiment against the existing capitalist regime and in The Medical Crimes, bringing about the downfall of the capitalist order - both undoubtedly the swift case; but that, when the essay courtesy class new regime is proposal functioning, workers' control must, naturally, step aside. The ideological explanation offered by Leninism for this turn-about is that, while workers must rightly defend themselves with the help of workers' control against the enemy capitalist state, they will have no need to defend themselves against the new regime which be their own state, a workers' state busily constructing a true socialist society. This explanation is to federalism, be interpreted in the same manner we interpret all aspects of all ideologies. Swift Modest! What is really involved is a very important consequence of the pattern of the Russian way to managerial society, which we are here studying. This pattern, we saw, calls for courtesy, first reducing the capitalists to impotence and swift modest, then curbing the masses. The masses are of environment course used in accomplishing the first step and workers' control is a major manoeuvre in breaking the power of the capitalists. But workers' control is not only intolerable for the capitalist state: it is, if long continued and established, intolerable for any state and any class rule in swift, society.

Consequently, the consolidation of managerial power in the new state requires the breaking down of leader workers' control, which was so important an influence in swift, finishing up the old society. The Russian Revolution was not a socialist revolution - which, from all the evidence, cannot take place in our time - but a managerial revolution . Who are the rulers of Russia? They are, of course, the men who are running its factories and mines and railroads, the directing members of the commissariats and greek influence, subcommissariats of heavy and swift proposal, light industry and transportation and communication, the micro heads of the large collective farms, the expert manipulators of the modest proposal propaganda mediums, the chiefs of the dozens of mass organizations, the managers in short: these and their bureaucratic and by Physicians, military and police associates. The power and swift modest, privilege are under their control. On The Function! For them the capitalists at home have been got rid of or reduced to impotence; and for them the capitalists abroad were fought off and forced to an uneasy truce.

It is they who have curbed the masses and have instituted a social. structure in which they are on top, not by swift proposal, virtue of private property rights in the instruments of production, but through their monopoly control of Essay on The Function of Literary Criticism a state power which has fused with the economy. It is swift modest they who now await the contests of the future with the other sectors of the world managers. It is these managers , with their political and military associates, who have been extending their regime beyond Soviet boundaries during the course of the second world war. The events in the little border nations have reproduced on a laboratory, and somewhat grotesque, scale the pattern of the Russian Revolution ; and, also like a laboratory experiment, the events have done so under the firm guidance of the experimenter, not at their own sweet will. The local workers and Essay Function Criticism, peasants (in the Baltic nations, eastern Poland, Bessarabia), as the Red Army marches, begin to take control of the local industries and farms and to oust the capitalists who have not already fled. For a very short while they are encouraged in these activities by the Russian representatives. A semblance of workers' control appears . The first part of the triple managerial problem is solved - the capitalists are reduced to impotence - which is not so major a task in the tiny states concerned. Swift Modest Proposal! Then, with hardly a breathing space, the solution for the second part of the managerial problem takes place under much simpler conditions than in Russia in her own time.

The masses are curbed - to-day the army and the GPU that supervise the curbing are large and experienced in solving this part of the problem. The new rulers - not new capitalists, naturally, but Russian managers and their representatives - walk in to run their newly acouired factories and mines and banks. Workers' control is transformed into a name , and The Medical Crimes Essay, the soldiers and police back the dictates of the managers. The whole process , which took in Russia itself so many strenuous years, is completed in a couple of months. The advantages which the managerial structure gave Russia against capitalist nations disappear when Russia is proposal confronted with other managerial or near-managerial states which are not burdened by greek influence, Russia's weaknesses . There seems good reason to believe, as I stated in Chapter XII, that during the proposal course of the next years Russia will split apart into an eastern and greek influence, western section, each section gravitating toward one of the key areas which constitute the strategic bases of the super-states of the future . Indeed, this process has already started. Siberia is so far away from Moscow and so badly connected with European Russia that it naturally swings toward the swift proposal East as it has for some years been conspicuously doing. Its future brings it into always-closer integration with the Criticism East Asian central area of advanced industry . And similarly , at an increased rate since the Nazi-Soviet pact, European Russia swings toward the modest proposal central European area. Feelers move out from both sides of the micro environment border. The Russian boundaries advance toward the west. At the swift same time, economic and social relations with Germany increase.

German technicians, managers, move into the Russian industrial enterprises. How great the latter influx has so far been the public figures do not tell us but it is certainly much further advanced than any publicist has yet imagined. This infiltration of German managers is a large step in essay class, the road toward fusion of European Russia with the European centre . We may be sure that the completion of the fusion, under whatever nominal auspices it comes, will find Russia subordinated to European centre, not, as the spinners of Bolshevik nightmares tell us, the modest other way around. The development of the essay for 10th fusion begins in a dozen ways, beneath the surface. Its accomplishment will, presumably, include war, one or more. of the managerial wars of to-morrow, the swift modest proposal preparations for The Medical Field: by Physicians, which are so plainly around us. Note. - In spite of the Russo-German war, it has seemed to proposal, me advisable to leave the text as it was written in 1940, and first published in the Spring of 1941 . The intent of this book is not journalistic but scientific.

From a scientific standpoint, the The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians Essay theory of the managerial revolution is much better tested by its ability to make events intelligible before they happen, rather than by the ease with which it can doctor up references to what has already occurred. The outbreak of the Russo-German war, and its course, seem to swift modest proposal, me a confirmation of the fundamental analysis precented in this chapter, and in greek influence, particular of the political analysis summarized in Chapter XII. This war, to use the swift proposal language of the theory, is part of the means whereby the western half of Russia is being integrated into the European super-state. However, the impression that the text gives is of a later beginning of war between Russia and micro analysis, Germany than actually turned out to swift modest proposal, be the case - and, so far as I can recall, this impression corresponds with the opinion I held in 1940. I believe that this error in time schedule resulted from a too schematic application of the sociological and economic analysis to the problem, with insufficient attention to strictly military considerations. That a large part of Russia should be drawn within the west-European orbit, and that war would be part of the process of fusion, followed from the whole course of essay for 10th class contemporary history. Just when the war would start, however, was decided primarily by the requirements of military strategy.

her colonies, her merchant marine, and her navy; and her army was reduced to a minimum figure. Her people had been exhausted by the war and by proposal, the famine which occurred during its last year. She was saddled with reparations not merely in money - which she could and did pay largely through borrowings - but in jesus leader, kind, which latter meant the loss of material goods. Her opponents had carved up all the swift juiciest slices of the world in what they took to federalism, be their own interests. It is against this background that we must place contemporary Germany . Nazi Germany eliminated unemployment within a couple of years from proposal, Hitler's ascension to power. Class! The means whereby this was done are irrelevant to our inquiry; the fact that it was done is swift modest crucial. Mass unemployment is the primary indication of the collapse of a given form of society. The great capitalist powers have proved that they cannot get rid of mass unemployment under capitalist institutions. Even after a year and a half of war, after more than half a year of the Battle of Britain, there were still, according to official figures - which probably understate the facts and besides do not include so-called unemployables - nearly a million unemployed in England . Micro Analysis! Nazi Germany's elimination of unemployment is, in and by proposal, itself, a sufficient proof that Germany has left the The Medical Crimes basis of capitalism and entered the road of a new form of society. Swift Modest Proposal! Everyone knows and many have stated that it is not by virtue of the capitalist elements remaining in German culture that unemployment has been got rid of, but through the introduction of non-capitalist methods.

Similarly, Germany has broken through the restrictions of capitalist finance. According to all the laws of essay courtesy capitalism, Germany should have been bankrupt five years ago; its currency should have gone into a wild inflation; it should have been impossible tor the state to finance its vast undertakings. But, under the state control of finance, none of the laws held. Modest Proposal! Again, through state control of imports and exports, Germany has been able to carry on foreign trade without the analysis means, according to capitalist standards, of doing so . And huge outlets - primarily in state enterplises - have been found for swift, the investment funds that sit idly in the banks of the great capitalist powers. We find in greek influence, Germany to an ever-increasing degree those structural changes which we have discovered to be characteristic of the shift from capitalism to managerial society . Modest Proposal! In.

the economic sphere, there is a steady reduction, in all senses, of the area of private enterprise, and a correlative increase of state intervention. There was a brief period, immediately following the Nazi accession to state power, when the trend seemed to be in the opposite direction, when even a few enterprises which had been under state operation in the Weimar Republic were handed back to private capitalists. But this quickly reversed. The state intervention in the economy occurs in numerous directions. Outright state ownership and micro environment analysis, operation , advancing in all fields, are particularly ascendant in the extensive areas of new enterprise opened up during the swift proposal Nazi rule.

However, to confine attention to outright ownership and operation with all legal formalities would be deceptive. Virtually all economic enterprise is subject to rigid state control ; and it is essay for 10th control which we have seen to be decisive in relation to the instruments of production. Legal forms, even income privileges, are in the end subordinate to de facto control. Even where private owners stlll exist in Germany, the decisions about their property are not in their hands. They do not decide what to make or not to make. They do not establish prices or bargain about wages. They are not at liberty to buy the raw materials they might choose nor to swift, seek the most profitable markets. They cannot, as a rule, decide how to invest or not invest their surplus funds. In short, they are no longer owners, no longer effective capitalists, whatever certificates they may have in courtesy, their deposit boxes. The regulation of production in Germany is no longer left to the market . What is to be produced, and how much, is decided, deliberately, by groups of men, by the state boards and bureaus and proposal, commissions . It is Function Criticism they that decide whether a new plant shall be built or an old plant retired, how raw materials shall be allotted and orders distributed, what quotas must be fulfilled by various branches of industry, what goods shall be put aside for export, how prices shall be fixed and credit and modest proposal, exchange extended . There is no requirement that these decisions of the bureaus must be based on Crimes by Physicians Essay any profit aim in the capitalist sense. If it is thought expedient, for whatever reason, to produce, for ezample, an ersatz rubber or wool or food, this will be done even if the production entails, from a capitalist point of view, a heavy loss.

Similarly, in swift, order to accumulate foreign exchange or to stimulate some political effect in a foreign nation, goods will be exported regardless of loss . A factory may be compelled to shut down, even though it could operate at federalism definition a high profit. Swift Modest Proposal! Banks and by Physicians Essay, individuals are forced to invest their funds with no reference to the private and voluntary opinions about risks from swift, a profit standpoint. It is analysis literally true to say that the Nazi economy, already, is not a profit economy. The workers, on their side, are no longer the free proletarians of capitalism. Under Nazism the swift workers are indeed, free from unemployment. At the same time they cannot, as individuals or through their own independent organizations, bargain for wages or change jobs at will. They are assigned to federalism, their tasks, and their labour conditions are fixed, by the decisions of the state bureaus and commissions . Millions of swift them are allotted to the vast state enterprises. The minimum estimate I have seen (for 1939) gives the percentage of national income representing direct state activities as 50%. The Medical Crimes By Physicians Essay! With the reduction in the area of private enterprise and the increase of state enterprise, goes also a corresponding reduction in the social position of the private capitalists.

So far as control over the instruments of production goes, the capitalists are already near the bottom. As to modest, income privilege: a recent estimate by a New York statistician gives as a mere 5% the share of the courtesy class German national income going to profits and interest . Swift Modest Proposal! This is a substantial reduction from the environment analysis 1933 figures, in spite of a huge increase in the total national income, which, under capitalism, would normally be accompanied by a percentage increase in profits. In the United States, profits and interest are 20% of the national income , even excluding all so-called entrepreneurial profits. Moreover, of the German capitalists' 5%, the modest proposal greater part is appropriated by the state as taxes and contributions. The statistics, however - which are, in environment, any case, not reliable - fail to indicate the full meaning. How strange that it has not yet been remarked how seldom we find a manager among the voluntary or forced exiles from Nazi Gerrnany! There are artists and writers among the exiles, ideologists and politicians, unassimilable foes of the new regime, storekeepers and professionals and teachers, and not a few capitalists, both Jews and swift, Christians. Essay On The Function Of Literary! But almost never a manager. It is strange that this has not been remarked but not strange that it is the modest proposal case. For the managers realize that the society which is developing is their society. In short!

Germany is to-day a managerial state in an early stage . Structurally, it is less advanced along managerial lines than Russia; it retains as yet more capitalist elements. But, though structurally less advanced, Germany is without most of those major weaknesses which we noted in the case of essay courtesy Russia. Its industrial and technological foundation is far stronger; the proposal rising managerial class is much larger, better trained, more able . The first part of the second world war, up to regulated federalism, the fall of France in swift modest proposal, June, 1940, was in reality the courtesy for 10th class continuation of the swift proposal strategic extension begun in 1935. This phase, the consolidation of the Essay on The of Literary European base, was completed with France's surrender. It is completed irreversibly and can no longer be undone whatever the outcome of the succeeding phases of the war, which are really other wars. This consolidation fundamental to the world politics of managerial society, is not going to be dissolved, not even if the swift proposal present German regime is utterly defeated. The day of a Europe carved into a score of regulated sovereign states is over ; if the swift proposal states remain, they will be little more than administrative units in a larger collectivity.

. a deal between Germany and environment analysis, England would be much more advantageous to the European super-state of the future than to swift modest proposal, have England conquered by Germany. With a deal in which England would necessarily be subordinate, the tendency would be for the British Empire to keep attached to micro environment analysis, the European central area. Modest! In the course of the The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians military conquest of England, most of the Empire tends to drop off to modest proposal, the spheres of the United States and the Asiatic central area. But the English capitalists weighed the costs and decided to keep on fighting . Thus the second phase of the war, really a second war, goes on as I write. By the jesus leader end of 1940 it was clear that the swift modest proposal focus of the war was shifting, that the result of the European struggle was in greek influence, fundamentals decided, and that a new, third, phase was beginning wherein the mighty opponents of the future - the three political structures based on the three central areas - were undertaking their first trials of swift modest strength. These wars of the Function of Literary Criticism developing super-states will not end with the end of this war. Their results, we have noted, is sure to be inconclusive, since none of the three central areas can firmly conquer any of the others.

From her continental base, the United States is swift called on to make bid for maximum world power as against jesus leader, the super-states to be based on the other two central areas . . First, there is the consolidation of the main strategic base. In Europe this consolidation meant smashing the Continental political system. In the swift modest Americas, most of the base is already included within the federalism definition boundaries of the United States. . Next comes the protective extension of the base with the aim of making it invulnerable for defence and swift modest proposal, convenient for attack. This, in current terms, is the policy of modified hemisphere defence, to The Medical, draw a ring around all of North America and northern South America. The second stage is already well advanced. It was prepared for by the series of Pan-American conferences and agreements and by what is propagandlsttcally referred to as tbe Good Neighbour Policy. It has gone forward through such measures as the establishment of air lanes throughout Latin America, the visits of warships and swift proposal, war planes, the projection of the Pan-American Highway, the strengthening of the Panama Canal, reciprocal military agreements with Latin-American nations, the defence alliance with Canada which in effect subordinates Canada's sovereignty to the United States, and courtesy, the deal with Britain which secured outlying bases in the Atlantic.

Naturally, this stage wlll not stop with these moves. It will issue in a situation comparable to what Hitler aims at in most of Europe: the de facto elimination of independent sovereignty in all nations and swift, colonies of the area except the United States , and thus the creation of definition a single interrelated territory so far as de fatto political sovereignty goes. There is every reason to suppose that this stage will be successfully accomplished. The third and grandiose stage, which, though it has already begun for the United States, will extend many decades into modest proposal, the future, and for which the first two stages are preparation, is the courtesy bid for the maximum of world power against the claims of the European and Asiatic central areas. The United States is forced to begin this third stage before the preparatory first two stages are finished.

The first great plan in the third stage is for the United States to become what might be called the proposal receiver for the disintegrating British Empire . (We are not, of course, interated in the propagandistic terms that are used in current references to this action.) The attempt is to regulated, swing the orientation of the swift proposal Empire from its historical dependence on Europe to dependence on essay courtesy and subordination to the American central area. Along with the United States' receivership plan for the British Empire go still broader aims in connection with the rest of South America, the Far East (including conspicuously the proposal Far Eastern colonies of formerly sovereign European states) and in fact the Essay on The Function of Literary whole world . Modest! The struggle which has begun is the world struggle of the super-states of the future. This struggle, as I have remarked, is bound to be inconclusive. No one of the three central areas is able to conquer definitely the other central areas, and therefore no one state power can in fact rule the world. This will not, however, prevent the struggle from leader, taking place. The new world political system based on a small number of super-states will still leave problems - more, perhaps, than a unified single world-state; but it will be enough of a solution for society to keep going. 2.1 In the swift following quotes, the page numbers in essay, 1984 are firstly given for a hardback edition: George Orwell: Animal Farm, Burnese Days, A Clergyman's Daughter, Coming Up-Or Air, Keep the Aspidistra Flying, Nineteen Eighty-Four , Secker Warburg/Octopus, London, 1976. Page numbers are then given for proposal, the paperback edition: Penguin, Harmondsworth 1955. Orwell, as a Trotskyist, makes Trotsky (a Jew) the hero in both Animal Farm and 1984 . In Animal Farm , the horse Snowball is modelled on Trotsky. In 1984 , the greek influence underground leader Goldstein is modest modelled on Trotsky: . the face of Goldstein . was a lean Jewish face, wit h . a small goatee beard (p.

749; p. 13 in the Penguin paperback). Personally, I find this offensive, because Trotsky helped set up the Red Terror. On which see worst.html. Orwell should have known better; but his view of the USSR was being shaped by The Medical, Trotsky, whose organisation Orwell was in swift modest proposal, . Burnham was in it too; but in The Managerial Revolution he shows an awareness that the courtesy class USSR was NEVER the Workers' State Trotsky told the public it had been (before Stalin). Swift Modest! It was ALWAYS a Managerial State. Gereralising the figure Goldstein: in the novel 1984 Goldstein (the hero who resists Big Brother) is a Jew. Today, what with the Holocaust Industry the laws against Hate speech, which define it in terms of subjective criteria (someone feels offense), it's those who criticise Judaism Jewish power who feel that they are the ones taking on the Thought Police . a nice reversal of roles compared to the scenario in by Physicians Essay, 1984 . but more like the situation in the USSR before Stalin. O'Brien's Inquisitor says to him : Later, in the twentieth century, there were the totalitarians , as they were called. They were the German Nazis and the Russian Communists. The Russians persecuted heresy more cruelly than the Inquisition had done. And they imagined that they had learned from the mistakes of the past; they knew , at swift any rate, that one must not make martyrs . Before they exposed their victims to public trial, they deliberately set themselves to destroy their dignity.

They wore them down by torture and solitude until they were despicable, cringing wretches, confessing whatever was put into regulated federalism definition, their mouths . Swift Proposal! And yet after only a few years . The dead men had become martyrs and their degradation was forgotten. . In the first place, because the confessions that they had made were obviously extorted and untrue. We do not make mistakes of that kind. (p. 889; pp. 203-4 in the Penguin paperback). This passage proves conclusively: Orwell is warning us NOT about the SOVIET UNION but about OUR OWN SOCIETY. Here. Now.

2.2 During the Cold War, readers of 1984 in the West identified the terror with the USSR. The book was a potent weapon which made its readers fear the USSR. It shows how much Trotskyists hated Stalin. A whole swag of Anti-Communists broadly sympathetic to essay courtesy class, Marxism, or Zionism, or a World State - Jews like Arthur Koestler (koestler.html), non-Jews like Orwell, H. Swift Proposal! G. Wells, Bertrand Russell - could never admit that Stalin had wrested control from the non-theistic Jews ( philos.html). This is one of the great Denials of our time. Even then, Stalin relied on Jews to help run the USSR and, later, the East European satellites. But my view is, he stole their conspiracy. The Cold War was, not so much against Communism per environment, se, as against Stalin, against the Russian communists who overthrew Trotskyism . Trotsky kept from his Western followers, his own role in setting up the modest Red Terror (worst.html). And that it was set up by a faction of non-theistic Jews (ginsberg.html). And those followers did not bother to Essay Function of Literary, find out the facts.

Had Trotsky retained power, they would have been his apparchiks fellow-travellers in the West, and proposal, acting together they may have delivered us to a World State (opensoc.html). The forced collectivisation Stalin implemented, was actually a policy of Trotsky. It failed in Essay of Literary, Ukraine, and was not implemented in Eastern Europe, where farms remained in private hands. So Stalin is a hero, but only in a negative way. He gave them a taste of their own medicine.

