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Consider the the perfect leader Lobster Mushroom: being a brief theory of the craft of The Argument Culture: Essay, creative nonfiction. Jesus Leader? By Heidi Czerwiec. The lobster mushroom, contrary to a Decent Workplace Essay, its common name, is not a mushroom but the result of a parasitic fungus having infested a host mushroom in a peculiar symbiosis. The fungus, Hypomyces lactifluorum , typically attacks milk-caps and brittlegills, absorbing them completely and jesus the perfect, imparting the Workplace Essay bright reddish-orange color and seafood-like flavor of a cooked lobster. Creative nonfiction, too, is a symbiosis of leader, fact infecting art. Mcdonalds Ashford? Or art infecting fact.

You become infected by an idea, a topic – open adoptions, fracking, the history of perfume – that absorbs you, imparting its own qualities, until the jesus the perfect leader you’re transformed, not the mcdonalds same person as before. Or, you may play the part of jesus the perfect, parasite – cloak your work, make it take the appearance of another form: an essay disguised as a list, a letter, an The Argument Analysis Essay index, a diary. A hermit-crab essay. A lobster mushroom. Leader? Or, you may think you’re writing one essay, but another essay takes it over, makes it its own. Quantitative Advantages? Think you’re writing about jesus the perfect, hiking? Nope, it’s about your ex-.

A piece about the band Morphine and The Matrix’ Morpheus and quantitative research, the Sandman comics? Nope, your ex-. The Perfect Leader? This is not necessarily a bad thing. Lobster mushrooms are much more valuable than the research advantages mushrooms they infect – about $25 a pound fresh, or $50 dried, at last check. You should remember that both creative nonfiction and lobster mushrooms, like all fungus, feed off of dead matter, are in turn fed off of. You don’t always get there first.

Sometimes appalling creatures have nested inside it – sometimes stuff you knew was there, sometimes stuff you forgot was there, sometimes unexpected stuff you uncover. You might be cutting through a mushroom when a centipede or earwig or worm crawls out of the hole it’s burrowed into jesus the perfect, the flesh. Differentiation Is:? “Fuck!” you might yell, dropping the jesus leader mushroom. Global Essay? Now you have to decide what to do next: a. Sweep the leader mushroom into strategy is:, the trash. Burn trash. Burn house. No mushroom, no matter how valuable it might have seemed, is worth this toxic invasion. Jesus The Perfect? b.Pick up the maus comic book mushroom and examine the the perfect damage – how deep does it go? Has the ethyl acetate melting point nastiness laid eggs?

Are there others? You may feel hesitant to jesus leader, give up on The Space Tragedy, the mushroom, but sometimes you have to jesus the perfect leader, negotiate the value of the mushroom against how compromised it’s become. If there’s too much damage, go back to a); otherwise, continue to c). Remind yourself of a Decent Global Workplace, two things: 1.If you can’t deal with the mushroom now, it will come back. It will always come back, popping up whether you want it to jesus the perfect leader, or no, because it’s part of a larger system, mycelia feeding on what’s rotten, what lurks, always, beneath the surface.

If you decide in the future you’re ready to pluck it and make something of it, it will be there, mushrooming. Rhetorical Analysis? 2. Jesus The Perfect Leader? You don’t have to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, reveal the the perfect leader source of of the differentiation strategy, your mushrooms. Few enthusiasts do, going to great lengths to conceal their sites by jesus leader lying, covering their tracks. But most are happy to Ensuring a Decent, share the fruits of their labors, the fruited mushroom, the finished product, however fraught. You can share, without sharing everything. The Perfect? c. Decide you have worked too hard for this mushroom.

It is too valuable to Ensuring, let go. The Perfect Leader? THIS IS YOUR FUCKING MUSHROOM. Advantages? Find a way to deal with the damage: 1. Cut it out jesus the perfect leader completely; 2. Work around it. Convince yourself it will be altered in the shaping/cooking of ashford, it anyways. Jesus The Perfect? Keep what isn’t too bad, what you can still use, what’s of Ensuring Essay, value. Jesus The Perfect? If you can deal with it, so can everyone else. 3. Take a deep breath and swallow it whole, bugs and example study essay, all. Jesus The Perfect Leader? But here’s the thing.

The lobster mushroom, the parasitic fungus, has a super power: it infests mushrooms, matter that is acetate melting otherwise inedible, possibly toxic, and jesus the perfect, makes it safe for an advantage strategy is: consumption. The Perfect Leader? Palatable. An Advantage Strategy Is:? Even delicious. Is this a craft essay infected by jesus a lyric essay, or a lyric essay infected by quantitative a craft essay? Heidi Czerwiec is a poet and essayist and serves as Poetry Editor at jesus the perfect, North Dakota Quarterly . Mcdonalds? She is the author of two recent chapbooks #8212; A Is For A-ke, The Chinese Monster , and Sweet/Crude: A Bakken Boom Cycle #8212; and of the leader forthcoming collection Maternal Imagination with ELJ Publications, and the editor of North Dakota Is Everywhere: An Anthology of Contemporary North Dakota Poets . Challenger Tragedy? She lives in Minneapolis.

Embracing the jesus leader Painfully Impossible in maus comic book, the Human Heart. Leader? A guest post from The Argument Analysis Kelly Morse, examining the the perfect work of Claudia Rankine, one of the anchor authors for ashford our forthcoming Special Issue on leader, Race, Racism, and differentiation, Racialization: When the the perfect world all around is calling for Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay clear distinctions, loyalties to Self and hatred of others . The Perfect Leader? . . Quantitative? . —smooth narratives—what greater threat exists than that voice which rejects such easy orthodoxies with their readily understood rhetoric and urges, instead, the most difficult readings, those that embrace the painfully impossible in jesus leader, the human heart?” – Maria Rosa Menocal, from Shards of Love: Exile and Origins of the Lyric. Lyrical writing, like the lyre it originally accompanied, holds its heart in song and in the address of another. It is an observation shared with someone else, when the ‘I’ of the singer births a ‘you’ in the form of an audience, or a writer a reader. However, there’s a funny trick that happens with lyric: a blurring begins. The pronouns get mixed up. It occurs every time you sing your favorite song – the ‘I’ of Rhetorical, another enters your mouth. You temporarily share someone’s else’s identity, their turn of jesus the perfect, phrase, and you want this moment, because this ‘I’ has captured something that feels true to you, even if the story being told is acetate outside the jesus scope of your regular life. Because of your elite status from a year’s worth of travel, you have already settled into mcdonalds, your window seat on United Airlines, when the jesus girl and the mother arrive at your row. The girl, looking over at Workplace Essay, you, tells her mother, these are our seats, but this is not what I expected. Jesus The Perfect? The mother’s response is barely audible—I see, she says.

I’ll sit in the middle. Recently, Claudia Rankine’s book, Citizen: An American Lyric , was nominated for both the poetry and example of case study essay, nonfiction categories of the National Book Critic’s Circle Award. This has never happened before in the perfect, the award’s forty-year history. Thought it eventually won the melting Poetry Award, the dual-genre nod was the only one appropriate to the hybrid nature of the collection. Jesus The Perfect Leader? ‘Collection’ works doubly hard here: Rankine gathered anecdotes of racist moments people of ashford, color have experienced when they felt most safe, amassed quotes from jesus the perfect leader CNN reporting on Hurricane Katrina, collected World Cup audience transcripts, curated images of of the, art that speak to leader, the experience of of case study essay, being black in the perfect leader, America. Challenger? As she explains to jesus, an interviewer: The entire book is a collection of stories gathered from maus comic book a community of jesus the perfect, friends and ethyl point, then retold or folded into my own stories. Jesus The Perfect? And though it’s not strictly nonfiction, Citizen is not fiction either. The experience of writing it, which might or might not be the experience of reading it, was to of the is:, see my community a little better, to see it, to understand my place in it, to leader, know how it sounds, what it looks like, and quantitative, yet, to jesus the perfect leader, stay on my street anyway. Ethyl Acetate? Rankine’s ‘not strictly nonfiction, but not fiction either’ approach to short prose pieces (most log in at jesus the perfect leader, a page or less), to maus comic book, my mind inhabits the jesus the perfect leader world of lyrical flash nonfiction.

At the example study essay heart there is an elasticity of experience. As Marcia Aldrich writes, “The lyric essay does not narrate a story so much as express a condition – often named, sometimes called human, but still to the perfect, us unknown. It reverses foreground and example study essay, background, cultivating leaps and jesus the perfect, juxtaposition, tensing between the presentational and The Argument Essay, the representational.” Rankine seeks to jesus the perfect, understand , a word that in its etymology means ‘to stand between, among; to be close to’. Rankine tries to mcdonalds, make the jesus the perfect leader reader ‘understand’ her pieces by Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay narrating micro-aggressions from the intimate, close place of jesus the perfect, ‘you’. The man at the cash register wants to maus comic book, know if you think your card will work. Jesus Leader? If this is maus comic book his routine, he didn’t use it on the perfect leader, the friend who went before you. A Decent Global Essay? As she picks up her bag, she looks to see what you will say. She says nothing. You want her to say something—both as witness and as a friend.

She is jesus the perfect not you; her silence says so. Quantitative Research Advantages? With lyric, you may be suddenly seeing with multiple sets of eyes. The Perfect? In Rankine’s case, pronouns become a transitional space for an advantage is: a reader, especially if he is the perfect leader white; through his imagination he inhabits this racialized ‘you’, but at the same time the very foreignness of maus comic book, this experience serves to jesus, highlight the fact that he as a white person has never been treated this way. The blurring of example of case study, ‘you’ and ‘I’ is jesus the perfect disorienting; this painful impossibility echoes in the narrator’s refrain of maus comic book, What did you say? A condensed layering of the jesus self is what lyric flash holds in its heart. “The lyric essay doesn’t care about figuring out mcdonalds why papa lost the farm or why mama took to drink,” writes Sue William Silverman. The Perfect Leader? “It’s more interested in replicating the feeling of that experience . Maus Comic Book? . . the reader accepts the emotion of the piece itself as the essential ‘fact’.” Rankine’s ‘not strictly nonfiction, but not fiction either’ asks a reader to the perfect leader, explore what it means to have a black body in this world. Quantitative Advantages? She actively destabilizes her own text, asking her reader to cross lyric’s transitional space over and over again. Jesus? Rankine: “I wanted to create an aesthetic form for myself, where the text was trembling and of the strategy is:, doubling and wandering in its negotiation and jesus, renegotiation of the research image.” This trembling and jesus the perfect leader, doubling and wandering between what each small ‘I’ knows to be real and quantitative advantages, the possibility of what each ‘you’ suggests, this lyric nonfiction, is jesus more important than ever. Ethyl? Smooth narratives are dangerous ones, if not deadly. Poet William Carlos Williams wrote, “It is jesus difficult/ to get the quantitative news from poems/ yet men die miserably every day/ for lack/ of what is jesus the perfect found there.” How can we express our griefs, our outrages, our complicated hearts, if not by breaking silence, breaking into song? When the verdict of ‘not guilty’ was announced in Ensuring Global Workplace Essay, the Michael Brown case, over and over I saw a line from jesus the perfect Rankine’s book being shared on a Decent Workplace Essay, Twitter: And where is the the perfect leader safest place when that place. must be someplace other than in the body?

The rain this morning pours from the gutters and maus comic book, everywhere else it is jesus the perfect leader lost in example of case, the trees. You need your glasses to single out what you know is there because doubt is inexorable; you put on your glasses. The trees, their bark, their leaves, even the leader dead ones, are more vibrant wet. Ensuring Global? Yes, and it’s raining. Leader? Each moment is like this – before it can be known, categorized as similar to Culture:, another thing and dismissed, it has to be experienced, it has to be seen.

What did he just say? Did she really say that? Did I hear what I think I heard? Did that just come out of the perfect, my mouth, his mouth, your mouth? The moment stinks. Still you want to stop looking at the trees.

You want to mcdonalds, walk out and stand among them. Jesus The Perfect? And as light as the Culture: Essay rain seems, it still rains down on you. Kelly Morse is a poet, creative nonfiction writer, and translator. Her creative work has appeared or is jesus leader forthcoming in an advantage differentiation strategy, Brevity , Quarter After Eight , Linebreak , Flyway and the perfect leader, elsewhere. Maus Comic Book? Her translations and reviews of the perfect leader, Vietnamese poetry appear in Asymptote and Rhetorical Essay, M-DASH , and she recently won Lunch Ticket#8217;s Gabo Prize for Translation. Kelly has had work nominated for Best of the the perfect Net , is melting point a Robert Pinsky Global Fellow and a Vermont Studio Center grant recipient. Jesus? Steinberg#8217;s Tribute to of case, Judith Kitchen, CNF Pioneer. Judith Kitchen with her husband Stan Sanvel Rubin. Michael Steinberg, founding editor of the journal Fourth Genre and co-editor of the textbook/anthology of the same name, pays tribute to jesus, CNF pioneer Judith Kitchen on his blog this week. Example Study? Steinberg acknowledges Kitchen for jesus the perfect being #8220;one of the first people who wrote, taught, and could speak with authority on/about what we’ve come to describe as ‘creative nonfiction#8217;.#8221; She certainly was, and an advantage of the differentiation strategy is:, Judith was among the most generous of literary figures as well.

She is greatly missed. Jesus The Perfect? Michael#8217;s blog tribute, with excerpts from Kitchen#8217;s essay #8220;Mending Wall,#8221; is well worth a read, including this gem of of case essay, a paragraph, quoting Judith on the overuse of the jesus the perfect term lyric essay: This past year, I attended a reading of ethyl acetate, “lyric essays,” and jesus the perfect leader, nothing I heard was, to of the differentiation is:, my mind, lyric. The Perfect? My ears did not quicken. My heart did not skip. What I heard was philosophical meditation, truncated memoir, slipshod research, and an advantage of the, just-plain-discursive opinion. A wall of words. The Perfect? But not a lyric essay among them. The term had been minted (brilliantly, it seems to me) by Deborah Tall, then almost immediately undermined.

Not all essays are lyric. The Argument Analysis? Repeat. Not all essays are lyric. Not even all short essays are lyric. Some are merely short. Or plainly truncated. The Perfect? Or purely meditative. Or simply speculative. Or. Or. Or.

But not lyric. Because, to be lyric, there must be a lyre. Claudia Rankine#8217;s Citizen: An American Lyric combines essay, image and Workplace Essay, poetry to describe how mounting racial aggressions in daily life and the mediasome intentionally offensive, others errors consistently madeaffect a person#8217;s abilities to speak, write, perform, and the perfect leader, stay alive. Ethyl Point? At BOMB Magazine, Lauren Berlant interviews Ms. Jesus The Perfect Leader? Rankine on the daily encounters that make up the an advantage of the differentiation #8220;tone#8221; of leader, citizenship, the weaving of fiction and nonfiction, and ashford, the use of mixed forms throughout her work: Tone is an everyday kind of jesus leader, maneuver. It disrupts and example study, communicates aggression, disgust, dis- respect, and the perfect, humor, among a myriad of possibilities, thereby allowing language to morph into mcdonalds ashford, a blanket or a gun. It helps me know how to jesus the perfect leader, read the spaces between things. One has an an advantage differentiation ear out for it always.

It’s a thing to jesus the perfect leader, be translated. The Argument? [Your question] presupposes certain expectations for tone in public encounters, places where equality and sharing are legislated to jesus the perfect, happen, places where one has expectations for The Space justice, for evenhandedness, and for the perfect leader “we are all just people here” indifference. I don’t exactly expect disdain when paying for my bagel. Global Workplace? Not at 9 AM in a cafe, anyway! The scripts in chapter six seemed necessary to jesus, Citizen because one of the Global Essay questions I often hear is “How did that happen?” as it relates to mind-numbing moments of jesus leader, injustice—the aftermath of Katrina, for of case study essay example, or juries letting supremacists off with a slap on jesus, the wrist for ethyl melting killing black men. It seems obvious, but I don’t think we connect micro-aggressions that indicate the jesus the perfect lack of Shuttle Tragedy, recognition of the black body as a body to the creation and enforcement of jesus the perfect leader, laws. Everyone is cool with seeing micro-aggressions as misunderstandings until the same misunderstood person ends up on a jury or running national response teams after a hurricane.

She also discusses the difficulty of attempting to #8220;reroute the content I am living,#8221; within the Workplace frame of leader, a world pushing back against her truth. Ms. Ashford? Rankine also has a fascinating website. It#8217;s well worth checking out how she presents her visual, collaborative video, spoken, and leader, multi-genre work in quantitative research advantages, a graphic format that frames and reflects her subject matter.

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How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. A proposal essay is exactly what it sounds like: it proposes an idea and jesus, provides evidence intended to convince the reader why that idea is a good or bad one. Although proposals are generally a significant part of mcdonalds ashford, business and economic transactions, they are not limited to those two areas. Proposals may be written for any college classes, scientific fields, as well as personal and other professional areas. This article will go over how to write an effective proposal essay and leader, provide a sample one that was actually submitted and implemented. Before You Start: Pre-Writing Strategies. Much of the work is done before you type a single sentence. Before sitting down to write your proposal you’ll want to spend some time on each of the following. Get to ashford Know Your Audience . Remember, a proposal essay is an effort to convince a reader that your idea is worth pursuing - or that another idea is not worth pursuing.

To that end, you have to know who you’ll be writing for. Are they business people? Academics? Government officials? If your audience is jesus the perfect leader, primarily business people you’ll want to justify your proposal by pointing to possible financial benefits. If they’re government officials, you may want to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay emphasize how popular a certain proposal is. Do Your Research . Having secondary sources who can support your claims will go a long way to jesus leader persuading others of your proposal. Spend some time talking to experts or reading their research. Pre-Write . Before starting the quantitative research advantages, actual essay, spend some time brainstorming excellent ideas.

Once you have a bunch of good ideas, spend some time thinking about how you’d like to organize them. Revise, Revise, Revise . Never turn in a first draft! Have a trusted peer or colleague read your paper and give you feedback. Then take some time to incorporate that feedback into jesus the perfect leader, a second draft. The main parts of a proposal essay are summarized here. It is important to keep in mind that depending on your proposal parts may need to be added or taken out. The parts below (with the exception of the introduction and conclusion) may be rearranged to quantitative suit individual proposals. The introduction serves to inform your reader of the history of the the perfect leader, proposal (if applicable) or to introduce a subject to an informed/uninformed audience.

This is the most important part of your paper in some respects. Mcdonalds. You need to both introduce the topic and show the audience why they should care about this topic. It’s often helpful to begin with an interesting fact, statistic, or anecdote to grab the reader’s attention. Typically, people only make proposal to the perfect solve a problem. As such, you’ll want to highlight a particular problem that you think your proposal would solve.

Know your audience so that you can emphasize the benefits your proposal would bring. This is a statement of quantitative advantages, purpose. This section should be brief and only discuss what your actual proposition is. It is okay for this section to jesus be only a few sentences long if the proposal is short. Do not include details about how you will carry out the proposal in ethyl acetate, this section. How will you go about achieving your proposal? What will you do to show your audience that you are prepared? This is the perfect leader, where you go into detail about how your proposal will be implemented. A couple things to mcdonalds include:

Convince: You need to convince your audience not only that your proposal is a good idea but also that you’re the person who needs to jesus the perfect leader carry it out. Highlighting your qualifications about quantitative advantages why you’re suited for jesus the perfect leader, the task is helpful if you're the one to carry out the proposal. Detail: In discussing the mcdonalds ashford, implementation, you’ll want to give enough detail to show your audience that you’ve thought about how the process will work. Jesus Leader. That said, you don’t want to bore them with overly-technical or boring details. Anticipate: Anticipating potential implementation problems is an advantage of the differentiation strategy, both good practice and communicates to your audience that you’ve thought carefully about your proposal and about potential stumbling blocks. Focus this area on why the leader, proposal will work.

Quite simply, is it a viable proposal? You can draw on similar past experiences to show why this proposal will work just like previous ones. If you do not have this past experience option, focus on what you think your audience wants to of the hear. For example, if your manager really likes getting things done on jesus leader time, then perhaps you might mention how your proposal can speed up productivity. Think logically here. *Tip: Do not structure this section the same way as your Benefits of. section. Simple. State what the The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay, goals of your proposal are. It might seem repetitive with the sections where you mentioned the benefits, but it serves to really drill home the point.* Another simple part. What is needed to complete your proposal?

Include tangible (paper, money, computers, etc.)and intangible items such as time. Show the audience that you know what you are doing. The more prepared you look the better your chances are to get the proposal passed (or get a better grade if it is for leader, a class). Do NOT restate your introduction here if you choose to mention the history of melting point, a certain proposal. However if you did not introduce your proposal with some historical background information, here is the part where you can quickly restate each section above: Proposal, plan of action, all the why's of the paper and so on. As in any essay or paper, cite your sources as appropriate. If you actually quote from a resource in you essay then title this section Works Cited . If you do not cite anything word for word, use Works Consulted . The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus.

It can help you get a better grip on technical details like citing and much more, check it out! In 1912, Pablo Picasso, an jesus avid painter of nature and still life, tore part of a makeshift tablecloth and glued it to his painting, Still Life with Chair Caning , and thus, by adding different items to aid his painting, he began the an advantage differentiation, art of collage making. Jesus The Perfect Leader. (Pablo Picasso – Still Life with Chair Canning). A collage is simply a group of ethyl acetate melting, objects arranged together to create a complete image of an idea, theme, or memory. For example, David Modler created a collage called “Big Bug” to represent the irony that is the importance of insects to our natural world in comparison to their size. The bug in the image is the smallest feature of the collage yet it is to be viewed as the most important aspect (Modler, David). All these parts of a collage collaborate together to create a unifying theme or message and can be used as a helpful tool in education. I propose that each student make an jesus leader artistic collage to be presented to the class that will symbolize the context, audience, setting, structure or any key ideas found in one of the readings this semester.

Students who make a collage will be able to drop the lowest quiz grade. The students will have one week from the announcement of the project to complete the collage and prepare a presentation for The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, it. Jesus The Perfect. Each student must choose one reading that we have done so far or will read in the future, and no two students may choose the same work. Conflict with students wanting to an advantage of the strategy present the same work will be resolved by a first come first serve basis. The students will be given a rubric with the exact requirements of the jesus the perfect, project and what the The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy, purpose of the project is. I will make the jesus the perfect leader, rubric myself and submit it for approval, or we can use the research, rubric that I have attached. Benefits of jesus leader, Collage Proposal. Making a collage would allow the students to think and ethyl acetate, inspect the jesus the perfect leader, readings and ideas visually (Rodrigo, “Collage”), thus giving them another perspective, or possibly clearing up any misconceptions and confusions they had about a work when we were just discussing it in class verbally.

A collage provides the Culture: Essay, opportunity for revision of a certain work and would certainly help to leader clear up any topics in the readings that might come up on the final exam or a future test, via a visual and ethyl, more creative method. If a student received a bad grade on a quiz because they did not understand the reading, the collage would give the jesus the perfect leader, student an opportunity to go back to the reading and understand it, or to read ahead and maus comic book, grasp concepts that might be useful to present to the class before the class does the reading. A collage would allow the student to become familiar with the work in the perfect leader, a visual way and give them an opportunity to understand the main themes, topics, and ideas of ashford, a work, even one we might not have read yet. Viability of Collage Proposal. Since a collage would be like giving the student an opportunity to go back and jesus leader, review a subject and at the same time would resemble preparation for a presentation, the time and mcdonalds, effort required to go back and re-read a work as well as prepare the collage creatively would be sufficient to justify replacing the the perfect leader, lowest quiz grade. Our course mentor said that this project would be a nice addition to the class because, just like any play is better seen than read, the collage will allow students to maus comic book get the the perfect leader, visual aspect behind a work and help them to grasp the ideas better. Past visuals that we have used in class to describe scenes from our readings such as The Tempest and The Odyssey have greatly helped me to understand some of the research, ideas of the stories. Jesus The Perfect. For example, I always pictured the cyclops as a nasty, vile creature, but after some of the mcdonalds, “fuzzy” drawings on the board done by some of my peers, I imagined and understood that he could in fact be a gentle creature that was just angered by Ulysses trespassing and blinding him. I could not have seen that perspective of the story had it not been for some of the more innocent visuals on the board. Finally, I have discussed with the students in our class about the idea of a collage replacing the lowest quiz grade and the overwhelming majority approved of the idea. Since a collage will substitute for a quiz grade, the assignment will be optional.

Just as a quiz is almost always optional based on class initiation of discussion, the collage will also be optional based on similar student effort parameters. The students who do not want to do a collage can choose “door number 2” and take a quiz that would be created by jesus leader, the teachers and/or myself. This quiz can be used to make the total number of mcdonalds, assignments for jesus leader, each student in the class even, and mcdonalds ashford, may or may not be graded based on the professor's discretion. The first goal of jesus the perfect leader, my collage proposal is to give students a chance to be creative and step outside the boundaries of classroom discussion. They can use their imaginations to find a way to creatively put together a collage that will help the class as well as themselves to better understand the course reading.

A second goal of my proposal is that the maus comic book, time and effort put into making the the perfect leader, collage and presenting it in The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, front of the class will equal the worth of dropping the lowest quiz grade. Because this collage requires the creator to examine the leader, context, audience, setting, structure of any one of the readings, it is essentially like a quiz itself, which includes questions on similar topics. The literary work that a student chooses to create a collage on will determine how much time is necessary to fully complete the Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, project. One week to create a collage should give each student—no matter what reading they choose to do—ample time to jesus the perfect leader create a presentable and educational collage for the class. In terms of tangible resources, this project is not very demanding. A simple poster or a series of photographs or drawings assembled neatly together by the student will be about as resourcefully demanding as this project gets. In addition, a few hours of class time will need to be allocated in The Argument, order to present the jesus leader, collages.

If each student takes at least five minutes to present the total time needed for the presentations will be 1 hour and 15 minutes. The presentation day(s) and The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Essay, time(s) can be decided by the class as a whole. The rest of the resources needed are already available: The readings are all published online if a student needs to refer back to them Craft supplies are readily available. Skills for Successful Completion. As a good planner and organizer I made a rubric that is specific enough to give the leader, students a good idea of what they should be doing for the collage.

The rubric can be made available upon your request. In addition I can also come up with a quiz if there are students who want to opt out of the collage project. I can talk to the class and come up with a good presentation time and date for everybody. I would volunteer myself to quantitative research hold an early presentation session a few days before the jesus leader, due date so the others can get an idea of The Argument Culture:, what their collage could look like and why they can benefit from the jesus, project. I will make myself available to research advantages the class if they have any questions about the proposed project. A collage will allow students to understand visually a reading or topic in a reading that they may have been confused about. The project is a fun and creative way to get students to think about a reading more in jesus leader, depth as well as review for future exams. As a result of the effort and time put into the collages, the students should be allowed to drop their lowest quiz grade in the semester. Modler, David. Big Bug . Photograph. Ethyl Melting. Kronos Art Gallery . Web.

12 Oct. 2011. Pablo Picasso - Still Life with Chair Caning (1912). Lenin Imports . Jesus. Web. 12 Oct. 2011. Rodrigo. Collages. Web 2.0 Toolkit . 11 Mar. 2009. Web. 2 Oct. 2011.

Here is an Shuttle Challenger example of lab report with step-by-step instructions on writing a good lab report. When writing a lab report you are presenting scientific facts that support a hypothesis, to jesus the perfect an audience.. How do you Write an an advantage differentiation strategy A+ English Paper or Essay: Outline and Procedure. by Brittany Kennedy 12. How to Write an Analysis Response Essay. by Virginia Kearney 2. How To Write A Successful History Essay For Highschoolers. How to Write a Visual Analysis Paper. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 56.

100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. charbie krin 12 days ago. NIce, very helpful. LFC328 6 months ago from NY. Laura, what a great skill you have. Jesus The Perfect. I wish I was bless with it :_). thank you so very much for the information. It have gave me a guideline for my proposal. Thank you again God bless you! I am little bit lost of the diagram for research design what is needed in terms of the research plan diagram please reply.

cedricperkins 2 years ago. A powerful guide in fact. It lists almost all aspects of writing a proposal essay. However, there is one thing students have to note. Even though there are certain rules and principles for writing an essay, there is always scope for breaking the an advantage, conventions.

Universities always accept innovations in writing. Be prepared to jesus write in the most recent writing mechanics. The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay. I think www.classessays.com will help you to write proposal essays to emerge out successfully. However, the above mentioned tips are, of course, the part and parcel of writing a proposal essay. roselinda nyota 2 years ago. Ahmad Fahrurroji 2 years ago from Karawang, Indonesia. Awesome hub and the perfect leader, so helpful. Rakim Cheeks 2 years ago.

This was a really great detailed format of how to write a proposal essay. Research Advantages. I believe all college students need to read this! As a writer, this helped me, and you explained it very well. Excellent job! Laura Writes 2 years ago. Thanks a lot Leptirela, tried my best to keep such a long read as clutter free and flowing as possible. Excellent hub. Informative and understandable. May I please express how, impressive this hub and the perfect, the lay out is :) Great post.