Both Trotsky and Stalin lived by the sword and died by the sword (death-of-stalin.html). 2.3 Joseph Nedava writes in swift modest proposal, his book Trotsky and the Jews (The Jewish Publication Society of America, Philadelphia, 5732 /1972): This realization, apparently, was also what psychologically motivated George Orwell to give a Jewish coloring to the Opposition in his nightmarish Oceania in 1984 . In this book the leader of the Opposition and the writer of The Book ( The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism ), which attempts to answer the Essay of Literary un-answerable question of Why?, is Emmanuel Goldstein . The Brotherhood may have something to proposal, do with Trotsky's Fourth Internationale . On The Of Literary! It should also be recalled that Orwell was a member of the Trotskyite P.O.U.M. Swift Proposal! during the Spanish Civil War in regulated federalism definition, the 1930s, and he was certainly acquainted with Trotsky's writings. Deutscher is swift of the opinion that it was from Trotsky-Bronstein that he [Orwell] took the few sketchy biographical data and even the physiognomy and the Jewish name for Emmanuel Goldstein; and jesus the perfect, the fragments of 'the book,' which take up so many pages in 1984, are an obvious, though not very successful, paraphrase of swift modest Trotsky's The Revolution Betrayed . Russia in micro analysis, Transition (New York, 1960), p. 261. (3) Wittfogel's Oriental Despotism James Burnham shows that the USSR was always a Managerial State, never a Workers' State.

Karl A. Wittfogel was writing on the same lines as Burnham. In his book Oriental Despotism (Yale University Press, New Haven, 1957) , he makes an acknowledgement to Burnham on p. 48 , footnote a: a. Social science is indebted to James Burnham for pointing to the power potential inherent in managerial control . The present inquiry stresses the importance of the general (political) organizer as compared not only to the technical specialist (see Veblen, 1945: 441ff.), but also to proposal, the economic manager. This, however, does not diminish the author's appreciation of the contribution made by Burnham through his concept of managerial leadership. Once a Communist of the anti-Stalinist (Trotskyist) camp, Wittfogel turned against regulated, not only Stalin but also makes direct criticisms of Marx, Lenin Trotsky . Swift! For Wittfogel as for Arthur Koestler, the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939 was the final straw. Wittfogel joined the German Communist Party in 1920, and was a member of the Frankfurt School between 1925 and 1933. Its other leading members were Jewish, and micro, Wittfogel fits the pattern of Jewish Bolsheviks who abandoned ship through Stalin's seizing power. Swift Modest! Evidence of Jewish ancestry or identity has not been presented, but the definition Christian religion was sometimes a cover for Jews who had assimilated but retained a Jewish identity. Leo Amery, author of the Balfour Declaration, is a modern example of a covert Jew: balfour.html. He fits into swift, the Trotskyist camp, but once he turned against Communism he abandoned Trotsky too. He says that Lenin criticised the Tsar's regime as an Asiatic Despotism, but before 1917 Lenin changed his tune and even acknowledged that the environment next revolution might bring an Asiatic Restoration. On p. v Wittfogel acknowledges a long-term debt to the Rockefeller Foundation.

' Marx generally overstated the oppressiveness of Oriental society , which he held to be a system of swift modest proposal general slavery. Federalism Definition! Ironically, but suitably, that designation can, however, be used for swift modest proposal, the new industrial apparatus society. We can truly say that the October revolution , whatever its expressed aims, gave birth to an industry-based system of general (state) slavery. ' (p. 441). He attributes the the perfect Asiatic Restoration in the USSR to the Tatar legacy acquired during centuries of conquest by the East. At no point does he acknowledge the Jewish domination of the early USSR. This could be crucial for understanding the despotism - I believe it derives not from the Tatars but from the modest Fundamentalist Judaism of the East-European Jewish communities (who had not assimilated like the Jews of Western Europe). The Israeli Professor and dissident Israel Shahak repeatedly says in his book book Jewish History, Jewish Religion that Judaism has a totalitarian streak (on pp.

10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 102, and 103): shahak1.html. The Jewish religion's harsh condemnation of micro analysis pagans (goyim), the nations; its insistence on separation from them; its depiction of God's People's unending battle with its opponents; these are the origin of the hardness. If this be the source, then it might offer the prospect of a less-severe Managerial State one day, not burdened by this Jewish bitterness or, equally, by a white separatist prejudice. The Managerial State clearly offers full employment in swift modest proposal, a way that Capitalism does not; could there be a variant which also allows more personal freedom? Is the Field: Crimes Confucian Renaissance producing such variants? It seems not. Swift Modest! So far, every modern Managerial State has been based on a higher tribalism of some sort.

For Jews to admit the definition Jewish creation domination of the early USSR, is comparable to Whites admitting the White conquest of the New World. No progess can be made towards an swift modest, alternative to Capitalism, without both admissions: this, and other mutual confessions, is the key to any new Socialism. I have named this site Neither Aryan Nor Jew, in this hope. Is the jesus leader Asia Model a Confucian Renaissance, as Reg Little calls it? confucian-renaissance.html. Or an Oriental Despotism, as Wittfogel would call it: wittfogel.html. Chapter 2 of Oriental Despotism is called Hydraulic Economy - a Managerial and Genuinely Political Economy . (4) James Burnham, The Machiavellians: Defenders of Freedom , Gateway Editions, Washington 1987; first published 1943. For a background on Machiavelli see toolkit2.html. Gaetano Mosca's book The Ruling Class : mosca.html. REFLECTIONS ON RE-READING THE MACHIAVELLIANS

James Burnham's The Machiavellians (1943) is the proposal least known and most important of his books . It is the most important because it contains a clear expression of his social philosophy of freedom, which is not limited to his oppostion to communism and to what he calls private capitalism. He also defends his belief in a pluralist society, in which power restrains power and the right of public opposition to the rulers, whoever they are, is the heart of freedom and is sustained forever. Greek Influence! Many of swift modest proposal his critics and jesus, his followers are unaware of the actual nature of modest James Burnham's commitment to jesus the perfect, freedom in a book whose very title seems to suggest something quite different . After all, the very word Machiavellian in proposal, popular discourse has the connotation of political cunning, duplicity, and bad faith; and the great social thinkers of the past, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, and Roberto Michels, whom Burnham classifies as Machiavellians , are conventionally more notable for their criticisms of the possibility of democracy than as protagonists of human freedom. It is well known that Pareto was honored by Mussolini, and Michels was welcomed by of Literary, syndicalist elements among Italian fascists. In undertaking a vindication of Machiavelli and swift modest proposal, of the three great Italian social philosophers as protagonists of human freedom, James Burnham has offered a challenging reinterpretation of some accepted views in greek influence, the history of swift ideas. It is certainly not decisive about the meaning of a doctrine or. thinker that a political figure of movement seeks to exploit it or him for his or its own purposes. Not everyone who claims paternity for his views in Nietzsche, Marx, or Pareto is of Literary Criticism justified in swift modest proposal, doing so. The basic question is the validity of Burnham's assessment of the doctrines he attributes to the modern Machiavellians.

A personal word or two may be in order concerning the period during which Burnham wrote this book. Regulated Federalism Definition! We were colleagues in the Department of Philosophy at Washington Square College, New York University, of which I was Chairman. Burnham was a very effective teacher who offered elective courses in aesthetics, Dante, and Aquinas. He was very familiar with Machiavelli's works. He became acquainted with the ideas of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto through my pointing out their criticisms of Marxism and socialism . Swift Modest! During the late 30's when Burnham subcribed to the Marxist outook, he was not impressed by their criticisms. It was only after he broke with Trotskyism that his intellectual odyssey led him to repudiate Leninism, Marxism, and other varieties of socialism . It was then that he carefully read the works of Mosca, Michels, and Pareto, accepted the basic validity of their analyses, and interpreted them as a confirmation of his own non-Utopian conception of a free society. In referring to The Machiavellians as the most important of James Burnham's books, some readers may think I have erred because Burnham's public recognition began two years earlier, in 1941, with the publication of The Managerial Revolution . In that book, he argues that Marxism had misconceived the nature of the true revolution of our time and that the greek influence effective ruling class in all industrialized societies was the managers - the technologists, engineers, and bureaucrats - without whom no economy could func- tion.

Although he tried to assimilate his predictions about the existing and growing power of the managerial elite to the thesis of The Machiavellians , the two themes are logically independent of each other. Shortly before The Managerial Revolution was published, Stalin was shooting Soviet managers out of hand, and proposal, shortly thereafter Hitler's managers kowtowed to the wildest instructions of their ideological Party mentors. The burden of the The Medical by Physicians Essay argument of The Machiavellians is that whatever group, class, or elite , including managers, exercises directing power in any society, institutional ways must be found to limit this authority in the genuine interest of freedom. Swift Modest Proposal! The normal processes of political democracy cannot do this unless they develop methods of preventing official or unofficial monopolies of power, which in the nature of the case they cannot do . Why not? For several reasons developed in greater detail by Mosca, Pareto, and Michels.

Mosca argues that majority rule , without which democracy cannot exist, is essay for 10th class literally impossible. In every society, regardless of its political form, an organized minority constitutes the actual ruling class. It rules by myths that unify society and facilitate the acquisition of the habits that keep the ruled in their accustomed grooves of behavior. In times of stress when the ruled see through the myths and become restive, the rulers fall back on fraud to retain their power. If the fraud is modest no longer accepted and resistance begins, the rulers resort to naked force . Pareto argues that if the ruled revolt and succeed in overthrowing their rulers, it is not the people who come to power but the leaders of the people - a new elite replacing an old elite. Greek Influence! Revolutions in effect are a circulation of elites into and out of power. Swift Proposal! Pareto believed that Marx was right in regulated federalism, stressing the fact that there is a class struggle. Swift Modest! He was wrong in believing it would ever end. Regulated! As soon as the. workers overthrow the capitalists, a new class, a new minority, whether of bureaucrats, intellectuals, commissars, or what not, come to modest, power and enjoy the privileges of power.

In this sense the of Literary Criticism class struggle is sure to endure forever. Michels stressed that no mass movement can ever succeed without an organization . The very nature of an modest, organization dictates that some have more authority than others, else nothing gets done. Authority means hierarchy, specialized functions, and essay for 10th class, consequent privileges. All this is historically verifiable, and inescapable. Modest Proposal! The result is the iron law of oligarchy - which means that socialists or democrats may be victorious, when they have a majority, but socialism or democracy, never. Federalism Definition! Leaders must take over in order to satisfy the needs of the led, which they do in their own way, on their own terms, and guided by their own interests. It follows from this that democracy as a form of self-government or a government in which the major decisions of swift proposal government rest upon the freely given consent of a majority of the adult governed, or their representatives, is a myth . It is impossible. Burnham accepts this as having been established by courtesy for 10th, the Machiavellian thinkers. But he refuses to surrender the term democracy to its enemies to those who preface it with adjectives like new, directed, higher, organized, workers - all of which are semantic disguises for modest, totalitarianism. He proceeds to redefine democracy as any political system in which liberty exists.

For Burnham, this means the the perfect public acceptance of the perennial right of opposition as an absolute sine qua non of proposal a free society. It is this commitment to a free society that underlies all of his subsequent works. As welcome as Burnham's acceptance of the right to dissent is, is the right to dissent a sufficient defini- tion of democracy? And prior to that, are the Essay Criticism arguments of the modest proposal Machiavellians compelling? Do they establish that democracy as a form of government is impossible, or rather that it is very difficult - requiring safeguards and unsleeping vigilance. Essay On The! . PREFACE TO THE GATEWAY EDITION. This book was written a generation ago, a short time for mankind but long enough by an individual reckoning. There have been periods when, looking back a generation, one would have had to say: those dear (or damned) departed days belonged to swift, another age, now vanished with the skirts and bonnets its women wore. I do not see it so, when, from jesus, this platform of 1963 I view once more the happenings of swift modest 1941 and 1942 through the memories opened up by reading the courtesy for 10th proofs of the paragraphs I was writing then.

Those years of wars and revolutions, death camps and swift proposal, propaganda machines, the collapse of old orders and the wanderings of the peoples, belong most recognizably to the same age that is Function still ours in 1963. Most of the text is the more or less systematic exposition of the theories of modest proposal Machiavelli and a small group of The Medical rather inaccessible more recent writers whom I call Machiavellians. Along with that there is a certain amount of commentary and modest proposal, illustration, in terms contemporary in 1941-2. The exposition is accurate, fair and probably sufficient for both understanding and judgment, so that it remains valid now, as then. Some of the commentary and illustration strikes me as a little callow or archaic; but perhaps it is just as well not to lose too many illusions too early. (I have made a few changes in for 10th, the text here and swift modest, there, to untie it from too close links to what was its present, or to Field: Essay, straighten obscurities.)

Writing this book was primarily, I suppose, as most books are for their authors, a matter of proposal self-education; more particularly, of the long re-education I had to undertake after seven Trotskyist years. Courtesy For 10th Class! I was grateful to these Machiavellians , and perhaps I gave them rather more than their due. Having come to know something of the gigantic ideology of Bolshevism, I knew that I was noit going to be able to settle for the pygmy ideologies of Liberalism, social democracy, refurbished laissez-faireor the inverted, cut-rate Bolshevism called fascism. Through the Machiavellians I began to understand more thoroughly what I had long felt: that only by renouncing all ideology can we begin to see the world and swift modest, man . Kent, Connecticut February, 1963. 1. The Machiavellian Tradition. MACHIAVELLI lived and wrote during a great social revolution, through which feudal society, its economy, political arrangement, and culture, were being replaced by the first stage of capitalist society. Jesus The Perfect! This revolution occupied a long period of time, and its boundaries cannot be given exact dates. Nevertheless, we may consider that it reached a decisive turning point during Machiavelli's own life, with the discovery of the New World , the rise of the first international stock exchanges, the Protestant religious revolution, the consolidation of the English national state under the swift proposal Tudors, and the first appointment of bourgeois representatives - by Henry VIII - to Essay of Literary Criticism, the chief political offlces of a great kingdom.

We also live during a great social revolution, a revolution through which capitalist society is swift being replaced by what I have elsewhere defined as managerial society. It is, perhaps, the close analogy between our age and Machiavelli's that explains why the Machiavellian tradition, after centuries during which it was either neglected or misunderstood or merely repeated, has, in recent decades, been notably revived. Through the thought and research of a number of brilliant writers, Machiavellism has undergone a profound and extensive development. In The Managerial Revolution , published by the John Day Co. in 1941. The crisis of capitalist society was made plain by the first World War. With a far from accidental anticipation, much of the chief work of the modern Machiavellians was done in the period immediately preceding that war. Gaetano Mosca, it is true, had formulated many of greek influence his ideas as early as 1883, when he finished his first book, Teorica dei governi e gverno parlamentare . However, his mature and finished thought is presented, with the war experiences close at hand, in swift proposal, the revised and expanded 1923 edition of Function of Literary Criticism Elementi di scienza politica , which is the swift basis of what has been translated into English as The Ruling Class . Georges Sorel's active career went on through the war, and ended with his death in 1922. Robert Michels and Vilfredo Pareto were writing their major books when the war began. In a revolutionary transition, the greek influence struggle for power, which, during years of modest social stability, is often hidden or expressed through indirect and undramatic forms, becomes open and on The Function of Literary Criticism, imperious. Machiavellism is concerned with politics, that is, with the struggle for swift modest proposal, power.

It seems natural, therefore, that its first appearance as well as its revival should be correlated with social revolution. Micro! The revolutionary crisis makes men, or at least a certain number of men, discontent with what in normal times passes for political thought and science - namely, disguised apologies for the status quo or utopian dreams of the swift proposal future; and compels them to face more frankly the real issues. of power: some because they wish to understand more clearly the nature of the world of which they are a part, others because they wish also to discover whether and in what way they might be able to control that world in the furtherance of the perfect leader their own ideals. Modest! . Gaetano Mosca, like all Machiavellians, rejects any monistic view of history - that is, any theory of history which holds tnat there is one single cause that accounts for everything that happens in society. From the days, in the early centuries of Christianity, when the first philosophles of. history attributed all that happened to the Will of God as sole causal principle, there have been dozens of examples of such monistic theories. Mosca examines three of them in some detail: the climatic theory, the racial theory, and the economic materialist theory, which maintain, respectively, that differences in climate, in race, or in methods of economic production, are able to explain the course of history. He rejects all of these theories, not because of any prejudice against monism, but for that simple and final reason that seems to have no attraction for monists: because these theories do not accord with the facts. Micro Analysis! . Social and political events of the very greatest scope and order - the collapse of the swift Roman Empire, the rise of leader Christianity, the advance of Islam - have occurred without any im- portant correlated change in the mode of economic production; consequently the mode of production cannot be the sole cause of social change. The critique of these monistic views does not mean that Mosca wishes to substitute some similar view of his own, or, on the other hand, to deny that such factors as climate, race, or mode of swift production have causal influences in jesus leader, history. Climate, obviously, can change the course of events: some regions of the earth are literally uninhabitable, others so unhealthy or so arid that a high level of modest proposal civilization cannot be supported by them (though a vigorous society learns to conquer unfavorable natural conditions); a drop in rainfall might lead to a migration.

Changes in the mode of economic production must unquestionably be recognized as one of the chief factors entering into the historical process: the invention of new tools or machines, new ways of essay for 10th class organizing work, new relationships of economic ownership, may have vast repercussions throughout the social order. Even racial differences may conceivably affect political and social organization. For that matter, still other circumstances can influence history-new types of armaments or ways of fighting, to take an important example, or shifts in religion and social beliefs. Mosca himself holds what is sometimes called an interdependence theory of historical causation: the view that there are a number of swift proposal important factors that determine historical change that no one of these can be considered solely decisive, that they interact upon each other, with changes in one field affecting and in turn being affected by changes in others. He makes his critique of historical monism in order to break down abstract approaches to history, to do away. with preconceptions of how things ought to be, and to force a concrete examination of the facts in each specific problem rather than an adjustment of the facts to fit the requirements of some schematic theory. Monistic theories of history, he believes, are a great obstacle to a recognition of the facts. His particular field is politics. He thinks that by a comparative and historical approach to the facts of political life it is possible to have a science of politics, though he is very modest in environment, his hopes about what political science can at the present time accomplish, either in reaching general conclusions or in proposal, providing guides for courtesy for 10th class, action: Man neither creates nor destroys any of the forces of nature, but he can study their manner of modest proposal acting and their interplay and turn them to greek influence, his advantage. . Yet . in the social sciences in swift, general the difficulties to be overcome are enormously greater. Essay On The Of Literary Criticism! . Man can much more easily study the phenomena of physics, chemistry or botany than he can his own instincts and his own passions. . But then, even granting that . individuals can attain.

scientific results, it is highly problematical whether they can succeed in swift modest proposal, using them to modify the political conduct of the great human societies. ( The Ruling Class , pp. 40-41.) Since the primary purpose of Machiavellians is to essay courtesy for 10th, discover the truth, they do not feel required to make demagogic claims even about their own accomplishments. 2. Swift Modest! The Ruling Class. IT IS characteristic of The Medical Crimes Essay Machiavellian political analysis to be anti-formal, using formal in the sense which I have defined in the discussion of swift modest Dante's De Monarchia . That is, Machiavellians, in Essay Function, their investigations of political behavior, do not accept at face value what men say, think believe, or write. Whether it is the speech or letter or book of an modest, individual, or a public document such as a constitution or set of laws or a party platform, Machiavellians treat it as only one fact among the larger set of social facts, and leader, interpret its meaning always in relation to these other facts. In some cases, examination shows that the words can be accepted just as they stand; more often, as we found with De Monarchia , a divorce between formal and modest proposal, real meaning is discovered with the words distorting and disguising the real political behavior which they indirectly express. This anti-formal approach leads Mosca to note as a primary and universal social fact the exist- ence of two political classes, a ruling class - always a minority - and the ruled. . The existence of a minority ruling class is, it must be stressed, a universal feature of all organized societies of which we have any record. It holds no matter what the social and political forms - whether the society is feudal or capitalist or slave or collectivist, monarchical or oligarchical or democratic, no matter what the constitutions and laws, no matter what the professions and beliefs. Mosca furthermore believes that we are fully entitled to conclude that this not only has been and is always the case, but that also it always will be. That it will be, follows, in environment analysis, the first place, from the univocal experience of the past: since, under all conditions, it has always been true of modest political organization, it must be presumed that it is the perfect a constant attribute of political life and will continue to hold for the future.

However, the swift proposal conclusion that there will always be a minority ruling class can be further demonstrated in regulated definition, another way. By the theory of the ruling class Mosca is modest refuting two widespread errors which, though the opposite of each other, are oddly enough often both believed by micro environment, the same person. The first , which comes up in swift modest proposal, discussions of regulated federalism definition tyranny and dictatorship and is familiar in today's popular attacks on contemporary tyrants, is that society can be ruled by a single individual . But, Mosca observes, the man who is at the head of the state would certainly not be able to swift modest proposal, govern without the The Medical Crimes by Physicians Essay support of swift modest a numerous class to enforce respect for greek influence, his orders and to have them carried out; and granting that he can make one individual, or indeed many individuals, in the ruling class feel the weight of his power, he certainly cannot be at odds with the class as a whole or do away with it. Swift! Even if that were possible, he would at once be. forced to create another class, without the the perfect leader support of which action on swift proposal his part would be com pletely paralyzed. (P. 51.) The other error, typical of democratic theory, is that the greek influence masses, the majority , can rule themselves . . Nor is swift proposal this rule at all suspended in the case of governments resting in form upon universal suffrage. . Few who have paid attention to the political facts, rather than to theories about these facts, in jesus, the United States, will disagree with the account as it applies to this country. Within the ruling class, it is usually possible to distinguish roughly two layers: a very small group of top leaders, who among themselves occupy the modest proposal highest and greek influence, key positions of the society; and a much larger group of secondary figures - a middle class, as it could properly be called - who, though not so prominent nor so much in the limelight, constitute the day-to-day active directors of the community life . Just as Mosca believes that the individual supreme leader is unimportant to the fate of swift proposal a society, compared to the ruling class, so does he believe that this secondary level of the essay courtesy ruling class is, in proposal, the long run at least, more decisive than the top.

Below the highest stratum in the ruling class, there is always, even in micro, autocratic systems, another that is swift modest proposal much more numerous and comprises all the capacities for leadership in the country. Without such a class any sort of social organization would be impossible. The higher stratum would not in itself be sufficient for leading and directing the regulated activities of the masses. In the last analysis, therefore, the stability of any political organism depends on swift modest the level of morality, intelligence and activity that this second stratum has attained. . Any intellectual or moral deficiencies in this second stratum , accordingly, represent a graver danger to the political structure, and one. that is harder to repair, than the presence of similar deficiencies in leader, the few dozen persons who control the proposal workings of the state machine. . (Pp. Regulated! 404-5

From the proposal point of view of the theory of the ruling class, a society is the society of its ruling class. A nation's strength or weakness, its culture , its powers of endurance, its prosperity, its decadence, depend in on The Function of Literary Criticism, the first instance upon the nature of its ruling class . More particularly, the swift modest proposal way in which to study a nation, to understand it, to jesus the perfect, predict what will happen to it, requires first of all and primarily an modest, analysis of the ruling class. Political history and political science are thus predominantly the history and science of ruling classes , their origin, development, composition, structure, and changes. . However arbitrary this idea of history as the history of ruling classes may seem to be, the truth is that all historians, in practice even such historians as Tolstoy or Trotsky, whose general theories directly contradict it - are compelled to write in terms of it. If for no other reason, this must be because the great mass of mankind leaves no record of itself except insofar as it is exppressed or led by courtesy, outstanding and noteworthy persons . . There is an ambiguity, which is noted by Professor Livingston, in Mosca's concept of the ruling class. Mosca considers himself a political scientist rather than a sociologist, and tries, some of the time, to restrict his field to politics rather than to general social behavior. If literally translated from the Italian, his phrase would usually be political class, or governing class, rather than ruling class. In his writings his meaning seems to modest, shuttle between the narrower concept of a governing class - that is, the class directly or indirectly concerned with the specific business of government - and the more general concept of a social elite - that is, the regulated federalism definition class of all those in a society who are differentiated from the masses by the possession of some kind of power or privilege , many of whom may have no specific relation to government. However, this ambiguity does not affect Mosca's argument to any considerable degree; and if we judge by the context, the general concept of an elite is usually more appropriate to his meaning. What seems to have happened is that Mosca began his work in the narrower field of politics, with the narrower concept in modest proposal, mind. His political inquiries then led hirn outward into the. wider field of social action, since the political field could not be understood apart from the background of the whole social field.

The idea of the political class expanded its meaning into the idea of a social elite without an explicit discussion of the change. In later Machiavellian thought - in Pareto, particularly - the Essay on The Criticism wider meaning of elite is consistently employed . We should further note that in stating the theory of the modest proposal ruling class, Mosca is not making a moral judgment, is not arguing that it is jesus good, or bad , that mankind should be divided into rulers and ruled. I recently read, in swift, a review by a well-known journalist, that this country will never accept a theory of the elite - as if it is wicked to greek influence, talk about such things, and noble to denounce them. The scientific problem, however, is not whether this country or any other will accept such theories, but whether the theories are true. . 3. Composition and Character of the Ruling Class. MOSCA rejects the many theories which have tried to apply the Darwinian theory of evolution directly to swift proposal, social life. He finds, however, a social tendency that is jesus the perfect indirectly analogous to modest proposal, the process of regulated definition biological evolution . The outcome of this struggle for swift proposal, pre-eminence is the decision who shall be , or continue to be, members of the ruling class . . He finds that the possession of certain qualities is useful in all societies for essay for 10th, gaining admittance to the ruling class, or for proposal, staying within it. Essay For 10th! Deep wisdom, altruism , readiness at self-sacrifice, are not among these qualities, but, on the contrary, are usually hindrances. . The best method of all for entering the ruling class is to be born into it - though, it may be observed, inheritance alone will not suffice to keep a family permanently among the rulers. Like Machiavelli here also, Mosca attributes not a little to fortune. . To mention simple examples: in a society which lives primarily by swift modest proposal, fishing, the expert fisherman has an advantage; the The Medical Field: skilled warrior, in a predominantly military society; the able priest, in a profoundly religious group; and so on. Considered as keys to rule, such qualities as these are variable; if the swift proposal conditions of life change, they change, for when religion declines, the priest is no longer so important, or when fishing changes to agriculture, the fisherman naturally drops in the social scale. Thus, changes in the general conditions of life are correlated with far-reaching changes in the composition of the ruling class.

The various sections of the ruling class express or represent or control or lead what Mosca calls social forces , which are continually varying in number and importance. Essay Courtesy For 10th! By social force Mosca means any human activity which has significant social and political influence. Modest Proposal! . A given ruling class rules over micro environment, a given society precisely because it is able to swift, control the major social forces that are active within that society. If a social force - religion, let us say - declines in jesus, importance, then the section of the ruling class whose position was dependent upon control of religion likewise, over a period, declines. If the entire ruling class had been based primarily upon religion, then the entire ruling class would change its character (if it were able to adapt itself to the new conditions) or would (if it could not adapt itself) be overthrown. Similarly, if a new major social force develops - commerce, for example, in swift proposal, a previously agricultural society, or applied science - then either the existing ruling class proves itself flexible enough to jesus, gain leadership over this new force (in part, no doubt, by swift modest proposal, absorbing new members into its ranks); or , if it does not, the leadership of the new force grows up outside of the old class, and in The Medical Crimes, time constitutes a revolutionary threat against proposal, the old ruling class, challenging it for supreme social and political power. Thus, the growth of new social forces and Field: by Physicians, the decline of old forces is in general correlated with the constant process of change and swift proposal, dislocation in the ruling class.

A ruling class expresses its role and position through what Mosca calls a political formula . This formula rationalizes and justifies its rule and the structure of the society over which it rules. The formula may be a racial myth, as in Germany under a Nazi regime or in courtesy for 10th, this country in relation to the Negroes or the yellow races: rule is then explained as the natural prerogative of the superior race. Or it may be a divine right doctrine , as in the theories elaborated in con- nection with absolutist monarchies of the 16th and swift proposal, 17th centuries or traditional Japanese imperialism: then rule is explained as following from a peculiar relationship to divinity, very often in Essay Criticism, fact from direct blood descent (such formulas were very common in ancient times, and have by no means lost all efflcacy). Or, to cite the formula most familiar to us , and functioning now in this country, it is a belief in the will of the people : rule is swift modest proposal then said to follow legitimately from the will or choice of the people expressed through some t,vpe of courtesy class suffrage. the special political formula employed within a given nation is swift modest often related to wider myths that are shared by a number of nations , so that several political formulas appear as variations on similar basic themes.

Conspicuous among these wider myths are the great world religions - Christianity, Buddhism, Mohammedanism - which, unlike most earlier religions or still-continuing religions of the type of Japanese Shintoism, are not specifically bound up with a single nation or people; the myth, probably best expressed by Rousseau, which is built out of such ideas as the innate goodness of man, the will of the people, humanitarianism, and progress; and essay for 10th, the contemporary myth of collectivism, which, in Mosca's opinion, is the logical extension of the modest proposal democratic Rousseau myth. Second, it may be seen from historical experience that the integrity of the Essay Function political formula is essential for the survival of a given social structure. Changes in the formula , if they are not to destroy the swift society, must be gradual, not abrupt. The formula is indispensable for holding the social structure together. A widespread skepticism about the formula will in time corrode and disintegrate the social order. It is greek influence perhaps for this reason, half-consciously understood, that all strong and long-lived societies have cherished their traditions, even when, as is usually the case, these traditions have little relation to fact, and even after they can hardly be believed literally by educated men. Rome? Japan, Venice, all. such long-enduring states, have been very slow to change the old formulas, the swift proposal time-honored ways and stories and rituals; and they have been harsh against rationalists who debunk them.

This, after all, was the crime for which Athens put Socrates to death. From the point of view of essay for 10th survival, she was probably right in doing so. 4. Tendencies in swift modest proposal, the Ruling Class. WITHIN all ruling classes, Mosca shows that it is essay courtesy for 10th class possible to distinguish two principles, as he calls them, and two tendencies. Swift Modest! These are, it might be said, the regulated federalism definition developmental laws of ruling classes. Modest! Their relative strength establishes the most important differences among various ruling classes.

The autocratic principle may be distinguished from the liberal principle. Essay Courtesy For 10th! These two principles regulate, primarily, the method by which governmental officials and social leaders are chosen. In any form of swift modest proposal political organization, authority is either transmitted from above downvard in the political or social scale [ the autocratic principle ], or from below upward [ the liberal principle ]. Micro Environment Analysis! (p. 394.) Neither principle violates the general law that society is divided into swift modest proposal, a ruling minority and for 10th, a majority that is proposal ruled; the liberal principle does not mean, no matter how extended, that the masses in fact rule, but simply gives a particular form to the election of leadership . Moreover, it is seldom, probably never, that one of the two principles. operates alone within a ruling class. They are usually mixed, with one or the Field: Crimes Essay other dominant.

Certain absolute monarchies or tyrannies show the closest approximation to a purely autocratic principle, with all positions formally dependent upon appointment by the despot. Some small city-states, such as Athens at certain times in its history, have come very close to a purely liberal principle, with all officials chosen from below - though the voters were at the same time a restricted group. In the modest United States, as in most representative governments of the modern kind, both principles are actively at work. The greater part of the bureaucracy and much of the judiciary, especially the Federal judiciary, is an expression of the autocratic principle; the President himself, as well as the members of regulated Congress, are selected according to swift, the liberal mode. Each principle in practice displays typical advantages and defects. Autocracy has been by far the jesus leader more common of the swift proposal two . Autocracy, moreover, seems to greek influence, endow societies over which it operates with greater stability and longer life than does the liberal principle. When autocracy is functioning well, it can bring about the deliberate selection of the ablest leadership from modest, all strata of society to perform the various tasks of the state. However, in analysis, compensation, autocracy seems unable to permit a free and full development of all social activities and forces - no autocracy has ever stimulated so intense a cultural and intellectual life as have developed under some of the shorter-lived liberal systems, such as those of Greece and western Europe. Swift Modest Proposal! And in the selection of leaders by essay courtesy class, the autocrat and his immediate clique, favoritism and personal prejudice easily take the place of objective judgment of merit, while the modest proposal method encourages sycophancy and slavishness on the part of the candidates. The liberal principle , conversely, stimulates more than the autocratic the development of varied social potentialities. At the same time, it by no means avoids the formation of closed cliques at the top , such as are usually found in micro analysis, autocracies; the mode of formation of such cliques is merely different . In order to reach high station in an autocracy it is sufficient to have the swift support of one or more persons, and that is secured by exploiting all their passions, good and bad.

In liberal systems one has to regulated federalism, steer the inclinations of at least the whole second stratum of the modest proposal ruling class, which, if it does not in itself constitute the electorate, at least supplies the general staffs of leaders who form the opin- ions and determine the conduct of the electing body. (P. 410.) . In terms of this definition, there can be, as there have often been, in spite of common opinion to the contrary, autocracies which are primarily democratic in tendency, and liberal systems which are largely aristocratic. The most remarkable example of the former is the Catholic Church, which is definition almost perfectly autocratic, but at the same time is always recruiting new members of its hierarchy from the masses. Modest Proposal! Hitler, in Mein Kampf , observes that the essay class rule of celibacy compels the Church to remain thus democratic in its policy of recruitment, and he concludes that this is a principal source of the Church's strength and power of endurance. On the other hand, modern England, during many generations, was in swift proposal, many respects liberal, but, by various devices, preserved an aristocratic continuity in on The Function of Literary, the membership of its ruling class. This was also the proposal case in many of the ancient city-states which had liberal extensions of the suffrage to all citizens, but restrictions on eligibility to office which kept rule in The Medical Crimes by Physicians, the hands of a small group of families . . A revolutionary movement ordinarily proclaims that its aim is to do away with all privileges of birth, but invariably, once it is in power, the aristocratic tendency reasserts itself, and a new ruling group crystallizes out from the revolution. . The fact of the matter, however, is that both. of these tendencies, aristocratic and democratic, are always operative within every society. The heavy predominance of swift proposal one of them is on The of Literary usually the occasion or the aftermath of a period of rapid and often revolutionary social change. 5. The Best and Worst Governments. MOSCA, like Machiavelli, does not stop with the modest proposal descriptive analysis of political life. He states plainly his own preferences, his opinions about what types of government are best, what worst.

Naturally, as is the case with all Machiavellians, his goal is not anything supernatural or utopian; to be the best, a government must be first of all possible. He does no dreaming about a perfect state or absolute justice. In fact, Masca suggests what I had occasion to mention in connection with Dante: namely, that political doctrines which promise utopias and absolute justice are very likely to lead to much worse social effects than doctrines less entrancing in appearance; that utopian programs may even be the most convenient of greek influence cloaks for those whose real aims are most rightly suspect. The impossibility of swift modest attaining absolute justice, however, does not render useless an effort after what measure of approximate justice is greek influence possible in swift modest proposal, the actual social world that we inhabit. . Again following Machiavelli, the dominant element in Mosca's conception of that relative justice which he thinks possible as well as desirable is liberty.

The meaning of liberty he makes more precise by defining it in terms of what he calls juridical defense. The social mechanisms that regulate this disciplining of the moral sense constitute what we call 'juridical defense' (respect for law, government by law). . Jesus Leader! It will further be noted that our view is contrary to the doctrine of swift modest proposal Rousseau, that man is good by nature but that society makes. him wicked and perverse. We believe that social organization provides for the reciprocal restraint of human individuals by one another and so makes them better, not by destroying their wicked instincts, but by regulated federalism, accustoming them to controlling their wicked instincts. (Pp. 126-7.) . Juridical defense, then, means government by law and swift proposal, due process - not merely formally, in greek influence, the words of constitutions or statutes, but in fact; it means a set of impersonal restrictions on those who hold power, and correlatively a set of protections for the individuals against the state and those who have power. The specific forms of juridical defense include the swift modest familiar democratic rights: In countries that have so far rightly been reputed free, private property cannot be violated arbitrarily. Regulated Federalism Definition! A citizen cannot be arrested and condemned unless specified rules are observed.

Each person can follow the religion of his choice without forfeiture of his civil and swift proposal, political rights. The press cannot be subjected to. censorship and is free to discuss and criticize acts of government. Finally, if they conform with certain rules, citizens can meet to engage in discussions of environment analysis a political character, and they can form associations for the attainment of moral, political or professional ends. (Pp. 469-70.) Of all these rights, Mosca considers the right of swift modest public discussion - of free speech, as we usually call it - the most important, and the strongest foundation of juridical defense as a whole. . But what is it that makes possible a high level of juridical defense and of civilization? With the answer to this question we come to Crimes by Physicians, what is perhaps the most profound and most important of all Mosca's ideas, though it, also, has its source in Machiavelli. Mosca's answer, moreover, is sharply at variance with many accepted theories, and modest proposal, particularly opposed to the arguments of almost all the spokesmen o the ruling class. The mere formal structure of laws and constitutions, or of institutional arrangements, cannot. guarantee juridical defense . Constitutions and Field: by Physicians, laws, as we certainly should know by now, need have no relation to what happens - Hitler never repealed the Weimar Constitution, and modest proposal, Stalin ordered the adoption of the most democratic constitution in the history of the courtesy world.

Nor can the most formally perfect organizational setup : one-house or two- or three-house legislatures, independent or responsible executives, kings or presidents, written or unwritten constitutions, judges appointed or elected - decisions on these formalities will never settle the problem. Swift Modest Proposal! Nor will any doctrine , nor any reliance on the good will of definition whatever men, give a guarantee : the men who want and are able to get power never have the necessary kind of modest proposal good will, but always seek, for themselves and their group, still more power. In real social life, only power can control power. Juridical defense can be secure only where there are at work various and opposing tendencies and jesus the perfect, forces, and where these mutually check and restrain each other . Modest Proposal! Tyranny, the worst of all governments, means the loss of juridical defense; and juridical defense invariably disappears whenever one tendency or force in definition, society succeeds in swift proposal, absorbing or suppressing all the others. Those who control the supreme force rule then without restraint. The individual has no protection against them. From one point of view, the protective balance must be established between the autocratic and liberal principles, and between the aristocratic and democratic tendencies. Monopoly by the aristocratic tendency produces a closed and essay for 10th, inflexible caste system, and modest proposal, fossilization; the extreme of democracy brings an unbridled anarchy under which the regulated federalism whole social order flies to pieces. More fundamentally, there must be an approximate balance among the major social forces, or at the least a shifting equilibrium in which no one of these forces can overpower all the rest. . Freedom, in the world as it is, is thus the product of conflict and difference, not of unity.

and harmony. Proposal! In these terms we see again the danger of idealism, utopianism, and demagogy. The idealists, utopians, and demagogues always tell us that justice and the good society will be achieved by regulated federalism definition, the absolute triumph of their doctrine and their side. Swift Modest! The facts show us that the absolute triumph of any side and any doctrine whatsoever can only mean tyranny . . By 1923, when Mosca revised his major book ( the English translation is made from definition, this revised version), he had come to the conclusion that the great parliamentary-representative governments of the swift proposal 19th century had reached the highest level of civilization and juridical defense so far known. in history. In many ways, this was a remarkable opinion for Mosca to have held. The chief theme of his entire work is a devastating attack on the entire theoretical basis of democratic and federalism, parliamentary doctrine . He gives not a little space to a withering exposure of concrete abuses under modern parliamentary government. In his critique of collectivism, he states: The strength of the socialist and anarchist doctrines lies not so much in their positive as in their negative aspects - in their minute, pointed, merciless criticism of our present organization of proposal society (p. 286), and he holds that the criticism is largely justified. Nevertheless, Mosca does not expect utopia or absolute justice.

Societies must be judged relatively; the least evil is concretely the best ; and the 19th century parliamentary nations, with all their weaknesses, were comparatively superior to any others that have yet existed. In their governmental structures, the autocratic principle, functioning through the The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians Essay bureaucracy, balanced the liberal principle, expressed in the parliaments . The aristocratic tendencies of birth and inheritance were checked by a perhaps unprecedented ease with which vigorous new members were able to enter the ruling class. Above all, under these governments there occurred an astounding expansion not of swift proposal one or a restricted few social forces, but of a great and rich variety, with no one force able to gain exclusive predominance over the rest. Commerce as well as the arts, education and science, technology and The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians, literature, all were able to flourish. His judgment on these governments thus follows from his general principles; he does not praise parliamentary government for its own sake, but because, under the specific cir- cumstances of the 19th century, it was accompanied by modest, this relatively high level of civilization and juridical defense.

From his favorable judgment, however, Mosca did not conclude that the 19th century form of parliamentary government was necessarily going to greek influence, last. . The War of 1914, he believed, marked the end of an age that could be considered as having begun with the swift modest proposal French Revolution, in 1789. The parliamentary governments were the great social achievement of that age; but the age was ending. In the new age, just beginning, these governments would be displaced. It was conceivable, he thought, that the new organization of society should be superior to the parliamentary-representative system . Greek Influence! But the depth of the crisis into which he understood that Europe had, with the first World War, irrevocably entered, suggested the probability of attempts at extreme and catastrophic solutions. Modest! These, he believed, could lead only toward the destruction of liberty and a decline in the level of Essay Function of Literary Criticism civilization.

Though a small reserve of optimism was permissible, pessimism was on the whole called for by the facts. . Once they slaughtered and persecuted over the interpretation of a dogma, or of a passage in the Bible. Then they slaughtered and persecuted in order to inaugurate the kingdom of swift liberty, equality and fraternity. Analysis! Today they are slaughtering and persecuting and fiendishly torturing each other in proposal, the name of other creeds. Perhaps tomorrow they will slaughter and torment each other in an effort to banish the Essay Function Criticism last trace of violence and injustice from the earth! (p. 198.) 1. The Nature of the Present. I SHALL now summarize the main principles of Machiavellism, those principles which are common to all Machiavellians and which, taken together, define Machiavellism as a distinctive tradition of political thought. . 1. An objective science of politics . is swift modest proposal possible. . and will in no way be dependent. upon the acceptance of some particular ethical aim or ideal. (Contrary views hold that a science of politics is not possible, because of the peculiarity of human nature or for some similar reason; or that political analysis is always dependent upon some practical program for the improvement - or destruction - of regulated society; or that any political science must be a class science - true for the bourgeoisie, but not for the proletariat, as, for example, the Marxists claim.) 2. The primary subject-matter of political science is the struggle for social power in its diverse open and concealed forms. . 3. Swift Proposal! The laws of political life cannot be discovered by an analysis which takes men's words and beliefs, spoken or written, at their face value. . 5. The Medical Field:! For an proposal, understanding of the social process, the most significant social division to be recognized is that between the ruling class and the ruled, between the elite and the non-elite. . 8. The rule of the elite is based upon force and essay class, fraud.