Interesting infographic how to mcdonalds ashford write an argumentative essay http://www.essay-profy.com/blog/how-to-write-an-es. ?. The challenge in writing a proposal resides in its structure. For the writer it is important that it be clear, to the point and as concise as possible. It is leader, important to remember that the ethyl acetate melting point, reader is the the perfect, one who will accept or reject your proposal either way due to a wide array of factors. Leaving no door open other than the Shuttle, one of the perfect leader, acceptance key factors are presentation, clarity and a summarisation that leaves but he avenue of an Challenger acceptance.

Once finalized have a friend or someone else in whose judgment you trust to be honest and jesus the perfect, willing to give objective comments as well as towhy they propose changes. One practice I enforce when writing anything that is mcdonalds ashford, consequential is to jesus the perfect set the document aside forgetting about it for a couple of days and the review it again. Rhetorical Analysis. A fresh read is always good. One last tough. The Perfect. Your proposal is important as you are writing it for of the strategy is:, a specific reason therefore as yourself the question objectively as you can will the jesus the perfect, intended reader accept it? If you have a slight hesitation review it again and try to find the ethyl acetate, weak point and rewrite it to give it strength. Do not forget to Google to find supporting data for jesus leader, your proposal or even proposals in the same line. Best of quantitative research advantages, luck to all. This was extremely helpful! I wasn't quite sure how to lay my proposal essay out. So thank you, thank you! (:

This information was very helpful. You gave me something to go on. Jesus The Perfect Leader. Thank you. This was a great go-by. The Argument Analysis. Short and sweet, yet in-depth and detailed enough to get the points across intelligently. Thanks for leader, your help!

Jo_Goldsmith11 3 years ago. Just what I was looking for. Great job with presentation and easy reading on the eyes. shared, tweet and Up. thank you for writing this. :-) Laura Writes 3 years ago. If you are writing a thesis proposal, you could use this format if it works for the theme of your thesis. Ethyl Acetate. However for research, you should look into a format that is like writing a research grant. It could look something like this, but check with a scientific journal or the company that you are requesting a research fund from to see if they have specific formatting requirements. Is this the same Thesis Proposal or research Proposal? Thank you so much. Very good and helpful.

Really clear and straight forward. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga 4 years ago. Nice info and jesus the perfect leader, it's a practical round up with good resources. Friskila Damaris Aquila Silitonga. I have been a grant writer for sixteen years and it's always nice to see someone include the maus comic book, actual practice with the theory of proposal/grant writing. The Perfect. Many can just list the parts of a proposal, but it's more beneficial for the reader to see actual work. Great job! Laura Writes 4 years ago. No problem, good luck on your papers! Thx London 4 ur contribution. in building ma proposal.

codjoe conduah 4 years ago. am glad i could find something like this its been very tough for me on a proposal i was working on but now this has really eased ma fears. thanks a lot. Laura Writes 4 years ago. I'm glad this is proving useful to everybody. Good luck on mcdonalds ashford your papers! samuel sikei 4 years ago. Thank you, this is so direct and jesus the perfect, very professional. Anil 4 years ago from ethyl melting point Kerala. Hai nice essay.

I suggest it to the school and college students. Thanks for sharing . thank you sosososososososososososo much. thx for the awesome outline. This has been excellent explained. This is jesus the perfect leader, great, extremely helpful. I am in the process of developing a proposal and this will be a useful guideline for me. jessica ramirez 5 years ago. excellent very helpful(: Laura Writes 5 years ago. Thank you, I'm glad you found this useful. Joseph Asumadu 5 years ago from Ghana-aWest Africa.

This is ethyl point, very good thump up. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and jesus, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is maus comic book, a registered Service Mark of jesus leader, HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on differentiation strategy this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Against Corruption: a collection of essays. Published 12 May 2016. © Crown copyright 2016. This publication is licensed under the terms of the Open Government Licence v3.0 except where otherwise stated. To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.gov.uk/doc/open-government-licence/version/3 or write to the Information Policy Team, The National Archives, Kew, London TW9 4DU, or email: psi@nationalarchives.gsi.gov.uk. Where we have identified any third party copyright information you will need to obtain permission from the copyright holders concerned. This publication is available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays/against-corruption-a-collection-of-essays. 1. Foreword by the perfect, David Cameron, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. Corruption is the cancer at ashford, the heart of so many of leader our problems in the world today. It destroys jobs and holds back growth, costing the world economy billions of pounds every year. It traps the poorest in the most desperate poverty as corrupt governments around the Shuttle Challenger Tragedy, world syphon off funds and prevent hard-working people from getting the revenues and the perfect, benefits of The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis growth that are rightfully theirs.

It steals vital resources from our schools and hospitals as corrupt individuals and the perfect, companies evade the taxes they owe. It can even undermine our security, as Sarah Chayes argues in her essay, if the perceived corruption of local governments makes people more susceptible to the poisonous ideology of extremists. The longer I have been Prime Minister, and the more I have seen in this job, the ethyl, more I believe that we cannot hope to solve the big global challenges of our time without making a major dent in the whole cycle of corruption. If we continue to hide from jesus the perfect, this problem, how will developing countries blessed with natural resources ever break out of the poverty trap? How will we stop people from risking their lives to cross the Mediterranean unless we enable them to build a better life back at home? In the end, we have to deal with corruption if we are to have any hope of a truly prosperous and secure future. Furthermore, people actually want us to deal with this problem, every bit as much as they want us to tackle issues like poverty and migration. They want the law to be upheld and they want the corrupt to be punished, with justice and recompense for those who have suffered. Yet while corruption is such a huge problem, the national and global efforts to deal with it are often weak. No country has a perfect record on these issues – and so there is quantitative research advantages, a hesitation in raising them. For too long there has been something of an international taboo over stirring up concerns.

For too long it has just been too easy for those in authority to ignore or pretend not to know what is going on. As David Walsh puts it in his essay: this “longing to indulge the irresponsibility of the perfect leader not knowing” has been the rock upon which corruption is built. I profoundly believe that this has to change – and it has to maus comic book change in every country. Make no mistake, corruption affects us all, Britain included. From tax evasion and overseas territories who have been accused of hiding the proceeds of corruption, to an MPs’ expenses scandal that tore at the perfect leader, the fabric of the world’s oldest democracy, we have our own problems and we are very much still dealing with them. That is why I have made tackling corruption such a political priority. From the 2010 Bribery Act to becoming the The Argument Culture:, first major country in the world to establish a public central registry of who really owns and controls companies, I am determined that we should do everything we can to jesus the perfect leader demonstrate leadership on quantitative research these issues and put our own house in the perfect leader order.

Through our chairmanship of the quantitative research, G8 and the Summit at jesus leader, Lough Erne, I put tax, trade and transparency on the global agenda and quantitative, sought agreement on a global standard for the automatic exchange of jesus information over who pays taxes where. While many said it would never happen, today 129 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request and more than 95 jurisdictions have committed to implementing the new global common reporting standard on tax transparency by 2018. Maus Comic Book! Through our chairmanship of the United Nations High Level Panel, Britain secured the jesus leader, inclusion of tackling corruption at the heart of the new Sustainable Development Goals to eradicate absolute poverty from quantitative research, our world. On my watch, the UK has signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative – and we’re leading a global drive to get other countries on board and clean up a sector which has for too long been vulnerable to corruption. We are going further still.

I am determined that the UK must not become a safe haven for corrupt money from around the world. We know that some high-value properties – particularly in London – are being bought by the perfect leader, people overseas through anonymous shell companies, some of them with plundered or laundered cash. So we are consulting on ways to make property ownership by foreign companies much more transparent – and The Argument Culture: Essay, considering whether to insist that any non-UK company wishing to bid on a contract with the UK government should publically state who really owns it. Yet all of these measures address only parts of the problem. Jesus! As the Panama Papers show, corruption is a truly global challenge.

Criminal networks operate across borders. Mcdonalds Ashford! And wealth that is plundered from the poorest countries can end up hidden away in the richest countries. Jesus! So nations need to tackle this issue in quantitative advantages partnership, developing a truly comprehensive, sustained and the perfect leader, coherent international agenda to defeat the causes of corruption. That is why we are holding the Anti-Corruption Summit in London and why I have compiled this book. The essays in this book are not about trying to claim the moral high ground, nor about telling others what to acetate do. Jesus Leader! Neither do they claim to an advantage of the strategy be a comprehensive guide to tackling corruption. But they are an attempt to bring together some of the most pioneering thinkers on this issue to the perfect begin a frank and informed global debate over how to tackle what I believe is one of the most pernicious enemies of progress in our time. While the essays cover a wide range of perspectives and experiences, there are a number of consistent themes. For a start, we can be clear about the scale and extent of the problem.

Jose Ugaz tells us that every year one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services. While in melting Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on jesus the perfect leader bribes for basic services to which they are already entitled – including water, medicine and education. Christine Lagarde sets out the indirect economic costs of Challenger Tragedy Essay corruption, including the way corruption can act like a tax on investment and stifle the creation of new business. She also highlights its impact on the poorest and its damaging effect on the moral fabric of jesus leader our society. Many of the essays bring home the sheer extent of corruption, reaching every country and affecting so many areas of ethyl acetate melting life – from the desperate stories of the vulnerable paying bribes to get treatment for a sick child, to jesus the perfect the world of quantitative sport which was for so long indulged with a special status that left some of its participants behaving as if they were exempt from the rules that everyone else was expected to follow. Some of the essays are very clear about the definitions of corruption. Francis Fukuyama, in jesus particular, analyses the origins of mcdonalds corruption, providing a strong historical and intellectual underpinning to the challenges we face. Running through the essays is the sense that not only do you need the right rules and enforcement but you need to change the jesus leader, underlying culture too. There is a clear message here. We cannot have one or the other; we need both. New Zealand Prime Minister John Key offers us his perspective when he uses a cricketing analogy to The Space Shuttle Challenger Essay describe the national character of his country and its intolerance of “underarm deliveries”.

He argues that you have to promote a culture which makes it close to jesus impossible for maus comic book the corrupt to prosper or escape detection. There is also a striking frankness and directness in the politicians who are writing about the history of corruption in their own countries. President Ghani describes Afghanistan as, by any measure, “one of the most corrupt countries on the perfect earth”. In his essay on tackling corruption in Estonia, Mart Laar says that corruption was so ingrained that it had become a way of Culture: Rhetorical Analysis life. He writes: “we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal.” President Buhari uses that same concept to describe corruption in Nigeria as a “way of life” under “supposedly accountable democratic governments” and points to evidence suggesting that between $300 billion and. The Perfect Leader! $400 billion of public funds have been lost to corruption since Nigeria’s independence in 1960. But that frankness about the problem will only deliver real change if there is true political leadership.

Without that leadership, many of the The Argument Culture:, rules, institutions and mechanisms to address corruption will never actually bite. For years Nigeria had the laws and the perfect leader, the anti-corruption agencies, but as President Buhari explains, there was “a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy faithfully enforce the laws.” These laws were ignored with impunity and procurements were made with a complete disregard for due process. Jesus! He cites one example of a provision to allow courts to treat unexplained wealth as evidence of corruption. There is a similar provision in Singapore, the point, use of which is explored in jesus the essay by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. But the difference is that in Essay Nigeria’s case, neither the the perfect, Code of Conduct Bureau nor the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission has ever invoked such provisions in their decades of existence.

Above all, when I read through the essays I feel both depressed and uplifted. Depressed because the scale of this problem is truly frightening and the human costs are so desperate. It is hard not to pause on ethyl point Jim Yong Kim’s essay when he describes the situation in Sierra Leone where corruption stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots. But I am also uplifted because there is a consistent theme that we can crack this and there are so many encouraging stories of jesus leader measures that have already had an impact. Angel Gurria tells us that between 1999 – the The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay, year the OECD convention tackling transnational bribery came into force – and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for foreign bribery in 17 countries, with at least $5.4 billion imposed in the perfect leader combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars. Jose Ugaz describes some of the ways that new technologies have already been employed to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical bring about real change. The Perfect! In Guatemala, a public campaign over a customs fraud scandal forced the resignation of the president and vice- president. In Brazil, 40 civil society organisations mobilised two million Brazilians to use online actions and events to successfully campaign for a new law that prevents candidates who have been convicted of corruption from standing for public office for at maus comic book, least eight years. When El Salvador gave citizens the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets, 6,000 citizen requests helped to uncover cases where the wealth of public officials had grown by 300% during their time in office.

In Venezuela, a new smart phone app is allowing ordinary citizens to report on jesus instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections, with more than 400 complaints registered for follow-up in the most recent parliamentary elections. Acetate Melting! Christine Lagarde also cites an example from jesus the perfect, Indonesia where the then Minister of Finance partnered with business to create ‘new rules of the game’. These meant that the government delivered a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for a commitment from business not to offer any bribes to officials. Jim Yong Kim describes how publishing school funding allocations in acetate melting point local newspapers in Uganda transformed the proportion of funds that made it through to the schools, with one study concluding that the leader, amount of funds diverted away by local officials correlated to the distance of a school from maus comic book, a town where there was a newspaper outlet. All of these examples and more mean that the biggest message of this book is one of optimism. This battle can be won. Jesus! Furthermore, there are clear lessons coming through that can help us to win it by shaping an international agenda to defeat and deter corruption. First, corruption should be exposed so there is an advantage differentiation, nowhere to hide. We need to end the the perfect leader, use of secret shell companies, so that the corrupt no longer have an easy and maus comic book, anonymous way to hide their loot and move it across borders.

We need to drive out the rogue lawyers, estate agents and the perfect, accountants who facilitate or tolerate corruption in commerce and finance. We need to expose the theft or misuse of taxpayers’ money by opening up budgets and procurement so that people can see exactly how their money is used and they can demand that people are held to account when it is stolen. And we need a sustained effort in those areas which Paul Collier describes as the “pockets of high corruption”, including corruption-prone sectors such as the extractive and construction industries. At the heart of all of this is international co-operation on The Space Essay transparency. In the the perfect leader, UK we have adopted legislation to give the public unrestricted access to Shuttle beneficial ownership information on UK companies through a public central registry so that people can see who really owns and controls companies. Jesus The Perfect! But as Paul Radu argues, tracking international flows of finance requires international co-operation. Well-structured, transparent and accessible databases could allow automated searches of ever-larger, global datasets that could feed real-time alerts to melting point journalists in every country.

His vision offers a network of investigative journalists that could help make transparency the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials all over the world. Given the jesus the perfect, sheer quantity of ashford data to get through, networks of civil society, activists and journalists – working with law enforcement – will be critical to holding people to account. Second, we need to deal properly and comprehensively with the corruption we expose. That means bringing the leader, perpetrators to Tragedy justice, actively enforcing anti-corruption laws and working together across international borders to jesus leader hunt down the corrupt, prosecute them and send them to jail. One cutting-edge idea to explore here comes from Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong. In Singapore, instead of prosecutors having to prove the guilt of the point, corrupt, they reverse the burden of the perfect proof so the accused have to show that they acquired their wealth legally. The Prevention of Corruption Act also provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of The Space Tragedy Essay Singaporeans overseas are treated in the same way as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether the corrupt acts had consequences in Singapore itself. It will be a while yet before everyone is jesus leader, as bold and as far- reaching as Singapore. But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. Analysis! That’s why we in the UK are looking closely at the potential of Unexplained Wealth Orders, and why I urge other countries to do the jesus, same. Dealing with the corruption we expose also means taking responsibility to support those who have suffered from mcdonalds, corruption.

I believe that should include doing everything we can to the perfect leader track down looted money and create a trusted system to return it to its rightful owners. The looting of public wealth has been on such a scale in some countries, that returning it safely would make an The Argument, enormous difference to their development prospects. It would also begin to jesus leader address the sense of injustice that many in this book have so powerfully described. Third, we need more than just clear rules that are properly enforced. As so many of the contributors have argued, we also need to make it much harder for maus comic book corruption to thrive by jesus the perfect, driving out the underlying cultures that have allowed this cancer to fester for mcdonalds so long. Leader! This means tackling head on what John Githongo describes as the ‘pirate sector’ by creating a culture where the melting point, corrupt are (in Lesotho vernacular) “bobolu” and made to feel a social stigma that shames them for what they do. It means challenging corrupt behaviours globally by jesus the perfect, embracing the vast possibilities that Paul Collier highlights around the mcdonalds, twinning of different countries’ institutions and professions.

From tax collection agencies, treasuries and civil services to professions such as accountancy and law, twinning can begin to build a newly shared culture of probity and honesty. Changing the culture of jesus corruption also means embracing the power of new technologies to deliver greater accountability for public money and mcdonalds ashford, public services. In India, for example, welfare smartcards are helping to prevent corrupt officials taking a cut of payments to the poor. Technologies like this can provide the information to enable government agencies, businesses, campaigning NGOs and individual citizens to come together in a comprehensive movement against corruption. But all of jesus this will only really work if political leaders have the courage to stand together, to speak up where previously there was silence, and to demand the mcdonalds ashford, strengthening and jesus the perfect, co- ordinating of international institutions that are needed to put fighting corruption at the top of the international agenda where it belongs. We cannot and must not fail this test of political leadership. As David Walsh writes: “No longer in the dark, we now have the opportunity for The Space Essay change. It would be a crime not to leader seize it.” I intend to seize it, with the support of ethyl acetate point all the leader, authors in this book and together with the widest possible coalition of leaders from politics, business and mcdonalds ashford, civil society. Together we are against corruption. Jesus The Perfect Leader! And together we can defeat it.

2. Francis Fukuyama: What is Corruption? Corruption has in many ways become the The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, defining issue of the 21st century, just as the 20th century was characterised by large ideological struggles between democracy, fascism and communism. Today a majority of the world’s nations accept the legitimacy of democracy and at least pretend to hold competitive elections. What really distinguishes political systems from one another is the degree to which the elites ruling them seek to use their power in the service of a broad public interest or simply to enrich themselves, their friends and leader, their families. Countries from Russia and Venezuela to Afghanistan and Nigeria all hold elections that produce leaders with some degree of democratic legitimacy. What distinguishes them from Norway, Japan or Britain is not so much democracy as the quality of government which, in Challenger Tragedy turn, is greatly affected by the perfect leader, levels of corruption. Corruption hurts life outcomes in a variety of ways. Economically, it diverts resources away from their most productive uses and acts like a regressive tax that supports the lifestyles of elites at quantitative research, the expense of everyone else. Corruption incentivises the best and the brightest to spend their time gaming the jesus leader, system, rather than innovating or creating new wealth. Politically, corruption undermines the legitimacy of political systems by giving elites alternative ways of ashford holding onto power other than genuine democratic choice.

It hurts the prospects of democracy when people perceive authoritarian governments to be performing better than corrupt democratic ones and undermines the reality of democratic choice. However, the jesus the perfect leader, phenomenon labelled ‘corruption’ comprises a wide range of behaviours whose economic and political effects vary greatly. It is remarkable that, for all of the academic effort put into the study of corruption, there is still no broadly accepted vocabulary for distinguishing between its different forms. Before we can tackle corruption, we need some conceptual clarity as to what it is and how it relates to the broader problem of good government. 2.1 Corruption as a modern phenomenon. Corruption can exist in many contexts, from bribery in ethyl point a sports organisation to a secretary stealing from the office pool. I am here going to focus on political corruption, which concerns the abuse of public office for private gain (see Johnston 2005, p. 11).

The first point to note is that corruption is leader, a modern phenomenon. The very terms ‘public’ and research advantages, ‘private’ did not always exist. Jesus The Perfect! In the advantages, European medieval era, virtually all regimes were what Max Weber labelled ‘patrimonial’ – that is, political authority was regarded as a species of private property which could be handed down to descendants as part of their patrimony. In dynastic times, a king could give away an entire province with all of its inhabitants to his son or daughter as a wedding present, since he regarded his domain as a private possession. Under these circumstances, it made no sense to talk about public corruption 1 . Jesus The Perfect! The concept that rulers did not simply own their domains but were custodians of a broader public interest was one that emerged gradually in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Theorists such as Hugo Grotius, Jean Bodin, Thomas Hobbes and an advantage of the differentiation strategy is:, Samuel von Pufendorf began to argue that a ruler could be legitimately sovereign not by right of ownership, but out of a kind of social contract by which he protected public interest – above all, the common interest in peace and security. The very notion that there was a potential conflict between public and the perfect, private interest emerged with the rise of research modern European states. In this respect, China beat Europe to jesus leader the punch by nearly 1,800 years, having been one of the earliest civilisations to an advantage of the differentiation develop a concept of an impersonal state that was the guardian of a collective public interest. Today no rulers dare assert publicly that they ‘own’ the jesus the perfect, territories over which they exercise authority; even traditional monarchs such as those in the Arab world claim to quantitative research advantages be serving a broader public interest. Hence we have the phenomenon that political scientists label ‘neo-patrimonialism’ – in jesus the perfect leader which political leaders pretend to be modern servants of the common good in political systems with modern trappings like parliaments, ministers and bureaucracies. But the reality is that elites enter politics to extract rents or resources and enrich themselves and their families at the expense of ashford everyone else. A modern state which seeks to promote public welfare and treats its citizens impersonally is not just a recent phenomenon, but also one that is difficult to achieve and inherently fragile. The reason for this has to jesus do with human nature.

Human beings are social creatures, but their sociability takes the research, very specific forms of favouritism towards family and friends. The demand that we treat people on an impersonal basis, or hire a stranger who is qualified rather than a relative or a friend, is not something that comes naturally to human beings. Modern political systems set up incentives and try to socialise people into different forms of behaviour. But because favouritism towards friends and family is a natural instinct, there is a constant danger of relapse – something I have elsewhere labelled ‘repatrimonialisation’ (Fukuyama 2011). People who live in rich developed countries often look down on countries pervaded by systemic corruption as if they are somehow deviant cases. But the truth of the matter is that, up until a few centuries ago, there were virtually no modern uncorrupt states. Making the transition from a patrimonial or neo-patrimonial state to a modern impersonal one is a difficult and historically fraught process, much more difficult in most respects than making the the perfect leader, transition from an authoritarian political system to a democratic one. Research Advantages! But if most countries throughout most of jesus leader human history were patrimonial or neo-patrimonial, there were still large differences between them with regard to the quality of government. So we need to make some finer distinctions between types and Culture: Essay, levels of corruption. There are two separate phenomena related to corruption that are not identical to it.

The first is the creation and extraction of the perfect rents, and the second is patronage or clientelism. In economics, a rent is of the strategy is:, technically defined as the difference between the jesus the perfect leader, cost of keeping a good or service in production and its price. One of the most important sources of rents is scarcity: natural resource rents exist because the selling price of oil far exceeds the cost of pumping it out of the quantitative research, ground. Rents can also be artificially generated by governments. The Perfect Leader! Many of the most common forms of corruption revolve around a government’s ability to create artificial scarcities through licensing or regulation. Placing tariffs on an advantage strategy imports restricts imports and jesus, generates rents for the government; one of the most widespread forms of corruption around the world lies in mcdonalds customs agencies, where the customs agent will take a bribe to jesus the perfect reduce the duties charged or expedites the clearance process so that the importer will have their goods on time. The ease with which governments can create rents through their taxation or regulatory powers has led many economists to denounce rents in general as distortions of efficient resource allocation by markets and to see rent creation and distribution as virtually synonymous with corruption. The ability of governments to generate rents means that many ambitious people will choose politics rather than entrepreneurship or the private sector as a route to wealth. But while rents can be and The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay, are abused in the fashion described, they also have perfectly legitimate uses, which complicate any blanket denunciation. The most obvious type of a ‘good’ rent is a patent or copyright – by which the government gives the creator of an idea or creative work the jesus, exclusive right to any resulting revenues for some defined period of time.

Economists Mushtaq Khan and Jomo Kwame Sundaram (2000) point out that many Asian governments have promoted industrialisation by strategy is:, allowing favoured firms to generate excess profits, provided they were ploughed back into new investment. While this opened the door to considerable corruption and abuse, it also worked as a means of stimulating rapid growth at a rate possibly higher than market forces on their own would have produced. All government regulatory functions create artificial scarcities and therefore rents. But while we can argue about the appropriate extent of regulation, few people would like to see these functions simply abandoned. The creation and distribution of rents by governments have a high degree of overlap with corruption, but are not simply the same phenomenon.

The second phenomenon that is often identified with corruption is that of patronage or clientelism. Leader! A patronage relationship is a reciprocal exchange of favours between two individuals of quantitative research different status and power, usually involving favours given by the patron to the client in the perfect exchange for differentiation the client’s loyalty and political support. The favour given to the client must be a good that can be individually appropriated, such as a job in the post office, a Christmas turkey or a get-out-of-jail card for a relative, rather than a public good or policy that applies to a broad class of people (Eisenstadt and Roniger 1984). Patronage is sometimes distinguished from clientelism by jesus the perfect leader, scale; patronage relationships are typically face-to-face ones between patrons and Rhetorical Essay, clients and exist in all regimes whether authoritarian or democratic, while clientelism involves larger-scale exchanges of favours between patrons and clients, often requiring a hierarchy of intermediaries (see Scott 1972). Clientelism thus exists primarily in democratic countries where large numbers of the perfect leader voters need to be mobilised (Piattoni 2001, pp. 4–7). Clientelism is considered a bad thing and a deviation from good democratic practice in several respects.

In a modern democracy, citizens are supposed to vote based on advantages the politician’s promises of broad public policies or a ‘programmatic’ agenda. Such choices are supposed to reflect general views of what is good for the political community as a whole and not just what is the perfect leader, good for one individual voter. Of course, voters in advanced democracies cast their ballots according to their self-interest; programmes targeted at one group of citizens are nonetheless justified in terms of broad concepts of justice or the research, general good. Moreover, targeted programmes must apply impartially not to individuals but to broad classes of people. Targeted benefits to individuals are bad from the standpoint of social justice. In clientelistic systems, redistributive programmes that are supposed to help all poor people, for example, end up benefiting only those poor people who support a particular politician. This weakens support for the perfect effective universal policies and preserves existing social inequalities. Nevertheless, there is reason to think that clientelism is actually an maus comic book, early form of democratic participation.

In the United States and other countries, it was a way of jesus mobilising poor voters and therefore encouraging them to Shuttle Tragedy participate in a democratic political system. It was suboptimal when compared to jesus leader programmatic voting, yet provided a degree of accountability insofar as the politician still felt obligated to provide some benefits in return for political support. In that respect, clientelism is quite different from a more destructive form of Challenger Essay corruption in jesus the perfect which a politician simply steals from the maus comic book, public treasury for the benefit of his or her family, without any obligation to provide a public service in return. The problem with clientelism is that it usually does not remain confined to a mechanism for getting out the vote, but morphs into misappropriation. The Perfect! A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is of the differentiation strategy, between corruption and low state capacity. ‘Anti-corruption and good governance’ has become an often-repeated slogan in the development community and some people treat good governance and the absence of corruption as equivalents. Yet they are very different: a squeaky-clean bureaucracy can still be incompetent or ineffective in doing its job, while corrupt ones can provide good services 2 . Beyond low levels of leader corruption, good governance requires state capacity – that is, the human, material and organisational resources necessary for governments to quantitative advantages carry out their mandates effectively and the perfect, efficiently. It is linked to the skills and mcdonalds ashford, knowledge of public officials and leader, whether they are given sufficient autonomy and of the differentiation strategy, authority to carry out their tasks. Corruption, of course, tends to undermine state capacity (for example, by replacing qualified officials with political patronage appointees); conversely, highly professional bureaucracies tend to be less subject to bribery and theft. Low levels of corruption and high state capacity therefore tend to be correlated around the world. But getting to good governance is a much larger task than simply fighting corruption.

The distinction between corruption and low state capacity allows us to better understand differences between the effects of corruption in countries around the jesus the perfect leader, world. In the World Bank Institute’s Worldwide Governance Indicators for 2014, China ranks in mcdonalds ashford the 47th percentile with respect to control of jesus the perfect leader corruption, behind Ghana and just ahead of Romania (World Bank 2014). On the other hand, China has a great deal of state capacity. In the government effectiveness category, it is in the 66th percentile, while Romania is in the 55th and Ghana is in the 44th (World Bank 2014). This validates the common perception that the Chinese Government has a great deal of capacity to achieve the ends it sets, despite strong perceptions of pervasive corruption. The predictability and scale of corruption are also important; if a business owner expects to pay 10% of the an advantage of the strategy is:, transaction value in bribes, they can regard that as a kind of tax, which is less damaging to investment than a bribery level of 75% or one that varies arbitrarily from jesus the perfect leader, year to advantages year. The first generation of the perfect anti-corruption measures taken in the mid-1990s by ethyl acetate melting, development finance institutions involved ambitious efforts to overhaul civil service systems along Weberian lines: incentivising officials by increasing wage dispersion and setting formal recruitment and promotion criteria. These measures had very little effect; the problem lay in the fact that corrupt governments were expected to police themselves and to implement bureaucratic systems developed over long periods in rich countries with very different histories.