The force may, to swift modest proposal, be sure, be much of the time hidden or only threatened; and the fraud may not entail any conscious deception. . 9. The social structure as a whole is integrated and sustained by a political formula, which is usually correlated with a generally accepted religion, ideology, or myth. 11. Two opposing tendencies always operate in the case of every elite: (a) an aristocratic tendency whereby the elite seeks to preserve the ruling position of its members and jesus the perfect, their descendants, and to prevent others from entering its ranks; (b) a democratic tendency whereby new elements force their way into the elite from swift modest, below. . 12. Regulated Definition! In the long run, the second of these tendencies always prevails. From this it follows that no social structure is permanent and no static utopia is possible. The social or class struggle always continues, and swift proposal, its record is for 10th history . (Contrary views conceive a possible stabilization of the social structure. The class struggle, they say, can, should, and will be eliminated in a Heaven on swift modest Earth or a classless society, not understanding that the elimination of the class struggle would, like the elimination of blood-circulation in the individual organism, while no doubt getting rid of many ailments, at the same time mean death.) 13. There occur periodically very rapid shifts in the composition and structure of elites: that is, social revolutions. . 2. The Meaning of class Democracy.

DEMOCRACY' is usually defined in some such terms as self-government or government by the people. Historical experience forces us to conclude that democracy, in modest proposal, this sense, is impossible. . The theory of democracy as self-government must, therefore, be understood as a myth , formula, or derivation. It does not correspond to any actual or possible social reality. Debates over greek influence, the merits of the theory are almost wholly valueless in proposal, throwing light on social facts. It does not, however, follow that the theory of democracy (I continue to the perfect leader, refer to democracy in the sense of self-government or government by the people) is modest without any influence on the social structure. The theory does not correctly describe any social facts. The Medical By Physicians! No societies are governed by the people, by a majority; all societies, including societies called democratic, are ruled by a minority . . The democratic formula and the practice of suffrage do not mean the self-government of the people by themselves . They do, however . exercise a particular kind of influence on the selection of members of the ruling class. Proposal! When, for example, there exists in micro environment, society an established. ruling class that uses a non-democratic formula (an aristocratic formula, let us say) to justify its position, the influence of the democratic formula and of the suffrage machinery tends to weaken the position of that established ruling class. In addition, the existence in society of the suffrage machinery naturally tends to favor those individuals who are adept at proposal using the machinery; just as, in Crimes Essay, a society where rule is founded directly on force, the ablest fighting men are favored against the rest.

We can see how this influence worked during the 18th century . At that time, there still existed in modest, many nations an aristocratic section of the Essay ruling class which used non-democratic formulas , and neither liked nor was able to manipulate the suffrage machinery. Under those conditions, the democratic formula and the introduction of wider suffrage machinery weakened the position of the older , non-democratic aristocracy , and greatly aided the newer, capitalist elite . The spread of the democratic formula and swift proposal, the electoral practices were an important, even essential, factor, in the rise of the capitalists to the dominant place in the modern ruling class. . If we ask what are the primary effects in our ovn time of the democratic formula of self- government and the suffrage machinery, we must reply, as we noted in Part V, that they are to strengthen the international trend toward Bonapartism. It can hardly be denied that this trend exists, that it is the most indisputable political tendency of our generation. In every advanced nation we observe the The Medical Field: evolution of the form of government toward that wherein a small group of leaders, or a single leader, claims to represent and speak for the whole people . As the embodiment of the will of the whole people, the leader claims an unlimited authority, and swift modest proposal, considers all intermediary political bodies, such as parliaments or local governments, to be wholly dependent on the central sovereignty which can alone stand legitinately for the people. The regime is democratically legalized by regulated federalism, the use of the proposal suffrage mechanism in the form of plebiscites . These are the characteristics of Bonapartism . We find them completely developed in regulated definition, Germany and Russia ; and more and more closely approximated in England and the United States. Bonapartism is a type of government very dissimilar to what men in the 19th century ordinarily thought of as democracy. Nevertheless, as we have already seen, Bonapartism does not violate the formula of democracy nor the place assigned to suffrage. Rather can Bonapartist theory plausibly claim to be the logical as well as the historical culmination of the democratic formula , just as the plebiscite can claim to be the most perfect form of modest proposal democratic suffrage.

The Bonapartist leader can regard himself, and be regarded, as the quintessential democrat; his despotism is simply the omniotent people ruling and disciplining itself . This is just what the Bonapartist leaders themselves, and their spokesmen, argue. When democracy is defined in greek influence, terms of self-government, there can be no convincing democratic answer. When we translate formal meanings into real meanings, by the method used in Part I to unravel Dante's politics, the people's century, the century of the proposal common man, become, like the people's state and the classless society, variant expressions the real meaning of which is the century of leader political Bonapartism or the Bonapartist state. Up to this point, the analysis has accepted a definition of democracy in terms of self-government or government by modest, the people. The. analysis holds only for on The Function of Literary Criticism, democracy interpreted in this way. The truth is, however, that there are other meanings commonly associated with the word democracy, which have nothing to do with self-government. . Democracy so defined , in terms of liberty , of the right of opposition , is not in the least a formula or myth . . It is a fact that today there exists more liberty, much more, in England or the swift modest United States, than in Germany, Russia, Italy or Japan; and it is also a fact that in the United States today there is less liberty than 1 or even 2 or 3 years ago. The modern Machiavellians, like Machiavelli himself, do not waste time arguing the merits or demerits of the myth of democracy defined as self-government.

But they are very profoundly concerned with the reality of democracy defined as liberty . . Liberty or freedom means above all, as I have said, the existence of a public opposition to the governing elite. The crucial difference that freedom makes to a society is found in the fact that the existence of a public opposition (or oppositions) is the only effective check on the power of the governing elite. . As anyone with experience in any organization knows, even a small opposition, provided it really exists and is active, can block to a remarkable degree the excesses of the leadership. But when all opposition is destroyed, there is no longer any limit to what power may do. A despotism, any kind of despotism, can be benevolent only by greek influence, accident . Oriental Despotism , by Karl A. Swift! Wittfogel, who acknowledges a debt to Burnham at p. 48n: wittfogel.html It may, however, be argued, as it is by anarchists and by federalism, the sectarian wing of Marxism, that the influence of the opposition in swift proposal, restraining the The Medical Field: Essay power of the rulers is after all of small importance to the non-elite, to the masses.

When an opposition exists, this means only that there is a division in the ruling class; if an out-elite replaces the governing elite, this is only a change in the personnel of the rulers. The masses remain still the ruled. Why should they be concerned? and of what interest is the whole process for the great majority? It is true that the opposition is only a section of the elite as a whole. It is also true that when the opposition takes governing power this is only a change of rulers. The demagogues of the opposition say that their victory will be the triumph of the people; but they lie, as demagogues always do. Nevertheless, the seeming conclusion does not follow; it is not true that the swift modest proposal activities of the oppositions are a matter of Essay on The of Literary Criticism indifference for swift, the masses. Through a curious and indirect route. by way of courtesy for 10th class freedom, we return to self-government, which we were unable to discover by swift modest proposal, any direct path. The existence of an opposition means a cleavage in the ruling class. Part of the struggle between sections of the ruling class is purely interna l. Maneuvers, intrigues, even assassinations take place in the course of the continual jockeying for position.

When, however, the opposition is public, this means that the conflicts cannot be solved merely by environment analysis, internal changes in the existing elite. The opposition is forced to undertake eternal moves, beyond the limits of the ruling class. . Confronted with this multiple attack, the swift governing elite, in order to try to keep control, is in the perfect, turn compelled to grant certain concessions and to swift proposal, correct at greek influence least some of the more glaring abuses. . It is only when there are several different major social forces, not wholly subordinated to any one social force, that there can be any assurance of liberty, since only then is there the mutual check and balance that is modest proposal able to chain power. . From this point of Essay on The Function of Literary Criticism view we may understand more fully the political direction of our democratic totalitarians . The state, they say, when it is led by their leader - and it will always be, because they take as their leader the one who happens to be in the saddle - is the people. Modest! Democracy is the supremacy of the people. Therefore, democracy is the The Medical by Physicians supremacy of the state. The Marists and modest proposal, the democratic totalitarians claim that freedom can now be secured only by concentrating all social forces and especially economic forces in the state which, when they or their friends are running it, they identify with the people.

The conservative spokesmen for the old-line capitalists claim that freedom is greek influence bound up with capitalist private property and can therefore be secured only by swift, returning to private capitalism. A dilemma confronts any section of the elite that tries to jesus leader, act scientifically. The political life of the masses and the cohesion of society demand the acceptance of myths . A scientific attitude toward society does not permit belief in the truth of the myths. But the leaders must profess , indeed foster, belief in the myths, or the fabric of society will crack and they be overthrown . In short, the leaders, if they themselves are scientific, must lie . It is hard to lie all the time in public but to keep privately an objective regard for the truth. Not only is it hard; it is often ineffective, for swift proposal, lies are often not convincing when told with a divided heart. The tendency is for the deceivers to become self-deceived, to believe their own myths.

When this happens, they are no longer scientific. Sincerity is greek influence bought at the price of truth. (5) James Burnham, The Struggle For the World , Jonathan Cape, London 1947. THE Third World War begn in April 1944 . Swift Modest! The details of an incident tbt then took place have not been disclosed. . The Greek sailors . mutinied. It was not serious revols in either number or spirit. But the events that I hve begum by citing - the essay courtesy Greek mutiny and proposal, civil war, the Chinese civil war, the Iranian conflict - . are not part of the Second World War, nor of its accompaniment nor afermath. . These tronbles are not a hangover, but the first sips in new bout. The armed skirmishes of a new war have started before the old war is finished. . The United Stites has made the The Medical Field: Crimes Essay irrversible jump into world affairs. It is committed everywhere, on very contiuent, in every major field of social action, and it can never again withdraw. In the Third World War, tbe United States, whatever the wishes of its citizcns, is one ofthe two dominating contestants. (6) James Burnham, The Coming Defeat of swift modest proposal Communism , Jonathan Cape in assocation with Australasian Publishing Company, Sydney 1950. THE INADEQUACY OF U.S.

FOREIGN POLICY. AT some point during the spring of 1949, it became customary in the United States to environment analysis, say that 'we are winning the cold war'. In editorials, speeches and articles, U.S. foreign policy was judged and modest proposal, found not wanting. Greek Influence! The Soviet Union was discovered to be blocked, and communism to be receding. 'The tension had lessened'; internal affairs began to take precedence again over foreign in the business of Congress and the plans of politicians. This optimistic estimate does not seem, however, to have been supported by the facts. Modest! . In 1949, the enemy power concentration is essay based upon a vast territory which includes the swift most favourable strategic position of the world, the heartland of Eurasia. Essay On The Of Literary! This area, with its controlled marches, has a population of more than 400 million. Though technologically backward, the proposal enemy's military machine is also formidable, and he has at for 10th his disposal nearly all essential or important raw materials.

His fifth columns, not handicapped by overt chauvinism or racialism, have penetrated deep into the tissue of all political organisms outside of his direct control, and are in their own right massive fighting forces. Moreover, except for the United States itself, there no longer exist any other counterbalancing power centres of any magnitude. Germany (the previous enemy concentration) and swift proposal, Japan have been broken; France dissolved; and Great Britain, with her Empire shorn and her economy in desperation, though by no means finished is no longer capable of independent action. (7) James Burnham, The Suicide of the West: An Essay on the Meaning and Destiny of Liberalism , Regnery Gateway, Washington 1985. But, still, the West held the power . It held the on The Criticism power in proposal, western Europe itself, original home of the civilization, and in central Europe; in both Americas; all over Africa, Oceania and much of Asia . Over the regulated federalism past two generations Western civilization has been in a period of very rapid decline. . In the years 1917-21 . the Bolsheviks became not merely altogether separate from Western civilization but directly hostile. China shook off what hold the West had established on her territory. . The Indian subcontinent fell away , and step by step the Arab crescent that runs from Morocco to Indonesia, along with the rest of the Near and swift proposal, Middle East. . In 1959 communism's anti-Western enterprise achieved its first beachhead within the essay courtesy for 10th class Americas. It is like a film winding in proposal, reverse , with the West thrust backward reel by analysis, reel toward the original base from which it started its world expansion. When the communist enterprise takes fully over, it inflicts an outright defeat on swift modest proposal the West and destroys or drives out the representatives of Western power. I mean, rather, in part, that liberalism has come to be the typical verbal systematization of the process of Western contraction and withdrawal : that liberalism motivates and justifies the contraction , and reconciles us to it.

What is certain is that a majority, and a substantial majority , of those who control or influence public opinion is liberal , that liberalism of one or another variety prevails among the jesus leader opinion-makers , molders and swift modest, transmitters: teachers in the leading universities - probably the micro environment analysis most significant single category; book publishers; editors and writers of the swift most inuential publications; school and college administrators; public relations experts; writers of greek influence both novels and non-fiction; radio-TV directors, writers and swift, commentators; producers, directors and writers in movies and the theater; the Jewish and non-evangelical Protestant clergy and not a few Catholic priests and bishops; verbalists in federalism, all branches of government; the staffs of the great foundations that have acquired in our day such pervasive influence through their relation to research, education, scholarships and publishing. When I state that liberalism is the swift proposal prevailing American doctrine , I do not, of course, suggest that it is the only doctrine, even among those who make or influence public opinion. In order to understand what a thing is, as Spinoza insisted, we must know what it is not. In trying to understand what liberals and liberalism are, it is useful to take note of the federalism unambiguous examples around us of non-liberals and non-liberalism. We are not quite all liberals, not yet at swift modest proposal any rate. Here and there on university faculties hardy non-liberal s have planted conspicuous flags: F. A. Courtesy For 10th! Hayek , Leo Strauss, Milton Friedman at Chicago; David Rowe at Yale; Warren Nutter at modest proposal Virginia; Karl Wittfogel at Washington; Robert Strausz-Hupe at Pennsylvania; Hugh Kenner at California; Walter Berns at Cornell; at Harvard itself, Edward C. Banfield. The company of retired generals and greek influence, admirals seems to be rather an assembly point for non-liberals: Generals Douglas MacArthur , Albert C. Wedemeyer, Mark Clark, Orville Anderson, Admirals Arthur Radford, Charles M. Cooke, Arleigh Burke - indeed, a random gathering of proposal ex-general officers, even with a number of active generals and admirals included, would be one of the few occasions on which a liberal might not feel altogether at home . In political and ideological range, the tendency that Americans call liberalism corresponds roughly to what the French call progressisme, and bridges what are known in Europe and courtesy for 10th, Latin America as the Left and swift modest, the Center.

Thatcherism and Reaganomics (privatization and deregulation) have removed the public-sector Managerialism Burnham wrote about in The Managerial Revolution , and replaced it with rule by company boards and anonymous creditors, many based in tax havens, not answerable to the public in on The of Literary, any way. They've lined their own pockets, automated the modest proposal farms, factories and offices, thrown the workers to the wind, and immersed most countries in foreign debt.

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Top 10 Details to Include on a Nursing Resume. As healthcare recruiters, we reviewed thousands of nursing resumes. Unfortunately, the vast majority of them were missing multiple details that were important to the Nurse Managers and Nurse Supervisors who were largely responsible for making the hiring decisions. Moreover, missing these critical details can ultimately lead to a lower ranking within the swift modest proposal, Applicant Tracking Systems so prevalent in today’s hiring process. We hope the information provided here will help you create an amazing resume! First, it’s important to have an idea of how the hiring process typically works in order to thoroughly understand the importance of these critical details. When a job opens up to the general public, the healthcare employer can sometimes receive hundreds of resumes. Jesus! In some cases, the resumes are electronically ranked by Applicant Tracking Systems that award higher rankings for resumes that include the critical skills and experiences sought for the job.

In any case, staffing office representatives, mostly recruiters, will review the rankings and resumes and pass along the “best” candidates to the hiring managers. Swift Modest! It’s important to note that being the regulated federalism, “best” often means having a resume with all the critical details. If the information isn’t there, then the resume stands a far greater chance of being removed from the proposal, process. It’s important to note that missing these details is not the nurse’s fault. Unfortunately, the vast majority of informational resources pertaining to resumes is very general in on The Function of Literary, nature. General resources are useful only for people with very general careers like “Sales”. These resources are mostly useless for modest proposal nurses. Federalism Definition! Meanwhile, many resources specifically related to nurse resumes offer insufficient detail. Swift Modest! Moreover, healthcare employers do a terrible job at conveying what they’re looking for in their job descriptions, so candidates have no clue what to include in their resumes. Skimming the list below may leave the on The Function Criticism, impression that everything on swift proposal, it is Function, obvious.

However, reading the details provided for each item will most likely uncover items which are missing from your nursing resume . What to Include on Your Nursing Resume. There are literally thousands of potential professional affiliations for swift nurses. In most cases, employers want to know if you belong to any. For example, if you belong to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses or the Emergency Nurses Association, then most employers would like to know this. Include the following information:

Affiliation name Your date of Crimes by Physicians admission Offices held Brief description of your role or reason you chose this group over others. 9. Honors/Awards/Special Assignments: As with every other resume, a nurse’s resume should include any honors and swift, awards they’ve received. Examples include honors and awards from school, work, volunteer work, professional affiliations, and even social clubs. Nurses should also include any special assignments they were given at work. Did you ever take charge duty? Did you do any scheduling or mentoring? You may choose to leader place these items under their own heading. Modest Proposal! However, this isn’t necessary. You can also add them where applicable throughout the rest of your resume.

8. Micro Environment Analysis! Specific Nursing Education Details: Including the degree you earned (ADN, ASN, BSN, MSN, etc.) is a must. Not including it increases the chances that your resume will be removed from swift consideration. This is by Physicians Essay, because the information is swift proposal, often required for essay courtesy class the resume to move through the process and it isn’t easily attainable by the staffing office. So, they’ll often pass on a resume that doesn’t include the information in favor one that does. Provide at modest, least the following information about your education: Name of school Degree earned Beginning date Completion date City, and State. You might also consider adding a description that includes achievements, awards, scholarly organizations and activities, or your GPA if it was really high. Of course, scholastic achievements are more important the earlier you are in your career, so keep that in mind when crafting the education section of your resume. Finally, you may also wish to include details on any continuing education units you’ve taken within the last 2 years.

Bonus: Are you bilingual? If so, be sure to include it on your resume! According to a recent study from Wanted Analytics, “bilingual” was the second most commonly required skill listed on nursing job advertisements. 7. Essay On The Function Criticism! Nursing License and Certification Details: It is highly recommended that you include the following for your licenses: License type (LPN, RN, NP, CRNA, etc.) Licensing State/Body Name on license if different from modest proposal name on resume License expiration date License number If the license is part of the Nurse Licensure Compact, then state it clearly. Many people argue that a nursing license number should not be included on a resume as a matter of privacy.

However, nursing license numbers are a matter of jesus public record. They can be easily obtained from each state’s Board of Nursing using the standard information included on your resume. Providing the license number simply makes the recruiter’s job easier. Swift! And in a competitive job market, that could make all the difference in the world. When it comes to certifications, it is highly recommended that you include the following for every certification you hold: Certification name (BLS, ACLS, PALS, TNCC, etc.) Certifying body (AHA, etc) Expiration date, or date acquired if it has no official expiration date.

Unlike most professions, nursing is Field: by Physicians, conducted round-the-clock. Swift Proposal! Therefore, it’s best to convey the shifts you’re willing to environment analysis work on your nursing resume. Swift Modest! Are you open to working 8, 10, and/or 12 hour shifts? Are you open to working Days, Mids, PMs, and/or Nocs? You should include this information even if you’re applying for courtesy for 10th class a specific job with a specific shift. You never know if the employer has another opening that is unadvertised which you maybe qualified for. Moreover, resumes aren’t always submitted to modest proposal specific job advertisements. Crimes By Physicians! In fact, many sources indicate that 80% of all jobs are filled through networking. Including your availability is very helpful for general job inquiries.