More recent efforts have focused on fighting corruption through transparency and accountability measures – that is, increasing the the perfect leader, monitoring of agent behaviour and creating positive and negative incentives for better compliance with the institution’s goals. Mcdonalds! This has taken a variety of forms: cameras placed in classrooms to ensure that teachers show up for jesus work; participatory budgeting where citizens are given a direct voice in budgeting decisions; and websites where citizens can report government officials taking bribes. Since governments cannot be trusted to police themselves, civil society has often been enlisted in a watchdog role and mobilised to demand accountability. Mechanisms like anti-corruption commissions and special prosecutors have, if given enough autonomy, also shown some success in countries such as Indonesia and Romania. These later efforts, however, have also had uneven success (see, for quantitative example, Kolstad and Wiig 2009; Mauro 2002). In particular, transparency initiatives by jesus, themselves do not guarantee changes in government behaviour. For example, in countries where clientelism is organised along ethnic lines, co-ethnics are frequently tolerant of leaders who steal. Elsewhere, citizens may be outraged by news of corruption, but then have no clear way of holding individual politicians or bureaucrats accountable. In other cases, successes in punishing individual politicians are not sufficient to shift the normative framework in which virtually everyone in the political class expects to profit from office. Finally, anti-corruption campaigns may disrupt informal understandings and personal relationships that underpin investment and trade: without formal property rights and contract enforcement under a system of quantitative independent courts, the paradoxical short-term effect of prosecuting corrupt officials may be to jesus deter new investment and thereby lower growth. There is a single truth underlying the indifferent success of existing transparency and accountability measures to research advantages control corruption.

The sources of corruption are deeply political. Leader! Without a political strategy for overcoming this problem, any given solution will fail. Corruption in its various forms – patronage, clientelism, rent-seeking and The Argument Rhetorical Essay, outright theft – all benefit existing stakeholders in jesus the perfect leader the political system, who are generally very powerful players. Lecturing them about good government or setting up formal systems designed to work in modern political systems will not affect their incentives and therefore will have little transformative effect. That is ethyl, why transparency initiatives on leader their own often fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change. The mere existence of a democratic political system is no guarantee that citizens’ anger will be translated into action; they need leadership and a strategy for displacing entrenched stakeholders from power. Outside pressure in the form of The Argument Culture: Analysis loan conditionality, technical assistance or moral pressure is almost never sufficient to do the job. Anti- corruption commissions and special prosecutors who have had success in jailing corrupt officials have done so only because they receive strong grassroots political backing from citizens. The political nature of corruption and the necessarily political nature of the reform process can be illustrated by the experience of the United States in the 19th century (as I describe in Fukuyama 2014, chapters 9–11). American politics in that period was not too different from politics in jesus the perfect contemporary developing democratic countries such as India, Brazil or Indonesia.

Beginning in the 1820s, American states began extending the franchise to include all white males, vastly expanding the voter base and presenting politicians with the challenge of mobilising relatively poor and poorly educated voters. The solution, which appeared particularly after the 1828 presidential election that brought Andrew Jackson to power, was the creation of a vast clientelistic system. Mcdonalds Ashford! Elected politicians appointed their supporters to positions in jesus leader the bureaucracy or rewarded them with individual payoffs like Christmas turkeys or bottles of bourbon. This system, known as the spoils or patronage system, characterised American government for the next century, from the highest federal offices down to local postmasters in every American town or city. As with other clientelistic systems, patronage led to astonishing levels of corruption, particularly in cities such as New York, Boston and Chicago where machine politicians ruled for generations. Mcdonalds! This system began to change only in the 1880s as a consequence of economic development. New technologies like the railroads were transforming the country from a primarily agrarian society into jesus an urban industrial one. There were increasing demands from business leaders and from a newly emerging civil society for a different, more modern form of point government that would prioritise merit and knowledge over political connections. The Perfect Leader! Following the assassination of the mcdonalds, newly elected President James A. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Garfield in 1881 by a would-be office seeker, Congress was embarrassed into passing the ashford, Pendleton Act. Jesus Leader! It established a US Civil Service Commission for the first time and the principle that public officials should be chosen on the basis of merit. Even so, expanding the number of classified (i.e. merit- based) officials met strong resistance and did not become widespread until after the First World War.

Individual municipal political machines such as Tammany Hall in New York were not dismantled completely until the middle of the Culture: Essay, 20th century. The American experience highlights a number of features of both corruption and the reform of corrupt systems. First, the incentives that led to the creation of the clientelistic system were deeply political. Politicians got into jesus the perfect leader office via their ability to distribute patronage; they had no incentive to vote in favour of something like the The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy, Pendleton Act that would take away those privileges. The only reason it passed was a tragic exogenous event – the Garfield assassination – which mobilised public opinion in favour of the perfect leader a more modern governmental system.

Second, reform of the system was similarly political. Mcdonalds Ashford! The Progressive Era saw the emergence of a vast reform coalition made up of business leaders, urban reformers, farmers and ordinary citizens who were fed up with the existing patronage system. It required strong leadership from politicians like Theodore Roosevelt who was himself head of the jesus, US Civil Service Commission. It also required a clear reform agenda pointing towards modern government, formulated by intellectuals such as Frank Goodnow, Dorman Eaton and Woodrow Wilson. Finally, reform was helped along by economic development. Industrialisation in an advantage of the is: the US produced new social groups such as business leaders who needed efficient government services, a broad and jesus, better-educated middle class who could mobilise for reform, and a grassroots organisation of civil society groups. The Space Essay! The American experience is suggestive of how progress in the fight against corruption may be waged in contemporary societies suffering from it.

Reform is always a political matter that will require formation of a broad coalition of groups opposed to an existing system of corrupt politicians. Grassroots activism in favour of reform may emerge spontaneously, but such sentiments will not be translated into real change until it receives good leadership and organisation. Reform also has a socio-economic basis: economic growth often produces new classes and groups that want a different, more modern politics. America points to another feature of anti-corruption efforts. Control of corruption was very much bound up with efforts to increase state capacity.

The period that saw the emergence of an industrial economy was also characterised by huge increases in levels of education – particularly higher education, which produced an entirely new class of professionals who worked for both private businesses and the government. One of the first government agencies to be modernised in the late 19th century was the US Department of jesus Agriculture, which benefited from a generation of professional agronomists trained in the numerous land-grant universities that sprang up around the United States. The latter, in turn, were the product of the far-sighted Morrill Act of 1862 that sought to increase agricultural productivity (among other things) through higher education. It would not have been possible to ethyl acetate melting reform the old patronage-based bureaucracy without access to the human capital represented by this entire generation of university- educated officials. Every important reform effort undertaken to create modern state bureaucracies – in Germany, Britain, France, Japan and elsewhere – was accompanied by parallel efforts to modernise the higher education system in ways that would benefit public administration. Today development finance institutions focus on jesus helping to provide universal primary and secondary education to poor countries and have largely given up on The Argument Essay supporting elite education.

The reasons for this are understandable, but do not correspond to the historical experience of state modernisation in countries that became rich in earlier eras. These general observations about historical efforts to build modern uncorrupt administrations suggest that the the perfect, process will be an ashford, extended one, characterised by prolonged political struggle. Fortunately, having a modern bureaucracy is not a sine qua non of economic development. No existing rich country had a squeaky-clean government in its early stages of economic growth – neither Britain, nor the United States in the 19th century, nor China today. Corruption and weak governance are obstacles to economic growth, but economic growth can happen also in jesus leader poorly governed societies and will produce, over time, social conditions and resources that will make government reform more feasible. This is perhaps a pessimistic conclusion, given the fact that rentier states and quantitative, kleptocratic governments are the source of international conflict and instability in today’s world. But it is also a realistic assessment derived from the historical record. Eisenstadt, S. N. and Roniger, L. 1984. Patrons, Clients and Friends: Interpersonal Relations and the Structure of jesus Trust in Society. Mcdonalds! Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fukuyama, F. 2011.

The Origins of Political Order: From Prehuman Times to leader the French Revolution. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. Fukuyama, F. 2014. Political Order and Political Decay: From the an advantage of the differentiation strategy, Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of the perfect Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus and Culture: Essay, Giroux. Johnston, M. 2005.

Syndromes of Corruption. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Khan, M. H. and Jomo, K. S. 2000. Rents, Rent-Seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in jesus the perfect leader Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Quantitative Research! Kolstad, I. and Wiig, A. 2009. The Perfect! Is Transparency the Key to Reducing Corruption in Resource-Rich Countries? World Development, 37(3), pp.

521–32. Mauro, P. 2002. The Persistence of Corruption and Slow Economic Growth. Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Working Paper No. 02/213. Piattoni, S. 2001. Clientelism, Interests and of the strategy, Democratic Representation: The European Experience in Historical and leader, Comparative Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Scott, J. 1972. Comparative Political Corruption.

Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. World Bank. 2014. Worldwide Governance Indicators. Available online. Acetate Melting Point! Francis Fukuyama is a Senior Fellow at Stanford University and Director of its Center on Democracy, Development and the Rule of Law.

His book, The End of History and the Last Man (Free Press 1992), has appeared in more than 20 foreign editions. More recently, he is the author of Political Order and Political Decay: From the Industrial Revolution to the Globalisation of Democracy (Profile Books 2014). Leader! 3. Paul Collier: How to change cultures of corruption. Corruption does not happen everywhere, it is concentrated in pockets: in particular industries, in particular societies and in The Space Shuttle Essay particular times. Among industries, natural resource extraction and construction have long been seen as exceptionally prone to corruption. This is partly because projects in these sectors are idiosyncratic and difficult to scrutinise. Some European countries such as Italy and Greece perform markedly worse than some African and Asian countries, according to Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). Places where grand corruption is jesus the perfect, perceived to be flourishing are rare, but Afghanistan and research, Angola are examples of jesus leader these extreme conditions. As to periods, Britain in the 18th century exemplified the behaviours that would now lead to mcdonalds ashford a miserable ranking in corruption indices.

More pertinently, there is jesus, good reason to think that, globally, there has been an Challenger, upsurge in corruption in recent decades. Reversing this upsurge calls for concerted effort. Alongside these pockets of high corruption, other industries, other societies and the perfect, other times are virtually corruption-free. Denmark is currently seen as the least corrupt place in the world and many non-Western countries such as Botswana are also viewed as relatively untainted (Transparency International 2015). In most societies, corruption is of the is:, not normal: it is therefore potentially avoidable everywhere. Corruption is concentrated in the perfect leader pockets because it depends upon common expectations of behaviour. Where corruption is the norm, getting rid of it poses a co-ordination problem: if I expect those around me to continue to be corrupt, why should I change my behaviour? Because of this, pockets of corruption have proved to Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay be highly persistent: the same industries and the same societies remain corrupt for many years. Similarly, honesty is persistent.

In the first TI survey conducted in 1995, Denmark was rated second globally. This persistence is not a matter of chance. Danes are born into an honest society and so inherit the expectation that they themselves will be trustworthy. Being trusted is a valuable asset: it makes many aspects of life much easier. In consequence, individual Danes have a strong incentive not to squander this valuable asset through behaving opportunistically. Because people have rationally chosen to protect their reputation for jesus the perfect leader honesty, the entire society has stayed honest. But change is possible.

Until well into the 19th century, the British public sector was very corrupt. Ashford! Positions were bought and sold and contracts were awarded in leader return for bribes. Crises such as military humiliation in the Crimean War helped to ethyl acetate shock governments into change. Opportunities for corruption were curtailed: recruitment and promotion were opened to competitive examinations. A new purposive ethic was promoted and jesus the perfect, serving the nation became the pinnacle of social prestige and self-worth.

By the late 19th century, the British Civil Service had become honest and competent. This transformation was largely fortuitous rather than the result of a properly thought-through strategy. But its success reveals the key components of how change can be brought about. Societies do not have to Challenger Tragedy Essay wait for military humiliation and a moral revival: corruption can be tackled effectively. In Britain, two key things – closing off the major opportunities for corruption and making working for the public good more prestigious and satisfying than abusing office for private gain – happened together. These two approaches are jointly critical in breaking cultures of corruption. Just as 19th-century Britain implemented both of them without international help, there is much that societies currently beset by corruption can do for themselves. However, the the perfect, globalisation of business and social networks has created an important role for international action. The Space Shuttle Tragedy! Countries such as Britain can contribute to encouraging both internal and jesus the perfect, international initiatives.

There is enormous scope for maus comic book international actions that close off opportunities for corruption. Equally, there is much that can be done to make behaviours that promote the public good more prestigious and satisfying than those that sacrifice the public interest for private gain. This is because corruption, like honesty, tends to persist. The Perfect Leader! Corrupt behaviour is self-reinforcing, and breaking out of it is maus comic book, not easy. A co-ordinated push for international action thus makes national initiatives more likely to succeed and more worthwhile to attempt. It can help those societies that are still struggling with the problems that Britain faced in the 19th century. Britain has already done much to the perfect make global corruption more difficult. Maus Comic Book! One contribution has been to ‘follow the money’. In recent decades, international lawyers and bankers created walls of secrecy that enabled corrupt officials to hide money away in ‘shell’ companies and the perfect, offshore bank accounts.

The Government has led the way in dismantling this labyrinth of deceit: the true ownership of British companies must now be revealed in a public register, and British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are also taking action to improve company transparency. Britain has rapidly changed from being part of the problem to being a pioneer of the mcdonalds ashford, solution, but quite evidently following the money is jesus the perfect leader, subject to The Argument Rhetorical a weakest-link problem. Corrupt money will hide wherever it can, so it is jesus the perfect leader, vital that all the major legal and financial centres close the loopholes. There is scope to advantages extend transparency beyond bank deposits to other major assets such as property. The Perfect! There is also considerable scope for those governments that adopt effective measures for following the money to require all companies that wish to do business with them to comply with these standards, providing global reach for national efforts. An Advantage Of The Strategy Is:! A second contribution has been to increase transparency in key sectors. In 2013, Britain and four other G7 countries signed up to the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI), helping to bring daylight to a corrupt sector. In North America and Europe, what began as voluntary revenue transparency is now evolving into a legal requirement. Meanwhile the EITI is becoming the jesus the perfect, established international standard-setting entity for differentiation the sector, extending voluntarism beyond simple revenue reporting to matters such as contracts. There is now an equivalent voluntary initiative for the construction sector and the perfect, it warrants similar co-ordinated propulsion. A third contribution has been to increase accountability: the Bribery Act 2010 greatly tightened the legal liability of The Argument Culture: companies and their employees for jesus the perfect bribing their way into contracts.

Clamping down on bribery is The Space Challenger Essay, a classic instance of the free-rider problem: no government wants its own companies to be disadvantaged. This is why the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has been encouraging a co-ordinated international approach. The alternative to such co-operation is a race to the bottom that the businesses of no decently governed country can win. There is, equally, plenty of the perfect leader scope for contributing to the complementary approach of making public good more prestigious and quantitative research advantages, satisfying than the private gains generated by abuse of office. Take, for example, tax administration, which is fundamental to effective government. In many poor countries, tax administration is an epicentre of corruption. As a specific example, consider the administration of jesus the perfect leader Value-Added Tax (VAT), which is a means of revenue-raising encouraged globally by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) because it is research, less distorting than most other taxes.

But in several poor societies that followed IMF advice, such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, VAT is actually reducing revenue rather than raising it. Even before VAT, many tax inspectors were corrupt, using their power to tax firms as a means of jesus the perfect extorting money for advantages themselves: ‘pay me or pay tax’ (Collier 2016). VAT has reduced revenue, because it expanded the jesus the perfect leader, options available to The Argument Rhetorical Analysis corrupt tax officials. It works by firms initially paying tax on their gross sales, but then getting a rebate on the inputs they have purchased, so that they end up only paying tax on the value they have added to those inputs. But in a country that introduces a VAT, a corrupt tax official can now sell a firm phoney tax receipts on jesus the perfect leader inputs, in addition to the standard extortion racket. As a result, the rebate system ends up paying out more than the of the differentiation is:, sales tax component of VAT is paying in. Clearly at the core of this phenomenon are norms of the perfect leader behaviour among tax officials, such that seizing opportunities for private gain is seen as both more prestigious and differentiation is:, more satisfying than contributing to the public good of generating tax revenue and the public services it can finance. How might Britain, and jesus the perfect, other countries in which VAT collection does not face such problems, help to change this perception?

Social prestige and personal satisfaction are largely set within peer groups: most people want to of the is: be respected by those they see as their peers and the perfect leader, they find satisfaction in adhering to group norms. Hence a practical way of changing the behaviour of corrupt officials is to alter the group of people they regard as their peers. Currently, a corrupt tax official is likely to have two key networks in which they seek prestige: their extended family and fellow tax inspectors. Their family will honour them for helping relatives who lack opportunities to earn a large income: he or she becomes the patron of the family. Their fellow tax inspectors, subject to the same family pressures, may see corruption as reasonable. They may even regard honest behaviour as a threat to their own conduct and mcdonalds, therefore disloyal. A useful way of changing this state of affairs is to twin those tax administrations in which corruption is endemic with administrations in countries that are not corrupt.

Twinning could involve regular secondments of jesus staff in both directions and the potential for accreditation to international professional associations at various ranks. The purpose would not primarily be a transfer of technical skills, although that could clearly be a component, but rather a gradual transfer of attitudes and behaviours. Mcdonalds Ashford! The new network exposes the official to the potential of a new identity as a member of a prestigious international peer group of modern tax officials, working to global, not local, standards. It exposes the official to a new narrative circulating in the network: that tax officials are vital for the provision of core public services. And it exposes the official to a new norm of ‘good’ conduct. A ‘good’ tax inspector is no longer one who raises a lot of money for their family, but one who rigorously implements the the perfect leader, tax code to make the rest of government feasible. Exposure to mcdonalds these new attitudes creates a tension between the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the old networks and the behaviour that would generate prestige and self-worth in the perfect leader the new network. Creating this tension is not the The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay, end of the story, but it is an essential step. The other key step is to tackle the co-ordination problem: why should I change my behaviour, if nobody else is going to change theirs? Social psychologists have shown that successful co-ordination depends upon generating ‘common knowledge’ (Thomas et al.

2014). A new fact becomes ‘common’ if it is not only the perfect leader widely shared, but also crucially if everybody knows that everybody else knows it. One way to create the melting, common knowledge that yesterday’s behaviour is unlikely to jesus persist tomorrow is to close an entire organisation and research advantages, rehire those staff judged to have reasonable integrity into a new one under different management and the perfect leader, higher standards. For example, many governments have closed corrupt tax departments within their ministries of finance and replaced them with independent revenue authorities, a change that has usually been reasonably successful. An analogous way for international twinning to overcome the co-ordination problem is for all the Rhetorical, staff in an entire unit to be exposed to the international network at the same time.

Each official in the unit would then realise that their colleagues were facing the same tension between old and new networks and the perfect, hence the same choice. There are already a few examples of institutional twinning. For example, in Britain, the Department for International Development (DFID) financially supports Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs (HMRC), the British tax authority, to work with tax authorities in some low-income countries. Also, until a decade ago, governors of the Bank of England used to host an quantitative research, annual meeting for governors of African central banks. But the scope for twinning is vast, relative to what is, as yet, happening both in governments and in the wider society. Around the world, governments have similar structures. For example, virtually all governments in low-income countries have a ministry of transport, a ministry of jesus the perfect leader health and a ministry of finance.

OECD governments have been liaising with these ministries for half a century, but the Rhetorical Essay, entities that are linked to them are their aid agencies not their counterpart ministries. Direct links with counterpart ministries have the potential for a very different form of relationship based on peer-group networks, rather than on money with conditions. Often ministries in low-income countries try to jesus the perfect leader keep donor agencies ‘out of their hair’, whereas they would value direct links with their peers. The Argument Rhetorical! An important example is the regulation of utilities such as electricity. Many governments of low-income countries are now establishing regulatory agencies, which is a vital step in attracting private finance for infrastructure. But the the perfect leader, regulation of utilities faces intense pressures for corruption: the quantitative research advantages, decisions of regulators affect both the profitability of jesus companies and voter support for Culture: politicians.

In the OECD, regulatory agencies have been operating for two or three decades. The OECD has also built peer group networks that have evolved peer standards of independence, transparency and impartiality. New regulatory agencies would benefit from becoming part of this distinctive culture. Such specialised inter-government peer groups are indeed the core activity of the OECD. But membership of the OECD is jesus the perfect leader, confined to the governments of high-income countries. Admirably, the organisation is maus comic book, now trying to broaden its engagement with the governments of jesus the perfect poor countries, for example, by quantitative research, the new initiative ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ (OECD 2015). This is designed to embed tax inspectors for OECD governments in the perfect leader the tax authorities of poor countries on maus comic book secondment for several months: not to train but to work on jesus leader the job. An obvious extension would be to make this a two-way exchange of maus comic book staff. The branding of ‘Tax Inspectors Without Borders’ neatly taps into the potential for such secondments to be glamorous: a survey of young French singles found that the ‘ideal spouse’ was a doctor with Medecins Sans Frontieres!

More seriously, while the OECD initiative is excellent it is a drop in the ocean. The restricted membership of the OECD limits its scope to forge global links and there is no other international institution with the jesus the perfect, remit to strategy is: build peer- group links across government departments between rich countries and poor ones. Perhaps this role should become a core function of national aid agencies such as DFID, but it would benefit from a co-ordinated kick-start by several heads of government. Twinning has the potential to be extended well beyond government: part of the ‘big society’ can be direct links between the civil society organisations and their counterparts in poor countries. Again, historically such links have largely been confined to development non-governmental organisations (NGOs) such as Oxfam, which channel donations to needs. But an important part of tackling corruption is resetting the cultures of professions, including accountancy, law, medicine and teaching. For example, in many poor countries, it is socially acceptable for teachers not to show up for lessons.

Twinning involving things like teacher exchanges between schools could help to shift these dysfunctional values. The global explosion of social media has made this far more feasible. The two approaches of closing off opportunities for corruption and reducing the prestige and satisfaction generated by jesus, corrupt behaviour reinforce each other. As the difficulties and risks of corrupt behaviour rise, fewer people will behave corruptly. Ethyl Melting! This directly reduces the esteem from being corrupt because it is no longer so normal. Similarly, as more people start to get their esteem from being honest, those who remain corrupt are easier to spot and so find themselves running bigger risks. National actions against corruption complement international actions. One major way of the perfect squeezing out corruption is to remove obvious sources of rent-seeking such as rationed access to foreign exchange and the award of government contracts through secret negotiation rather than open bidding. Competition within rule-based markets is an important part of the system of checks and balances that constrain public officials from the abuse of office. Another is to prosecute some prominent senior officials. For example, in Ghana, 20 judges were sacked in late 2015 for accepting bribes based on video evidence gathered by mcdonalds, an investigative journalist (BBC News 2015).

Being based on independent evidence, such sackings cannot be misinterpreted as government attempts to crush political opposition. The Perfect! Further, as high-profile events, they generate common knowledge among officials that all other officials are reflecting on whether they should change their behaviour. Not all corruption is directly financial. Electoral corruption is highly damaging. New research finds that, under normal conditions, governments that deliver good economic performance enhance their prospects of retaining office, but that the discipline of an advantage strategy is: accountability breaks down when elections are not free and fair (Collier and Hoeffler 2015). Twinning national electoral commissions with their international peers, along with twinning local and international election monitors, can help to raise standards of electoral conduct.

An international initiative against corruption provides an opportunity for national actions and international actions to cohere. As people recognise that the calculus of risks and the perfect, rewards and ethyl acetate, the sources of prestige and satisfaction are changing both for themselves and leader, their colleagues, previously entrenched patterns of behaviour could become unstable. Mass shifts in cultures of corruption do happen and it is possible to make them happen. Paul Collier is Professor of maus comic book Economics and Public Policy at jesus the perfect, the Blavatnik School of Government and one of the world’s leading and award-winning development experts. Mcdonalds! His latest book is Exodus: How Migration is Changing our World (Oxford University Press 2013).

4. John Githongo: An African perspective on jesus corruption. Sebolu is the Sotho word for a ‘spoilt thing’. It is a derogatory word used in Lesotho’s national language and vernacular to mean, among other things, corruption. Someone who is corrupt is described as being bobolu and people have deep disdain for such a person. 3. In most of Africa though, there are few similar words of such powerful home-grown cultural resonance. Indeed, the word ‘corruption’ doesn’t exist in many indigenous African languages. It never has – it wasn’t needed. The idea of stealing communal goods was literally taboo. The concept of shuffling papers in Rhetorical a government office in a far-off capital, ‘making good’ and then coming home rich and wearing the ‘corrupt’ tag is, however, more obscure. Indeed, the local son or daughter ‘made good’ who demonstrates generosity back in the village is the perfect, often lionised.

Generosity of heart, even to strangers, but especially to relatives (no matter how distant), is a quality much admired by Africans generally. East Africa’s lingua franca, Kiswahili, gives us ufisadi (meaning corruption) or mfisadi (corrupt one); terms cleverly engineered post-independence. Ufisadi brings to mind ‘hyena-like’ derived from the reputation of the The Space Shuttle Tragedy Essay, hyena; fisi for the perfect being unscrupulous, greedy and ruthless. However, it does not have the same resonance for citizens of the region as sebolu does in Lesotho, which is one of the mcdonalds, least corrupt African countries according to Transparency International’s (TI) annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Transparency International 2015). That said, ‘perceptions of jesus the perfect leader corruption’, or better put ‘perceptions of leaders involved in theft’, is The Argument Culture: Analysis, one of the jesus leader, most resented attributes of officialdom to Africans at large. Recent research on the experiences and Rhetorical, perceptions of Africans in 28 countries regarding corruption indicates that a majority (58%) felt that corruption had increased over jesus the perfect the last 12 months. And in 18 of the 28 countries, the feeling was that their governments were doing badly in the fight against corruption. Culture: Analysis! The report said that, despite these disappointing findings, the bright spots across the continent were in Botswana, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Senegal. Citizens in these countries were some of the most positive in the region when discussing corruption (Transparency International and Afrobarometer 2015).

In environments where corruption is systemic but lacks cultural resonance, creating a climate where social sanction can be applied against corrupt practices has been challenging. People understand the terms ‘theft’ and ‘thief’, but corruption is a modern and ambiguous concept to many Africans. As a Nuer elder once told me, “My daughter cannot be married into a family of thieves.” The task therefore is two-fold: we need to jesus leader embed a clear legal framework to mcdonalds deter and punish corruption, and we need to actually change the culture, so that the concept of corruption is jesus the perfect, both understood and maus comic book, recognised as anathema. The war against jesus graft (political corruption) has reached the point where the shame and social sanctions directed against this kind of theft and thief need to be given greater prominence in the arsenal used to fight corruption. Maus Comic Book! This applies especially in developing countries where its consequences can be – and often are – deadly. In its culturally most compelling form, the social sanction is about ensuring, for example, that the thief is too embarrassed to the perfect go to church on Sunday because of the mcdonalds, looks they’ll get. Jesus Leader! As such, the ethyl point, whole approach to corruption needs to be re-examined: from local cultural assumptions and preconceptions to the legal conventions, constitutions, statutes and, especially, the prosecution-related instruments brought to bear on it at the national and global levels. Integral to this are the principles of legal authority and jesus, equality before the quantitative, law. The equality component is essential: the the perfect leader, rule of law must be seen to ethyl acetate apply equally to all citizens without fear or favour, regardless of race, creed or class. The following complementary but separate factors in a society are critical: culture, ethos, ethics and traditions, and legal processes and practices.

Each derives its legitimacy from history and the traditional ways in which meaning is made. By their very nature, they are far more negotiable – existing as they do in a constant state of flux in a dynamic world. The Perfect! Our success depends on how effectively we bring and use them together in the fight against corruption. We do this cognisant of the fact that grand corruption, when compared to the drug trade, human trafficking, terrorism finance and other global evils, is the most easily rationalisable major felonious activity on maus comic book the planet. 4.1 The global anti-corruption agenda. During the years 1993 to jesus the perfect 2003, corruption was at the centre of the global development agenda. In 1993, Transparency International was founded. In the mid-to-late 1990s, corruption was adopted as a key development issue by the multilateral and bilateral development institutions.

This culminated, in 2003, in the drafting and ratification by a host of countries of the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015). The following decade saw the rise of the BRIC nations2 and rapid economic growth across much of the developing world, as well as globalisation and its associated technologies assisting the expansion of trade and commerce. At the same time, the struggle against Islamic extremism captured the attention of policy makers in the international community. Quantitative Research Advantages! Alongside it, unfortunately, has also come a rapid growth in the scale and complexity of corruption. So much so, that anti-corruption work needs to be returned urgently to the heart of the global development agenda. It needs to be part of the DNA of modern nation-states, multinational corporations, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and even religious organisations and how they interact on the global stage. This urgency comes from the fact that graft has served to hollow out key governance institutions in some countries.

This includes the jesus, defence and security sector and areas of social policy such as health and education, with dire consequences for the public services they are supposed to offer the poor, in particular. The crippling impact of corruption on the delivery of these essential services has deepened economic inequalities, undermining faith in research political processes, parties and politicians. In turn, this increases political volatility as politicians retreat to identity and personality politics with its complex web of non-negotiable irrationalities. It also feeds fundamentalism of all kinds – for example, ethnic, religious and sectarian. 4.2 BRIC nations – Brazil, Russia, India and China. The impunity that accompanies crony capitalism results in what I might call both a private sector and a ‘pirate’ sector, causing citizens – especially younger people who increasingly view elections as a pointless game of musical chairs among crooks – to begin to question capitalism in its current form and democracy itself.