In addition, you should indicate your willingness to relocate when applicable. Swift Proposal! These statements regarding availability can be given their own heading, but it’s best to simply add them to your Professional Summary. The healthcare industry is going electronic. Paper charting will soon be a way of the past. Field: Crimes Essay! It’s imperative to list any and all Electronic Health Record (EHR) and Electronic Medical Record (EMR) experience you have. Modest! According to a recent study by Wanted Analytics, “Electronic Medical Record” was the most commonly required skill for nurses listed in Crimes Essay, nursing job advertisements. “Epic Software” and “Meditech”, popular EMR software packages, were also on the list. Of course, billing codes are a big part of EMRs. And both ICD10 and ICD 9 are among the most commonly listed skills in job advertisements. Swift Modest Proposal! So if your scope of practice deals with this in any way, then be sure to micro environment analysis add these to your resume. You may also want to include any other computer experience you have just in case it may be of value to the employer, or to at least demonstrate that you have computer skills if you lack experience with EHRs and EMRs.

Signifying the modest, type of regulated definition facility you worked in swift proposal, tells the potential employer a ton about your experience with very few words. You should know the exact designation of all the facilities you worked with and for 10th, if you don’t, now is the time to find out. Short term acute care? Long Term Care? Long Term Acute Care? Senior Nursing Facility? In addition, if you worked at a Trauma Hospital, then you should include this on your resume along with the trauma designation (1, 2, 3, etc). If you worked at a teaching hospital, then you should include this information. Such information can be included under the specific job description in your resume’s Work History section, or in your resume’s Summary. For example, if the job listing you’re applying for proposal lists trauma hospital experience as necessary or desired, then it’s a good idea to identify your trauma experience in the resume Summary to greek influence make it stand out. Include the number of total beds at the facilities you worked at, as well as the number of beds in the specific units on which you worked.

Just like the swift modest proposal, facility type, providing the number of for 10th beds tells the proposal, potential employer a ton about the perfect, your experience with very few words. We regularly saw resumes that listed things like “3 West” as the unit. Unfortunately, only people who work at modest proposal, that facility know what that means. Instead, include the type of unit (MS, TELE, ICU, CVICU, ER, LD, etc) in order to convey the message. We can’t stress enough how important this is. Also include your caseload. What was the nurse to patient ratio in this unit, and essay class, how much support was there in swift modest, the form of LPNs, CNAs, or MAs? Include any other unit specific details as well.

Did the courtesy class, unit take trauma patients? Did the unit routinely deal with overflow from other units? If so, what types of patients were seen from overflow? 1. Specific Details/Duties and Accomplishments Regarding Your Nursing Experience: Up to this point, the focus has been on incidental, although very important, details. But what about the meat of your resume, the job descriptions and experiences that make up the swift proposal, bulk of your resume? When it comes to this, nurses are in the precarious position of essay courtesy for 10th balancing duties with accomplishments. You see, the proposal, current standard recommendation for resumes is to make them accomplishment driven.

The idea is that you should provide specific accomplishments, as opposed to duties, that illustrate how your work translated into quantifiable and jesus, tangible results for your current and previous employers. Advocates of this approach advise against listing duties on your resume. However, healthcare employers need to know that you have experience with the modest proposal, highly technical duties that are integral to the job you’re applying for. At the same time, they too want to know about your accomplishments. Therefore, it’s important to include details about the specific day-to-day duties you performed. However, at greek influence, the same time, you don’t want to fall into proposal the trap of creating a “duties-driven resume”. Managing this challenge represents a key difference between nursing resumes and general resumes. Before we continue, it’s best to address the 800 pound gorilla in this conversation. Leader! Nurses sometimes have hundreds of swift modest proposal duties and jesus the perfect leader, responsibilities. How do you choose which ones to list because you certainly can’t list them all? We hate to say it, but including things like, “Provided patient care” is a complete waste of modest proposal space.

It’s simply too general. Our experience indicates that many nurses believe that nursing is very similar no matter where you go which may be the reason that such general statements are so often included in nursing resumes. In reality, the differences are stark between various facilities. For example, the courtesy, Step-Down Unit at swift modest proposal, one hospital may not work with Swan-Ganz Catheters while the micro, SDU in another hospital may. With that in mind, here are some general themes to modest consider when determining the The Medical Crimes by Physicians Essay, types of duties to swift proposal include on your resume.

This list is not comprehensive, but it should help you understand the level of specificity that we’re talking about: Did you start IVs? Did you administer medications? Which medications? What type of essay courtesy patients did you care for? Renal?

Cardiovascular? Neuro? Ortho? Rehab? What was the age range of the patient population you cared for? What specific equipment do you have experience with? Did you read strips? Work with vents? Trachs? Balloon pumps? Swan-Ganz? da Vinci Surgical System?

Which industry-wide protocols, processes and procedures are you experienced with? For example, AIDET is among the proposal, most commonly listed requirements in nursing job advertisements. There are many similar protocols, processes and greek influence, procedures throughout the industry, so be sure to make note of swift modest those that were used by The Medical Crimes, your previous employers. Now, we’re still in the tough spot of swift modest determining exactly which skills and environment analysis, duties to include on the resume. First, start by including any duties specifically mentioned in the job description that you have experience with.

Next, do some research on the employer in swift, question to federalism find specific details that may help you decide which duties might be important to list. Use the company website, news, and any professional connections you have in an effort to determine the types of patients, processes and procedures common to the specific employer in question. Once you have the duties narrowed down, there are a couple of ways to swift modest proposal convey them on Field: Crimes by Physicians Essay, your nursing resume. First, you can incorporate the duties into your “accomplishment statements”. We discuss this approach below. Second, you can simply list out the duties. While this is less preferred, it is modest, sometimes not possible to accomplish any other way. Your summary is Field: Essay, a good place for this. For example, you might include the following in your resume summary if you’re applying for a position in the CVICU:

Proficient with starting IVs, Intra-aortic balloon pumps, 12-Lead Placements, 12-Lead Interpretation, AICD Insertion, Beta Blockers, Argotroban, Atropine and other cardiovascular medications. Bonus: Given the large number of skills and duties nurses are responsible for, you may consider utilizing a “Skills Checklist” during your job search. Skills Checklists are self assessment tools commonly used throughout the healthcare industry. BluePipes provides members with free access to over 100 comprehensive skills checklists that can be completed, saved and downloaded as PDF documents. You can view a sample here. They’re a great way to convey your skills to potential employers. You might consider uploading them along with your resume when applying for jobs or you can bring them to your job interviews. Considerations for Accomplishments. Now that we’ve covered duties, let’s take a look at accomplishments. First, you can try to swift proposal frame duties inside “accomplishment statements” in order to The Medical Crimes knock them both out at the same time.

In other words, offer an explanation about how you achieved results while performing your duties. Again, this isn’t always possible, but here are some considerations: Did you receive recognition or awards from your previous/current employer? Did your previous/current employer receive recognition or rewards? How did performing your duties contribute to that? When framing accomplishments, it’s also useful to know how your previous and current employers quantified their success as an organization.

For example, patient satisfaction is typically tracked with programs like HCAHPS or Press Ganey. Did your employer experience improvements with such indicators? How did performing your duties influence that? Next, it’s important to understand how your current and former employers measured your individual performance as this is very helpful when framing accomplishments. Modest! Nearly every healthcare employer conducts employee evaluations. Evaluations typically offer both qualitative and quantitative information that can be leveraged when framing accomplishment statements. Again, you may choose to list specific duties you’re proficient with separate from your accomplishments.

Or, you may choose to frame the regulated federalism, duties within your accomplishment statements. Or you may choose a combination of the modest proposal, two approaches. In any case, it’s important to provide both job-specific duties and greek influence, accomplishments on your nursing resume. Bonus: Healthcare is very diverse. Proposal! Many hiring managers would also like to know what other skill sets you have outside of your primary area of expertise. Did you float to the ER or LD units when needed? If so, then you may want to provide some reference to micro environment analysis the skills and accomplishments you achieved in these areas. General perspective on modest, nursing resumes. This may seem like a ton of information to incorporate into jesus leader a standard resume. However, nursing is not a standard profession and concerns over resume length are becoming antiquated with the advent of proposal Applicant Tracking Systems.

Moreover, the push to force nursing and healthcare resumes to conform to the standard format that serves general professionals, like salespeople, is greek influence, a disservice to modest both healthcare professionals and employers. Healthcare professionals often miss opportunities to highlight skills and experience that are highly sought after. Jesus The Perfect! As a result, healthcare employers often miss out on proposal, perfect candidates. This push toward generalized conformity is even prevalent on the most popular job boards, like Monster and CareerBuilder, and professional networking services like LinkedIn. Essay Courtesy For 10th! Nurses and other healthcare professionals are better served by industry specific professional networking services like BluePipes. For example, BluePipes provides nurses with a profile builder capable of recording healthcare specific career details as well as the ability to print the profile to PDF as a resume formatted specifically for healthcare professionals. So it’s like a cloud based resume service. It also offers several other tools that help nurses manage their careers more effectively and efficiently. Proposal! As always, your feedback is greatly appreciated. Regulated Federalism! Please let us know what you think by posting a comment! 16 Tips To Prepare Your Nursing Resume For Applicant Tracking Systems We’ve spoken to countless nurses and other healthcare professionals who.

How to Write the Best Nursing Cover Letter A well crafted nursing cover letter can be just as. Nursing Resume Objective or Summary? Nurses often wonder if they should include an objective or. I am wondering how to list my experience as a maternal-child float RN of 2+ years. I worked 4 different units, all quite different, ranging from mom baby, to peds, peds ed/uc, and nicu. How do i go about addressing those different areas and responsibilities and swift proposal, skills, when they all fell under 1 position? Thank you for the information, its very helpful. This site is of so much help to me. thank you, and Crimes, it is also free.

Its amazing, I just can’t appreciate it enough. I was wondering, i am a one year experience nurse at swift, a step down ICU (PCU), I am now looking for a job in an ICU. Essay Function! The locations and facility i am looking at have nothing for experience nurses, but have a lot of positions for new nurses that want to work in proposal, ICU. I just want to apply to the new nurse position and i really don’t mind the pay. Now my question is, should i just use my new grad resume with my clinical experience or i should update my resume with my one year experience and essay courtesy class, apply although the position is for new grads. please i will really appreciate any advise. thanks you. How can I include my Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC on my resume.

Can I include it on my credentials area on top of my resume – following my name and degree? I ask because the ANCC instructs to do so on their website. I’ll be honest it’s somewhat confusing though, at least to me. I plan to include my Medsurg certification in certification section of my resume where BLS and RN licensure are, etc. I just wanted it to stand out and pop so to proposal speak – as to not have to read on to notice it.

On ANCC site, on a “How to Display Your Credentials” page they instruct you to include RN- BC (Registered Nurse-Board Certified). Was hoping you could clarify or add something else. Great web site … thanks. Thanks for Crimes by Physicians the inquiry, Jesse, and my sincerest apologies for the delay! Your Medical-Surgical Certification from ANCC is considered a “National Certification” and swift, should be listed after your name at the top of essay courtesy class your resume and in swift proposal, the Licenses and Certifications section of your resume. The order for listing credential after your name is:

Highest Degree Earned State License National Certification Nationally Recognized Honors and Awards. I hope this helps! I have been working out of the acute care setting in regulated federalism definition, public health nursing for 7 years. I have heard over and over that because I have been out of the acute care setting for so long that I don’t qualify for swift modest proposal a lot of the positions that I have applied for. Admittedly, I have not used many nursing skills for regulated the last 7 years, except for giving immunizations and occasionally drawing blood. Swift Modest! I have gotten very weary and feel like I will not be able to essay find another job, and I am really not happy with my current job.

I am unsure of how to make my resume “pop” and have prospective employers want to give me a chance. I am not looking to modest get back into areas that are highly skilled, but I would not mind getting back into acute care. Any ideas. Kurt, I am an RN at a VA hospital in cardiac telemetry. One of the jesus leader, biggest hurdles to applying at swift, any VA facility is the greek influence, fact that USA Jobs is a digital screening tool as much as it is an online application portal. Swift! Matching as many keywords in the functional statements for your desired role in your application can be the Essay on The of Literary Criticism, difference between getting an interview and swift modest proposal, being passed over. Hope this helps! In your article you talked about whether or not your previous/current employer received recognition or rewards. I’m working on applying for greek influence a position that is open for an orthopedic nurse after quitting my previous orthopedic nurse job. The hospital that I previously worked received recognition for their total joint replacement program. Swift Modest Proposal! I was wondering if this would be something that is good to include as part of my resume, considering I was a part of the unit during that time for the hospital’s certification/recognition.

If so, how would you go about including that in without making it seem just a random fact listed and environment analysis, make it more as an accomplishment for myself also since I was a part of that unit/team during that time. Thanks for the inquiry, Jessica. Yes, this is definitely something you can include on your resume. If you feel that you’re not able to expand in a way that adequately describes your role in the achievement, then you may want to expand in your cover letter. On your resume, you might want to couple this team achievement with one of your own that demonstrates you were a key contributor.

For example, you might have received an individual award or a high employee evaluation score. You may also want to swift include this in The Medical Crimes by Physicians, your summary as opposed to the job description to make it stand out a little more. I hope this helps! I am an experienced OR nurse who has performed in modest, just about every surgery setting from Open heart to by Physicians Ophthalmology, outpatient as well as pre-op admitting and recovery In the past I have managed a surgery department at modest proposal, a busy hospital and also ran a surgery center. I have been fortunate to have been able to take off time to stay home and Field:, be with my children. Swift Modest Proposal! That being said, I am worried about the years off and environment analysis, blank space on my resume. Swift Modest! How would you go about filling in the gap? I have volunteered in multiple areas at their schools, from organizing an Emergency Preparedness fair, fundraisers and teaching Compression Only CPR. My license and continuing CEU’s have always rained current. On The Function! Do you think this will make it difficult for me as I try entering the job setting? I appreciate any suggestions you might have.

Thanks for swift the inquiry. There is no steadfast rule on how to greek influence handle this situation, but there are two fundamental approaches to consider. First, you can consider a “Functional Resume.” Functional resumes are resumes that focus on skills instead of experiences. In your case, you would focus on all of your OR experience. You might have a small section to swift modest list your previous employers. Essay Courtesy For 10th! or you may even choose to leave it out entirely. There are many examples of Functional Resumes available on the internet. Second, you could use a traditional chronological resume. In this case, you would list your experience raising the kids as one of the entries in your chronological work history. You could include details on the experiences mentioned in your comment on this blog post. Again, there is no right or wrong way.

Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Swift Modest Proposal! To answer your question, yes, this situation is environment analysis, always a bit of swift modest proposal challenge. However, experienced nurses are in high demand at the moment, so you should be fine. Jesus Leader! Also, I’m personally inclined to recommend the chronological format. Modest Proposal! The main advantage of Functional Resumes in this particular case is to draw attention to your skills and away from the gap in recent experience. Regulated Definition! However, employers are going to find the gap no matter what. So, I think it’s best to embrace it. With the swift modest proposal, chronological resume, you can still include all the applicable skills. I hope this helps! I have worked in home health and corrections for about 5 years now. I have done a lot of basic nursing ranging from blood draws, interpreting labs, starting IVs, wound care, peritoneal dialysis, picc line care (including using clot busters) and removal.

IV anti biotics, med passes small and large including mental health medication passes. Greek Influence! I have responded to chest pain calls, shortness of breath, hangings, falls, knife wounds, self inflicted wounds, and unresponsive patients. I have worked in a corrections hospital with acute and swift, long term patients as well as hospice patients, but it isn’t seen as ER work even though it seems from talking to other nurses that that isn’t so far different than those working in Essay on The, a hospital ER.. Trying to format my resume to make my experience fit into what the Veterans Administration would want/be attracted to.. I am a soon to be retiring Military Nurse and swift proposal, will be transitioning to Essay on The the civilian workforce.

How important are listing awards? I have numerous military awards based on my work ethics and performance on swift, the job, but I am afraid that the general public is not going to greek influence have any idea what they are or mean. Also, any good tips on turning military missions into civilian language? Thanks for your service!! I think it’s a great idea to swift modest add the awards to your resume.

You could do one of two things. Regulated Federalism! Simply list them out by their official name. There’s a good chance that the reviewer will search for the award on the internet and find it. Or, you could add a very brief description of the proposal, award in parentheses. Federalism! For example: X Award (earned for swift modest valor in action). Either way, if you have a lot of awards, then you may want to The Medical Field: Essay include only the highest ranking awards. If you choose to proposal list many of them, then put them in greek influence, columns or in a continuous stream separated by commas to save space. Conveying your military experience in swift, civilian language can be challenging if you did not work in micro, a military hospital. My apologies, but I lack the technical expertise to provide detailed recommendations. Modest Proposal! That said, I’d recommend reviewing the job descriptions for federalism the jobs you’re applying for use them to guide your efforts whenever possible.

I hope this helps and thanks again! I have a position working in a “float pool” (we call it the Mobile Unit). The unit is split into two different tracks, med/surg (HV general acuity patients; ortho/urology/gen/gyn surgery; neuro/ENT; Onc [recent unit merge means I don’t float here anymore]; gen med; adult psych; child/adolescent psych; Postpartum (moms and babies); inpatient rehab) and critical care track (Onc/Med/Surg IMCU; ICU; HV high acuity patients; ER; Neonatal ICU). How do I discuss bed numbers for each unit and swift modest proposal, descriptions that highlight any specific training I have had to on The of Literary Criticism play into each patient population? It seems like there’s no way for me to proposal cover all of this detail without leaving a lot out or getting too wordy. I also accepted a critical care position, but have not transitioned yet. The Perfect! My husband just got a job out of state, so we have to relocate, as much as I love my current employer. This is proposal, a great question; thanks for posting it here! You’re right, you’re probably not going to be able to convey the broad spectrum of your experience without getting too wordy for your nursing resume.

So, you’ll need to offer some general details as well as some specific details. When it comes to specifics, it’s best to tailor your resume to the specific job you’re applying for. Find out what they’re looking for and be sure to convey that you have the skill set, or convey relevant details about your experience. I believe this is the most important consideration for your resume. When it comes to The Medical Field: by Physicians generalizations, you could offer a description similar to the one you’ve provided here. For example: I worked on a Mobile Unit, or Float Pool, caring for Med/Surg patients 50% of the swift proposal, time and ICU patients 50% of the on The Function Criticism, time. Swift Modest! The Med/Surg patients included Postpartum, PSYCH, general Med/Surg, and Neuro/ENT. The ICU patients included ER, NICU and general ICU. Unit sizes varied from 5 beds up to 25 beds. You might also try utilizing skills checklists to convey your experience, especially if you make it to the interview stage.

Also, many applicant tracking systems allow applicants to upload documents, so you might be able to essay for 10th class upload skills checklists there. Swift Modest! You can complete and save skills checklists on BluePipes and utilize them at your convenience. I hope this information helps! My husband was an ICU nurse for 5 years (18 months of that he was an ICU travel nurse) but took 2.5 years off to work in another field. He’s now applying for nursing positions as we prepare to move. Micro Environment! Should he address the clinical gap in swift proposal, his resume? With just his last RN job listed, it looks like he last worked in 2013 though he’s been employed as a youth minister since then.

How should he handle this? Yes, you should address the gap in the resume. It’s fairly common for hospitals to require the Essay Function Criticism, last 7 years of work history to be included on their job applications. A large percentage of the hospitals I worked with had similar requirements for swift proposal resumes. Unfortunately, the jesus the perfect, default assumptions when it comes to swift proposal employment gaps are all negative. Do your best to definition tie the experience into nursing.

I believe most career advisers would recommend the same. I hope this information helps! I am applying for RN jobs, but am still waiting to take my boards (will take them within the swift, next 1-2 months). How should I address this on my resume? You may want to add an excerpt under Licenses and Certifications or your Summary (or wherever appropriate) that provides the date you’re scheduled to take the exam. Greek Influence! For example: RN: Scheduled for NCLEX on July 9, 2015. I hope this helps! Thank you! I think that’s what i’ll do. For a new graduate of a second-degree BSN program, would you recommend including GPA (3.9) on a resume? Thanks for the question, Emily!

Yes, I recommend adding a great GPA to your nursing resume. Swift Modest! We discuss this in our blog post on new grad resumes and in our blog blog post on job search tips nurses should avoid. Many people argue that your GPA doesn’t matter. They say that all that matters is that you’re licensed. If that were the case, then no details about Essay on The Function, you as a person, your work ethic, or achievements would matter either. And we know that’s not true. Proposal! It is HIGHLY unlikely that your resume is passed over because you included your high GPA. Meanwhile, many hospitals and hiring managers love to on The Function see it, and assign value to it. So yes, by modest, all means, add it. I hope this helps!

Great work, by the way! I am wondering if I should include phone numbers for my previous employers? If yes, which number should I use – the regulated, general number, the unit, or HR? Also, some of my employment history goes back many years and proposal, the identifying information(number of beds, etc.) has changed. Crimes! I do not have the correct information from when I worked there. How should I list this information? Is there a good way to find current identifying information for a hospital? Thanks in advance for your response. Thanks for posting these great questions! First, there are no set rules for modest nursing resumes, so you’ll find some disagreement on almost every resume recommendation.

That said, the essay class, general rule is that you should not include the contact telephone numbers for your previous employers on your resume. In fact, you don’t need to include the complete address either. The city and state will suffice for your resume. Swift Proposal! On a side not, chances are that you’ll be applying for most jobs on the company’s website through an greek influence applicant tracking system. These online applications may allow you to enter the telephone numbers and modest proposal, addresses for analysis your former employers. Swift Modest! In this case, I always recommend adding every last bit of information you can to your online applications. Again though, that’s separate from leader your resume. Swift! On a another side note: If you are applying for travel nursing jobs, then you should include the telephone numbers and the supervisor names for your previous jobs. In order to find current information for Essay Function your former employers, you can use a website like The American Hospital Directory. They have a free hospital profile lookup tool.

I recommend using the swift, “advanced search” for best results. Please note that the leader, links to these pages are underlined in blue. Here you will find the current contact information, number of beds, teaching hospital status, trauma status, etc. If you are unable to locate the swift, information here or if your former employers are not hospitals, then you can simply try a google search for them or try the Medicare.gov site. If your former employer does business with Medicare, then they should be in the database with current information…assuming they want to get paid :-). Now, about your older work history. Many resume experts recommend including only the last 10 years of greek influence work history on your resume. However, that assumes that your prior experience may no longer be applicable to your current job search.

Others argue that you shouldn’t include more than 10 years of work history because you don’t want to date yourself. They’re concerned about “ageism” in the hiring process. These same people recommend not to include the dates you attended college. Ultimately, it’s up to you to include this information, I just wanted to provide some considerations. I hope this information helps. Please let me know if there are further questions! Help! I have over 22 years of clinical experience including ICU, hemodialysis, and outpatient surgery ctr (pre and pacu), and for the last 6 years (in addition to the 22 years) I’ve been reading electronic charts to extract data and swift modest proposal, support level of care (I’m told this is utilization review by a friend but we never called it that in Essay on The Function, work). Swift Modest Proposal! Now Ive been laid off (it was a large comp layoff).

I’m trying to get into QA, UR, pre cert or case managment. I was told I have a solid resume but I’ve gotten 3 calls in environment, 3 months, I blew the first interview and the next 2, they said they wanted CM experience. What do I need to do to get into these fields? Any suggestions? We’re sorry to hear about modest, your current situation! It’s always difficult to break into an entirely new field.

However, it sounds as though you have some experience to build on. Typically, Case Management and The Medical Field: Crimes Essay, Utilization Review require InterQual experience. If you have experience with that system, then be sure to modest include it on your resume. Otherwise, see if you can obtain some training in it. Check with local and state agencies to see if there are any offerings for greek influence people in your situation. Also, review the specific details of each job opening and tailor your resume to include the key requirements where applicable. Swift Modest! Check to see if there is the perfect, a local association that you can network with like the Case Management Society of America for modest example.

Ask anyone you speak with if a Case Management Certification would improve your chances, perhaps even call the people you’ve interviewed with previously to see what they say. If so, look into essay for 10th class certification. We hope this information helps! I have been reading through some of this thread and swift modest proposal, was wondering if you do any resume/cover letter revisions? I can tell you put a lot of micro environment analysis useful/productive feedback into your responses and would value your opinion if you were to review a copy of mine! P.S. When you mention Computer Experience in the article above, do you suggest adding these details under each individual job (under work experience/history) the comp. experience applies to or under a separate section such as the one you have listed as Comp.

Experience? Thank you for all your time and effort! Thanks for swift modest reaching out! My sincerest apologies, but I do not do resume/cover letter revisions. Thanks so much for your interest though. As for the computer experience, you can add it with any of the methods you described. The important thing is that it’s there. The resume builder on BluePipes.com lists computer experience under a separate heading. We do this as way to Essay Criticism ensure that members recognize and record it and perspective employers and recruiters are able to swift easily locate the details on essay courtesy, the members’ profiles and resumes. Swift! Given that EMR experience is leader, becoming such a prevalent requirement, it’s good to have it easily accessible on your resume.

However, it’s also good to add these details under each individual job when creating your own resume. It may not be as easy to locate, but it takes up less space, avoids redundancy, and still presents the modest, information. We hope this information helps! I am currently an jesus the perfect leader RN with 4 years solid experience in a 16 bed transitional care unit. Now I’m trying to move to a more challenging position. Swift Modest! Prior to immigrating to regulated federalism America I was a medical doctor for 9 years in ER. Would it be wise to mention that experience? …maybe describing my duties and swift modest proposal, medical college? I work in a program that enrolls military medic and corpsman and gives credit for their military experience towards an intensive BSN-RN program.

My question is what should the graduates highlight on their resumes? Many have extensive trauma and nursing care experience. Suggestions? Hi! I have a question / concern. I just finished my 2nd year of nursing and on essay class, a med Surg unit.

I have been asked to apply to an ICU position and I need to update my resume. I don’t know what to include. Prior to nursing, I was a surgical tech for 16+ years and active duty for 10 years. Swift Modest! I really enjoyed your blog and will refer to it when updating my resume! We’re glad to hear the information was useful. Micro! Congratulations on being asked to apply for an ICU position. That’s a good sign! #128578; Sounds like you have a lot of great experience to include on your resume. We recommend focusing most attention on your recent experience in MedSurg as it is the swift, most applicable to the ICU role you’ll be applying for. However, you can also include brief descriptions of your surgical tech and active duty experience as they are certainly desirable experiences. Environment Analysis! Relate all your work history descriptions to the ICU position.

To do so, find out as much as possible about the job and proposal, the unit. We hope this helps!! Oh MY! I’m sooOOO grateful to have found your blog page! I was about to do my sister a grave disservice –as you’ve mentioned. Indeed, the day of the one page crammer is passe’.

Especially with the value of the keyword in the perfect leader, electronic filing. Modest! Thanks so very much; you may have saved my Sis’s resume from becoming fodder for the shredder. [[shudder]] We’re glad to jesus the perfect hear the swift, information is useful. To be clear, 1 page resumes are still useful, particularly for leader job fairs or any other instance where the resume will be given directly to an individual. However, in most cases, people are attaching their resume in an Applicant Tracking System. In this case, it’s still good to modest be brief and choose your words wisely. Greek Influence! Don’t be overly verbose and don’t “keyword stuff.” However, you also shouldn’t be worried about a 2-3 page resume if your background requires it. Swift Modest Proposal! Be sure to tailor the resume’s wording to the job posting where applicable based on your background. We hope this helps! Thank you for this article! I realized that my resume was not up to par by reading this.

I had many generalized statements, which I have replaced with information on what I really did on the day to day. I recently worked at a hospital for 4 months and resigned due to it not being a good fit. It was a cardiac surgery step down unit, so it gave me experience with tele that I have not had in my 5 years as a nurse. Should I include it on micro, my resume? You’re welcome! We’re glad to hear you found the information useful. Swift Modest! This is Essay Function Criticism, a tough question. I assume you’re asking because you’re concerned that the short employment duration might raise some questions in the minds of potential employers. Swift! That’s a valid concern.

On the flip side, you did gain some valuable experience that would be great to add to your nursing resume. There is another issue to consider. Hospitals often have strict policies requiring that healthcare professionals provide them with every last bit of the healthcare professional’s employment history. Omitting a previous job on greek influence, your employment application could be grounds for dismissal depending on how they have their clauses worded. Of course, this depends on their ability to verify the omitted employment. This may not necessarily affect you during the candidate review process when your resume is typically the document they’re working off of. Swift Proposal! However, if you land a job offer, then they’ll eventually require an application to completed. If you choose to add the omitted job at that point, then you’ll have some explaining to do. Utltimatly, the decision is yours. Jesus Leader! If you choose to add the employment to modest proposal your resume, then you may want to offer a brief explanation of why you left in your cover letter. It’s all about the story you tell.

We hope this helps. This is greek influence, all great information but I do have a question. I am a recent BSN grad and swift modest proposal, licensed RN trying to land my first job. Micro! Would you recommend including my preceptorship under clinical experience or as work experience? I have seen it both ways in swift, examples online. Thanks, Kristin. We’re glad to hear this information on greek influence, was useful. You’re correct, you’ll find preceptorship experience displayed both ways…under clinical and modest, work experience. To further confuse the on The of Literary, issue, some people believe that clinical experience and work experience are one and proposal, the same while others believe they are two different things entirely. We view the preceptorship as something akin to a highly advanced internship.

For all intents and Essay Function Criticism, purposes, it is work experience. However, it doesn’t constitute a traditional employment relationship. Therefore, feel free to include it under either category on your resume, but be sure to clearly indicate that it’s your preceptorship. On a side note, we cannot stress enough the importance of professional networking when landing your first job. 70%-80% of all jobs are obtained through networking. While your resume is swift, important, networking is the key…especially for new grads.

We hope this information helps. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Best of luck!! Great info – I could have used that for my last job application! Do you have any tips / strategies to prepare for job interviews? I am finding these horribly stressful and hard to get my point across even when I know I’d be really good at the job I’m applying for. Thanks, Heidi! We don’t have any blog posts regarding interviews yet. Swift Modest Proposal! Thanks for definition the suggestion.

We’ll explore the topic soon. Thank you! This is very informative. Do you have any sample resume and swift modest proposal, application letter? We’re glad to environment hear the information is useful, Meth! Yes, you can view our sample nursing resume which you can create for free as a member of swift proposal BluePipes. You can view our recommendations on writing a nursing cover letter. We hope this helps! I LOVE this information!

Thank you. Here’s my question. I have had several careers, all with different education components, dating back to the mid 1980’s. Analysis! How far back should I go? None relate to my current field (new nursing graduate). It’s been a long time since I’ve actually developed a resume and things have changed…Plus, this career doesn’t match those careers….

Is it appropriate to ask a nursing instructor to swift modest proposal be a reference? Are references included now-a-days? Many, many thanks! We’re glad to hear the information is helpful!! Congratulations on your recent graduation from nursing school! Yes, it’s a great idea to ask an instructor to be a reference. Unfortunately, your questions regarding what to include on your resume aren’t so cut and dry. I think it’s fair to Essay of Literary say that the vast majority of career consultants would say you shouldn’t put references on a resume. However, if you could get a redeeming quote from modest proposal a strong reference, like an regulated instructor, to put in your resume summary, then it could be an eye catcher. You’re right, things have changed!

We recommend reviewing our article on optimizing your resume for applicant tracking systems. However, one thing is as true today as it ever has been…networking is the single best approach to modest landing a job. We discuss the importance in our article with recommendations for New Grad RNs. It’s tough to recommend that you leave off your past education. I’d say it would be good to add any College level education as well as healthcare related education. We hope this helps!! Best of Field: luck! Excellent information! Nursing is a second career for me and trying to put together a winning nursing resume has been a challenge. You are right on swift, the money….the resume I had for micro my corporate career doesn’t translate well into the healthcare field.

I am currently looking for a new position and realized what I had on modest proposal, my resume wasn’t going to micro work. I was destined to be one of modest proposal those that got lost in by Physicians, the system. The tips you provided have been so helpful. I feel confident that I am submitting a resume that will get me noticed. Thank you again for swift modest proposal providing such valuable information. Congratulations on your new career path!

We’re so glad you found this information useful. We wish you the best of luck in Field: by Physicians, your job search. We hope you’ll consider joining BluePipes.com where you can create a resume, access skills checklists for swift proposal free, and build your healthcare professional network. Greek Influence! Please excuse my shameless sales pitch #128578; Please let us know if we can help with any questions. I have read this post with great interest. Due to a job opportunity for my husband, we moved from KS to PA in 2012. Even securing an interview has been daunting!

I have gotten some feedback from ‘ recruiters’ in a large hospital in Pittsburgh, which was to be sure to apply to the job requirements, which interestingly were two pages long. How is that possible? The other problem I suspect I have is the modest, fact I have more than 20 years as a registered nurse. Regulated Definition! It seems the swift, practice of the regulated, three major ‘players’ in this area, is to lay off their experienced nurses, in favor of hiring new grads and swift proposal, those with ‘ at least a year experience’. I did secure an regulated federalism definition interview which ended favorably; just short of a job offer. The next step at swift proposal, this particular hospital required by the nurse recruiter, was to list ALL OF MY EXPERIENCE. I have been in nursing since 1974!

LPN in 1977 and BSN in 1989. When she responded to The Medical Field: Essay my email outlining all this information, which took me more than 2 hours to complete, was ‘we want to make certain we give you recognition for all the years you have been a nurse. AND, that was the last I heard from them. Swift Proposal! I contend she realized I would have to start at the upper end of The Medical Crimes by Physicians Essay compensation for my experience. Do you know of anyone who may be advocating for the ‘older nurse?’ Never thought I would use those words to proposal describe myself… I am so much more than my age. I am effective, reliable, comprehensive in my assessments, professional role model and delightful as a team member. Please give me some feedback relating to these concerns. I am ready to consult with the department of labor regarding this ‘alleged practice’ to decrease costs per fte.I think it’s a shame!

really good information here! I was updating my resume as I was reading your tips – will definitely share with friends and collegues. Thank you so much! Hello, This was very thorough advice. I’ve yet to figure how to be concise yet detailed with these tips in jesus, mind. Swift Proposal! I have almost 2 years experience in In-Patient Psychiatry and SNF just because those were the two jobs I landed. However, I always wanted to do LD or NICU. Greek Influence! I did my preceptorship in 2011 in modest proposal, LD. How can I use my experience and make it appealing for LD again? We’re glad to regulated federalism hear that you found the swift, information useful!

You can view the BluePipes sample resume to get an idea for greek influence formatting yours. Please bear in mind that our site generates a PDF document and swift modest proposal, you could get more compact results with a word processor like Microsoft Word. Also, you might be interested in reading our post on resume length. You can find creative ways to translate your Psych and The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians Essay, SNF experience to NICU and L#038;D. However, you most likely won’t be able to address the unique technical skills required for modest proposal these units. You could look for volunteer opportunities working with pregnant women and newborns in regulated federalism, your community. While it’s always tough to find time to volunteer, you’ll be doing a great service for your community and getting some relevant experience to add to your resume. Thank you for this very interesting article. I have been an RN for 9 years; 4 years at the bedside and 5 years in a hospital-based surgical practice doing outpatient, telehealth and proposal, some inpatient care. I would like to transition back to the bedside but feel that my lack of direct patient care over the last 5 years may be hamstringing me. How can I turn this perceived negative into environment analysis a positive and at least get through the front door of the interview process?

You’re welcome, we hope you found the article useful. Yours is a legitimate challenge that many nurses share. With respect to your resume, you should focus on demonstrating how your recent experience translates to bedside nursing. While we’re not familiar with your specific scenario, we’re certain that there are aspects of your experience with outpatient, telehealth and inpatient care that translate to swift bedside nursing. Carefully review the job duties and essay courtesy for 10th, qualifications of swift modest bedside nurses, and not just those found in the job descriptions of online job postings, to get ideas for on The Function of Literary framing your recent experience in swift modest, a way that applies to definition bedside nursing. Next, focus on writing an excellent nursing cover letter in which you present yourself as a solution to the problems facing the proposal, employer in question. Of course, you’re still going to have some difficulties ranking highly in the applicant tracking system due to the lack of recent bedside experience.

Therefore, networking is a must. Nearly 40% of all new-hires are the result of employee referral. With 9 years of experience, you’re bound to have some connections and now is the time to leverage them. We realize this type of job searching can feel unorthodox, but its success rate is Field: by Physicians, too good to neglect it. Use professional networking sites like BluePipes and LinkedIn to enhance your networking efforts. Finally, we’ve spoken to many nurses who tout the swift, benefits of courtesy for 10th refresher courses for bedside nursing. While we aren’t familiar with such courses, the fact that many nurses recommend them is an indication that they should be further researched as a potential tool when facing your challenge.

We hope this information helps…and Good Luck!! i have a question regarding applying to nursing positions. I am a new grad RN and have several nursing job applications that have been under review for over a month. Last week I became certified in ACLS and was wondering how to go about informing the hospitals that I am waiting to hear back from that I am newly certified in this skill, since it is not on my resume that they have on file (that I originally sent in). Congratulations on your recent achievements! This is a great question. You may be able to log in to the hospitals’ applicant tracking systems (the online system you most likely used to apply) and update your resume and/or profile. Either way, you may also want to give them a call, ask for the staffing office and pose this question to the representative you speak with. We find that hospitals are quite responsive to candidate inquiries relative to other employers. Modest! We hope these recommendations help, and we’d love to essay courtesy class hear back about what actions you take and modest, how they work out. Good luck!

I completely disagree that availability should be included on the resume. Definition! When a nurse applies for a position it is swift, usually clear what hours that he/she is applying to work. I actually think it’s a bit juvenile to put availability on your resume. What I do think that many nurses omit is courtesy class, a well-crafted cover letter to accompany their resume. The additional touch of a thoughtful and appropriate cover-letter can help give you an swift modest edge over analysis, other applicants who omit this step. I found some good details on cover letters for nurses here: http://bit.ly/1dDy8If . Thanks for the feedback, Brittney. Including availability on proposal, a nursing resume is important for micro environment analysis many reasons. First, the job applied for swift modest isn’t the for 10th, only job available, and most jobs are never advertised so candidates will never really know about all of the available jobs with a particular employer. Second, job specs don’t always display every last pertinent detail.

With respect to availability, this can mean that a job advertised for swift modest day shifts might in-fact be for Essay of Literary Criticism mid shifts, or pm shifts. This happens frequently when the job board technology limits the employer’s ability to accurately display the shifts. Third, job specs often change on the back-end and are never updated on the front-end. So a job that’s advertised for modest days may have changed to nights without being updated on micro analysis, the job board. Fourth, due to the proliferation of swift modest applicant tracking systems, resumes are added to regulated federalism definition a searchable database these days.

So resumes are searchable for future job openings. Finally, recruiters will almost always contact the candidate with the most attributes in common with any given job description. So in all of the scenarios described above, a recruiter will be more prone to contact the candidate with matching availability assuming all else is equal. Finally, it’s true that nursing resumes should always be tailored for a specific job description when a specific job is being applied for. However, a plurality of swift proposal jobs are filled via networking and referrals. In such cases, it’s rare that a specific job is environment analysis, being applied for. Instead, a candidate passes their resume along to a contact who has connections with the swift modest, employer in jesus, question. The resume is reviewed for potential matches with available jobs and the candidate is contacted. Again, availability is proposal, one detail that recruiters and hiring managers are looking for. Lastly, we agree that cover letters are important and related to this topic. However, they necessitate their own discussion and we plan on addressing this in a future blog post.

This is great information! As a new graduate RN with no prior experience in the healthcare field what would you recommend? I have over 4 years in retail but I’m not sure if this would make much of greek influence a difference for swift modest proposal recruiters. Any help is greatly appreciated, thanks! Hi there! Wow this information is great! Although I’m still an essay courtesy for 10th undergraduate, I find this site very helpful for tips to keep in swift proposal, mind when applying for a job! I just had a concern that may affect my decision within the Nursing field… For a while, I was thinking of minoring in something in addition to Nursing that I can apply to on The the work field. I know that computer knowledge is swift modest proposal, a great booster for environment analysis a resume, but I wanted to know if there were any other skills hospitals are looking for proposal in their RNs? Thank you again for the detailed explanations! Thanks, Michele!

We’re glad you found the information useful! Yes, computer knowledge is a great booster for the resume. You can look into Health Care Informatics as an by Physicians Essay option for a minor or additional coursework. You may also consider Healthcare Management or Administration, Nutritional Sciences, Biology, Sign Language, or Spanish. In fact, Spanish is modest, a huge selling point these days. As a side note: make the absolute most of your preceptorship. Be at your best and use the opportunity to network with everyone you can. Environment Analysis! We hope this information helps!! Please let us know if you have any other questions.

This is great information! Thank you! I am wondering though, as a RN with 1 year of experience in the CVICU, trying to move, with most places wanting more experience than that for hire, how should I market myself? I have done all of these critical care elements, but just not a ton of it. Before nursing school, I was a critical care telemetry tech for 3 years and a hospital pharmacy tech of 3 years as well as a SNE(student nurse extern) during school. Because it is not nursing, but healthcare related, should I include it in my resume? It seems juvenile but pertinent to add some experience.

Thanks! We’re happy to hear you found the information helpful, Dashia! You pose an excellent question regarding the swift modest proposal, inclusion of non-RN healthcare experience on The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians, your resume. There isn’t a steadfast rule, unfortunately, and you’re going to find that some people will say yes and some people will say no. I fall in swift, the yes camp and believe you should include all healthcare related experience on your resume for several reasons. First, it demonstrates progression within the leader, general field of healthcare. Second, it conveys additional experience within the field that other candidates may not have.

Third, in many cases (and certainly in your case) the experience is swift modest proposal, related to courtesy for 10th the jobs you’re applying for. Fourth, it may help you stand out from other candidates with otherwise similar experience. Fifth, unbeknownst to many candidates, many hospitals require your last 7 to 10 years of work history regardless of whether or not it was healthcare related. While this requirement doesn’t factor into their candidate selection process, they will certainly collect the proposal, information at some point during the hiring process. Finally, it may help your resume rank higher in applicant tracking systems. I hope this information helps! This information is very helpfull. Hi. I obtained an MD degree overseas before I even started getting licensed here as RN. I was told it would not help or matter anymore if I include that in on The of Literary, my resume.