This also does serious damage to the independence, legitimacy and integrity of the service sector – in particular, banks, law firms and auditing firms – and deepens the challenges corruption poses. 4.3 The ‘pirate’ and the perfect, private sectors. The traditional private sector, comprising ‘makers of things’, has increasingly been supplanted in mcdonalds the 21st century by the service sector. The Perfect! The growth of the latter has been buoyed by quantitative, the dramatic expansion and jesus the perfect, sophistication of the internet and The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Essay, an increasing variety of the perfect communication platforms. This has energised traders, who remain vital to the ‘old economy’ where the world’s products are created, built, sold and moved. Quantitative Research! At the same time, however, we’ve seen a distinct ‘pirate’ sector gaining in influence, particularly over the last two decades. By design, the the perfect leader, ‘pirate’ sector is as virtual as possible, unencumbered by the traditional obligations and processes of rents, payrolls, medical schemes, pensions and so on.

Although it can involve an The Argument Culture:, individual or group of individuals, this sector forms itself into sophisticated entities. These can operate with the same ‘apparent’ legitimacy in multiple countries, even if it means they must use vexatious litigation – such as injunctions, court orders and delayed hearings – to allow them to act outside the law for the duration of their business in a country. The Perfect Leader! The ‘pirate’ sector often chooses to corporatise itself in offshore tax havens, using the skills of professionals, especially lawyers, bankers and auditors. As a result, it has become apparent that even seemingly reputable companies and professional firms sometimes contain ‘pirate units’. The units are able to research move unhindered across borders and traverse the legal world like ghosts who disappear as quickly as these so-called ‘special purpose vehicles’ can be shut down. Theirs is the euphemistic language of ‘commissions’; ‘conclusion’ and ‘success bonuses’; ‘consultancy’ fees; ‘facilitation payments’; ‘philanthropic’ contributions to the relations of ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEPS); and the use of complex financial instruments to move resources around the world at the touch of a button. As I pointed out previously, businesses find corruption the easiest felonious activity to rationalise, especially in cross-cultural contexts.

They are the entities that ‘get things done’ in a complex world. For them, relationships are tradable products that can be leveraged for a profit and jesus, not a social currency that helps make trade and commerce flow more smoothly within the law. 4.4 Renewing and reinvigorating international action. So how do we fight these piratical shadows? Corruption is Culture: Rhetorical Essay, defined as the abuse of vested authority for private gain. In 2011, developing countries lost nearly $1 trillion to corruption, trade misinvoicing and tax avoidance (Kar and Le Blanc 2013). Leading global advocacy organisations such as ONE have even made efforts to leader quantify the cost of graft in lives (McNair et al. 2014). The Space Shuttle Tragedy Essay! Estimates show that the cost of jesus leader corruption equals more than 5% of global gross domestic product (GDP) (OECD 2016). As the recent FIFA scandal has demonstrated, unconstrained corruption also threatens valued cultural institutions and traditions that we all hold dear.

At the of the strategy is:, same time, the leader, complexity of the legal compliance environment – vis-a-vis anti-corruption, anti-money laundering and other illicit activities – that the genuine private sector has to contend with has increased exponentially. Indeed there is almost an unspoken ‘compliance paralysis’ as large numbers of lawyers, risk advisors and auditors apply expensive time to scrutinising transactions complicated by the web of demands that compliance has placed upon business. Maus Comic Book! As a result, the temptation for some businesses to rely on jesus the perfect the ‘pirate’ sector and/or aggressively ignore or cover up compliance risks has risen. A recent Risk Advisory Group (2015) research report revealed 83% of compliance professionals believe compliance has become more complex in the past two years, with bigger businesses feeling this more acutely. The Risk Advisory Group CEO Bill Waite said, “Worryingly, compliance has become so elaborate that 78% of compliance professionals say that it now represents a risk in itself” (Cassin 2015). Ashford! This means we are at a critical juncture. It calls for a renewed global partnership against corruption to match, and even exceed, the concentrated and successful advocacy that followed the fall of the Berlin Wall. Corruption’s resurgence and complexity threatens not only global security and equitable development but also international trade and commerce, and people’s confidence in jesus the perfect leader freedoms and systems of governance taken for granted since the Second World War. For example, there has been a debate about creating an maus comic book, International Anti-Corruption Court (IACC). It’s proposed this could have the jesus, kind of acetate melting point powers granted to international weapons inspectors to target specific transactions and institutions that, when riddled with corruption, escape investigation and jesus leader, prosecution and cause citizens to lose confidence in public institutions and the rule of law and democracy.

The new push needs to identify, disrupt and delegitimise the global networks of mcdonalds ashford corruption in money laundering; terrorism finance; drug, people and the perfect leader, environmental trafficking; and other illicit activities. This requires new global partnerships that target the information-era entities and domiciles that these networks rely on. They may be offshore tax havens or low-compliance jurisdictions where the ever-expanding raft of of the strategy is: international regulations aimed at dealing with graft and illicit flows have limited currency. At the the perfect, same time, the new regime should robustly incentivise self-reporting vis-a-vis corporate compliance, allowing for a ‘cleaning out of the stables’. 4.5 Culture, tradition and social sanction.

To be fully effective, however, this reinvigoration of the rule of law must go hand in hand with action to Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay create a cultural climate in which the corrupt – the thieves – are shamed for what they do. Indeed, effecting change in the culture and traditions – which inform what is acceptable behaviour – is perhaps even more important in societies where legal institutions based on the Western model are nascent, or where their existence is leader, being energetically contested, as it is in important parts of the developing world. The release by mcdonalds, WikiLeaks of US diplomatic cables in 2010 was a controversial episode of unofficial transparency and a powerful interrupter to the global status quo regarding corruption in relations between nation-states. It revealed the corrupt practices that ruling elites are capable of to the growing youth populations of regions such as the Middle East. The reverberations of this are still being felt. Across Latin America and in the developed world, revelations of jesus the perfect inappropriate, corrupt and unethical behaviour by leaders – in an advantage differentiation strategy is: both the private and corporate sectors – have created a level of criticism from the jesus the perfect, public that is unprecedented in some countries. This is especially the case for the ‘millennial’ generation who appear to mistrust politicians and political parties the most.

Presidents have been forced to step down and others turned into lame ducks while still in office by dramatic mass expressions of an advantage differentiation is: discontent boosted by social media. In this sense the change has already begun – untidily, noisily, chaotically and even bloodily – in jesus many places. The outcome is uncertain. But, in maus comic book the long term, it will be dramatically different from the status quo. This is, in part, because political leaders and the perfect, ruling elites increasingly recognise the public’s lack of trust and confidence in research them, especially that of their younger citizens.

They also now appreciate that, in this networked world, a spotlight can be shone on corrupt and unethical relationships with the ‘pirate’ and private sectors. In addition to institutions such as an International Anti- Corruption Court as a further step towards increasing transparency, strengthening enforcement and securing restitution, the tools of the perfect leader visa revocations, personalised financial sanctions and more harmonised extradition mechanisms could actually be cheaper and The Argument Rhetorical Analysis, more effective in jesus the perfect leader tackling corruption than prosecutions – which are always tortuous. However, for these measures to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis enjoy legitimacy around the world, they must be applied, and be seen to apply, with equal force across the different regions of both the developed and developing world. To conclude, a successful international anti-corruption campaign requires co-operation on a global scale and specific legal measures that help transform attitudes towards corruption and the ability to prosecute the the perfect, corrupt. Although it may take longer, embedding a culture of social sanction and censure for anyone found guilty of engaging in, facilitating or condoning corrupt activity, even to the extent that those holding office lose public trust, would support these measures. They need to be seen as bobolu. They need to feel the social stigma when they attend family gatherings, visit the an advantage of the differentiation is:, golf club or step into the supermarket – as much to set an example to others as to punish the individual, impressing on the whole community that corruption will not be tolerated.

John Githongo is the CEO of Inuka Kenya Ni Sisi Ltd, a non-governmental organisation focused on promoting good governance. Previously he served as Vice-President of Policy and jesus the perfect, Advocacy at World Vision International. John has been involved in anti-corruption research, advisory work and activism in Kenya, Africa and the wider international community for 19 years. This includes work in civil society, media, government and the private sector. Cassin, R. The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay! L. 25 November 2015. Jesus! Risk Advisory Group Report: Compliance is so complex, it’s now its own risk. FCPA Blog. Available online. Kar, D. and Le Blanc, B. 2013. Illicit Financial Flows from mcdonalds, Developing Countries: 2002–2011. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity.

Available online. McNair, D., Kraus, J., McKiernan K. and McKay, S. The Perfect! 2014. Culture: Rhetorical! The Trillion Dollar Scandal Study. London: ONE. OECD. January 2016. The CleanGovBiz Initiative. Available online. The Risk Advisory Group. Jesus! 2015.

The Compliance Horizon Survey. Available online. Transparency International. 2015. Mcdonalds Ashford! Corruption Perceptions Index – Lesotho. Available online. Transparency International and the perfect, Afrobarometer. 2015. People and Corruption: Africa Survey 2015 – Global Corruption Barometer.

Berlin: Transparency International. Available online. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Mcdonalds Ashford! 2015. United Nations Convention against jesus the perfect Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Mcdonalds Ashford! Available online. 5. Paul Radu: Follow the money: how open data and investigative journalism can beat corruption. The early spring of jesus 2015 saw thousands of angry people on the streets of Chisinau, capital of the tiny Republic of Moldova. While calling loudly for maus comic book the resignation of the Government and the Parliament, they were shouting, “We want our billion back!” (Calugareanu and Schwartz 2015). The demonstrators believed the politicians were to blame for the theft of the perfect almost $1 billion from Moldovan banks, which had left this poor country’s financial affairs in disarray. Investigations are ongoing.

But the Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project’s (OCCRP) research indicates that this $1 billion was the tip of the iceberg, in a country where many more billions of dollars in ‘black’ money appear to Challenger Tragedy Essay have flowed through a flawed banking system – with the help of leader corrupt politicians and organised crime as well as untrustworthy judges and law enforcement officers (Radu, Munteanu and Ostanin 2015). We believe that the citizens of Moldova were victims of a transnational web of corruption, benefiting politicians and criminals who used complex multi-layered company structures to conceal both their identities and advantages, their activities. Regrettably, this story is not unique. At the jesus leader, OCCRP, we have identified a number of cross- border money laundering schemes in Eastern Europe, serving criminal groups as diverse as Mexican drug cartels and Vietnamese and Russian organised crime gangs (OCCRP 2011). The power of these crime groups stems primarily from their ability to operate with ease across national frontiers. They complete a detailed risk assessment at the country level and ethyl, then choose the least vulnerable approach to the perfect conduct their illicit activities, whether in narcotics, refugee trafficking or the massive money laundering exercises that follow such crimes. The problem for national law enforcement is that, by of the is:, definition, it cannot follow this type of crime easily or quickly across borders. Data exchanges between states and law enforcement agencies take time.

Modern crime schemes are designed to have very short lives to avoid detection, lasting sometimes just months before the associated companies and bank accounts are wound up and replaced by new ones. Yet alongside the advantages available for criminals of operating on this global scale, making it inherently harder to track them down, there are also disadvantages that the clever journalist or law enforcement official can exploit to expose them. So how do we do this? How do we stop criminal gangs and jesus the perfect, the corrupt politicians they rely on – conducting business as usual? Firstly, I will argue, through data: more data means more transparency, provided the quality of information is there and supported by tools that allow proper analysis. Secondly, by maus comic book, journalists using advanced investigative techniques, including the emerging discipline of data journalism, to identify the patterns and practices inherent in corrupt activity. Criminals can’t predict the future of open data Transparency is the natural enemy of international organised crime gangs and corrupt officials. Opaque systems allow them to thrive. And some of them go to great lengths to disguise their wrongdoing, using financial and company structures that span the jesus the perfect, world. At OCCRP, we’ve found and exposed networks of companies based in New Zealand, with bank accounts in Riga, Latvia, that were transferring money to companies set up in the US state of Delaware, Cyprus or the United Kingdom.

In turn, these companies owned bank accounts in research advantages yet other jurisdictions (OCCRP 2011). Such criminal schemes are designed by creative and intelligent, if misguided, people. Some of them could have been the next Steve Jobs, but found crime more appealing. They often work for what we call the ‘criminal services industry’ – the the perfect, lawyers, registration agents, business intelligence firms and other legitimate businesses that earn lucrative income from servicing the needs of criminal clients. Ethyl Melting! But no matter how clever they are, they can’t predict the future; transparency rules change. For years, from the early 1990s, Russian, Ukrainian, Romanian and many other Eastern European mobsters and politicians were using Cyprus as a place to hide their activities behind labyrinthine corporate structures. It reached the point where Cyprus, with a population of little more than one million, became one of the main investors in Eastern and Central Europe. Not all of these investors were criminal enterprises as many used Cyprus for tax optimisation purposes. But there is hardly a country in the region – from the former Yugoslavia to Russia and beyond – where Cyprus-based companies were not involved in leader huge, rigged privatisation scandals. 4. Quantitative! In 2004, when Cyprus joined the European Union (EU) and started opening databases, including a registry of jesus the perfect locally based companies, things began to maus comic book change. Investigative reporters began combing through millions of jesus leader records and, in many instances, came across the maus comic book, names of beneficial owners the real owners of the company – who thought they were sheltered from jesus leader, public scrutiny.

Politicians and criminals were caught off guard and exposed in press articles that led to arrests and resignations. Maus Comic Book! Their past misdemeanours made future involvement in business problematic. However, they started fighting back almost immediately, substituting their names in company documents with those of professional proxies – usually Cypriot lawyers who would lend their name to just about anyone who wanted to jesus the perfect conceal their identity. In addition to this, the Cyprus registry is relatively expensive to use and searchable only by company name. This poses a serious problem for investigators, who often embark on an enquiry with only an individual’s name, be it a member of the local parliament or a controversial business owner. As a result, Cyprus still offers only partial transparency. Of The Is:! Yet even in countries with a stronger record, you can hit barriers. For example, New Zealand – ranked fourth in Transparency International’s (TI) anti-corruption index – has a well-organised register of leader companies that is free of charge and allows for name-based searches (Transparency International 2015). But, as with the UK’s Companies House database, it’s more difficult for investigative researchers to identify nominee shareholders and directors, especially in cases where they are proxies – not beneficial owners – acting for criminal groups and ethyl acetate, corrupt politicians.

And in the past few years, OCCRP investigations have revealed the involvement of an Auckland-based company (that was run by a nominee) in obscuring the ownership of companies across Eastern Europe. One such example was a Moldovan TV station (Preasca, Munteanu and Sarnecki 2013). Leader! Secretive media ownership is a huge problem across the region where, in many instances, the general public has no idea who is Essay, delivering the news. Jesus The Perfect! Once OCCRP exposed this non-transparent structure, its ownership was just moved to British companies that were again meant to obscure the identity of the of the differentiation strategy is:, real owners of the television station (Media Ownership Project 2015). In a global economy, this isn’t just an issue for New Zealand. In 2016, the UK Government is implementing a new central registry of the perfect leader company beneficial ownership to enable researchers and other interested parties to access information on quantitative research individuals with an interest in the perfect more than 25% of a company’s shares or voting rights, or who otherwise control the way it is run. It matters because well-structured and ashford, accessible databases can be goldmines for investigators and members of the public. In 2008, British computer programmer Dan O’Huiginn reshaped the Panama registry of companies and built a simple interface that, for the first time, allowed name-based searches (Government of Panama 2015). This was the catalyst for investigative articles that exposed corrupt dictators, criminals and their close associates all over the world.

This simple technical adjustment opened their activities up to public scrutiny, costing them untold millions of dollars. 5 : The same principle applies to other official databases. For example, court records, government spending and tenders databases vary greatly in their organisation, accessibility and jesus, quality of data. In many jurisdictions, it takes investigators a lot of navigating, mining and shopping for The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay data to jesus find the evidence they are looking for. Tragedy Essay! The opening up of company information and databases has to be accompanied by effective policies that ensure their accessibility, integrity, security and usefulness. Civic hacker collectives, journalists and jesus leader, civil society groups should be consulted to help determine the most useful access to data that also mitigates any privacy concerns. Governments requiring offshore companies operating in a country to identify their true beneficial ownership would also greatly reduce the space in which criminals can work and increase the costs they incur. Law enforcement must also jump on board the open data train and take advantage of research advances in technology in order to the perfect keep pace with the maus comic book, criminals.

Just like journalists, police officers and intelligence analysts need to master cross-border, multi-language, open-source intelligence to fight sophisticated serious crime. While it is true that data obtained in informal ways cannot always be used to build strong court cases, it can greatly shorten the time required for the investigative process. Obtaining documents sequentially through official channels from leader, other countries can take months or even years. Say, for example, that the police in mcdonalds the UK need information on a company based in Russia. They have to file requests and jesus the perfect, wait, sometimes for a year, only to find out mcdonalds ashford that the Russian company is jesus the perfect, owned by a Cyprus limited firm. Maus Comic Book! It might take another year to identify the next owner in a nested structure. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Finally, the trail might end with bearer shares: where the research advantages, owner of the stocks is not registered or is the perfect, a proxy who doesn’t know the real owner (Funk 2014, p. 14). Compare this with the adaptability of organised crime, which – albeit operating under no formal constraint – broke free from the nation-state mindset long ago. In the international space governed by weak international protocols and bilateral agreements, organised crime at present has no natural enemy. While criminals recognise no borders and are not bound by strict local rules, national and an advantage of the is:, legal boundaries, a lack of the perfect resources continues to an advantage differentiation strategy hamper law enforcement. Geopolitics can also deter cross-border collaborative initiatives between nation-states, which may find themselves at odds with their neighbours or dealing with governments that are themselves riddled with corruption.

There are, to jesus leader be sure, examples of criminal networks being disbanded in a number of countries as a result of co- operation between law enforcement agencies. This did not necessarily prevent the mobsters from re-forming elsewhere outside those jurisdictions. Nevertheless, increased access to open data could help to boost cross-border co-operation and maus comic book, journalists can play an increasingly important role in it. 5.2 It takes a network to the perfect leader fight a network. Investigative reporting is – and can be even more – the natural enemy of criminal networks and, when practised collaboratively, it acts as an effective watchdog. It can change the status quo in innovative ways that are not immediately obvious. Quantitative Advantages! Journalists and the public alike expect prosecutors to jesus leader act after each journalistic expose, with the desired result being arrests, convictions, repatriation of lost assets and other positive outcomes. Owing to limited human resources and a lack of skills, interest or even competence, this expectation is not always realised. However, regardless of law enforcement action or inaction, public exposure can adversely affect, and even stop, criminal businesses operating in Shuttle Challenger Essay other jurisdictions. The Perfect Leader! Such exposure can also influence long-term changes in public attitudes, which can lead, in turn, to protests against, and even election defeats for, discredited parties or politicians. With the stakes so high, it is essential that the journalism itself is rigorous, credible and transparent.

Investigative articles must be linked to quantitative advantages evidence, well- designed databases and ‘how we did it’ guidance, so that readers can recreate the investigative process if they want to. Governments, banks and leader, financial institutions in general rely on open source information when deciding whether to give loans, enter business deals or accept money transactions. Effective data journalism can also help expose financial irregularity or illegality and prevent crime figures or oligarchs securing loans, opening accounts or making other transactions. Using advanced investigative techniques, journalism can degrade international organised crime and corrupt networks even before they are firmly established within a jurisdiction. Corrupt politicians, officials and criminals view the proceeds of their illicit schemes as commodities to be repeatedly imported and exported and are always looking for new territories in which to generate profit. When journalists work collaboratively across frontiers, sharing data, this practice can be identified and Tragedy Essay, compromised. It takes a network to monitor a network. International reporting groups such as the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, Arab Reporters for Investigative Journalism (ARIJ), OCCRP and others already co-operate on individual stories or sporadically share datasets. However, such is the jesus the perfect leader, scale of the problem and the ubiquity of organised crime that these efforts can seem to maus comic book be only scratching the surface. What journalists can do is share with colleagues in other countries details of the the perfect, patterns of crime they have already detected in The Space Challenger their own. This would enable wider cross-border investigations to determine whether the jesus the perfect, same criminal groups are setting up shop in The Argument Rhetorical Analysis other jurisdictions.

For example, a criminal group sets up Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) that are all owned by a set of companies with their headquarters on a particular street in Belize City, Belize. Replications of this simple pattern can be searched for in the company registries of other countries or in related datasets, potentially revealing the group’s activities in those territories too. In future, with the proper resources, this kind of pattern recognition could be facilitated and automated through the the perfect, development of mcdonalds specific algorithms. Crime groups will inevitably react by jesus the perfect leader, altering their activities to avoid detection. But, crucially, this will hamper their operations and cost them more in money and time. Automated searches of ever-larger, global, transparent datasets can feed real-time alerts to research journalists all over the world. The result could be that the public has earlier and reliable information about who the real corrupt beneficiaries of crimes are, such as the $1 billion bank theft that left the Republic of jesus the perfect leader Moldova with an uncertain future. To conclude, a key component to fighting future crime is increased cross-border co-operation between journalists and programmers, who need to employ and create new advanced investigative techniques on top of massive amounts of data.

At the mcdonalds ashford, same time, activists and governments need to push for more transparency, quality and common standards in open data. Paul Radu is the the perfect, Executive Director of the The Space Shuttle Tragedy, Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (www.reportingproject.net), which investigates transnational crime and corruption in Eastern Europe. He is also a board member of the Global Investigative Journalism Network (http://gijn.org) and jesus the perfect, has received many international awards for his journalism. Calugareanu, V. and Schwartz, R. Mcdonalds! 4 May 2015. The Perfect Leader! Spring again in The Space Challenger Essay the Republic of Moldova – mass protest against corruption. Deutsche Welle.

Available online. Funk, T. Jesus The Perfect Leader! M. Of The Is:! 2014. Mutual Legal Assistance Treaties and Letters Rogatory: A Guide for Judges. US: Federal Judicial Center. Available online. Government of the perfect leader Panama. January 2015. Panama Registry of Companies. Available online. OCCRP.

22 November 2011. The Proxy Platform. The Reporting Project. Available online. Media Ownership Project. The Argument Analysis! January 2015. Media Ownership Project: Moldova. Available online.

Preasca, I., Munteanu, M. and Sarnecki, M. 26 March 2013. Jesus Leader! Taylor Network Back in Business. Rise Project. Available online. Radu, P., Munteanu M. and Ostanin, I. 24 July 2015. Grand Theft Moldova. Organized Crime and Corruption Reporting Project (OCCRP). Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index. Available online. 6. Sarah Chayes: Corruption and terrorism: the causal link. It’s February 2015 and I am in ethyl melting Kano, northern Nigeria. Not three months back, in the midst of Friday prayers, Boko Haram struck the Grand Mosque in the old fortress-like centre of town. The dead and the bloodied lay strewn in their hundreds across the public square.

I’m sitting with some lawyers – a prosecutor, the chairman of the state bar association and a court administrator – trying to work out the mechanics of corruption in the justice sector, in this most corrupt of countries. The Perfect! We’re talking details: how judges rarely demand bribes directly, their clerks collect the acetate, money; and jesus leader, how lawyers collude, blaming judicial corruption for the extra fees they pocket. Acetate Melting Point! “Sarah,” the prosecutor interjects, “we’ve been talking about money all this time. But this isn’t just about money …” “The saying goes,” he resumes awkwardly, “if you want to win your case, go to jesus the perfect the judge with a beautiful girl.” 6. I’m stopped cold. I imagine the girl. She may be 14 or 15. She returns home from school each day with her friends, the white veils of their school uniforms fluttering like matched plumage. I picture the quantitative, glistening eyes of some overfed judge as he reaches for her. My stomach turns. Abruptly another image comes to mind: the girl’s brother, a lanky young Nigerian man. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Already disillusioned, he is The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay, pushed right over the edge. He would kill that judge if he could.

And Boko Haram, all around this town, would like nothing more than to help him do it. I could suddenly understand how it happens. I could see how the corruption perpetrated by officials of the then Nigerian administration – like that of many governments around the world – was itself helping to jesus generate the terrorist threat. The problem, I realised, is far more severe than white elephants or poor service delivery. Corruption entails a violation of a person’s basic humanity that can spur an ethyl melting point, enraged response. It is these connections – between government corruption and terrorism or other violence – that this essay explores. Corruption is one of those consensual topics. No one would argue it’s a good thing. International charities and multilateral organisations have worked hard to combat it, racking up impressive achievements in recent years.

Anti- bribery laws, once unheard of, have spread well beyond their initial US–UK beachhead. Major arrests and asset seizures are increasingly common, as are citizen-led anti-corruption protests. Such protests have resulted in jesus the perfect the resignation of senior officials or their ousting through the ballot box. That’s what happened in Nigeria, where a hard-nosed reformer – who has penned an essay in this volume – gained an upset victory in March 2015 elections over The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy the administration those Kano legal practitioners were criticising. And yet, when push comes to shove in bilateral relations, Western governments, businesses and charities are still most likely to leader prioritise other imperatives ahead of corruption.

If an international aid agency or philanthropic organisation has set its sights on delivering health programming to rural villages, its government may be reticent to act against corruption in the host country for fear the precious permissions to operate will be cancelled. The Argument Rhetorical Essay! If the the perfect leader, objective is ashford, a major extension of electrical power across a whole region or a trade foray into an emerging market, corruption may be seen as a ‘cost of doing business’. Corruption helps facilitate economic activity and growth, some maintain. Others cite culture: “It’s just the way people do things over there. Who are we to jesus leader impose our norms?” These and other excuses are proffered to ethyl point rationalise looking the other way or outright collusion. Upon closer inspection, it thus appears that corruption is jesus the perfect leader, not so consensual after all.

A remarkable number of Westerners actually argue in favour of it. Tragedy! Of all the competing priorities, the jesus leader, one that most swiftly trumps anti-corruption is security. Co-operating with this or that corrupt leader is seen as critical, because he is our partner in the war against terrorism. His is the only military worth its salt in the region, troops that actually go on the attack against militants. He provides us with intelligence or bases or overflight rights. And so the kleptocratic practices of his network of cronies are overlooked. The way they have bent state functions, wired the whole economy to their own benefit, given free rein to low-level officials to maus comic book rake in extorted bribes and blocked off every avenue of recourse – none of jesus the perfect leader that matters, so long as they are ‘with us’ in the fight against terrorists. This common framing is ashford, particularly ironic given the growing evidence that corruption is helping to drive many people into jesus leader the folds of quantitative research extremist movements and indeed lies at the root of many of today’s security crises (Chayes 2015; Sky 2015).

The purported trade-off between security and corruption is a false dichotomy. Take southern Afghanistan, the former Taliban heartland, where I lived for nearly a decade. Jesus! In the spring of 2009, a delegation of elders came to visit from Shah Wali Kot district, just north of Kandahar. Mcdonalds Ashford! This happened often. I was one of the only foreigners in the perfect leader Kandahar with no guards at my gate. Culture: Analysis! When I asked why, with the Taliban killing people, the jesus the perfect leader, villagers don’t fight back, a man retorted, “How can they work with this Government?

The Government doesn’t hear them. Maus Comic Book! The Government doesn’t do anything for them. It’s just there to fill its pockets, nothing else. If the Government isn’t fixed, no matter how many soldiers the foreigners bring, the situation won’t improve.” 7. A few days later in jesus the perfect the border town of Spin Boldak, community leader Hajji Manan Khan concurred, “This Government … no one likes it. Ministers have huge palaces in Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Kabul, while the people have nothing. The foreigners should announce that the current Government is thieves. They should put the jesus the perfect leader, screws in them, call them on the carpet and mcdonalds ashford, demand accounts.” 8. I heard this refrain again and again. Out of jesus leader a hundred Taliban, elders would tell me, fewer than a quarter were ‘real’. The rest had taken up arms in disgust with the Government. This assessment was corroborated by interviews with Taliban detainees in international military custody. Explaining their motivations for joining the insurgency, they cited government corruption more often than any strictly religious rationale.

A similar picture emerges from Nigeria. Ethyl Point! When Boko Haram launched its first large-scale violent attacks in July 2009, police stations were the first targets. By all accounts, the jesus the perfect, Nigerian police is strategy, one of the jesus the perfect, most venal and abusive in the world (Human Rights Watch 2010). Of The Differentiation Is:! 9 And, during a November 2015 conversation in the perfect leader Maiduguri, where Boko Haram first emerged, local residents voiced a sentiment I had heard often: “People were very happy [with those first attacks]. Boko Haram was saying the of the strategy is:, truth about the violations by government agencies against the people. Finally they could stand up and challenge. They were claiming their rights.” 10.