What would you suggest? Hey Liza, I hope all is well. Swift Modest! I recommend including your overseas education. I agree that it most likely will not influence the initial resume screening process. Essay! However, it could have influence later in the process. You may not want to make it a significant part of your resume, but I think including it is better than not. Modest! It certainly enhances your personal story. Do you have an example resume? Hey Michaele, My apologies for the delay.

We’ve been busy transferring our blog to this new domain. We do not have an example nurse resume that we’re able to publish to the blog at this time. However, we will work on getting one up soon. Essay On The Function Criticism! Also, I recommend becoming a member on BluePipes where your professional profile will allow you to record the swift, top 10 details recommended for nursing resumes in this article. You can then print your BluePipes profile as a resume. Thanks so much!!

This clarifies a lot for analysis me. Swift Modest Proposal! I am a new LPN attempting to the perfect leader start my career in a new state and have read a lot of swift modest advice on Function, Nurses.com that is wrong. I’ll take the proposal, advice of greek influence a recruiter over general opinions anytime. Proposal! Most on the other sites were saying NEVER to include your license # details until you actually get a job offer. Essay! Then I just applied to one that specifically asked that I provide that info as well as any certifications on modest proposal, my resume in order to Field: by Physicians Essay be considered. I was hesitant since all the swift modest proposal, threads warn of essay courtesy for 10th protecting it at all cost due to modest identity theft? I’m glad you clarified this and Essay Function Criticism, some other points. I do have one question that is not addressed in your article. If you are continuing your education to swift modest proposal receive your BSN or MSN for example would mentioning that on your resume make a candidate more desirable to potential employers or would you leave that off? Hey Aimee, I’m glad to micro analysis hear that you’ve found the information useful. Proposal! Great question!!

I think it’s a great idea to add your education in progress to your resume. I recommend including an essay courtesy class estimated completion date and perhaps even the number of swift units completed to date. Micro Analysis! There are several reasons adding your education in progress could be beneficial. First, it could result in a higher ranking by the Applicant Tracking System. Second, it shows that you’re interested in advancing your knowledge and your career. Swift Proposal! Third, it demonstrates your own personal motivation.

As for the identity theft claims: Your license number is a matter of public record already. Anybody can go to your state board of courtesy for 10th class nursing and search by name to verify your state license, which includes the license number. So, even letting someone know your name, that you’re a registered nurse, and the state you’re licensed in provides the means to easily obtain your license number. Swift Modest Proposal! Providing it on leader, your resume simply allows the swift modest proposal, human resources rep to skip this step. Which increases the chance that your resume will be passed up the chain. And remember, you’re attaching your resume in secure Applicant Tracking Systems, many of which also ask for your Social Security Number and Date of Birth (although some states prohibit employers from asking for SSN on job applications).

I recently completed my ADN, passed the NCLEX, and now I am working on my resume. I already have a BA and MSW, which I will include on my resume, but I am wondering how I can state that I intend to pursue a BSN, although have not yet applied and don’t have credits towards the degree. Thanks for your advice. Congratulations on your recent achievements! You pose a great question regarding RN resumes, one for which there is jesus the perfect, no steadfast answer. My belief is that it wouldn’t be appropriate to include the information in the Education section of your resume because you haven’t yet been accepted to a BSN program. However, you could certainly add it there once accepted to a program.

Until then, you could make brief mention of this information in modest proposal, your nursing resume summary. We hope you find this response useful. Please feel free to federalism post any follow-up or additional questions you may have. Swift Modest! Good luck!! I have an additional question regarding previous education that I haven’t seen asked by anyone. I’m an older new grad. I recently had someone look at one of courtesy my resumes and give me her input.

She deleted all but my nursing education (Associates Degree). In some ways I think it’s not a bad idea since the previous education dates me if I include the years I attended (which I don’t but suppose that omission might make HR wonder). On the other hand, I attended highly regarded universities for undergrad and swift modest proposal, grad studies, not to mention it shows I have a Bachelors even though it’s not in the sciences. It seems like the RN to regulated BSN courses are more human and social science courses, rather than science courses, however, and that is the majority of my BA. OK… That’s some background info, now I’ll get to the point #128578; I know that resumes should cover only the swift proposal, last 10 years of employment history. Do you think this ‘rule’ also applies to education?

Should I leave it to discuss in an interview (as recommended by the person who revised my resume)? I’m feeling very conflicted about this. Definition! The new resume doesn’t feel like me, my degrees can be related to swift proposal the psycho-social aspect of regulated nursing, and when you fill in the online application portion they ask for all education (although you usually have to add on education). I would greatly appreciate your insight and recommendation. My sincerest apologies for the delay. Congratulations on your recent graduation!

This is a tough situation. Both sides of the argument have merit. Moreover, there really aren’t any steadfast rules about swift modest, resumes…only staunch opinions. Essay Criticism! To me, your nursing resume and cover letter are all about telling your story in modest, a way that convinces the reader you’re the right person for Field: by Physicians the job while providing them with the swift modest, details they need. Personally, I’d keep the environment, education details on the resume, and swift modest, use a brief portion of the cover letter to tie that education into the story about Essay of Literary, you being the best candidate for the job in question. Given the information you’ve provided about swift modest proposal, your previous education, it sounds as though you have a great opportunity to do just that. Again, there is no right or wrong answer here. You may even try it both ways. Greek Influence! Some readers will appreciate it one way and other will appreciate it another. However, I’m of the belief that all education is valuable.

I hope this information helps. We’d love to hear back about how it all works out!!

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1986 apush dbq essay Here we go again! . some general comments about the writing of these particular DBQ history essays. The following are general comments and that or may not apply to modest, your paper. For 10th Class? Keep them in mind when you write history essays in the future. Watch out for “listing” Remember that the readers have their antenna out for finding the proposal, “List” DBQs, because that is one of the cardinal sins of DBQ – just going down the documents making comments on each one. When you decide to start your essay with a discussion of Field: Crimes by Physicians Essay, Document A – you are making your essay appear as one of those list essays. This is not to say that it is modest wrong to do this – it is to say that you should be aware of it – why start with consumerism? For that matter, why start with a manifestation of the greek influence, tension – why not start with a cause? I don’t know what English teachers would advise here, but there is a distinct over use of the article “the” in some essays. Proposal? Here are some of the more egregious examples:

. Essay On The Function Criticism? (about the swift proposal, KKK) any members felt threatened by the new cultures. . One of that largest influences on the changing roles for The Medical Crimes by Physicians, women was brought about by the electrification of America, with the new appliances the everyday house work became much easier and advertising continually targeted these women with the latest appliances. . With shorter skirts, and bobbed hair, the women were rebellious in their ways. Modest? . The last thing that created tension between classes and generations was the new place of the black man. The problem with the last example is that it infers there was only one black man….. Religion as cause of the tension of the 20s. Many essays claimed that religion was the the perfect, source of tension – was it? Or rather was it just the manner in which the swift proposal, tension manifest itself? Darwin wrote in the 1850s – why is it that the 1920s saw the debate in public schools concerning his theories? It has much more to Field: Crimes by Physicians, do with the 20s than it has to do with the theory of evolution. Consider for modest proposal, example the correct debate over “intelligent design”.

Why is that a debate now but not ten years ago? This is the most important part of document based questions and there is an alarming numbers of essays who use the documents at face value and do no analysis at all. Here are some thoughts concerning the for 10th class, documents. The KKK was not happy with the Harlem Renaissance… Doesn't everyone know that the KKK was upset at the Harlem Renaissance? But my guess is that most members never heard of it. The Harlem Renaissance was something labeled by historians.

It is swift not as if the average person in Indiana read the headline in his newspaper “Renaissance hits Harlem; continued outbreaks of Jazz and literature reported”. Leader? It is clear that many of you are not reading the documents, or rather not really reading them for what they say. Look at how the author in swift Doc D says the KKK wants a “return of power” to the “everyday” people, who are the “entirely unspoiled”. This means that these people feel that they have lost something. Then he goes on to say who they want power returned from. Did you notice that he does not mention African-Americans? He wants power back from the “highly cultured” or “overly intellectualized”. The Perfect Leader? In one sense this has nothing to swift modest proposal, do with black people at all.

It may have something to do with you. Greek Influence? Yes you as a student in AP History would be hated by the KKK regardless of the color of your skin or your religious affiliation. In the eyes of Hiram Evans, you are “intellectually mongrelized “liberals” If you use Langston Hughes’s document for proposal, support that there was a Harlem Renaissance, you have not ana lyzed the document. Take a look at The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians, it again – can you see that he is criticizing culture in a manner similar to Sinclair Lewis in Doc A? This was often misused or under used – it is not just evidence that there were people who tried to stop smoking. You could explore the fact that these were women – for every flapper, there is a women like this trying to stop women from smoking. Or why not talk about the fact that drinking was already outlawed, the conservative forces were still at work, now they were after smoking. Or perhaps the counter-intuitive notion that women voting (which was a liberal idea) would result in a conservative movement. Swift? Documents are Opinions.

I don’t think I can say this enough – you must learn this and take it to heart – it is essential. Documents are opinions . The Perfect? They are not statements of fact. Documents are Opinions Part II. (this is copied from the comments associated with a previous DBQ) Do not use the documents to establish fact at all. Every document is the example of a different perspective, nothing more. Perhaps you have been in the habit of taking the text book as fact and therefore believe that these documents must be fact also. Here is an swift modest, example (extreme though it may be) of the the perfect leader, danger of modest, this approach.

This self-sacrificing will to give one's personal labor and environment if necessary one's own life for others is most strongly developed in modest proposal the Aryan. The Aryan is not greatest in his mental qualities as such, but in the extent of his willingness to put all his abilities in the service of the community. In him the instinct of self-preservation has reached the noblest form, since he willingly subordinates his own ego to-the life of the community and, if the hour demands, even sacrifices it. The Aryan race is more generous that any other race on Essay earth. See the trouble with that? Great example of an opening paragraph. In the swift proposal, 1920’s American entered an era in which Americans had to cope with drastic economical, social, and essay cultural changes. The booming economy, growth of big businesses, rise of advertisements, and the introduction of the proposal, automobile and radio, all contributed to the new consumerist attitude of the American people. During this period, electricity powered most homes, wages were higher, and working hours lowered, all improved the standard of living for most Americans. Traditional religious values were challenged by greek influence, a changing society and modest proposal cases such as the Scopes trial grabbed national attention. Groups such as the KKK gained popularity and women and African-Americans found new ways to identify themselves.

Cities became social and cultural focal points and by the end of the decade most Americans lived in urban areas. Essay Of Literary Criticism? The nation was changing in more ways than ever before and Americans either coped with the change or fought against swift modest proposal, it. The thriving economy, improved standard of Essay Criticism, living, and new urban culture all led to tension between the old and new attitudes, and was manifested in the arts, group movements, political trials, and in all other aspects of society. Another great example of an opening paragraph. The 1920s were a time of swift modest, incredible social change, and inevitably incredible social change engenders reaction. The rapid urbanization of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries produced much tension between those who deplored the the perfect leader, new image of women, dreaded immigration, and swift tried to guard religion from the rapid onset of science – most typically native-born Protestants in Crimes by Physicians Essay rural areas – and swift those who resented the Victorian moralism of the previous generation, fought Prohibition, and embraced the new mass culture – often young liberals, intellectuals, and musicians from urban areas.

Thus, the main causes of tension were the discrepancy between rural and urban America, and clashing values, and the tension manifested itself in federalism court cases, anti-immigration measures, and the actions of organizations and people, from the Ku Klux Klan to Sinclair Lewis.

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Cyber Bullying Essays and Research Papers. ? Cyber bullying Monira Alosaimi Dhahran Ahliyya School A person may think a word or two . that are typed up on swift modest the internet won’t affect anyone, she/he (they) might think there would be a billion comments and greek influence no one would pay attention to the one she/he (they) wrote; but guess what? People read these comments and they do get affected by it. Swift Modest Proposal. With what the harsh comment that person wrote, she/he just cyber bullied someone. Although cyber bullying may not be taken. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 904 Words | 5 Pages.

Bullying refers to any kind of aggressive behavior, which is normally intentional and entails am imbalance of strength or power. . Cyber bullying also referred to as social online cruelty can be described as an intentional aggressive act which is carried out by an individual or group of on The Function individuals against a victim done repeatedly over a long period of time and sent through electronic contacts. Cyber bullying is usually repeated over time unless it is swift modest a death threat. The definition of cyber bullying. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 2159 Words | 5 Pages. major issues plaguing young men and women of today.

They feel harassed, threatened and greek influence lonely because of this. Modest. In this paper I will outline what . Definition. cyber bullying is, what effects is has on young adults and various technological tools that educators can use in the classroom to tackle this issue. Modest. Cyberbullying Cyber bullying is a worldwide social issue today. It is the regulated federalism, use of technology most likely social networks such as “Facebook, twitter and swift proposal MySpace” to threaten. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1366 Words | 4 Pages. used in cyber bullying . Cyber bullying is defined as the use of internet, cell phones, or other . Leader. devices are used to swift proposal send or post text or images intended to hurt or embarrass another person. Greek Influence. Cyber bullying is a major problem affecting the younger generation these days. Proposal. Cyber Bullying has many kinds of examples but a few would be the bullies continuing to jesus leader email them when they don’t want them to, making sexual comments, and using hateful words online. Cell phones can be used in cyber bullying as well.

Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1388 Words | 4 Pages. COINS 209-05 25 September 2012 Cyber Bullying Not everyone knows what cyber bullying is, so what . is modest proposal it? Cyber bullying is when a child is being harassed, threatened, or embarrassed by environment analysis another child using the internet, cell phone or other digital device. Modest. Almost half of teens in the United States are cyber bullied. Females are more likely to participate in cyber bullying and get cyber bullied than a male will ( bullying statistics). Some children who are cyber bullied think the bullies do it. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1371 Words | 4 Pages. CYBER BULLYING Cyber bullying statistics refers to Internet bullying . Courtesy Class. . Cyber bullying is a form of teen violence that can do lasting harm to swift young people. Bullying statistics show that cyber bullying is a serious problem among teens. By being more aware of cyber bullying , teens and adults can help to The Medical Crimes Essay fight it Cyber bullying affects many adolescents and teens on a daily basis. Cyber bullying involves using technology, like cell phones and proposal the Internet, to bully or harass another person.

Cyber bullying. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1005 Words | 3 Pages. Stephanie Baker Paper 3 English 112 11:00-11:50 Prof. S Callender Cyber Bullying Cyber . bullying is defined as persistent unwelcome behavior, mostly using unwarranted or invalid criticism, nit-picking, fault-finding, isolation and being singled out essay for 10th, intentionally by others by the use of the internet, cell phones, or other technology. This may include spreading rumors about a particular person, or even pretending to be someone else to trick them into revealing personal information on the internet. Abuse , Barack Obama , Bullying 1882 Words | 5 Pages. Running head: Bullying Issues 1 . Bullying Issues: Cyber bullying vs. Swift Proposal. Traditional Bulllying Horache Allen Compostion1 Jan 29, 2013 Bullying Issues 2 Bullying Issues: Cyber Bullying vs. Traditional Bullying Are you a victim of cyber bullying ? Or were you the. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1455 Words | 5 Pages. Social Networking and Cyber Bullying .? Kevin Roshanaie Eng.

240 Professor Sophie Sills March 8, 2012 So many students and . kids are victims of cyber bullying whether this bullying is in school or from home. I think parents need to have control over who their kids talk to on micro environment face book and other social networking sites. Modest. Also I think school principals and The Medical Crimes by Physicians Essay administrators should take the necessary steps to prevent cyber bullying from school. Cyber bullying should be considered a crime and I think. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1878 Words | 5 Pages. Cyber Bullying By Fernando Marinero Kasey Green What is proposal Cyberbullying? ? Cyberbullying is the use of information technology . to repeatedly harm or harass other people in by Physicians Essay, a deliberate manner. Modest. Is It Wrong? ? While bullying is considered an old notion, cyber bullying is fairly new to this day in age. Greek Influence. ? In an online survey conducted 52% of people said that yes cyber bullying was a serious problem, while the other 48% said it was not. The Debate The people who agree that cyber bullying is a. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 492 Words | 8 Pages.

The cyber -bullies have stepped out of the proposal, screen and into face-to-face contact. With this new kind of bully on The Medical Crimes by Physicians Essay the rise and ruthless, is she . the school’s responsibility? Schools should be held responsible for swift modest proposal cyber bullying because the regulated definition, crime extends from the computer to swift the school setting. Studies indicate that cyber - bullying incidents have quadrupled in past five years (Ross). Courtesy Class. Cyber - bullying has become a huge issue recently. Every time you turn on the news there is another bullying , or.

Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1755 Words | 5 Pages. November 1 2011 Cyber Bullying and the Effects on Lives Cyber - bullying may not seem like much, but . in reality there are real people behind these monitors with real feelings. Swift Modest Proposal. Cyber -bulling has caused depression, and even driven some people to have low self-esteem, and insecurities that may sometimes cause them to harm themselves and others. Cyber - Bullying is a growing epidemic with children as well as teenagers that has to greek influence stop before someone ends up hurt or worse dead. “ Cyber bullying is defined. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1592 Words | 4 Pages. Cyber Bullying is worse than Physical Bullying Many people believe that bullying is just a phase . Modest Proposal. that everyone goes through in on The of Literary, life. Before the swift modest proposal, internet, cell phones, and other modern day technology came around, bullying was just a comment made by someone in the hallway, a prank towards someone, or even a big punch in the face.

Now with Facebook, MySpace, emails, and Essay on The Function of Literary Criticism cell phones, bullying has taken an even bigger toll and threat to swift proposal people’s lives. Although cyber bullying is less physical than traditional. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1764 Words | 5 Pages. Cyber Bullying Introduction With today’s technology bullying has become easier then ever; the regulated definition, children and swift proposal youth . of this generation do not even need to have personal confrontation. Cyber bullying can be defined as any communication posted or sent by a minor online, by The Medical by Physicians Essay instant messenger, e-mail, website, diary site, online profile, interactive game, handheld device, cell phone or other interactive device that is intended to frighten, embarrass, harass or otherwise target another minor.

Cyber bullying. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 2330 Words | 6 Pages. technology, bullying is evolving. Some people have started to call this change “ cyber bullying ,” which is defined . Modest. as “ bullying that involves the use of e-mail, instant messaging, text digital imaging messages and digital images sent via cellular phones, Web pages, Web logs (blogs), chat rooms or discussion groups, and other information communication technologies.” (Kowalski, Limber, Agatston 42) Through the use of greek influence online social networks, many teenagers are becoming victims of cyber bullying . As a result. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1694 Words | 5 Pages. PLAYED ON MEAGAN IS KNOWN AS CYBER BULLYING . IN THE YEARS SINCE I FIRST HEARD THIS STORY I’VE HEARD PLENTY MORE STORIES THAT FIT . THIS CATEGORY SUCH AS THE SUICIDE OF RYAN HALLIGAN, AND TYLER CLEMENTI JUST TO NAME A COUPLE. CONSTANTLY HEARING THESE STORIES IN THE NEWS LET ME KNOW THAT CYBER - BULLYING IS A GROWING PHENOMENON AFFECTING MANY LIVES AROUND THE WORLD WHICH IS WHY I CHOSE THIS TOPIC TO RESEARCH. Proposal. TODAY I WANT TO TELL YOU WHAT PROFESSIONALS DESCRIBE AS CYBER - BULLYING ,SOME OF THE ACCREDITED RESEARCH. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1493 Words | 4 Pages.

Cyber Bullying : Technology will be the federalism, Death of modest proposal Us Adam Koran English 112-05, Fall Semester Professor Stammler December . 6, 2012 Adam Koran Koran 1 Courtney Stammler English 112-05 11/24/12 Cyber Bullying : Technology will be the Death of Us Everybody remembers not too long ago when the stereotypical “bully” was portrayed as a big scary boy who pestered other boys for Function their lunch money. Bullying is like a disease, and modest proposal it has developed a strange mutation. This mutation allows. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 2057 Words | 6 Pages. Addressing the Issue of Cyber Bullying2 Introduction Today, people all over the world have the The Medical Field: by Physicians, capability to communicate with each other . with a simple click of a button. Modest. With these technological advancements, society’s teens are appealed to the uses of jesus leader computers, mobile phones and other electronic devices. Although many perceive social networking and swift modest proposal technology as harmless amusement, the ones threatened by cyber bullying beg to differ. This recent craze of virtual harassment has inflicted agony. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1137 Words | 3 Pages. Cyber communication Cyber socializing or cyber communication has led this country to a new age of . technology, but cyber communication is very dangerous because you can give out tons of information which can lead people to being cyber stalked for one example.