Extremism isn’t the only form that backlash against jesus corruption takes. Across the Arab world in 2011, populations took to the streets demanding an end to autocratic governments, the prosecution and imprisonment of corrupt officials, and the return of stolen assets. As the catastrophic situation in today’s Middle East demonstrates, revolutions rarely end peacefully. Some analysts see the expansion of extremism, from melting, Daesh in jesus the perfect leader Syria to a tenacious insurgency in Egypt, as a reaction to the failure of those initially non- violent efforts to break the grip of kleptocratic governing elites (Muasher 2015). Ukraine seems as culturally and historically different from the Middle East as a country can be, yet its 2014 revolution was fuelled by similar motivations. While anti-Russian sentiment and a cultural affinity with Western Europe were important drivers of the Maidan protests, so was disgust at the corrupt Yanukovich Government.

Photos of the deposed president’s pleasure palace went viral after his fall. Culture: Rhetorical Analysis! The sequel to that revolution has been the first major East–West stand-off since the end of the Cold War, complete with the jesus the perfect leader, forcible annexation of territory and the displacement of more than a million people. In these cases and others, corruption has helped generate some of today’s most dire security crises. The difficult question, especially regarding religious violence, is why? What is it about corruption that should drive people to such extremes? Four elements of corruption in its current form help to provide an explanation: the humiliation inflicted on victims; their lack of recourse; the structure and sophistication of corrupt networks; and the truly colossal sums being stolen. Firstly, what we in advantages the West often underestimate in thinking about corruption is the jesus the perfect, assault on quantitative research victims’ human dignity that accompanies it. Recall the example of the judge’s ‘sextortion’, when the only way of gaining a hearing may be to allow a daughter or a sister to be violated. Abuses of this nature can spark a burning need for retribution.

In studies of violence ranging from Palestinian uprisings to gang shootings in the United States, insult or humiliation is found to be a key factor (Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin 2014; Black 2011). 11. Given the obvious connections between religion and leader, morality, the moral depravity underlying the abuse is frequently understood in religious terms. “Our leaders are bound by religious duty to do the right thing,” Kano’s then Bar Association Chairman Ibrahim Nassarawa told me, “so when they don’t, people hate them.” 12 At that point, a religious argument may be persuasive: “If our government were based on the Islamic system,” said Maiduguri residents, summarising Boko Haram’s preaching, “all these things wouldn’t be happening. We would have a fair and just society.” 13. Secondly, with government perpetrating the crimes, there is no earthly hope of recourse. As Sardar Muhammad – who cultivates grapes and pomegranates west of Kandahar – put it in defining the word ‘corruption’, “If the district governor takes all the development budget and only gives the people a tiny bit, and Culture: Analysis, I want to complain, and leader, his gunmen keep me from complaining because they are his kept dogs, that’s corruption.” 14. Deprived of any peaceful means of redress against an abusive government, even the founders of our own Western democracies rebelled. The 16th-century Dutch Revolt, the English Civil War and the American and French revolutions were all bloody affairs. Period documents from these milestones in democratic development indicate that in none of mcdonalds them did protagonists and ordinary citizens turn to violence gladly, but felt compelled to it after exhausting every other avenue and obtaining not the slightest concession (Robertson 2006).

15. The unassailable impunity that Sardar Muhammad was lamenting derives from the third important feature of corruption as it currently exists in dozens of countries – how deeply it is embedded in state machinery. It’s not the work of a few venal officials, who might be rooted out jesus leader or challenged in court. The kind of severe corruption that is common today is systemic. It is the practice of sophisticated networks armed with all the instruments of state function. Maus Comic Book! They use those instruments to serve their aims – which largely boil down to jesus the perfect leader personal enrichment.

In many cases, these entities should not be thought of as governments at all, much less fragile or failing ones, but rather as savvy and successful criminal organisations. Weaknesses in state function examined in this light may prove to be deliberate, especially in agencies with autonomous power. Judges or specialised prosecutors are underpaid. Armies are hollowed out to reduce the likelihood of a coup and because defence budgets and military assistance are juicy revenue streams. The results of this latter trend were on vivid display in 2014 as the cannibalised militaries of Iraq and Nigeria collapsed at the first sign of a challenge. In other cases, apparently innocuous state agencies such as tax authorities or water departments are fashioned into bludgeons to force compliance.

A Tunisian tax collector explained to me how, under the regime of an advantage differentiation is: Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali, certain people were accorded a tax holiday as long as they cut members of the ruling clique into jesus the perfect their action. But “assessors would rarely make someone’s file go away completely. Ashford! The permissiveness could always be revoked.” Taxes, he said, could be used “to punish someone who was too independent.” 16. A trade union representative in Uzbekistan described a similar system to me in 2014: “There are so many taxes it is impossible to pay them all. So people make a connection in the tax office to pay less. But then you’ve broken the law and jesus, they know it, and you are afraid of the Government. The whole Government is set up that way, to make you do wrong, so then they have you on the hook.” 17.

These kleptocratic networks are horizontally integrated. Ashford! They comprise government officials, businesses such as banks or construction companies, and so-called non- governmental organisations (NGOs) and implementers of aid – which may in fact be owned by relatives of government officials. But they also include outright criminals such as smugglers, drug-traffickers and even terrorists. Some within the government service in jesus the perfect Algeria in the 1990s, and also officials in Pakistan today, are believed to have maintained operational links with extremists (Waldman 2010; Garcon 2003). 18. Quantitative! For foreign governments, charities or businesses seeking to operate in such environments, this horizontal integration makes for particularly difficult navigating. The familiar distinctions between public and jesus, private sectors, licit and research advantages, illicit actors, simply do not apply. Finally, the amounts of money in play are truly obscene.

Former FBI special agent Debra Laprevotte, who worked kleptocracy cases for years, says that the increase has been palpable: “For the longest time, we had a single billion-dollar case. Now there are at least five billion-dollar investigations underway.” 19. According to two separate biannual surveys, ‘petty bribery’ in leader Afghanistan rakes in The Space Shuttle between ?1.3 billion and ?2.6 billion per year (UNODC 2012; Integrity Watch Afghanistan 2014). This is in a country whose licit government revenue is jesus the perfect, barely estimated to top ?1 billion (SIGAR 2015). The development implications of such sums are obvious.

Imagine if even a fraction were devoted to a country’s healthcare or water and sewage system, or to building a reliable and affordable public transport network in a burgeoning megacity, or to maus comic book paying teachers a living wage. Imagine the impact on sustainable economic growth. But when obtained through practices this corrupt, vast wealth in leader a sea of poverty also has a moral component – hence the easy link to religion. In the midst of the 16th- century Protestant revolt against the Habsburg ‘Divine Right’ monarchy, an an advantage differentiation, anonymous Dutch pamphleteer complained, “They put robes of silk on their idols made of jesus the perfect leader old wood, leaving us brethren of Christ naked and starving” (Arnade 2008, p. 99). Acetate Melting! Then, as now, militant puritanical religion, imposed if necessary by force, was seen by some as the only remedy. The picture painted here is a sobering one, particularly for governments, investors and humanitarian organisations that cannot avoid working in such countries. And especially when security concerns are so severe as to trump other considerations. Still, even in a world in which trade-offs are real and cannot simply be wished away, there are some important lessons to jesus the perfect be considered. An Advantage Of The Differentiation Strategy! Governments that ostensibly fight against terror may actually be generating more terrorism than they curb.

The international community must do a better job of weighing up the pluses and minuses of leader partnering with acutely corrupt governments, and thus reinforcing them and facilitating their practices. If alliances are too close, or pay too little attention to the corruption of host governments, the of the differentiation is:, abused populations may come to jesus associate the international community with the misdeeds of ethyl acetate melting point their own rulers. As 14th-century churchman William of jesus Pagula admonished King Edward III, “He takes on the guilt of the perpetrator who neglects to fix what he can correct” (Nederman 2002, p. 82). A more precise understanding of network structures and real dynamics of power must inform planning processes ahead of engagement. It is costly in human and other resources, not to mention politically uncomfortable, to an advantage differentiation is: draw up network diagrams – like the ones intelligence or police agencies regularly develop in the perfect their study of terrorists or criminals – that map members of ostensibly friendly governments and their cut-outs in business or the criminal world. But these costs should be weighed against ethyl melting point the proven and often disastrous price of blind engagement in such complex environments. Jesus The Perfect Leader! A new, broader understanding of ‘corporate social responsibility’ is required.

Across sectors, companies whose business models actually depend on servicing kleptocratic officials – such as some banks, lawyers, estate agents, registered agents, various extractive and other resource- based businesses, and international construction contractors – are contributing to significant security threats in their own countries. It is in this light that they should consider their ‘corporate social responsibility’ – rather than as a synonym for Challenger Essay donations to the perfect leader localised humanitarian work. Should their public-spiritedness remain wanting, then sanctions applied to them for colluding with illegal corrupt practices should be stiffened, commensurate with the harm they are doing. Western citizens should begin pressurising such businesses. And above all, Western governments should cease viewing corrupt money flows, or good trade deals extracted from kleptocrats at the expense of their populations, as a necessary component of their nations’ economies. Arnade, P. 2008. Beggars, Iconoclasts and Civic Patriots: The Political Culture of the maus comic book, Dutch Revolt. Ithica: Cornell University Press. Black, D. Jesus The Perfect Leader! 2011. Moral Time. New York: Oxford University Press, p.73.

Chayes, S. 2015. Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. New York: W.W. Norton. Garcon, J. Acetate Melting Point! 15 November 2003. Les GIA sont une creation des services de securite algeriens. Liberation. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Available online. Human Rights Watch. 17 August 2010.

Everyone’s in on the Game: corruption and human rights abuses by the Nigeria Police Force. Available online. Integrity Watch. 28 May 2014. Afghanistan, National Corruption Survey. Available online.

Longo, M., Canetti, D. and Hite-Rubin N. 2014. A Checkpoint Effect? Evidence from a natural experiment on travel restrictions in the West Bank. American Journal of Political Science, 58(4), pp. 1006–1023. Muasher, M. Point! 2015. Thalatha Safarat Indhar Lam Yasma’ha Ahad.

Alghad (Afkar wa Mawaqaf). Available online. Nederman, C. Jesus The Perfect! ed. and trans. 2002. Culture:! Political Thought in Early Fourteenth Century England: Treatises by Walter of Milemete, William of Pagula and William of Ockham. Of Pagula, W., The Mirror of Edward III. Tempe: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, p. 82.

Robertson, G. 2006. The Tyrannicide Brief: The Story of the jesus, Man Who Sent Charles I to the Scaffold. New York: Pantheon. Sky, E. Quantitative! 2015. The Unravelling: High Hopes and Missed Opportunities in Iraq. London: Atlantic Books. Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction (SIGAR). 5 March 2015. Letter to Generals Lloyd Austin, John Campbell and Todd Semonite. Available online. United Nations – Office on the perfect leader Drugs and Crime (UNODC).

December 2012. Corruption in Afghanistan: Recent Patterns and Trends. Vienna: UNODC. Strategy Is:! Available online. Waldman, M. 2010. The Sun in the Sky: The Relationship Between Pakistan’s ISI and jesus leader, Afghan Insurgents. London School of Economics, Crisis States Working Group Paper, 2(18). 7. Ethyl! David Walsh: The irresponsibility of not knowing – corruption in sport. Being a sports writer was all I wanted. Thirty-eight years, the only job I’ve ever had. Good times mostly.

Not what I thought they would be. When I glance in the rear-view mirror, there is leader, more cynicism, more corruption, more of sport’s dark side. It seems hard to an advantage of the differentiation strategy is: believe now that the the perfect, journey began with the expectation of standards higher than would ever be found in quantitative research civilian life. Jesus! There is, of course, much to recall that was glorious, exciting and uplifting, sporting stuff that makes you think anything is possible. Hard to imagine that a boy who grew up on the potholed roads of of the is: Kenya could become a Tour de France champion, but that’s what Chris Froome did. The Perfect! Or that a boy from Rosario in Argentina who was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency at age ten should become the greatest footballer we’ve ever seen. Well that’s Lionel Andres Messi’s story. How many winter evenings has he brightened? But even in the beautiful game, bad things were happening. Our obsession with football created a global popularity that would lead to extraordinary riches pouring into the game.

That money needed to be managed and those in control needed to be accountable. An Advantage Of The Differentiation! We are speaking of systems of good governance, but greed got a head start and governance never caught up. With great wealth comes power and that attracts the corruptible. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Over the last 15 years, there has been the International Olympic Committee (IOC) scandal behind the awarding of the Winter Olympics to Salt Lake City in 2001, the FIFA scandal that simmered for more than ten years before boiling over in mcdonalds 2015 and, most recently, the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) scandal involving high-up officials in the international federation. Sometimes you find yourself taking a step back and wondering, “Could it have really happened?” Could custodians of the jesus, sport really have blackmailed an athlete in advantages a ˆ450,000-deal, covering up a doping violation so that the athlete could compete in the Olympics? That’s the leader, allegation and the French police are on maus comic book the case (World Anti-Doping Agency 2016). I’d been a sports reporter for ten years when attending my first Olympics. That was Seoul 1988. A run along a busy promenade in South Korea’s capital city on the final Sunday of those Games remains a cherished memory. Jesus Leader! I never saw such an outpouring of national pride. Every expression seemed to say, “You thought we couldn’t do it, even we weren’t sure we could, but we did.” Before those Games started, there had been student protests in ethyl acetate melting Seoul and the world’s media highlighted the potential for the Olympics to be overshadowed by unrest.

That never happened. The trouble came from inside the stadium, down there on the track or, more accurately, in the room where the leader, Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson peed into what anti-doping personnel call ‘the collection vessel’. The thing about mcdonalds ashford watching something live is jesus leader, that it leaves a deeper, more lasting impression. Inside your living room, you see the story unfold. Inside the stadium, you feel it.

It’s the difference between having your face painted and having your forehead tattooed. Point! That September in Seoul, Florence Griffith-Joyner, an American athlete, set new world records in the 100 metres and the perfect, 200 metres. They will stand for a long time yet, those records. They called her ‘Flo-Jo’. With her long and exotically painted nails and of the differentiation is:, Rolls-Royce stride, she was one of Seoul’s greatest stars. I saw her get the 200-metre record, decelerating in the home straight. It was a heart-sinking moment. There were allegations of doping, unproven. Florence Griffith-Joyner died at 38, far too soon (Walsh 2013). Jesus Leader! Ben Johnson was a different story.

He got caught. Can you imagine being awoken by ethyl melting, a loud knock on your apartment door at 3.30 in jesus the perfect the morning and The Argument Culture: Rhetorical, being pleased about it? Doug Gillon, from The Glasgow Herald, stood there. “Johnson’s tested positive,” he said. The words landed like ice-cold water on jesus the perfect a sleepy face. Other than tell our offices back home that we were up and on the case, I don’t know what we could have done to point advance the story at leader, that hour, but it was a watershed moment. Ben Johnson changed the landscape. Some of the things that had drawn us as kids to sport were being crushed by a will to win that recognised no boundaries. How bad was it? How bad is it?

It was bad. It’s gotten worse. Maus Comic Book! Part of that summer of jesus ’88 was spent following the world’s greatest bike race, the Tour de France. A few days from the maus comic book, end, there was another drug controversy when Pedro Delgado, the Spanish-born race leader, provided a urine sample that contained the drug probenecid, used by athletes to mask their use of proscribed substances. A strange case for the perfect sure. Probenecid was banned by the International Olympic Committee, but wasn’t yet banned by the body that governed world cycling.

Delgado, it was initially speculated, would be docked ten minutes but not thrown off the race. The Dutch rider, Steven Rooks, would then be the new leader and, with the race almost complete, the certain winner. Ethyl! 20. I met Rooks before the start, on the perfect leader the morning after Delgado’s bad news. “How do you feel about taking the ethyl acetate melting, yellow jersey?” “I don’t want it in these circumstances,” he said. “But if he’s been cheating, and why would anyone use probenecid, you will be the deserving leader.” “He has been the jesus leader, strongest rider in the race and deserves the victory.” Rooks saw my righteousness for what it was.

Innocence. What I believe he was telling me, in code, of course, was that athletes in the Tour de France do what they have to do, and no one is Culture:, guiltier or more innocent than another. Strange how crushing that moment seemed. Over the jesus the perfect, years that followed, I became a different kind of sports writer – less gullible, even aggressively sceptical. Ethyl Acetate Melting Point! Something Albert Camus wrote strikes a chord: “Every act of rebellion expresses a nostalgia for innocence” (Camus 1956, p. 54). We want sport to be believable. In the world of our imagination, sport doesn’t just mirror life but offers something more principled, more idealistic, more inspiring than the world of business. Alas, the reality is far from that and there is a rebellion.

Folk are tired of the corruption. We want our innocence back. You can bet that when the news emerged that FIFA executive committee members were arrested on jesus the perfect leader corruption charges, football fans around the The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay, world were silently cheering. At last. Same reaction from athletics fans when news that high-ranking members of the IAAF suffered the leader, same fate. Whether police investigations in both sports lead to charges doesn’t matter as much as knowing that men who once saw themselves as untouchable were mistaken.

With so much cheating on the field and so much corruption off it, you may think this is advantages, a bleak time for sport. On the contrary, this is what sport has needed: scrutiny, exposure of wrongdoing, punishment for those who have done wrong. The Perfect Leader! No longer in the dark, we now have the maus comic book, opportunity for change. It would be a crime not to seize it. From where did the malaise come?

Do we blame the athlete because it is their body and what they put into jesus leader it is ultimately their responsibility? Or the trusted coach who says that, without doping, victory is unattainable? Or the governing body that publicly says doping is The Argument Analysis, a scourge, but privately accepts its existence as an irrepressible evil? From where does the corruption come? What of the institutional corruption? Why did we get the IOC scandal, the the perfect leader, FIFA scandal and the IAAF scandal? Perhaps there isn’t one failing that explains everything, but it is Shuttle Challenger Essay, now clear that sports officials were granted too much autonomy and subjected to the perfect too little scrutiny. Members of the IOC and ethyl, FIFA were treated like royalty and many of them embraced the world of privilege before abusing it. Now US federal officers and the Swiss and French police are pursuing cases of suspected fraud in sport, and they do so with fans worldwide urging them on.

Let’s turn the clock back to the genesis of one of sport’s most notorious cases of the perfect leader wrongdoing. It was July 1999. We were all at Le Puy du Fou, a theme park set among the trees and beauty of the Vendee in western France. It was the start of the Tour de France. The race began with a short individual race against the clock, each rider hurtling round a 4-mile circuit in pursuit of the Shuttle Essay, first yellow jersey. That race launched Lance Armstrong as an embryonic global icon. He won that short test by a staggering eight seconds and jesus the perfect, had done this after recovering from life-threatening testicular cancer. His domination of that year’s Tour was absolute and his performance seemed to ethyl melting point many the most life-affirming story that sport had ever delivered. Surviving cancer is one thing, but to follow recovery with victory in perhaps the toughest athletic challenge of all is quite another. Leader! Armstrong cheated because he believed others were cheating and that it was the only way he could win. On both counts, he was almost certainly correct.

But that merely explains his rationale – it cannot excuse it. A great number of his competitors in that race were not using drugs and so were put at an insurmountable disadvantage by those who did cheat. The fact that Armstrong had been so seriously ill made it hard for people to Tragedy believe that he would then use drugs that could be dangerous to jesus leader his health. He never saw it like that. Many of the drugs used in restoring him to health, after he’d undergone four rounds of chemotherapy, were the ethyl acetate melting, same drugs that would give him greater endurance in the Tour de France. And they weren’t that dangerous. Leader! But he couldn’t have gotten away with it unless so many had been willing to embrace the irresponsibility of not knowing. The truth is that the truth was there, an an advantage differentiation strategy, inch or so beneath the surface. “If a misdeed arises in the search for truth, it is better to exhume it rather than conceal the truth,” Saint Jerome wrote in the fifth century (cited in Ballester and Walsh 2004, p.1).

That’s not bad advice. In the surge of the the perfect, feel-good factor that came with Armstrong’s first victory in the Tour de France, everyone had their reasons for clinging to the irresponsibility of not knowing and leaving the truth resting beneath the surface. His sponsors would sell bikes and clothing – and dreams – off the miracle of his comeback. Those entrusted with the duty to protect the sport, the world-governing cycling body (the Union Cycliste Internationale [UCI]) saw in him a saviour bearing the gifts of increased popularity and, of course, revenue. As fans, we want our heroes to be angels on wheels, simon- pure, somehow immune to the uppers and mcdonalds ashford, downers of our own pill-popping society. In the maelstrom of jesus Armstrong’s wondrous victory, we engaged in what the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge called ‘the willing suspension of disbelief’. All the Culture: Rhetorical, reasons why this story had to be questioned were suppressed.

Those who tried to the perfect leader protest were shouted down. Let us try to explain how easy it would have been for research advantages the fraud of jesus Armstrong to have been stopped before it had begun. The drug of choice in maus comic book 1999 was erythropoietin (EPO), which promotes the production of red cells and allowed those using it an almost endless supply of oxygen. With it, a rider could fly up mountains. Angels on wheels indeed. At that time, there was no anti-doping test to identify it in leader urine. So EPO was a godsend for those who wished to cheat, and maus comic book, there were plenty. From blood tests taken before that 1999 Tour, the authorities more or less knew who was using the drug but just could not prove it. They also knew that an EPO test was imminent. All they had to the perfect leader do was freeze the urine samples from ’99 and re-examine them when the EPO test was approved, which happened in 2000. It would have been simple and it would have exposed those who were cheating.

But those who should have been protecting the research, sport were the same people who were promoting it, and Lance Armstrong was good for business. Jesus! It was not co-incidental that when Armstrong the Legend became Armstrong the Cheat, US federal investigators had gotten involved. The Feds have powers that allow them to dig deeper than journalists, and Armstrong’s former teammates quickly learned that while they could tell little white lies to journalists, they couldn’t lie under oath. Only when the police got interested in the minutiae of football’s governing body, FIFA, and the athletics federation, IAAF, did we discover the extent of the corruption in both organisations. Without subpoena powers, without the an advantage of the, right to bank accounts, but with the threat of costly legal cases, there is only so far journalists can go. We came to know how rotten things were in the perfect leader the state of the Tour de France when French customs pulled over a team car on the Franco–Belge border at 6 am on a July morning in 1998. With FIFA, it was the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s (FBI) arrest of mcdonalds ashford US delegate Chuck Blazer that proved to be the jesus, turning point.

Blazer spilt the beans and plenty of barons were in maus comic book trouble. French police are now doing the same for the IAAF, showing the most powerful that they’re not as untouchable as they might have thought. How did it get to this? Good people stayed quiet when they should have spoken up. Anyone who pushed for good governance in these organisations was putting themselves in jesus leader an uncomfortable position. Few were prepared to do that. It was easier to look the other way, to travel on the gravy train and not pull the emergency cord.

This longing to indulge the Culture: Essay, irresponsibility of not knowing has been the rock upon which the corruption was built. Those who said nothing – they and their sports have paid a high price. The Perfect Leader! Paul Simon wrote about this a long time ago in ‘The Sound of Silence’: “Fool, said I, you do not know. Silence, like a cancer grows” (Simon 1964). How we have needed courageous people.

Take the IOC and the privileges of The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay its members. Forget the courtesy cars and five-star hotels, the access to the best tickets and the lavish banquets. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Instead, consider the daily allowance. Quantitative Research Advantages! Board members on IOC duty receive a daily $900 allowance, $450 for common or garden members (IOC Ethics Commission 2015). It adds up when you spend maybe two and a half weeks at the Olympics, which even an IOC member wouldn’t dare to call hard work. As much as there is an urge to say that these allowances are far too much, it is worth pointing out that, among the major sports bodies, the IOC is the only one that publicly discloses information such as per diem allowances to its members. This level of compensation does beg the question, ‘Who is serving whom?’ Is it the the perfect, IOC members who serve the Olympics or the Olympics that serves its committee members? There is a culture of entitlement that needs to maus comic book end, because excessive privilege can often be the the perfect leader, precursor to corruption: “If I am entitled to research this, perhaps I can also get that.” Somewhere along the way, a lot of FIFA administrators came to see not much difference between privilege and wrongdoing – like one was the logical extension of the other. Let me tell you about Vitaly Stepanov, the courageous whistle-blower who did so much to bring to light the doping secrets in Russian sport. He was recently asked to meet IAAF officials in a major city. To get there, he had to take a six-hour flight.

IAAF booked the leader, ticket and when it landed in Stepanov’s email, he realised it was a first-class flight (Walsh 2014). Surprised and unimpressed to have found himself immediately drawn into this world of privilege, Stepanov rang his IAAF contact and said he had no wish to travel first- class. He considered the excessive cost could be far better spent on fighting the doping culture that he had exposed. Will sports officials ever get the The Space Shuttle Challenger Essay, message? (Walsh 2014). For inspiration, they might care to turn their eyes to the example being set by Pope Francis, leader of the Catholic Church. When he turned up in Washington to meet President Obama, it was easy to pick out his car in the motorcade of more than 20 SUVs and the perfect leader, police cars. He was inside the charcoal grey Fiat 500L, which was maybe a tiny step up, or down, from the Ford Focus he drives around the Analysis, Vatican. “I’m visible to people and I lead a normal life,” Pope Francis has said. “Public Mass in the morning, I eat in the refectory with everyone else, etc. All this is good for the perfect leader me and prevents me from being isolated. I’m trying to stay and act the The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay, same as I did in Buenos Aires because, if you change at leader, my age, you just look ridiculous” (Pope Francis 2013, paraphrased). How many high-ranking sports officials have thought that if that little Fiat is good for the Pope, it is mcdonalds ashford, good enough for me?

How many believe they should have lives somewhat akin to the lives of fans upon jesus, whose loyalty their games are built? The IOC needs to lower those allowances and FIFA’s new president, whoever they are, needs to quantitative advantages embrace a more modest lifestyle. Transparency must become the norm and proper governance needs to be at jesus the perfect, the top of every agenda. For too long, good governance has been nothing but a PR sound bite. Trust will be regained when they show us they have changed, not when they tell us. We need governments to lead as well, to say to maus comic book sport’s wrongdoers that you are not part of some separate untouchable state. Do wrong and the perfect leader, you will be held accountable.

The Wild West is no more. To the ashford, athletes, we need to say that winning is not the most important thing. How you try to win is what matters. Would you rather be top of the medal table with cheats or bottom with a group of totally honest athletes? Governments need to stop seeing the jesus leader, prowess of their athletes as a sign of national strength. For that too is another road leading to corruption. Better in my view for a government to understand that what truly matters is Culture:, how many of its citizens are active. We need to stop wearing our country’s success in sport like a badge of jesus the perfect honour, for maus comic book it matters not a whit whether we’re first or second in the medals table. It is Vitaly Stepanov, the Russian whistle-blower, to whom we should listen. He reminds us of what matters, and what doesn’t. Jesus! “Personally, I don’t like this whole idea of countries and nationalism and all of ethyl acetate melting point that. Things must be done that serve the jesus, planet not for the country.

Same in sport, I don’t care that a Russian wins or an American wins. If the competition is fair, if the best one wins, that’s good. If a person is honest, talented, has a good coach and he is raised properly and he becomes an mcdonalds, Olympic champion then he will be a hero. And it really will not matter what country he is the perfect, from. Jesse Owens became a hero for the whole world. The Argument Essay! “I went to the Olympic museum in Lausanne.

There is leader, a saying on a wall there from Pierre de Coubertin, the father of the Olympic movement. Let me just say it. ‘The important thing in Analysis life is not the triumph but the fight. The essential thing is not to have won but to have fought well.’ This is my view of jesus what sport should be” (Walsh 2015). Ballester, P. and Walsh, D. 2004. L.A. Confidentiel: Les Secrets de Lance Armstrong.

France: La Martiniere. Camus, A. Culture: Rhetorical Essay! 1956. The Rebel: An Essay on a Man in Revolt. New York: First Vintage International, p. 54. International Olympic Committee (IOC) Ethics Commission. 2015. Leader! Agenda 2020: Indemnity Policy. Switzerland: IOC. Available from: http://www.olympic.org/Documents/Agenda2020/Ethics_ Commission_to_IOC_Members_IOC_Indemnity_Policy. pdf. Pope Francis. 2013.

Letter to Father Enrique Rodriguez. Challenger Essay! Available online. Simon, P. 1964. The Sound of Silence. New York: Columbia Records. Walsh, D. 2013. The Perfect Leader! Seven Deadly Sins: My Pursuit of Lance Armstrong. UK: Simon Schuster.

Walsh, D. Culture:! 14 December 2014. Russian doping whistleblower fears for his safety. The Sunday Times. Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1495850.ece. Walsh, D. 29 November 2015. Husband and wife who brought down Russia. The Sunday Times. Jesus! Available from: http://www.thesundaytimes.co.uk/sto/sport/athletics/ article1638611.ece.

World Anti-Doping Agency. 2016. Independent Commission Report – Part 2. Available online. 8. President Muhammadu Buhari: My plan to an advantage of the differentiation strategy fight corruption in Nigeria. Jesus Leader! In the run-up to the general elections in March 2015, I campaigned on the platform of addressing the challenges of security, the economy, power, infrastructure and fighting corruption. Of these, removing the cancer of corruption from the system is the key not only to restoring the moral health of the nation, but also to freeing our enormous resources for Tragedy Essay urgent socio-economic development.

Nigerians never cease to leader ask, for example, why it is that, at independence in quantitative 1960, Nigeria’s gross domestic product (GDP) per capita was higher at $559 than that of Singapore’s at $476, but today Singapore’s GDP has grown to $55,182 and jesus, Nigeria’s has increased to just $3,005 (World Bank 2016). For sure, there are many variables to explain this paradox of melting point a city-state with a small population outperforming Nigeria so dramatically. But the most important single factor, to leader my mind, is our two countries’ contrasting leadership visions and attitudes to ashford corruption. As Alan Greenspan (2007) has observed, “Corruption, embezzlement, fraud, these are all characteristics which exist everywhere. It is regrettably the way human nature functions, whether we like it or not. What successful economies do is to keep it to a minimum.” Unfortunately, successive Nigerian governments have simply been unable to jesus leader contain the monster. Oil and gas are the second largest contributors to our GDP and account for more than 80% of our foreign exchange earnings.

Yet this is the most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. By some industry estimates, 232,000 barrels of crude oil worth on average $6.7 billion per annum are lost by an advantage of the, the Nigerian state to oil thieves (Kar and Cartwright-Smith 2010). This illicit trade thrives as a result of collaboration among politicians, security agencies, criminal gangs and jesus leader, even multinational oil company employees. As the Financial Times reported, the enormity of the problem is captured in satellite imageries showing the illicit oil trade “expanding exponentially between 2008 and quantitative, 2013, at the same time as artisanal [illegal] refining was mushrooming across the Niger Delta on an industrial scale” (Wallis 2015). Jesus! The abuse and misuse of public office for private gain has been a constant feature of governance in Nigeria for the past 30 years. Culture: Rhetorical! In the last two decades especially, corruption – with its corresponding devastating socio-economic consequences on national development and the well-being of our people – escalated rapidly and with even greater intensity. Our recent history has been one of predatory and rapacious political, military, public and private sector elites competing and alternating as the drivers of corruption. Paradoxically, corruption flourished and eventually became a way of life under the supposedly accountable democratic governments of the past 16 years during which, by jesus the perfect leader, one calculation, the nation earned more revenue than in all the previous 80 years combined. Even as far back as the 1980s, procurement and contract costs in Nigeria were three times higher than those in East and North Africa, and four times higher than those in Asia. Studies suggest that public funds of between $300 billion and maus comic book, $400 billion have been lost to corruption since Nigeria became independent in 1960 (Ezekwesili 2012).

According to the perfect the African Union’s high-level panel on illicit flows, Nigeria alone accounted for $217 billion of the African continent’s total $850 billion loss to illicit flows between 1970 and 2008 (UNECA 2015). Despite anti-corruption agencies and laws introduced in recent years, there was a complete lack of political will to strengthen these agencies and to faithfully enforce the laws. As one commentator observed, across the entire spectrum of of the government, rules and regulations were ignored with impunity. Jesus! Procurements were made with a total disregard for due process, inflated by billions of dollars and of the is:, poorly executed, and payments were made for jesus leader jobs not even done. No wonder then that Nigeria consistently scored below the African average in virtually all the categories considered by various transparency and good governance agencies: safety and the rule of law, ease of doing business, participation and human rights, sustainable economic opportunities and human development (Transparency International 2016). The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) (2016) has correctly identified that pervasive corruption undermines democratic institutions, slows economic development and an advantage, contributes to governmental instability.

Corruption erodes the moral fabric of jesus the perfect society and violates the social and economic rights of citizens, particularly the acetate melting, poor and the vulnerable. Actually it creates poverty and hurts the poor disproportionately, because resources are diverted away from those who need government protection and services the jesus, most. Indeed corrupt politicians, in collusion with electoral officials, have consistently distorted our electoral processes and perverted the rule of law, thereby undermining our democracy. Corrupt practices such as illegal duty and tax waivers lead to mcdonalds ashford loss of revenue. Corruption drives away foreign direct investment with its consequential loss of jesus opportunities for increased government revenue, job creation and skills acquisition. It erodes efficiency, effectiveness and productivity, while promoting waste and mismanagement. The resultant inequality in The Argument Culture: society – with extreme mass poverty living side by jesus, side with islands of stupendous unearned riches – has led to frustration, hopelessness and despair, and laid the foundation for militancy and insurgency. Maus Comic Book! Corruption in Nigeria has resulted in the decay of infrastructure, a lack of social services and the collapse of the institutions to fix them.

The question then arises as to why and how Nigeria descended to become such a sorry example of a rich yet poor country. Jesus The Perfect Leader! There are many predisposing factors to corruption in Nigeria. First, there is the distortion of values and the cultural context. Maus Comic Book! In many communities, as indeed everywhere else in leader the world, material success is celebrated and emulated. In Nigeria, however, a further weakening of The Argument Rhetorical Essay values occurred somewhere down the line, eroding the traditional mechanism of checks on the illegal, primitive and ostentatious accumulation and display of wealth. Dislocation of communities and leader, urbanisation partly account for an advantage of the strategy this. Second, a strong culture of ethnicity and nepotism encourages corruption because it influences the irrational allocation of resources and the protection of culprits. Third, there is a culture of elite exceptionalism whereby high public-office holders and jesus leader, the wealthy feel that, by virtue of their status, stature or position, they are exempted from the laws and rules regulating society. Fourth, and most insidious, is the quantitative research, pervasive culture of impunity across the social strata, which is, in turn, fuelled by a legal system bedevilled by delays. The egregious culture of impunity has itself sabotaged and stultified the growth of the rule of law.

Finally, the jesus the perfect leader, single biggest contributor to corruption in Nigeria is the lack of political will among the leadership of the country in Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay the past to tackle it. There are sufficient laws in the statute books, and robust rules, regulations and clearly set out procedures throughout the public service. But the institutions established to fight corruption either lacked the desire, the capacity and drive to tackle it or were deliberately subverted or circumvented. 8.3 Proposals to curb corruption in Nigeria. Jesus Leader! To confront this challenge, we must start by showing that we have the exemplary leadership, personal integrity and demonstrable political will to do so.

Democratic governance based on individual liberties, human rights, a free press and the rule of law requires us to be fair and just in dealing with all cases of corruption. There must be transparency and a strict adherence to due process – however painstaking the acetate point, effort and jesus the perfect, however slowly the wheel of justice turns under this setting. At the same time, we must be accountable and remain faithful to our oath of office whereby we swore to do justice to quantitative all manner of people without fear or favour. We must, like Caesar’s wife, be seen at all times to be beyond reproach in order to cast the first of any stones. Thus, though not required by law, my vice-president and I began my tenure by leader, publicly declaring our assets, to be compared with our net worth on leaving office. As I noted earlier, there exists a plethora of laws, rules and regulations to ensure good governance in Nigeria. There also exist several commissions and agencies to investigate and prosecute corrupt practices. We need not create any new ones unless absolutely necessary.

We only need to strengthen, adequately fund and motivate the existing ones to do their jobs. We shall also encourage independence of action and avoidance of self-censorship by anti-corruption agencies. No one will be presented as a ‘sacred cow’ beyond the reach of the law. In the fight against corruption, citizen involvement and demand side activism are key components. Most of our people, especially those in the rural areas who are poor, ignorant and of the differentiation, illiterate, do not make the link between corruption and the perfect, their lack of access to healthcare, education and mcdonalds ashford, other facilities, even where they exist. They are too poor, too dependent and too powerless to demand accountability from their State or local governments.

We shall therefore encourage the leader, civil society, faith-based groups and community associations to challenge corruption within their communities. In this regard, we shall review our communication strategy towards a more open and transparent government by sharing information, encouraging citizen empowerment and supporting social actions to challenge corrupt practices by public officials at the federal state and local government levels. In our model of democracy, there is a clear separation of Culture: Rhetorical Essay powers between the Executive, the Legislature and jesus the perfect leader, the Judiciary. To tackle corruption, there is a need for all three to work together for a common purpose. Research Advantages! Towards this end, we are ready to engage with the Legislature and the Judiciary, state governments and all organs of government to ensure the necessary synergy towards effectively combating corruption. Jesus Leader! Early in the life of this administration, I constituted a Presidential Advisory Committee on Anti-Corruption – made up of experts and persons of integrity – to oversee our anti-corruption effort, promote the research, reform agenda of the jesus the perfect leader, Government and co-ordinate the implementation plan for anti-corruption legislation and other interventions. Among other things, the Committee will also articulate and report on strategies towards repositioning and strengthening our agencies. These include the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC), the Code of Conduct Bureau (CCB) and the Code of Conduct Tribunal (CCT), and the ways in which our criminal justice administration may be improved. Given the transnational operations of maus comic book criminals and the multi-jurisdictional effect of jesus the perfect leader corruption, we will also intensify our collaboration with the international community. This includes international anti-corruption agencies and institutions such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and other development partners. We also commit ourselves to compliance with the country’s international obligations under international treaties and conventions such as the United Nations Convention on Anti- Corruption (UNCAC) (UNODC 2015).

8.4 The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission. Two anti-corruption institutions are key to Nigeria’s anti-corruption efforts. These are the EFCC and mcdonalds, the ICPC. Jesus Leader! We are aware that both are presently not working at maximum potential owing to maus comic book a myriad of challenges, which include overlaps in mandate, gaps in leader operational legislation and funding, a human capital deficiency, leadership inadequacy and internal corruption. I believe a review of legislation is essential to reposition these institutions. For example, currently the ICPC can only Challenger begin anti-corruption investigations in leader response to petitions from the public. We want to change that, revising the ICPC Act to maus comic book increase the Commission’s powers to initiate investigations into cases of corruption (ICPC 2016). This would include: Granting the ICPC the power to commence assets forfeiture proceedings, as is the case in the US, UK and South Africa.

Illegally acquired properties may then be seized where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the ICPC by reducing areas of overlap with the EFCC, thus giving each agency areas of primary jurisdictional responsibility. Giving the ICPC power to accept material assistance from international institutions and development partners, as well as to access funds from global anti-corruption agencies, which the the perfect, present ICPC Act prohibits. Similarly, as part of the EFCC legislative review, we will focus on: Empowering the Commission to presume that a person has illegally enriched themselves where such a person owns, possesses or controls an interest in any property that cannot be justified by mcdonalds, present or past emoluments or circumstances. Streamlining the jurisdiction of the EFCC to reduce overlap with the the perfect leader, ICPC mandate. Securing the an advantage differentiation, forfeiture of leader illegally acquired properties where the suspected owner is a fugitive, disclaims ownership or cannot be located despite diligent efforts. Separating the agency for financial intelligence gathering from the EFCC. The Nigerian Financial Intelligence Unit, which operates as an arm of the EFCC, needs to be independent in order to enhance its operational autonomy. Ethyl Acetate Point! We intend to work with the Legislature to implement all these necessary reforms. It’s also critical that these two agencies charged with fighting corruption and financial crimes collaborate closely with development partners for technical assistance, staff training and data sharing.

As international co-operation continues to reduce the the perfect leader, number of havens for hiding the proceeds of Challenger crime, new havens are emerging. We need therefore to enhance the jesus leader, scope of our mutual legal assistance agreements to widen the net we cast to recover illicit funds and secure the forfeiture of unexplainable assets. Acetate Point! In this regard, the agencies will also need to jesus leader be more proactive in leveraging the Tragedy Essay, legislations of foreign jurisdictions such as the jesus, US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (US Department of Justice 2015). Indeed, there have been two recent cases involving high-profile Nigerians that show how foreign jurisdictions (to whom we are grateful) can effectively complement our national efforts to tackle corruption cases. Ashford! Pursuant to action taken by jesus the perfect, the US under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Kellogg, Brown Root pleaded guilty to paying named Nigerian officials a $180 million bribe to secure a $6 billion contract (US Department of Justice 2009). In another notorious case, all numerous counts of corruption filed against mcdonalds a former governor of a state were dismissed by a court in Nigeria only for the same politician to jesus the perfect leader be convicted in the UK – based on the same evidence! These kinds of prosecution lapses in major corruption cases arise because of the slow nature of ethyl melting point trials, especially of corruption cases, in our system. Typically, corruption trials involving high-profile public officers last an jesus the perfect leader, average of 8 to 10 years or, if they go to appeal, 15 years. In such a situation, prosecution and mcdonalds, judicial fatigue set in. It’s standard practice for senior defence lawyers to jesus the perfect leader use legal technicalities such as preliminary objections to maus comic book challenge the jurisdiction of the court, requesting stay of proceedings and appealing interlocutory or preliminary matters, or for courts to the perfect oblige the accused with injunctions (sometimes perpetual), restraining anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting the suspected persons! However, with the passage of the Administration of Criminal Justice Act (ACJA) 2015, which seeks to limit such abuses, we hope to see significant progress (Federal Ministry of Justice 2015).

The ACJA contains several innovations with the potential to significantly improve criminal justice administration in Nigeria. For example, it states that an application for a stay of proceedings shall not be entertained, that all preliminary objections shall be considered along with the substantive issues and that a ruling shall be made thereon at mcdonalds, the time of delivery of judgment. The CCB was created 36 years ago to ensure probity and accountability. This includes setting out a comprehensive code of conduct for public officers such as declaring their assets and liabilities, and those of members of their families, when they assume and subsequently leave public office. It has powers to apprehend offending public officers and arraign them before the CCT. Yet in spite of the glaring and leader, widespread corruption by political appointees and other public servants, the Bureau has hardly used its powers and, where it has, only low-level public officers have been apprehended and brought before the CCT. Lee Kuan Yew (2000), writing on corruption in his book, From Third World To First, The Singapore Story: 1965– 2000, stated that: “The most effective change we made in 1960 was to allow the The Space Shuttle Essay, courts to treat proof that an accused was living beyond his or her means or had property or income they could not explain as corroborating evidence of jesus corruption.” Nigeria has had a similar provision at paragraph 11(3) of the Fifth Schedule to the Constitution, which provides that any property acquired by a public officer that is not fairly attributable to his income shall be deemed to have been acquired in research advantages breach of the Code (International Centre of Nigerian Law [ICNL] 1999). In its 36 years of existence, the CCB has never invoked this provision. The ICPC has a similar provision within section 44(2) of its enabling Act, which it has also never invoked since its creation 15 years ago. The CCB is fundamentally hampered by the fact that there is no requirement for public officers’ asset declarations to be published.

So to lead by example, my vice-president and jesus the perfect, I voluntarily submitted our assets declaration, hoping that other members of my Government would do the same. But beyond this, the CCB simply lacks the capacity to verify the claims made in the thousands of assets forms submitted. There simply has not been the political will to fully fund or adequately staff and equip the CCB for the task. In co-operation with the National Assembly, we shall look for ways and means to make the required appropriation. Melting! We shall also seek co-operation and assistance from our development partners in the areas of computerisation of the operations of the CCB and the perfect, Land Registries, with links to the operations of the Nigerian Stock Exchange, the Securities and Exchange Commission and the Corporate Affairs Commission (our Companies Registry) to enhance and facilitate assets tracing. Already our Central Bank has implemented a biometric verification system in all banks, facilitating the verification of the identity of every account holder. Like the CCB, the CCT was established more than three decades ago. Its purpose was to adjudicate on breaches of the Code of Conduct by mcdonalds, public officers, which were referred to it by the CCB. In the absence of a functioning CCB, the CCT too has been doomed to failure, applying its powers to jesus the perfect impose sanctions – such as removal from office, bans from holding public office and the forfeiture of corruptly acquired property – only to minor cases. The Nigeria Police, like the quantitative, police everywhere, are primarily tasked with maintaining law and order. Its involvement with corruption cases and financial crimes is peripheral except in the perfect leader cases like theft.

But the potential for compromised anti- corruption operatives remains a problem across our public sector. Maus Comic Book! And the police are no exception. Indeed, Transparency International, citing the 2013 Global Corruption Barometer, stated that 92% of respondents in Nigeria felt that the police were corrupt. We are aware of jesus the perfect leader this general perception of the Nigeria Police and we shall take steps for its reform. The other institution that is critical to our ability to successfully combat corruption is the adjudicating agency or the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, Judiciary. Yet our Judiciary itself is perceived to be corrupt. As in jesus the perfect leader other areas, it’s a difficult allegation to prove. From their pronouncements, it’s clear that the leadership of the Judiciary is aware of this general perception. It cannot be swept under the carpet, especially given the odious nature of many decisions from the The Argument Rhetorical Essay, Bench.

These include granting perpetual injunctions, restraining the police and jesus the perfect leader, anti-corruption agencies from investigating, arresting or prosecuting high-profile politicians and the other examples I have already cited. Indeed, the leadership is undertaking internal measures to identify judges of unimpeachable integrity, and to have corruption cases assigned to them administratively. Differentiation Is:! They are similarly making efforts to cleanse the system by identifying compromised judges for disciplinary measures, including retirement. The discipline of judges, however, is the leader, responsibility of the National Judicial Council established by ethyl acetate, the Constitution. There have been observations about the jesus the perfect leader, Council’s composition, the mode of appointment to it and ethyl acetate melting, how to the perfect leader make it broader-based in representation. These are matters for the Judiciary to consider. Finally, we are undertaking administrative measures in the following areas to strengthen our anti-corruption crusade more generally: Addressing poor remuneration in the public service. Alongside our wider reforms of the public sector, we need to look into appropriate remuneration for some categories of civil servants.

A fresh university graduate in the public service earns about $300 a month. Unfortunately, inflationary pressures and increases in the cost of living make corrupt ways of supplementing legitimate income more attractive. Again, Lee Kuan Yew (2000) said that one of the ways he dealt with corruption in the public service was to drastically increase the salaries of the accounting officers, putting them almost on a par with similar heads of private sector organisations. While this isn’t an differentiation, immediate possibility for us, given our current economic circumstances, we do propose to finance some increases in critical functions related to public service wages, using part of the freed-up funds gained from recovered looted assets, reductions in waste and the plugging of leaks. However, there may also be need for a downward review of the jesus the perfect, emoluments, allowances and entitlements of certain public officers. We shall also reform our oil sector – which is the lifeblood but also the The Space Essay, most corruption-ridden sector of our economy. To that end, we will: Publish quarterly audits of the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation.

End the opacity in the swapping of crude oil for refined products, which has created avenues for corruption. Improve internal refining capacity with a view to ending, in 2016, the jesus, clearly unsustainable 1 trillion Naira (N) subsidy on imported petroleum products. Engender transparency in the purchase of all refined products by publishing purchases and reconciling the amounts against consumption figures. Acetate! Develop partnerships to deploy advanced technology to share data and track oil theft. Increase the participation of Nigeria in the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). Jesus! After corruption, waste and mismanagement of public funds are the biggest drains on the economy. Even before the present economic downturn, reducing them had become imperative. For years, recurrent expenditure had been at 70 - 80% of the quantitative advantages, national budget with emoluments of senior public officers being the major expenditure heads.

So there will be a significant reduction in international travel by public officers. We will ensure that public officers travel only when absolutely necessary and, when they do, there will be a restriction placed on jesus leader classes of mcdonalds ashford travel. In addition, the Federal Ministry of jesus the perfect Finance has now established an Efficiency Unit to monitor all ministries, departments and agencies. The Unit’s aim is to review all government overhead expenditures, reduce waste and promote efficiency. We shall also vigorously enforce the Public Procurement Act to ensure that due process is followed in government procurements (Bureau of Public Procurement 2012). Acetate Melting Point! Following decades of a lack of leader oversight over government revenues, receipts and income flow, we have recently reverted to constitutionalism and consolidated all government accounts into a Treasury Single Account maintained by the Central Bank of Nigeria. As a result, we are now in mcdonalds a position to monitor all receipts, expenditures and block leakages, thereby enhancing transparency and accountability in the management of the perfect government revenues, receipts and payments. We will run a leaner Government, reducing the number of acetate point ministries and reviewing the proliferation of parastatals and agencies. The Perfect! Some of these are moribund, such as the Public Complaints Commission, the 2014 budgetary allocation for which was N2.927 billion – all of it was spent on salaries. Many others are either no longer required or they perform the same or similar functions. These include the The Space Shuttle Essay, National Office for leader Technology Acquisition and ethyl melting, Promotion, with its 2014 budget allocation of N466 million to boost locally generated technology.

In the same vein, the Nigeria Information Technology Development Agency had a 2014 budget allocation of N339.01 million to develop information technology. Such agencies, with ambiguous or overlapping functions, will be progressively streamlined and merged with their main ministries or scrapped. I will conclude by jesus the perfect, reiterating that the immediate and long- term benefits of curbing corruption in mcdonalds ashford Nigeria are pretty obvious to the perfect us. Ashford! In this essay, I have put forward what some may consider over-ambitious goals. I believe in the adage that the journey of a thousand miles begins with the first step. I have the will to take this first step. And with sustained effort, we shall reach our target of freeing-up sufficient funds to accelerate the development of critical infrastructure such as railways, roads and power; invest in health and education consistent with the jesus, United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; pursue our social programmes such as skills acquisition and poverty alleviation; and ashford, create an the perfect, enabling environment for ashford the diversification of our economy, with investments in agriculture, solid minerals, petrochemicals and leader, allied industries. These outcomes will encourage local and acetate melting, foreign direct investments, job creation, and leader, reductions in poverty, crime and insecurity. An Advantage Of The Differentiation Strategy Is:! As Sarah Chayes has observed, “Corruption has helped fuel most of the serious crises the world has witnessed in the perfect leader the past decade. It swells the Analysis Essay, ranks of terrorist movements, weakens local opposition to them, facilitates their activities and hollows out militaries tasked with combating them.

It sparks angry protests that can turn into revolutions with unknown second and third order effects such as those in the Arab world in 2011” (Kirkpatrick 2015). It is therefore in our national interest, and that of the international community, to fight corruption not only within national boundaries but also globally, through concerted international action. Bureau of Public Procurement. 2012. Leader! Bureau of Public Procurement.

Available online. The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay! Ezekwesili, O. 28 August 2012. The Perfect! Corruption, National Development, the Bar and the Judiciary. Abula: 52nd Annual General Meeting (AGM) of the Nigerian Bar Association. Federal Ministry of Justice. 2015. Administration of Criminal Justice Act 2015. Available online. Greenspan, A. Maus Comic Book! 24 September 2007.

Alan Greenspan vs. Naomi Klein. Democracy Now! Available [online] (http://www.democracynow.org/2007/9/24/alan_greenspan_ vs_naomi_klein_on). Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (ICPC). Leader! 2016. The Establishment Act. Available [online] (http://icpc.gov.ng/the-establishment-act/). International Centre of Nigerian Law (ICNL).

1999. Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria 1999. Available online. Kar, D. and an advantage differentiation, Cartwright-Smith, D. 2010. Illicit Financial Flows From Africa: Hidden Resource for Development. Washington DC: Global Financial Integrity. Available [online] (http://www.gfintegrity.org/storage/gfip/documents/reports/ gfi_africareport_web.pdf). Kirkpatrick, J. 30 September 2015. Interview – Sarah Chayes. E-International Relations. Available [online] (http://www.e-ir.info/2015/09/30/interview-sarah-chayes/).

Transparency International. 2013. The Perfect! Global Corruption Barometer. Available [online] (http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013). Transparency International. 2016. Corruption by Country – Nigeria. Available [online] (https://www.transparency.org/country/#NGA). United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA).

February 2015. Track it. Stop it. Get it: Report of the High Level Pane on Illicit Finance Flows from Africa. Africa: UNECA. Available [online] (http://www.uneca.org/sites/default/files/PublicationFiles/ iff_main_report_26feb_en.pdf). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015.

United Nations Convention against ethyl melting Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online] (https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Jesus The Perfect! 2016. UNODC’s Action against Corruption and Economic Crime. Available online.

US Department of Justice. 11 February 2009. Ashford! Kellogg Brown Root LLC Pleads Guilty to Foreign Bribery Charges and Agrees to Pay $402 Million Criminal Fine. Available online. US Department of Justice. Jesus Leader! 23 September 2015.

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Available [online] (http://www.justice.gov/criminal-fraud/foreign-corrupt- practices-act). Wallis, W. 26 May 2015. Nigeria: The big oil fix. Financial Times. Available [online] (http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/be2a72de-f30f-11e4-a979- 00144feab7de.html#axzz3yeg9x1Nz) World Bank. 12 January 2016.

GDP per Capita: Nigeria and Singapore (1960–2014). Available [online] (https://goo.gl/LNl6ez). Yew, L. K. 2000. From Third World to First, The Singapore Story: 1965–2000. UK: Harper Collins. Ethyl Acetate! 9. Jesus The Perfect! President Ashraf Ghani: Driving corruption out of procurement. The moral outrage that many feel about corruption and the devastation it wreaks blinds us to quantitative advantages its pervasive nature.

But it is imperative we recognise that, in a number of countries, corruption is not an aberration within an otherwise well- functioning system of the perfect public governance. It is part and parcel of the system itself – reinforced by the fragmented nature of these countries’ governments, producing predictable, self- perpetuating costs for an advantage of the strategy is: national development. If we’re to tackle corruption effectively, we must identify and understand the systemic drivers that enable corrupt practices to thrive and reproduce. This essay argues that corruption is, at its core, a failure of individual and institutional accountability that allows officials to divert public resources from their intended uses. But if the problem to solve in leader a country like Afghanistan is a lack of accountability, the actions needed to change it must overcome the fact that the government institutions, which are expected to carry out the reforms, are themselves highly fragmented. Reforms from outside the system can make some progress, but fragmentation means that these reforms will always be partial and temporary. In fragmented systems, only strong, national political leadership can tackle corruption at its roots.

This is because only the top political leadership can look across the different arenas and of the differentiation strategy, ministries where corruption happens, in order to provide an jesus leader, effective agenda for reform. By demonstrating top commitment through positive action, even fragmented systems can build coalitions with internal and external reformers. But somebody must open the door. The countries that occupy the bottom reaches of world anti- corruption standards are frequently characterised by deeply fragmented systems of state accountability. In such countries, the government systems that should prevent corruption are the very systems used to enable it (Fund for Peace 2013). This includes core operations such as procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and ethyl melting point, justice. If the systemic character of jesus leader corruption in these fragmented administrations is not understood, reforms become a game.

Donors provide technical assistance to write anti-corruption action plans that ministries don’t implement. Anti-corruption commissions are launched and quietly dissolved; study tours to reformist countries bring a flurry of excitement before being forgotten. None of these exercises make a serious dent in the fundamental problem of institutionalised corruption, because they assume that corruption can be tackled by quantitative advantages, suppressing its symptoms and the perfect leader, they thus fail to address its structural drivers. Although some sections of the government may indeed be committed to reform, frequently they are kept there for appearances only, not to achieve any actual progress in the fight against maus comic book corruption. The Perfect Leader! To consider how we might change that, we now turn to quantitative the anti-corruption strategy being implemented in Afghanistan. 9.3 Reforming corruption in fragmented accountability systems: the case of jesus Afghanistan. Ethyl Point! By any measure, Afghanistan is jesus, one of the most corrupt countries on earth. Fifty years of ethyl near constant conflict have destroyed both social and institutional controls. The flood of money that poured into the country for reconstruction after the overthrow of the Taliban in late 2001 further fragmented and jesus the perfect, reduced its systems of accountability. When the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan took office in October 2014, we were united in our commitment to bring an end to corruption and the impunity that surrounded it.

The costs of the corruption that we inherited were more than just moral revulsion. Quantitative! They had significant effects on leader national development. The challenge we faced was introducing reforms that would work in our post-conflict environment. The departure of the international forces between 2012 and 2014 meant that the large volumes of financial support that accompanied the troops came to a sudden end. Government and acetate melting, donors agreed that the apparatus of corruption that had formed around the allocation of aid funding meant that, without reform, it would be impossible to switch into a private sector led growth strategy. Endless bribery would keep Afghanistan uncompetitive and poor. As a country threatened by both internal violence and external attacks, establishing the government’s legitimacy is vital to maintain social order. But a history of leader state corruption has undermined the citizenry’s belief that government courts could credibly dispense justice; that government police would provide order; and that government agencies would represent the public’s interests fairly, rather than just hand out licences to rich bidders (Asia Foundation 2014). 9.4 Diagnosing where corruption happens.

Just as long-distance travellers benefit from having a well-defined roadmap to reach their destination, our anti-corruption strategy began by The Argument Rhetorical, mapping out the landscape of corruption in Afghanistan. This meant a systematic review of government operations to identify where corruption occurred. We found that state-sponsored corruption was everywhere. Particular areas of concern were: Land grabbing Whereas in jesus leader traditional Afghan society and under Islamic law, clear property rights provide strong social protections, land grabbing in Afghanistan had turned property into a source of ashford discord, distrust and exclusion. As a result of land grabs, the the perfect, private sector was denied access to property for investment, while the The Argument Essay, poor were driven into substandard and insecure housing. Government appointments People widely believe that appointments to the government are secured through patronage and payment.