Cyber communication definitely sounded like a good idea back in the sixties when it was made for The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians the army and only the army to use (http://www.helium.com/items/1611017- cyber -communication-as-problem). Once it wandered in to the homes. Abuse , Adolescence , Cyber-bullying 1284 Words | 3 Pages. Cyberbullying Escalating In the article White House Conference Tackles Bullying by Miami Hall, she refers to a quote by modest proposal First lady Michelle . Obama, appearing with President Obama at the day-long White House Conference on Preventing Bullying . She says, “The issue is federalism definition something we care about not only swift modest, as president and first lady but also as parents. It's tough enough being a kid today, and our children deserve the environment analysis, chance to learn and grow without constantly being picked on, made fun of--or worse” (Hall). Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1636 Words | 4 Pages. A 21st Century Epidemic: Cyber Bullying Madison Gordon-Lavaee Rhetoric 101 Professor Cole October 12, 2010 A 21st . Century Epidemic: Cyber Bullying The Internet has a lot to offer: immediate answers, endless research, and easy communication with people all over the world. These were the intentions of the people who invented this product.

America focused on swift modest the invention of the Internet and micro analysis all its glory, but forgot to proposal think about the courtesy, evil that could come of it. It is generally known that. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 2014 Words | 5 Pages. The Detrimental Effects of Cyber Bullying. Effects of Cyber Bullying The Detrimental Effects of Cyber . Bullying “Sticks and stones may break my bones but words will never hurt me.” This popular saying is echoed throughout playgrounds all over the United States.

If only every victim of bullying could adapt to modest proposal this attitude. Bullying is a frequent experience for a large number of children and adolescents. In today’s society, victims of bullying are subject to traditional forms of bullying as well as. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 2292 Words | 7 Pages. THE REALITY BEHIND THE CYBER WORLD: My thoughts on Cyber Bullying “ Bullying builds character like . nuclear waste creates superheroes. It’s a rare occurrence and often does much more damage than endowment”. (Van, 2011). Jesus The Perfect Leader. Nowadays, our world is facing different problems, issues, and modest concerns that people hardly realize. Some of these issues are not properly addressed by regulated our government for there are other issues that need to be taken first of. Swift Modest. One of these issues is cyber bullying . Field: Essay. I know that all of. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 2332 Words | 7 Pages. being bullying through the use of e-technologies.

For those of you who don't know what e-technologies are, here are some examples: cell . Modest. phones, text messages, multimedia messages, e-mail, and any web page accessed through the web such as myspace and or facebook. The Perfect. This problem that is proposal so common among children requires us all to come together, parents, children and their schools, to stop it. Since the motives of cyber bullies differ, the definition, solutions and responses to each type of cyber bullying incident. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 988 Words | 3 Pages. Cyber Bullying Cyber - bullying is when a person is harassed, embarrassed, intimidated, terrorised, . tormented, threatened, or otherwise targeted by proposal person using the Internet, interactive and on The Function of Literary digital technologies or mobile phones by means of swift modest proposal threats, sexual remarks, negative labels, ridicule, false statements or disclosure of personal data. it is definition sometimes referred to as cyber -harassment or cyber stalking. The methods used are limited only by the child's imagination and access to technology.

Traditional. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 948 Words | 3 Pages. Prosecuting Cyber Bullies Technology is frequently being used to display personal information on social networking sites for everyone in the . Swift Proposal. world to see. With this instantaneous technology, the school bully has access to definition an easier, more harmful, and anonymous way to modest proposal intimidate their victim. Cyber bullying has become a form of definition harassment that is proposal creating a myriad of problems for Crimes by Physicians Essay teenagers and, therefore, needs to be dealt with properly. The sense of anonymity and the ability to disguise ones. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1192 Words | 4 Pages. Think Before You Type Jocelyn Barrera February 20 2015 Bullying has been a problem in schools since most of us . can remember, but as modern technology continues to advance bullying has taken on a new turning point. Children now dealing with a bully at school could escape it when he/she got home. Swift Proposal. Unfortunately, that is no longer the leader, case. Swift Proposal. New technologies make it possible for bullying to go beyond the classroom and into jesus the perfect a child’s home life.

As technology evolves, so do. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1147 Words | 5 Pages. Persuasive Essay Outline: Cyber Bullying Posted on March 20, 2013 by swift modest Roshan Promisel Here is a rough outline of my essay (some . body paragraphs will most likely be changed as I go): Introduction: Cyber bullying is a form of bullying that has been taking place a lot more in middle and jesus leader high schools because of the improvement of technology and increased usage of social media networks. Something that has not really been established in these schools are punishments. Do you know if your middle school. Abuse , Bullying , College 1421 Words | 6 Pages. MJ Morin 11/29/12 Ms.

Clarke English 11 (CP) Cyber - bullying laws gone too far With the swift, increasing use of social . networking, Cyber - bullying is at an all time high. Regulated Federalism. One in four of the 14- to 24-year-olds who responded to the survey said they had experienced digital abuse within the proposal, past six months. Essay Of Literary Criticism. About 20 percent said someone had written something mean or untrue about them online. (Cyberbullying crackdown) The question that needs to be asked is; is it ok for modest proposal a child to be jailed for greek influence a mentally. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1157 Words | 3 Pages. Cyber Bullying Affect in Hong Kong. 1 Assignment 2 Phenomenon of Cyber Bullying Among Teenagers in School *Group Members: -Higher Diploma in Information . Technology (Web): Chiu Man Kai (EL) Wong Tsz Kin (Prince) Table of Contents: Introduction Page 3 Motivation of cyber bullying Page 4 The Characteristics and swift proposal Effect of Cyber - Bullying Page 5 Handling of Cyber Bullying Page 6 Solution of Cyber Bullying Page 7 Conclusion Page 8 Reference Page 9 Appendix A - Cyber - bullying : issues and environment solutions for the school. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 844 Words | 4 Pages.

The Link Between Cyber-Bullying and Suicide. The Link Between Cyber Bullying and proposal Suicide When people hear the word “bully” they often think of the tough guy in school who . seems to push and Function shove his peers into lockers and take away their lunch money. The idea of proposal this type of bully has become popular and many people today would consider it a means of toughening up and is also widely known as an inevitable part of The Medical Crimes by Physicians growing up or a phase in a child’s life. Recently there has been a rise in a new form of bullying ; cyber bullying . With the fast. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1985 Words | 5 Pages. The Danger of Teens and Social Media. pressure, Cyber - bullying , depression, and the danger of sexual predators are only a few risks teens need to be aware of modest when . engaging in social media activities. Greek Influence. With social media being at swift proposal an all time high in this day and age, most teens do not realize the micro analysis, significant effect it has on swift proposal their lives.

Indeed, it may be a great way to communicate with family and friends, however; more risk than benefits come along with the use of social media. Becoming one of the most common risk teens face today, cyber -bullying. A Great Way to Care , Abuse , Adolescence 883 Words | 3 Pages. cyber bullying outline and thesis. patterns of online and offline behavior. Regulated. There are consequences of law in offline stalking and swift proposal online stalking, and cyber -stalkers can be put . in The Medical Field: by Physicians, jail.[10] Cyberstalking is a form of cyberbullying.[11] Comparison to Traditional Bullying Certain characteristics inherent in online technologies increase the likelihood that they will be exploited for swift modest deviant purposes.[12] Unlike physical bullying , electronic bullies can remain virtually anonymous using temporary email accounts, pseudonyms in chat rooms, instant.

Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 864 Words | 3 Pages. How Is Technology Affecting People Psychologically? person. Unfortunately, this negative online interaction is The Medical Crimes all too frequent. Cyber bullying is the act of . bullying using electronic technology.

It has become so serious that laws have been passed to outlaw it; going as far as jail time. Cyber bullying occurs with one out of six children. It can be devastating because it can happen 24 hours per day and every day of the week. The worst part about Cyber bullying is that it can even happen when the victim is alone. Cyberbullying Research Center. Cyber-bullying , Entertainment Software Rating Board , Nonviolent video game 994 Words | 3 Pages. Synthesis Essay Over Cyber Bullying. Introduction? : Whether students are the target, perpetrator, or observer, bullying appears to be a rite of passage . in schoolyards throughout the modest, world. Although bullying is discouraged by parents and Function of Literary school officials, it seems to be considered a normal part of growing up.

However, with the introduction of the Internet and the rise of chat rooms, blogs, and swift social networking sites, cyber bullying has become an anonymous way to target and attack others. ADD Assignment? : Re. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1990 Words | 8 Pages. lives just because they cannot handle the stress and The Medical Crimes by Physicians the judgement that people have made without thinking? As the Cyber Wellness . Representative of swift proposal Class 3E6, I, Alexandra Udinov, although I cannot stop cyberbullying on my own, but I want to raise awareness on this issue and help prevent it. And by on The of Literary Criticism preventing it, I want to share to the people, which is all of you about cyber - bullying and what we can do to modest proposal put a stop to it. As inhabitants of the 21st century,we are,with no doubt bound to social. Anger , Cyber-bullying , Facebook 1258 Words | 4 Pages. create personal profiles to keep in regulated definition, contact with friends, to share photos also to share music.

MySpace and Facebook have earned millions of dollars however . negative publicity since their success has pinpointed the swift, dangers of micro environment sexual predators, cyber - bullying and even inappropriate content on swift proposal their social networks. MySpace and Facebook have increased security measures but the dangers are still inevitable and the members know they enter at their own risk. In 1998, MySpace became an micro environment analysis official website. 2008 , Cyber-bullying , Cyberstalking 2299 Words | 7 Pages. In recent discussions of popular media is swift modest proposal dangerous to regulated federalism teens morality, a controversial issue has been whether cyber socializing has a negative . Proposal. influence on today's teens. On one hand, some argue that cyber socializing has a positive influence on teens morality. According to The Medical Crimes by Physicians Essay this view's advocate, Far from swift hampering adolescents skills or putting them in harms way, cyber socializing helps teens build their own identity's and positively affect their morality. (Henry, n.p.) From this perspective. Cyber-bullying , Facebook , Morality 1522 Words | 4 Pages.

Why Do Cyber Bullying Laws Need to Be Enforced? Why do Cyber Bullying Laws Need to be Enforced? Several middle school students in western New York created a Facebook event . invitation Oct. 21, and micro analysis they invited 60 of their friends to participate in a plan to torment the sixth-grader the next day. As the result, 10 accepted the invitation and some of the students posted offensive comments; one even proposed to kill the boy. When the mother of the proposed victim found out swift modest proposal, about that, she contacted to jesus school officials. This is common news for modest many. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 841 Words | 3 Pages. Bullying can be found in every school in jesus, the country. Swift Modest Proposal. It is all too often part of the micro environment, way young people interact in swift, our society. Every school . must recognize its extent and impact and take steps to stop it happening.

When bullying is ignored or downplayed, pupils will suffer ongoing torment and essay for 10th harassment. Most children who are bullied always commit suicide. Bullying can cause lifelong damage to victims. Swift. (A school's failure to deal with bullying endangers the safety of Field: all its pupils by swift allowing a. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1387 Words | 4 Pages. liberty they have with the internet. Regulated Federalism Definition. In the past three years, there have been many cases in the news where teens get together and bully and harass other . teens online, sometimes up until the swift modest, point where they can’t handle the constant bullying anymore and federalism definition commit suicide. Cyber bullies use the internet as their medium to say things they wouldn’t normally say in person, and since it is more public, they know they are doing much more [public] harm to the person. Take the swift modest proposal, Megan Meier case as an example; Megan. Cyber-bullying , Facebook , Internet 1559 Words | 4 Pages.

The Social Networking Effect on Teenagers. many features and become social outcasts because they form a social life on The Medical Field: Crimes by Physicians these websites. As a result, one-on-one interaction with friends, family and even . enemies are slowly phased out. To top all that off, social networking websites are haven for cyber bullies and stalkers and swift modest a playground for predators who are looking for on The their next target using fake profiles. Even after all these effects, critics still maintain that social networking websites are good for today’s youth because it helps them gain. Abuse , Cyber-bullying , Facebook 1631 Words | 4 Pages. not afforded this right. It is doubtful that every piece of legislation enacted by our government can replace vigilant parents. Keen points out the . unfortunate case of a thirteen-year old girl, Megan Meier, who committed suicide, due to swift modest online bullying by a fabricated persona, whom turned out to be her forty-seven year old neighbor, Lori Drew, the mother of girl with whom Megan had argued. Drew was not charged for the murder because it wasn’t illegal (69). Drew should be held accountable and penalized.

Abuse , Anonymity , Cyber-bullying 880 Words | 3 Pages. BULLYING Executive Summary Suicide is the third leading cause of death for adolescent children between grades 6-12 in California, arguably . Field: Crimes By Physicians Essay. due in part to bullying , a form of interpersonal violence that has emerged as an important public health issue in the United States (Burgess, 2006). Swift. Since 1999, 43 states have passed laws requiring schools to adopt policies addressing bullying (Serabstein, 2007). Jesus The Perfect Leader. However, the inconsistency in application of anti- bullying policies across the country has led to. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1885 Words | 6 Pages. English 099 Cyber Bullying Bullies have been around for swift a long time, but in the past 10-to-15 years there is a new type of . bullying that has developed called cyber bullying . Cyber bullying is similar to jesus physical bullying ; however, the swift proposal, bullying takes place on the Internet and can happen at any time any day. The difference between cyber and definition physical bullying is that online the emotional and verbal abuse both exist; however, the physical abuse is absent online.

Cyber bullying took a while before. Abuse , Bullying , Humiliation 1077 Words | 4 Pages. Cyber - Bullying in Todays World Cyber bullying is the cause of today’s problems, dealing with teens . causing more harm than the intended harm to peers. Modest. Cyber - bullying uses the for 10th, Internet to harass, threaten, and harm others through social networking sites, like Facebook or MySpace. Cyber - bullying has many negative effects in swift, the life of bullied students. Some of the The Medical by Physicians Essay, effects are failure in academics, socially deprived of interactions with piers, and swift modest proposal unfortunately, suicidal thoughts. Cyber - bullying . Abuse , Bullying , Education 811 Words | 3 Pages. The Impact Of Cyber Bullying On Young People’s Mental Health The overall aim of the project is to understand the impact of . cyber bullying on the mental health of The Medical by Physicians young people aged 12-18. Swift. I wanted to explore: - The links between cyber and regulated other forms of bullying - How aware parents are about cyber bullying - What schools do to monitor and modest deal with cyber bullying - Whether cyber bullying affects the way in regulated definition, which young people use technology - Whether increasing use of technology, and new technologies. Abuse , Bullying , Psychological abuse 855 Words | 3 Pages.

?I watched a close friend of mine in high school become the victim of cyber bullying . Proposal. She slowly started drifting from her . Jesus. friends, her family and other people close to swift modest her. She changed the way she looked at herself, other people, and the overall world. Environment Analysis. Depression is one of the largest known symptoms or effects of bullying in general. Some other effects could be the swift modest proposal, idea of greek influence low self-esteem, along with self-worth. The idea of having no trust in other people, or the world is swift another common symptom. Abuse , Bullying , Meaning of life 2194 Words | 7 Pages. Prof. Ribeiro English 102-27 16 May 2012 Technology and Bullying Part I – What I Already Know About My Topic I don’t know much about analysis, . the swift, topic I chose and I have never personally experienced bullying or cyber bullying myself. I have, however, seen on the news and read about cyber bullying and the growing trend it is becoming. The Medical Crimes. I remember a very specific case that happened two years ago at Rutgers University where a closeted-gay college student’s roommate secretly videotaped him performing.

Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 2499 Words | 6 Pages. Soc. Research Paper May 22, 2013 Cyber Bullying Many people have heard of the term “ Cyber . Bullying ”. Some people may have even been involved in it, whether being bullied, bullying someone themselves, or just being a by-stander and watching it all play out before them. Swift Modest. Others may have just heard of the extremely bad cases on the news or by word of mouth. No matter which way you look at it, this issue is jesus growing fast and starting to become out of control but with everyone’s help the problem can. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 1280 Words | 4 Pages.

? Cyber Bullying What is swift modest Cyber Bullying ? Use of cell – phones, text messages, e-mail, instant . messages, web blogs, and postings to bully another student in any of the Essay, ways described above. Modest Proposal. Examples of cyber bullying are sending threatening or insulting messages by phone and e-mail and spreading destructive rumors that ruin the Essay on The of Literary Criticism, reputation of a fellow student or worker. Modest. Bullying can occur just about everywhere: in any kind of school- poor or wealthy public or private, single-sex or co-education. Abuse , Bullying , E-mail 1417 Words | 4 Pages. For decades, physical bullying has been a consistent problem for young people attending school. Yet the greek influence, rapid growth of the proposal, Internet has . redefined how students pick on one another. Definition. This is swift a sample essay written about the tragedies that have occurred as a result of cyber bullying in the last several years, as well as how school administrators, students, and parents can best go about protecting their loved ones from these attacks in the future.

If you are interested in purchasing a custom essay on. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 1677 Words | 5 Pages. From the school yard to the tips of our youth’s fingers, bullying has always been a part of the typical school life and unfortunately over the . years it has only Field: Crimes, become worse. Due to the capabilities of swift proposal today’s technology, items such as mobile phones, tablets and computers are the sole key to allowing us access to social media. Technology provides significant benefits, particularly to the young people of today however it needs to be noted that it also has a dark side (Campbell, 2005). Definition. This rapidly. Abuse , Bullying , High school 1193 Words | 3 Pages. Cyber - bullying Cyber - bullying is the use of the Internet, cell phones, or other electronic . communication devices to spread harmful or embarrassing information about another person. Swift Proposal. With kids using electronic technology and communication tools such as social media, text messages, chats, and websites a new form of bullying begins. Regulated. Some root causes of this social injustice would be the swift proposal, internet as it gives kids an online version of teasing that commonly exists in schools along with the potential. Abuse , Bullying , Catholic social teaching 2381 Words | 6 Pages.

Bullying and Facebook Twitter Google+ Complete Your Registration Now. Essay On The. RESEARCH DOCUMENTS BOOK NOTES AP NOTES StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays, Term Papers Book Notes . Cyber Bullying Essay Continues for 1 more page » Home » Computers Internet Cyber Bullying Essay By Merlin920 | April 2012 Zoom InZoom Out Page 1 of 2 Adam Grabenhorst Mrs. Dressler English 2 15 January 2012 Cyber Bullying Peer to swift peer bulling is nothing new. It has been going on essay for generation after generation. However the times have now changed since. Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 583 Words | 4 Pages. Beituni Bnbnb Roeback Com 101 068 12-8-10 Social Networking Argumentative Essay Are social networking sites good for our society? Social . networking sites can be harmful because they can affect the lives of many for the worse by swift allowing cyber bullying and leading to short attention spans.

Some people believe that social networking sites expose children to predators, increase vulnerability to computer viruses, lower worker productivity, and promote narcissism and short attention spans. Others. Bullying , Cyber-bullying , Facebook 852 Words | 3 Pages. Bullying Is No Longer Just on the Playground. Mukherjee English 1113 March 27, 2013 Bullying has been around for centuries and is found in all human . cultures across the federalism, world. Bullying is a natural behavior; it is modest part of the on The Function of Literary, human condition. No matter where you go there will always be groups or individuals that single out swift modest, other groups or individuals. Greek Influence. Bullying is used as a form of showing dominance or social status. Bullying consists of spreading rumors, attacking someone physically or verbally, making.

Abuse , Bullying , Cyber-bullying 1614 Words | 4 Pages. WRT-101-118 Professor Petillo Unit 4 First Draft 3 December 2014 Chased into swift Cyberspace People are cruel, this is nothing new. What is new is the decline . Essay. of the traditional form of bullying and swift modest the rise of cyber bullying . Jessica Bennett in her article The Flip Side to Internet Fame explains the Essay Function of Literary, effects of cyber bullying using great examples and details. Modest Proposal. Instead of being chased around the playground young people have decided to environment analysis take it to the Internet, where they can hide behind their screens and batter. Abuse , Bullying , English-language films 1559 Words | 6 Pages. are bullied, also known as cyber - bullying . Modest Proposal. Anything said, written, or displayed on courtesy the internet is permanently there once it . is posted. It is possible to delete any posts off of an account but it does not mean it has been completely taken off the swift modest proposal, internet.

The same goes for greek influence text messages, even though text messages may be deleted on a cell phone, old text messages can still be brought up and printed out through the swift proposal, phone carrier. Regulated. This has become a big issue with bullying because bullies feel that. Abuse , Bullying , Communication 1354 Words | 4 Pages. Case Study- Cyber Bullying 2 December 2010 It was 7:00 a.m., and Skylar rose out of his bed just like any other day. He got . dressed, combed his hair, brushed his teeth, grabbed a pop tart and swift was out the regulated federalism, door. Swift Modest. Skylar is in greek influence, the eighth grade and swift proposal he has been bullied since fourth. Chris Jacobson has picked on on The Function of Literary him with his “gang” for modest proposal the past four years.

They tease him about his braces, the way he wears his clothes, being too skinny, and anything they can think of. On top of that, Skylar has suffered. Abuse , Bullying , Catholic Church 1572 Words | 4 Pages.