The Ministry of Finance informed the Cabinet that national revenue could be doubled if civil servants were not paying back the leader, costs of their appointments. Banking The Kabul Bank became the emblem for the looting of public resources. Research! Starting in 2012, forensic audits revealed that virtually all its large accounts were systematically falsified. Money was put in during audit periods and then immediately withdrawn afterwards. The cost of the Kabul Bank scandal was $850 million (the Government has recovered more than a third of this). Customs Afghanistan has always relied on customs fees. Jesus The Perfect! But deliberately weakened customs management has been a major driver of corruption. Afghanistan’s Central Statistics Office records approximately $1.1 billion in imports from Pakistan – but statistics from acetate melting, Pakistan report $2.32 billion in exports to Afghanistan (Observatory of Economic Complexity 2015).

Nor does the bribery stop at the border. Studies of transport routes reveal that over a 100-mile stretch there can be as many as 12 posts, each demanding bribes. Natural resource exploitation Afghanistan is developing the early symptoms of the resource curse, the syndrome whereby rich natural resources, which could in principle make a poor country well off, instead end up becoming a locus for corruption and the capture of jesus the perfect leader that natural wealth by Rhetorical Analysis Essay, small elites. The worst manifestation is in mining, where corrupt licensing and procurement produce rapacious and destructive mining practices. Smuggling and narcotics As with the drug trade everywhere, regional and jesus, global networks make the illicit economy a significant driver of corruption. More recently, violent and dangerous narcotics smugglers have expanded their field of activity to an advantage strategy cover human trafficking and control over irregular migration from Afghanistan to Eurasia. 9.5 Corruption, procurement and reform. There is no quick fix to jesus leader end this type of systemic corruption. However, we can see some ways forward if we look beneath the surface of where corruption happens to the processes by of the is:, which government can abet or control corruption. In Afghanistan, instead of being the systems for government accountability, procurement, financial management, recruitment, audit, legislation and the administration of justice have become the drivers that explain how corruption persists. Within a fragmented system like this, a reformist government can only turn its commitment to reform into practical action if it rebuilds those systems from the inside out.

To demonstrate how that can work in practice, the remainder of this paper will explore the Afghan Government’s efforts to reform the jesus the perfect, procurement process. At its most basic, public procurement is how the government uses competition to get the public the best value at the lowest cost. Reforming how governments go about buying goods and services may not seem an especially exciting place to start systems reform, especially when compared with high-profile prosecutions or investigative reporting and publication. But procurement lies at the heart of what governments ‘do’. Maus Comic Book! Global estimates suggest that government procurement can account for between 10% and the perfect, 30% of gross domestic product (GDP) (SELA 2015). And when public procurement is infected by corruption, the effect on government performance and value to the taxpayer is catastrophic. Procurement in Afghanistan has traditionally exhibited all the symptoms of a fragmented and corrupt system of government accountability. Forensic reviews repeatedly show a systematic rigging of competitive bidding, usually through the inclusion of non-existent companies to maus comic book give the appearance of competition when there is in fact none. For a fee, cost estimates are shared between corrupt officials and corrupt bidders. Rules to block conflicts of the perfect interest are routinely subverted by companies owned by the relatives of high-ranking officials whose only ‘business’ is to maus comic book provide access.

Not all corruption in procurement takes place behind the scenes. Threats of violence, kidnapping and bribery are used to force legitimate competitors to jesus the perfect leader withdraw or alter their bids. Officials collude with favoured companies to set technical standards that only acetate melting point they can fulfil. Corrupt practices do not end at contract negotiations. Manipulating procurement so that low-quality goods are delivered rather than the higher-quality supplies that were procured and invoiced is a pervasive practice that leads to collapsed infrastructure, massive overcharging and poor-quality services. Procurement therefore provides an acid test of whether the jesus, new Government’s commitments to acetate bring about systemic change will really be backed by political will and structural change. The Perfect! The two key reforms in the first stage of the Afghan Government’s strategy are the formation of a National Procurement Council (NPC) to differentiation strategy is: review all high-value contracts and the consolidation of construction contracts through two specialised agencies. Centralising procurement was not the only route to reform open to us, but it enabled us to tackle the the perfect leader, structural issues that allowed corruption to thrive. Shuttle Challenger Tragedy! Reforming corruption ministry by jesus the perfect, ministry was not only far beyond the limited capacities of the Government, but it would also have left untouched the underlying incentives that drove this corruption in maus comic book the first place. Only through sustained top- level oversight to the perfect create the accountability needed, combined with technical expertise, could we ever hope to change the bureaucratic culture. 9.6 Building the machinery of reform.

To underscore the top-level commitment of the maus comic book, national leadership to bring corruption to an end, the NPC is chaired by me, the President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. Afghanistan’s chief executive officer, the second vice- president and the ministers for finance, economy and justice also attend the jesus the perfect, weekly council meeting. Such high-levelparticipation is needed not just to send a symbolic message to the country at maus comic book, large, but also to present a unified front to the entrenched interests within the government itself that will resist reforms. We are supported by an Office of Procurement staffed by Afghans who have been trained in professional procurement and who have the specialised expertise needed to understand the details of bids. Because such a large share of the Afghan budget is spent on security, the Government also gets technical support from the jesus leader, NATO military command to help review military contracts. Public transparency is built into the process. Our weekly procurement review meetings include a representative of quantitative Integrity Watch (an international non-governmental organisation [NGO]), the US’s special oversight expenditure review body (SIGAR) and a rotating member of the Afghan Parliament’s Caucus on Integrity. Minutes of our meetings and jesus the perfect, all decisions are placed on an updated, publicly accessible website (Government of quantitative research advantages Afghanistan 2016), and our team provides regular briefings for journalists, donors and the Afghan media. Transparency has enabled us to begin to build trust in government. The first major test of our work came in leader the security sector.

Civil society and whistle-blowers had made serious allegations over The Argument Analysis Essay a $400 million fuel contract awarded by the outgoing Government’s Ministry of jesus leader Defence. In response to these allegations, the bid was reopened. A preliminary review found credible evidence of malfeasance. We suspended the contract and maus comic book, appointed a high-level commission of inquiry to review this and an additional nine major fuel contracts. The commission’s report revealed widespread subversion of the law. Unfortunately, a response was not going to be as simple as suspending the contract and starting over. Continuing the contract would have meant accepting the corruption. But stopping it cold would have meant leaving soldiers and police without ammunition and supplies in the middle of an intense war. This is a strong example of how corruption in procurement can have detrimental consequences for national security and the safety of our people.

Given this dilemma, what were we to do? To cut through the knot, we developed a framework whereby each contract was cancelled, then renegotiated on a sole-source basis. The results were reviewed and certified by specialists, including experts from NATO. The NPC then re-examined each case to the perfect confirm that the results met procedural and acetate, value-for-money standards, and the results were placed on its public website. The same framework is jesus the perfect, now being applied to the Ministry of Interior. Our case-by-case examination of some 900 contracts has revealed that compliance with national law and good procurement practices is the rare exception rather than the rule. NPC oversight is restructuring these bids to research advantages squeeze out the corruption and ensure that the Government receives what it pays for. Our best estimates are that this system has saved the jesus the perfect, Government at research, least $350 million in its first year of operation. Presidential hands-on management of the national procurement authority is meant to send the message to our people of the Government’s commitment to reform.

But it is also a temporary measure, triggered by the need to restore credibility. We have climbed the foothills of reform, but the jesus the perfect leader, full mountain range lies ahead. A great many technical changes are needed to ensure that, in the future, honest procurement is the rule not the exception. Now that the The Argument Culture:, political door has been opened to reform, internal and external reformers can embed a great many more changes across other government operations such as publishing contracts, benchmarking bids against known unit costs and reviewing procurement rules. Jesus The Perfect! Better oversight and detailed reviews of maus comic book processes can address corruption when and where it occurs, but it will not change the underlying structures that enable it. For that to happen, we must make the entire government system invulnerable to jesus the perfect exploitation and manipulation. This is a significant challenge for us. Tackling the reform of large-scale procurement is technically complex. It requires strong leadership but also professional expertise and experience.

Furthermore, the structure of aid partnerships in Afghanistan has meant that each ministry has built up its own project- financed wing for research procurement and construction – another example of how fragmentation allows corruption to emerge. Large development agencies such as the jesus the perfect, World Bank address this issue by deploying dozens of highly trained, highly paid specialists to quantitative research review the procurement decisions of their counterpart ministries. Afghanistan will never be able to afford an equivalent level of expertise. We need an entirely different model of how procurement happens. To build this model, the Government has started to concentrate physical construction in just two ministries, one for national public works and one a state-owned enterprise that manages government contracting. This will not only allow these two ministries to develop procurement expertise and provide proper oversight, but it will also free up other ministries to concentrate on their core functions and add real value, rather than skew them towards the activities that make money. This is how we plan to the perfect tackle a public culture that has been built around making money instead of providing service. For example, the education ministry can improve the quality of teachers and an advantage is:, student learning instead of lobbying for the perfect leader more school construction.

The health ministry can focus on ethyl acetate reducing Afghanistan’s appalling maternal mortality rates rather than dreaming about the perfect leader building ever more clinics that lack trained staff and proper supplies. The Government is not so naive as to think that reviewing contracts and concentrating construction in two central agencies alone can end corruption. Each system that increases government accountability must be rebuilt. But the progress we have made on procurement reform shows that it can be done. What comes next? Even with improved planning, clearer rules and heightened oversight, corruption will keep occurring until the likelihood of punishment reaches a level that makes officials decide that it is no longer worth the risk. Until recently, the punishment for corruption rarely extended beyond a verbal admonition. The Space Tragedy! Fiduciary oversight was in the perfect any case largely left to the donor agencies. Our next task then is to The Argument make sure that punishments fit the crimes: reform must move to the courts, the judges, the police and the prosecutors. Here we can frankly admit that progress is slower than we expected.

The Government has not been able to move as quickly on justice sector reform as it would have liked. Justice reform is particularly difficult, because a balance must be struck between maintaining the independence of the judiciary and finding ways to reform what itself has become a core driver of institutionalised corruption. But while much remains for us to jesus leader do, we are seeing improvements to the administration of justice. Government’s actions are beginning to end the regime of impunity that protected high-level culprits. In the procurement cases discussed earlier, officials who colluded with bidders were suspended and the cases for The Argument Culture: their prosecution are being prepared. Personnel actions are similarly being used to transfer officials away from jesus the perfect leader, positions susceptible to bribery. Those culprits who find judges to release them can count on having their cases reviewed by the Attorney General’s office.

But accelerating the pace of justice sector reform is clearly the Government’s next frontier. The other urgent next step is to deepen and strengthen our partnership with civil society’s anti-corruption activists. Our experience shows that, to have any real chance of success fighting corruption in a post-conflict society, top- level engagement and strong accountability are needed to signal that the necessary local and maus comic book, national will to fight corruption exists. The more that Afghanistan’s people believe that the jesus the perfect, Government is taking reform seriously, the more the Government can count on whistle-blowers and an investigative media to end the atmosphere of Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay impunity on which a culture of corruption thrives. Over time, more and more ministry decisions and actions on budgets, contracts and the perfect leader, expenditures will be made public and actively disseminated through traditional and modern media. Acetate Point! Accepting citizen feedback and monitoring must become a core part of how the government conducts its business. As with procurement, top-level leadership is needed to crack open bureaucratic resistance, after which internal and jesus, external reformers can push forward a corruption reform programme of actions. Mcdonalds Ashford! But that first step remains critical.

This paper has argued an jesus the perfect, approach for how states can achieve transformational change in of the strategy is: the fight against corruption, using procurement in jesus the perfect leader Afghanistan as an example. Firstly, it shows how top-level political commitment, an electoral mandate to end corruption and government actions can together enable a series of Tragedy practical actions to bring about national level reform. That model combines political signalling, managerial reforms, technical oversight and increasing engagement with an aware citizenry to fundamentally change a culture and systems that are facilitating corruption. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Secondly, it details how successful high-level reform strategies need to quantitative research advantages begin with the understanding that corruption is not a phenomenon in and of itself, but the result of fragmented regimes that lack accountability. During the war in Afghanistan, responsibility for jesus the perfect unprecedentedly large amounts of money fell to diverse control systems, none of which had the capacity or reach to compensate for the lack of state-managed oversight.

Overcoming fragmentation could only begin from the top. This is not the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, only route that countries can follow. The Perfect! But the Afghan Government’s procurement reforms offer many valuable lessons for how to maus comic book bring an end to corruption in development. The Perfect! Procurement everywhere accounts for a very large share of government expenditure, but in post- conflict or post-disaster countries there will always be a sudden surge of new procurement into systems without the experience to manage it. Fragmentation is built into the reconstruction process. Properly managed reform, with high- level oversight, closes down opportunities for corruption and aligns procurement designs with the institutional capacities needed to control corruption. Procurement is especially interesting, because it is an area where governments must have the maus comic book, political acumen and will to navigate the trade-offs that reform will entail. Governments cannot just stop procurement while they fix the system. As the Afghan case study shows, simply stopping the procurement of jesus leader obviously flawed fuel contracts in the middle of a war would have meant losing the war. But, because the governance structures were in place to allow for a sufficiently senior level of decision making, an quantitative, alternative arrangement could be developed. The Perfect Leader! Afghanistan has only just started implementing the fully fledged reform needed to root out corruption.

It took decades to build up a system that systematised corruption at every level. It will be many years before the Government can claim success. Melting Point! But the strategy and roadmap for reform are clear, and the first round of hurdles has already been passed. Government corruption has driven a three-decades-old conflict. Corruption has blocked Afghanistan from being self-reliant and free. And corruption has wasted a vast amount of precious resources that could otherwise have been spent reducing Afghanistan’s crushing levels of the perfect poverty. Afghanistan’s citizens voted for a Government that would have the courage and research advantages, commitment to break the cycle of corruption. We will continue to earn their trust and build a virtuous partnership for national development. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Asia Foundation.

2014. A Survey of the Afghan People. San Francisco: Asia Foundation. Available online. Fund for Peace. Rhetorical Essay! 2013. Jesus The Perfect! Fragile States Index. Washington DC: FFP Publications. Available online. Government of Afghanistan. 2016.

Administrative Office of the President – National Procurement Authority. Maus Comic Book! Available online. Observatory of Economic Complexity. Jesus! December 2015. Ashford! Country profile: Afghanistan. Available online. SELA. Leader! 2015. Public Procurement as a Tool for Development in Latin America and the Caribbean. Caracas: SELA. Mcdonalds! 10.

Prime Minister John Key: New Zealand: a culture of fair play. It says a lot about the New Zealand psyche that one of the jesus, most notorious acts in our sporting history involved an underarm cricket delivery. New Zealand needed six from the last ball to tie a 1981 one-day match against Australia when Trevor Chappell strode to melting the crease and jesus the perfect, rolled the ball down the ethyl, pitch. An orthodox delivery would have given batsman Brian McKechnie a fair chance. The underarm version did not. Jesus The Perfect! There was an uproar, which, as you can probably tell, still smarts to mcdonalds ashford this day. The reaction might have been outsized, and I have no doubt Chappell is sick of jesus the perfect leader hearing about it, but it was telling.

The ploy went against an advantage of the differentiation strategy is: one of the jesus, most intrinsic aspects of our national character – a sense that we all deserve a fair crack and that we must do what is right. It is ingrained in our psyche – we are a fundamentally honest people. It is an attitude that flows through our home lives, our working lives and our public institutions, and it has helped us be recognised consistently as one of the an advantage is:, world’s least corrupt countries. As we know, corruption undermines trust in democratic institutions, businesses and markets. It is jesus leader, a corrosive force, which – at its worst – diminishes faith in the rule of ashford law. All of jesus this impacts on economic and social development, distorting the playing field, making it harder for fair-minded people to prosper and for a country to support its most vulnerable. New Zealand is uniquely placed to protect itself from corruption and to work with its neighbours to combat it in their countries. We are a multicultural, outward-looking trading nation of just 4.5 million people, a long way from the markets where we sell our goods and services, and reliant on Culture: Essay the rule of the perfect law in the places we sell them to. In order to prosper, we have always needed not just to be good at what we do but also to melting point be honest in how we do it.

10.1 Our constitutional arrangements. We have built our legal and constitutional settings around our sense of fair play, enshrining it through more than 170 years of case law and the perfect, political practice. So, while it is based on the Westminster system, our unwritten constitution has evolved in a pragmatic way. We tend to ashford fix things when they need fixing, ‘without necessarily relating them to any grand philosophical scheme’ (Constitution Arrangements Committee 2005). The Perfect! And there is The Argument Culture: Rhetorical, a strong sense that it operates effectively because of jesus our sense of fairness. A good example of that is our ongoing recognition of the historical injustices perpetrated on Maori by the Crown through land seizures, Treaty of Waitangi breaches and other injustices (Ministry of mcdonalds Justice 2016a). The Treaty of Waitangi is a founding document of New Zealand. It was intended to ensure peaceful progress in New Zealand where all parties’ rights and interests are respected (Ministry of Justice 2016b).

But the Treaty was not always honoured by the Crown. The Perfect! Successive governments have endeavoured to acknowledge those injustices through the return of land and resources, and through the delivery of apologies on behalf of the Crown. Today this process takes place largely with near-universal public and mcdonalds, political support, because it is the right thing to do. It is jesus, this same embedded sense of fair play that makes it difficult for corruption to maus comic book take hold in New Zealand. Jesus Leader! New Zealand’s public institutions have grown and evolved in an environment that does not tolerate underarm deliveries from its politicians, public servants or private sector. Rhetorical! As Prime Minister, I am particularly well aware of that. I am regularly held to account not just in Parliament and in the media, but by everyday New Zealanders who are never shy to tell me of any issue that they have with my Government’s performance. That is the perfect leader, how it should be.

As elected officials and as public servants, we are beholden to the public and The Space Shuttle Tragedy, are expected to regularly account for the perfect leader our actions. New Zealand’s highly professional public service is Rhetorical, expected to leader act in accordance with the law, to be imbued with the spirit of service to the community and to advantages give free and frank advice to ministers. The public service is politically neutral. That neutrality means that the Government, Parliament and the public can trust advice given by officials. Merit-based appointments, made on the recommendation of the State Services Commissioner, help ensure that senior public servants do not owe their jobs and their loyalty to any politician or political party. This culture, which has been enshrined in law, ensures that even as governments and ministers change, a professional body of experts is jesus, always on hand to deliver on the agenda of the elected government.

10.2 Scrutiny of government action. As is often said, the best disinfectant is sunlight. As part of the gradual improvement of Challenger Tragedy Essay our institutions, successive governments have taken steps to increase and entrench the transparency of the public sector. In 1982, the then National Government passed the Official Information Act, dramatically changing assumptions about leader government information. The law means that ministers and officials have to provide any official information requested unless there is ashford, a compelling reason not to (Ministry of leader Justice 2015a).

While there is always a degree of tension about Challenger Tragedy where the line should be drawn, the oversight of the Office of the Ombudsman ensures that openness is maintained. Jesus! (New Zealand was the first country outside Scandinavia to establish this role.) Recognising that there were significant weaknesses in the way information on the state of the government’s finances were reported, the then Labour Government passed the Public Finance Act in 1989. This requires government to operate transparently and provide regular public reporting of its accounts (Ministry of maus comic book Justice 2015b). For the past 25 years, this legislation has ensured that governments present an accurate picture of the public finances and the perfect, the fiscal consequences of their policies. As Prime Minister, I have taken steps to ensure greater transparency by, for example, proactively publishing details of spending on ministerial credit cards. The Space Shuttle Challenger! Ministers and departments are also giving greater thought to proactively releasing more information for public scrutiny. New Zealand has a range of independent bodies set up to audit and deal with allegations of corruption and misconduct.

The Independent Police Complaints Authority (IPCA), the Judicial Conduct Commissioner (JCC) and the Office of the Ombudsman all have broad powers to investigate and report on the perfect leader the conduct of maus comic book public officials. These bodies are well known and jesus leader, well used with 2,515 complaints to the IPCA alone last year (IPCA 2015). This independent oversight helps maintain public trust in our institutions, with 78% of New Zealanders surveyed reporting that they have trust and The Argument Essay, confidence in the police (Gravitas 2015). Jesus The Perfect Leader! Serious and mcdonalds, complex allegations of corruption in the public or private sector are investigated by a specialist group called the Serious Fraud Office (SFO). The Perfect! The Director of the SFO has complete independence when it comes to operational decisions, while the SFO and New Zealand Police work closely together in the fight against fraud and corruption, and ensure that specialist knowledge and expertise can be used and information shared. The police and SFO are further enabled by legislation, which ensures that all of New Zealand’s bribery and corruption offences apply both domestically and extra- territorially (Ministry of Justice 2013). This means that the quantitative research advantages, SFO can bring a case against jesus the perfect leader New Zealand citizens, residents and companies for acts of bribery and corruption that occur wholly outside of New Zealand. Another important aspect is a free and independent press. As Prime Minister, I front the media almost every day, sometimes several times, on issues of the day. Questions will range from the performance of my Executive and MPs, to New Zealand’s position on international affairs and domestic policy, to what I had for breakfast. My Government is an advantage is:, well aware of the importance of the perfect leader fronting up, and of the fact that our media and the public would expect nothing less.

They demand accountability and answers. The upshot is that I, along with other ministers, am forced to defend every decision and mistake we make and Culture: Rhetorical Essay, every dollar we choose to spend or save. Colleagues and staff are aware of what is expected of me and I have no doubt that they have no interest in seeing the Prime Minister having to defend an issue that they have caused. There is an assumption across all levels of government that a mistake or any level of dishonesty will always be found out. While mistakes happen and will usually be forgiven by jesus, reasonable people, corruption and cover-ups are never tolerated. 10.3 New Zealand’s support for anti-corruption in the Pacific region. Given the clear benefits that a low-corruption environment can have on economic growth and quality of governance, fighting corruption has been a key plank of New Zealand’s international development policies. An Advantage Of The Strategy! As the only country outside northern Europe to regularly feature at the top of Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI), we are well placed to assist other countries in fighting corruption (Transparency InternationaI 2015).

We are particularly focused on making progress in our own neighbourhood. Jesus Leader! New Zealand has especially close historical and cultural links with Pacific Island countries and we have a strong commitment to working with them to build stronger governance frameworks and to promote sustainable economic and social development. While auditing doesn’t sound like a glamorous nation- building activity, it is mcdonalds, a critical part of ensuring that governments are spending public money responsibly and effectively. New Zealand is working with Pacific Island countries to ensure that they complete regular and leader, timely financial audits of public accounts to help improve transparency and accountability. The number of audits completed in Pacific Island countries over the past five years has more than doubled (PASAI 2015). Promoting the importance of accountability in the eyes of the public has led to growing awareness of the role of auditing in holding government institutions to Culture: Rhetorical Analysis account.

More public office holders are being held to account for their misconduct and misuse of public funds (PASAI 2015). A high standard of public accountability is a critical element in preventing a culture of corruption from developing or taking hold. As we know from our own experience, when the public won’t tolerate corruption and have an jesus the perfect, expectation that their officials will be held to account, those in positions of power are less likely to abuse it. So the higher the maus comic book, standard of probity and accountability that figures in authority are held to, the more likely we are to prevent corruption and to detect and prosecute it when it occurs. Corruption is far more easily prevented and detected when a country has modern and transparent financial management systems. The New Zealand Aid Programme supports a series of initiatives in co-operation with our Pacific partners, designed to enhance economic governance (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). That work is helping to jesus the perfect strengthen border management systems and levels of accountability in a key area of revenue collection (Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat 2016). New Zealand also provides support to Samoa, Kiribati and the Cook Islands, linked to reforms including improvements to public finance systems, better public procurement, stronger and more independent audit, and greater accountability and oversight of state-owned enterprises. Further support has assisted Samoa and the Solomon Islands to reform and modernise their revenue systems (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015b). Together with Australia, we have also provided joint funding for the Pacific Ombudsman Alliance to boost the effectiveness of Pacific Island Ombudsman offices. This has increased their ability to investigate complaints of maladministration by those in the public sector (Walter and Gordon 2013).

Pacific leaders also recognise the crucial role that civil society has to play in fighting corruption with advocacy, education and community-focused outreach. For close to a decade, the New Zealand Aid Programme has provided support to TI chapters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. Our support has focused on efforts to improve the culture of mcdonalds ashford transparency through initiatives such as ethics training for law enforcement agencies (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2015a). Sustainable economic and social development is almost impossible without capable and independent courts and the perfect leader, law- enforcement agencies. These give people confidence that the law is ethyl melting, enforced fairly and jesus the perfect leader, free from political influence. Accordingly, we are assisting our Pacific Island neighbours to strengthen their courts and ethyl melting point, police services.

Five years ago, we began supporting the Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP) with Australia. This is focused on the perfect strengthening the professional competence of Pacific Island judicial officers and the court systems they use (PJDP 2015). This work has contributed to more transparent decision making and maus comic book, enhanced judicial leadership. As a result of New Zealand’s support, 12 Pacific Island countries are now producing publicly available annual court reports. It has also helped to improve judicial knowledge and skills to address family violence and youth justice issues. New Zealand provides ongoing mentoring for Pacific judges, and funding to attend judicial conferences and other training opportunities through the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund (JPPF) activity (JPPF 2016). New Zealand also sends a number of its own judges on request to preside in courts across the Pacific – for jesus instance, in Vanuatu (Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade 2016). The integrity and capability of police services are critical to maintaining the rule of quantitative research advantages law.

The overwhelming majority of New Zealanders have tremendous respect for our police because we know they can be trusted to jesus leader treat us fairly and in accordance with the law. New Zealand Police have been invited by a number of Pacific police services to provide technical services to their Pacific counterparts (New Zealand Police 2015). New Zealand Police provide training and mentoring across the Pacific in an advantage of the strategy prosecutions, community policing, human rights, ethics, leadership and road policing. These kinds of interventions build public trust in the police and add to a culture of service, which is the front line against corruption (New Zealand Police 2015). Jesus Leader! New Zealand’s reputation for fairness colours the interactions with our police deployed overseas. They carry their professionalism into foreign operations and we find they are welcomed and ethyl melting point, respected.

This ensures that the the perfect leader, work they are deployed to do is undertaken to a very high standard. As a country with solid anti-corruption foundations and a long history of assisting our neighbours in building their own anti-corruption capacity, the most significant risk we face is ethyl melting point, complacency. While we currently suffer low levels of corruption, we need to proactively seek out and address potential vulnerabilities before corrupt practices can take hold. With that in the perfect mind, in Culture: Rhetorical 2014, the leader, Government moved to address a weakness in our companies’ registration laws. These changes will prevent overseas criminals from Rhetorical, using New Zealand’s registration systems to create shell companies (Parliamentary Counsel Office 2015). Jesus Leader! We also draw on the expertise of civil society and ethyl acetate point, the private sector in the fight against corruption. The Serious Fraud Office (2014) worked with TI New Zealand and Business New Zealand to deliver free anti-corruption training, which teaches participants how to prevent bribery in their businesses and comply with anti-bribery laws. Recognising the importance of sport in our culture and the huge scope for corrupt sporting practices, we passed a law in 2014 to specifically criminalise match-fixing (New Zealand Parliament 2014). The new law provides that manipulation of sporting activities with intent to influence a betting outcome is jesus the perfect leader, a criminal activity.

Vigilance and enforcement by the authorities have also increased in recognition of the growing nature of this threat. Preventing the damaging effects of corruption should be a critical priority and responsibility for any government. Politicians and public servants have to focus on Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay building and maintaining strong, independent institutions to guard against corruption, as well as promoting a culture that makes it close to impossible for corrupt individuals to prosper or escape detection. As a country, we take great pride in our track record. Jesus The Perfect! But we know we must remain committed to an advantage is: ensuring that corruption does not gain a foothold, and open to views on how to prevent it. As a small part of an increasingly connected international community, we must be open to sharing our successes and our failures in order to stamp out corruption for good. Constitutional Arrangements Committee. 2005. Jesus! Inquiry to quantitative research advantages Review New Zealand’s Existing Constitutional Arrangements: Report of the Constitutional Arrangements Committee. Wellington: New Zealand House of Representatives, p.12. Gravitas Research and Strategy Ltd.

2015 (updated 2016). Jesus The Perfect Leader! New Zealand Police Citizens’ Satisfaction Survey. New Zealand: Gravitas, p.4. Available online. Independent Police Conduct Authority (IPCA). 2015. Annual Report 2014–2015. Wellington: IPCA, p.4. The Argument Essay! Available online.

Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Jesus! 2016. Welcome to ethyl acetate melting point the Judicial Pacific Participation Fund. Available [online] (http://jppf.org.nz/welcome/). Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015a. New Zealand Aid Programme Strategic Plan 2015–19. The Perfect! Available online.

Ministry of Rhetorical Analysis Essay Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2015b. Jesus The Perfect Leader! New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade – Annual Report 2014–15. Available online. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. 2016. Aid Partnership with Vanuatu. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our- work-in-the-pacific/vanuatu/). Ministry of Justice. 2013.

Relevant Anti-corruption Legislation. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/publications/global- publications/s/saying-no-to-bribery-and-corruption- 2013-a-guide-for-new-zealand-businesses/relevant-anti- corruption-legislation). Ministry of Justice. 2015a. Official Information Act 1982. Available online. Point! Ministry of Justice. 2015b. Public Finance Act 1989.

Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016a. Waitangi Tribunal. Available online. Ministry of Justice. 2016b. Leader! The Treaty of Waitangi. Waitangi Tribunal. Available [online] (http://www.justice.govt.nz/tribunals/waitangi-tribunal/ treaty-of-waitangi).

New Zealand Parliament. 2014. Crimes (Match-fixing) Amendment Bill. Available online. New Zealand Police. 2015. International Service Group. Available online. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat. Quantitative Advantages! 2016. Oceania Customs Organisation Secretariat.

Available [online] (http://www.ocosec.org/). Leader! Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions (PASAI). 2015. Annual Report for Year Ended 30 June 2015. Available online. Pacific Judicial Development Programme (PJDP). 2015. The Programme. Maus Comic Book! Available online. Parliamentary Counsel Office. 2015.

Companies Amendment Act 2014. Available [online] (http://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2014/0046/latest/ DLM4094913.html). Serious Fraud Office. 10 June 2014. Helping New Zealand’s Fight Against Corruption. Available online. Transparency International.

2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. Walter, G. and Gordon, J. 2013. Independent Review of the jesus leader, Pacific Ombudsman Alliance. Available [online] (https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/aid-and-development/our-approach-to-aid/evaluation-and-research/evaluation- reports-2013). 11. Culture: Rhetorical Analysis! Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong: Success in combating corruption – views on jesus the perfect the Singaporean experience. Quantitative Advantages! Corruption is a scourge that can never be tolerated.

Countries have tried all ways to combat it. They create anti-corruption agencies. They pass strong laws. Jesus The Perfect! They promulgate codes of conduct for public officials. Companies pledge to conduct business cleanly. Yet often corruption remains endemic, a cancer in the society. How then has Singapore achieved some measure of success in eradicating corruption? I put it down to four factors.

First, we inherited a clean and working system from the British colonial government. We had many compelling reasons to want to end colonial rule and to be masters of our own destiny. But to their credit, the British left Singapore with a working system and sound institutions – English laws, a working Civil Service, and an efficient and honest judiciary. Importantly, the Colonial Service officers upheld high standards. People like Sir William Goode, our last Governor and first Head of State, had a sense of duty and stewardship. After Singapore, Goode served as Governor of North Borneo, now the state of Sabah in Malaysia. He left an impression in North Borneo, as in Singapore.

Even a generation later, the people of Sabah still remembered him fondly. Second, when the British left, our pioneer leaders were determined to keep the system clean. The People’s Action Party (PAP) first came to power in 1959, when Singapore attained self-government. However, it was by no means a no- brainer for the PAP to fight to win the maus comic book, 1959 General Election. The country faced a myriad of problems: poverty, poor public health, an acute housing shortage, a stagnant economy and an exploding population. Did the PAP want to jesus leader inherit these overwhelming problems? Why not become a strong opposition party, and Culture: Rhetorical, let another party govern and fail?

In the end, what decided the issue for Mr Lee Kuan Yew, our founding Prime Minister, and his team, was the overriding need to prevent the the perfect leader, public service from going corrupt. One term of an incompetent, corrupt government and an advantage differentiation strategy is:, Humpty Dumpty could never be put together again. So the PAP fought to win and formed the Government. When they took their oath of office, Mr Lee and his PAP colleagues wore white shirts and white trousers. Jesus The Perfect! It symbolised their determination to keep the Government clean and incorruptible. That set the ethyl melting point, tone for Singapore ever since. Third, with strong political will, we institutionalised a robust, comprehensive anti-corruption framework that spans laws, enforcement, the public service and public outreach. We enacted the Prevention of jesus Corruption Act (PCA), which puts the burden of proof on the accused to show that he or she acquired their wealth legally.

Any unexplained wealth disproportionate to known sources of income is presumed to be from graft and can be confiscated. The PCA provides for extra-territorial jurisdiction, so that the actions of Singaporean citizens overseas are treated the same as actions committed in Singapore, regardless of whether such corrupt acts have consequences for Singapore (Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau 2016a). Our anti-corruption agency, the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB), is well resourced and independent. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (CPIB 2016b). Melting Point! We pay public servants fair and realistic wages benchmarked to private sector earnings and, in jesus return, demand the highest standards of Culture: Essay integrity and performance.

Fourth, we have over time developed a society and culture that eschews corruption. Singaporeans expect and demand a clean system. They do not condone giving or accepting ‘social lubricants’ to get things done. They readily report corrupt practices when they encounter them. Singaporeans trust that the law applies to all and that the Government will enforce the laws without fear or favour, even when it may be awkward or embarrassing. Businesses have confidence that, in Singapore, rules are transparent and fairly applied. The story is told of a businessman who visited Singapore from an Asian country used to jesus the perfect different operating norms. He left puzzled and disturbed that he could not discover the going rate for bribes to point officers at jesus the perfect, different levels of government. He concluded wrongly that the prices must be very high!

Singapore has achieved some success eradicating corruption, but we are under no illusions that we have permanently and completely solved the problem. Corruption is driven by human nature and is:, greed. However strict the rules and tight the system, some individuals will sometimes still be tempted to transgress. When they do, we make sure they are caught and severely dealt with. Two years ago, we charged an Assistant Director from the CPIB itself with misappropriating (S)$1.7 million.

We keep our system clean not just for ourselves, but also to jesus the perfect uphold our international reputation. Shuttle Tragedy Essay! Thus we deal strictly also with those who use financial institutions in Singapore to launder money or transact ill-gotten gains from corruption. We are zealous in protecting the integrity of jesus leader our financial centre and business hub. There is a Chinese proverb: ‘If the top beam is askew, the bottom beams will be crooked.’ Keeping a system clean must start at the very top. Ethyl Acetate Point! A Singapore armed forces officer, on jesus leader a course overseas, was once asked by his classmate how Singapore kept its system clean.

He explained our arrangements and the central role of the CPIB. His classmate asked a follow-up question: but to whom does the CPIB report? The Singaporean ingenuously replied that the CPIB reported directly to the prime minister. This elicited further puzzlement. Much later the Singaporean understood why. The real question he was being asked was, who guards the guardian? There is no formula to solve this ancient riddle, but we are determined to uphold the highest standards of integrity from the top level of the Government down. In 1996, rumours spread that Mr Lee Kuan Yew and I had received improper discounts on property purchases.

The Prime Minister, then Mr Goh Chok Tong, ordered a full investigation, which found that there had been nothing improper. He brought the issue to Parliament, which held a full debate lasting three days (Parliament of Singapore 1996). Both Mr Lee and I spoke. In his statement Mr Lee Kuan Yew said, “I take pride and satisfaction that the question of Rhetorical Analysis Essay my two purchases and those of the Deputy Prime Minister, my son, has been subjected to, and not exempted from, scrutiny … It is most important that Singapore remain a place where no one is jesus leader, above scrutiny, that any question of integrity of ethyl acetate melting point a minister, however senior, that he has gained benefits either through influence or corrupt practices, be investigated” (National Archives of Singapore 1996). The Perfect! Trust is slow to build, but fast to lose. We have spent more than 50 years building up confidence in Singapore. The integrity of the Government, the system and the men and women in charge has been key to strategy Singapore’s success. Leader! We are determined that that integrity and reputation must never be undermined and will long remain a competitive edge and a source of pride for differentiation Singapore. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB).

2016a. Prevention of Corruption Act, Singapore. Available online. Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau (CPIB). The Perfect Leader! 2016b. About CPIB. Available online. National Archives of Singapore. 21 May 1996.

Statement by Senior Minister Lee Kuan Yew Nassim Jade and an advantage of the differentiation is:, Scotts 28. Available online. Parliament of Singapore. 21–23 May 1996. Jesus! Purchase of Properties by Senior Minister and Deputy Prime Minister BG Lee Hsien Loong (Statement by The Argument Analysis, the Prime Minister). Available online. 12. Jim Yong Kim: How to tackle corruption to jesus leader create a more just and prosperous world. Corruption poses an enormous obstacle to international development and mcdonalds ashford, the global goal of ending extreme poverty. 21 Using public power for private gain is also unjust. It denies resources to the poor, undermines the delivery of services to leader the vulnerable and weakens the social contract, leading to exclusion, instability and conflict.

I am committed to fighting corruption, because it is the right thing to do and mcdonalds ashford, because it is jesus leader, critical to achieving the World Bank Group’s twin goals of maus comic book ending extreme poverty by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity for the poorest 40%. More than 50 years of development experience has taught us that we can achieve these targets through inclusive growth, investing in people’s health and education and insuring them against risks, such as unemployment or illness, which threaten to plunge them into poverty. But wherever corruption occurs, pursuing this strategy becomes more difficult. In the Philippines, for example, corruption prevented the construction of high-quality roads in some areas, making it harder for the perfect leader goods to get to market and harming growth, incomes and job creation (World Bank 2011; Procurement Watch 2009). In Sierra Leone, it stopped some mothers from immunising their infant children, because nurses demanded rice in exchange for ‘free’ shots (World Bank 2012). In India, many poor people received less financial support from workfare initiatives because officials pocketed the proceeds (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Some countries have experienced growing inequality and lost billions of dollars for public services because of corruption, undermining their very foundations.

In Tunisia, former President Ben Ali and his extended family amassed an estimated fortune of $13 billion after a quarter century in power. This amounted to more than a quarter of Tunisian gross domestic product (GDP) in 2011, the year he stepped down in Tragedy response to mass protests. There were also 220 domestic companies – responsible for at jesus, least 21% of the country’s net private sector profits – connected to the family of the President, who had enacted regulations that gave them unfair economic advantages (Rijkers, Freund and Nucifora 2011). During my tenure at the World Bank Group, I have seen that corruption affects countries regardless of development status and is often an mcdonalds ashford, international operation. According to some estimates, businesses and individuals pay between $1.5 trillion and $2 trillion in bribes alone each year (Kaufmann 2015). This is about ten times the value of overseas development assistance or approximately 2% of global GDP. Both domestic firms and multinational corporations make payoffs to public officials in exchange for access to the perfect commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group and others have dedicated substantial effort to understanding and acetate, monitoring corruption, and developing experience and knowledge of how to tackle the problem. In 1996, at our annual meetings, one of my predecessors, James D. Wolfensohn, delivered a ground-breaking speech on the ‘cancer of corruption’. He seized the opportunity to take on jesus leader an obstacle to The Argument Rhetorical Analysis reducing poverty that we, and others, had largely failed to address (Wolfensohn 1996).

Since that time, the World Bank has taken a new approach. We have invested in anti-corruption programmes in more than 100 countries. In 2007, we adopted an organisation-wide governance and anti-corruption strategy, which we updated in the perfect 2012. Today our global practices for Governance, and mcdonalds ashford, Finance and Markets, as well as our independent integrity group, spearhead work to share with clients our knowledge and experience in fighting corruption, though all parts of the organisation take responsibility for jesus fighting misconduct. The bedrock of our work must be a commitment to zero tolerance for corruption in our operations. Melting Point! Last year, the World Bank Group committed grants and loans amounting to approximately $56 billion to support projects, programmes and policies critical to reducing poverty and inequality in developing countries. Close scrutiny of jesus the perfect leader how these funds are spent and sanctions for their misuse are critical to an advantage differentiation strategy ensuring that corruption does not undermine the intended outcome, whether it is raising farmers’ crop yields or improving students’ reading, writing and arithmetic skills.

Working with developing countries, we assess project and loan plans for corruption risk, closely supervise activities and build in monitoring mechanisms, including hotlines to report misconduct. When alleged wrongdoing takes place, our independent integrity group investigates and takes vigorous action if it confirms corruption. We have excluded firms and individuals that engaged in jesus the perfect misconduct from receiving contracts that we financed and compelled the return of misused financial support and the cancellation of contracts associated with tainted transactions. Last year, these efforts rooted out misconduct in connection with 61 projects worth more than $500 million (World Bank 2015). In one case, we uncovered that officials had defrauded a public administration reform project of $21 million using fake companies and invoices. Our investigation has led to the recovery of stolen funds and the Government’s prosecution of its officials. Even with these successes, we understand that fighting corruption requires constant vigilance and that misconduct takes many forms and adapts to new opportunities. Still, evidence suggests that there are effective ways to make misconduct more difficult, punish wrongdoing, increase officials’ public accountability and change attitudes toward corrupt behaviour, especially among public servants and those who influence them. These actions, which I outline below, are helping countries make critical development strides, including building better roads, improving access to education and ethyl acetate, medicine, and providing the poor with sufficient support from jesus, social safety nets. Mcdonalds! 12.1 Fight corruption and increase accountability through greater transparency. Jesus Leader! Experience shows that providing citizens with access to information about government operations and public servants’ assets can be an The Argument Culture: Essay, effective way to prevent officials from abusing their power when avenues exist to jesus leader make authorities answerable to the public.

In 1997, the Ugandan Government found that schools did not receive 80% of their allocated funding because local officials diverted the support. Officials responded by ethyl point, publishing in local newspapers each school’s allocation, empowering administrators and parents to demand that these transfers reach their schools. The Perfect Leader! By 2001, schools reported receiving 80% of these allocations. A subsequent study concluded that the amount of The Argument Analysis Essay funds that local officials diverted correlated to the distance of a school from a major town where there was a newspaper outlet (Reinikka and Svensson 2011). Making transparent the flow of royalties and other financial transactions between governments and corporations can also reduce corruption, especially in jesus leader oil, gas and mining operations. There are 31 countries, including many in Sub-Saharan Africa, that disclose all payments and receipts from oil, gas and mining operations as part of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI).

All 49 EITI member countries have committed to disclosing data on licences, contracts, production and an advantage differentiation strategy, other key operational aspects of natural resource extraction. The information that EITI distributes enables citizens and good government groups to monitor authorities’ relationships with extractive companies and hold officials accountable. In Nigeria, information that EITI published showed billions of dollars in underpayments by companies and their agents, sparking government efforts to recover missing funds to bolster public finances (EITI 2014). Disclosing information in connection with EITI has correlated with reduced perceptions of corruption among businesses in several countries, including Peru, where indicators for abuses of public power dropped by jesus the perfect, 14%. Greater confidence in maus comic book good governance makes companies more likely to the perfect undertake the long-term investments necessary for The Space Shuttle Tragedy natural resource extraction, suggesting that transparency contributes to economic growth, job creation and leader, higher incomes. 12.2 Use new technologies to maus comic book increase scrutiny. Evidence suggests that new, inexpensive ways of verifying identities and executing payments using digital technology can reduce the the perfect leader, impact of corruption on public service delivery to the poorest. Shuttle Essay! In India, for jesus the perfect leader example, some of its large social welfare programmes suffered from ineligible beneficiaries receiving payments and officials taking a cut of, or delaying, payments meant for the poor. An Advantage Differentiation! To combat these problems, the government distributed smartcards based on the country’s biometric identification system to 19 million needy villagers in connection with the $5.5 billion National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme. This substantially reduced the role of officials in the payment process, lessening the jesus, opportunities for research advantages misconduct.

After two years, research showed that, when compared to other programme beneficiaries, smartcard recipients received 35% more money and obtained payments almost 30% faster (Muralidharan, Niehaus and Sukhtankar 2014). Technology has also helped promote accountability among public servants and government contractors. In Pakistan, inspectors from some local education departments were failing to perform their duties to confirm teacher attendance in schools (Joseph 2015). The Perfect Leader! Now they must take geo-tagged pictures of themselves on the job, which has proved to be an effective way to hold the inspectors accountable for countering instructor absenteeism. Rates of teacher attendance – above 93% in 2015 – have increased every year since the programme began and school-monitoring information is available to the public at http://open.punjab. gov.pk/schools.

In Mindanao, a conflict-riddled region of the Philippines, geo-spatial tracking and an advantage of the strategy is:, digital photography have contributed to timely construction of roads (Sta Ines 2014). Previously, security concerns limited inspections in the region, making it difficult to stop contractor non-performance. But now data and evidence of road construction in the Philippines is publicly available at www.openroads.gov.ph. The Perfect Leader! Transportation infrastructure has improved, promoting the distribution of goods and economic activity. 12.3 Get citizens and companies involved. Initiatives that enable people and organisations to work with public officials to change how they deliver services have been shown to reduce corruption substantially. In the Dominican Republic, a participatory approach has increased people’s access to medicine and reduced wasteful public expenditure. Research! Until 2012, most medical facilities in the country purchased medicines without effective oversight, paying prices for drugs that were, on average, 722% higher than those at a small number of jesus leader government-run pharmacies.

Patients were forced to absorb these high costs, because medicine buyers were receiving kickbacks from maus comic book, private suppliers (National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit 2013). In 2010, public officials, citizen groups, the private sector and others formed the the perfect leader, Participatory Anti-Corruption Initiative. This forum allowed them to work together to tackle corruption and take on powerful interest groups in many areas, including medicine procurement. By 2014, reforms in this area had lowered prices, improved medication quality and yielded savings of $27 million compared to the previous year. Public spending on drugs was reduced by 64%. Participatory governance also helped people in poor rural villages in Indonesia fight the high level of corruption under the Suharto Government that was a major factor in an advantage strategy cutting off their communities from public services and economic opportunities. In the late 1990s, a new programme empowered these villagers to direct public funding to their chosen infrastructure projects, promoting inclusive growth and helping to increase household consumption by more than 10%. Community oversight and financial audits have been critical to the efficient expenditure of leader $3.6 billion on infrastructure, including the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical, construction of jesus 100,000 km of rural roads, 17,000 small bridges and 40,000 clean-water systems, and the building or rehabilitation of 43,000 schools and health clinics. Crucially, the programme’s integrity and impact have established a constructive relationship between communities and public authorities, bolstering stability (Government of Indonesia 2012). 22.

12.4 Take on corruption at ethyl acetate melting, the global level. A comprehensive approach to tackling corruption needs to complement the domestic actions outlined above with cross- country collaboration to identify and prosecute misconduct and close loopholes that promote the use of public power for private gain. At present, developed and developing countries are not co-operating sufficiently to end the international catalysts for misconduct, with harmful consequences for leader developing countries’ fiscal wellbeing and development. International trade in merchandise has increased by more than 500% over the last 25 years. Research Advantages! Trade as a share of world GDP has increased by half over the perfect leader this period, from 40% in 1990 to about 60% today. As economic activity has become more globalised, so has corruption.

Assets obtained through official misconduct are transferred abroad and the smuggling of illegal goods and even people is The Space Challenger Essay, widespread. Jesus The Perfect Leader! New avenues for wrongdoing have expanded the number and kinds of participants involved in corruption, which now encompass counterfeiters, pirates and armed groups. Greater global trade has also created new opportunities to counter misconduct as more jurisdictions can take action to interfere with corrupt cross-border activity. Under the maus comic book, United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC), developed and jesus the perfect, developing countries that have signed the accord are obligated to work with other countries to prosecute misconduct and assist with the return of ethyl acetate stolen assets (UNODC 2015). Still, in countries afflicted by significant corruption, prosecutors are often unable to investigate and punish wrongdoing because of political interference or ineffectiveness. Countries with more independent and leader, robust legal systems can help. Legislation such as the UK’s Bribery Act 2010, the US’s Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and Brazil’s Clean Company Act give prosecutors the acetate point, authority to leader pursue individuals or corporations who pay off foreign officials.

In 2010, BAE Systems paid $400 million to the US Justice Department and ?30 million to the UK Serious Fraud Office to settle bribery allegations arising out of the mcdonalds, sale of equipment to Tanzania. The UK Department for International Development used some of the perfect leader these funds to melting point refurbish classrooms in, and provide teaching materials to leader Tanzanian primary schools in co-ordination with national authorities (Gray, Hansen, Recica-Kirkbride and of the strategy is:, Mills 2014, p. 6). Jesus! Other countries’ punishment of the cross-border laundering of corruption’s proceeds is also important to maus comic book making misconduct less lucrative. The Perfect Leader! In 2014, for example, Teodoro Obiang, the son of Equatorial Guinea’s long-time leader, was forced to pay $30 million to settle US Government allegations that he had used money stolen from his country to buy a California mansion, a Ferrari and Michael Jackson memorabilia (US Justice Department 2014). Acetate Melting Point! Prosecutors’ willingness to use their powers to pursue foreign corruption is having a substantial impact on misconduct. Increasing legal liability for engaging in bribery or money laundering forces firms to ensure that neither their employees nor their contractors’ employees engage in corruption. Jesus The Perfect! The cost of fines, reputational damage and lost business opportunities can be substantial.

In 2008, Siemens AG agreed to pay $1.6 billion to the US Government and establish a $100 million anti-corruption fund at the World Bank Group to settle charges that it paid bribes to maus comic book public officials in connection with its international business (World Bank 2009). Domestic firms that show they comply with anti-corruption requirements create a competitive advantage as trusted partners for global supply chains and are likely to see an leader, increase in commercial opportunities. The World Bank Group provides advisory services to help firms establish anti-corruption policies, yet more must be done to provide information to potential partners so that investments in compliance and ethical business practices become a source of competitive advantage and profit. Culture:! Sharing information among countries is also critical to tracking, investigating and prosecuting misconduct. However, many countries’ laws make it difficult to provide ownership information across national jurisdictions, preventing investigators from tracing cross-border asset transfers and identifying their beneficiaries. Jesus The Perfect Leader! In addition, some still have bank secrecy laws or permit opaque corporate structures that create safe havens for the proceeds of corruption. The Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative, which is a partnership between the mcdonalds ashford, World Bank Group and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), is working to remove these obstacles to investigation and prosecution by proposing law and policy changes, providing expert advice on jesus leader bringing cases and fostering co-operation across jurisdictions. International co-operation is also vital to reducing illicit international trade, a scourge in its own right and a source of bribes to customs officials. Human trafficking destroys people’s wellbeing and promotes crime and point, instability.

Trade in products resulting from jesus leader, illegal logging, fishing and hunting often damages the environment and economic growth. In Kenya, for of the strategy example, outlawed commerce in jesus ivory and ashford, endangered species has significantly harmed the tourism sector (UNWTO 2015). Countries can fight illegal trade and the corruption it creates by making information on customs payments and jesus, the value of trade among them readily available. Rhetorical Essay! Governments can also pass laws that force companies and countries to prove the legitimacy of jesus the perfect leader their products now that technology enables the easy creation of a chain of custody for mcdonalds goods through the use of microchips and satellite tracking. The Perfect! Enforcing restrictions that make illegally sourced products unsellable eliminates the incentive to bribe officials. Harmonising cross-border trade rules related to maus comic book customs, taxation and other fiscal matters can also reduce the economic benefit of a variety of corrupt activities. For example, when regional trade partners impose similar duties on goods such as tobacco and the perfect, gasoline, smuggling becomes less profitable, reducing bribery.

When governments empower companies to Challenger Essay extract their countries’ natural resources, some of these corporations exploit differences in how countries tax corporate profits to reduce their tax burden through practices such as abusive transfer pricing, which fraudulently shifts the location of profits to jurisdictions where tax rates are lower. Other large firms use their economic power to secure tax concessions and licences from weak governments. Even though these behaviours can deprive poor countries of resources critical to their development, we have little ability to stop them because our understanding of leader their scale and dynamics is poor. Quantitative Advantages! When political elites collude with firms to jesus the perfect rig these government licences and regulations to their benefit, public officials also create a business climate that favours politically influential firms, stifling competition, slowing innovation and reducing economic growth. The World Bank Group is ethyl melting point, working at multiple levels to make international trade less vulnerable to this kind of illegitimate activity. In co-operation with the United Nations (UN) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), we are helping governments crack down on abusive transfer pricing using a toolkit that enables authorities to jesus the perfect evaluate companies’ tax reporting, especially in the extractives sector. With the International Monetary Fund (IMF), we have established an initiative to help developing countries strengthen their tax systems, which will help make collection more efficient and policies fairer, and improve authorities’ ability to detect tax evasion. Analysis suggests that, with balanced tax systems, many lower-income countries can increase revenues from an advantage is:, 2% to 4% of GDP (IMF 2011).

Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. Despite these efforts, corruption remains a serious obstacle to development. Corruption can inhibit inclusive growth and job creation, stand in the way of new mothers and infants living healthy lives and prevent the vulnerable from receiving the social assistance they need. Government authority must be used for public good – not private gain – if we are to fulfil our responsibilities as public servants and achieve our development goals. The World Bank Group is fully engaged in developing solutions that are equal to jesus leader this challenge. As its President, I am committed to ensuring that our own policies and practices align with fighting corruption. The organisation is sharing the best global knowledge of what does and does not work to stop misconduct, from transparency and incentives to collective action and ashford, partnerships. Jesus The Perfect! We are helping countries take on corruption at the international level so they set rules that make it easier to maus comic book trace assets and share information across jurisdictions, identify and prosecute corruption wherever it takes place, and promote fair and honest global competition. Still, the jesus the perfect, international community must do more across all of these areas. For example, we must produce comprehensive information about cross-border financial activities such as tax evasion, smuggling and of the, trafficking in stolen goods and money laundering. Governments must evaluate the effectiveness of their anti-corruption efforts based on their work’s impact on the perfect leader contributors to differentiation strategy economic growth and jesus, development, such as the quality of public services, social safety nets and the investment climate.

We must fight corruption in communities, countries and globally. I strongly support leaders’ efforts to take on entrenched interests that force the poor to pay bribes or waste public resources. I will praise the maus comic book, courageous anti- corruption work of governments and their partners publicly and the World Bank Group will continue to help finance these efforts. Jesus The Perfect! We are committed to supporting bold actions, because the use of public power for private gain is morally wrong and, as the evidence shows, prevents the poor from reaching their full potential. There can be no doubt: tackling corruption is critical to creating a more just and The Space Challenger, prosperous world. Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI). 2014. Nigeria: Recovering Missing Payments, EITI Progress Report 2014: Making Transparency Matter. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Norway: EITI.

Available online. Government of Indonesia. 2012. The Space Shuttle Tragedy! PNPM Rural Impact Evaluation April 2012. Jakarta: PNPM Support Facility. Gray, L., Hansen, K., Recica-Kirkbride, P. and Mills, L. Jesus The Perfect Leader! 2014. Few and Far: The Hard Facts on is: Stolen Asset Recovery.

Washington DC: The World Bank, OECD and UNODC, p. 6. International Monetary Fund – Fiscal Affairs Department. 2011. Revenue Mobilization in Developing Countries. International Monetary Fund, pp. Jesus The Perfect! 1–85. Available online.

Joseph, M. S. 2015. MIT Technology Review (Pakistan): Pakistan takes the lead in the neighbourhood. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2015. Corruption Matters. Ethyl Melting Point! Finance Development. International Monetary Fund. September 2015, pp. 20–23.

Available online. Muralidharan, K., Niehaus, P. and Sukhtankar, S. 2014. Leader! Building State Capacity: Evidence from Biometric Smartcards in India. National Bureau of maus comic book Economic Research (NBER). Working Paper No. The Perfect! 19999, pp. 1–53.

Available online. National Pharmaceuticals Management Unit (UNGM), Directorate for Regional Health Service Development and Strengthening. 2013. Technical Report: Baseline Study of the Challenger Tragedy, Status of the Supply of Medicines and Medical Supplies in Specialized Health Care Centers in the Dominican Republic. Dominican Republic: UNGM. Olken, B. Jesus The Perfect! 2007.

Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia. Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200–248. Procurement Watch Inc (PWI). 2009. A Study of The Space Challenger Tragedy Anti- Corruption Initiatives in the Philippines’ Construction Sector. Pasig City: PWI. Available online. Leader! Reinikka, R. and Svensson, J. 2011. The Power of Information in Public Services: Evidence from Education in maus comic book Uganda. Journal of Public Economics, (95), pp.

956–966. Rijkers, B., Freund, C. and Nucifora, A. 2011. All in the Family: State Capture in Tunisia. Policy Research Working Paper 6810. World Bank, pp. 1–46. Available online.

Sta Ines, N. The Perfect! 2014. Geotagging in Isolated Areas, Philippines. In: S. Lippman, ed. Procurement for Complex Situations Challenge – Competition Winners. Washington DC: World Bank, pp. 1–5. United Nations – Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Acetate Point! Available online.

United Nations – World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). Leader! 2015. Towards Measuring the an advantage of the differentiation, Economic Value of Wildlife Watching Tourism in Africa. Spain: UNWTO. US Justice Department. 10 October 2014. Second Vice President of Equatorial Guinea Agrees to Relinquish More Than $30 Million of Assets Purchased with Corruption Proceeds. Available [online] (https://www.justice.gov/opa/pr/second-vice-president- equatorial-guinea-agrees-relinquish-more-30-million- assets-purchased). Wolfensohn, J. D. 1 October 1996.

Annual Meetings Address. [online]. Available online. The World Bank. 2 July 2009. Siemens to jesus pay $100m to fight corruption as part of WBG Settlement.

Available [online] (https://star.worldbank.org/corruption-cases/sites/ corruption-cases/files/Siemens_World_Bank_Settlement_ WB_PR_Jul_2_2009.pdf). The World Bank, Integrity Vice Presidency. 2011. Curbing Fraud, Corruption, and Collusion in quantitative advantages the Road Sector. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2012. Legal Vice Presidency Annual Report FY 2012: The Framework for Accountability within the World Bank.

Report No. 75111. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online. The World Bank. 2015. Jesus! The World Bank Group Integrity Vice Presidency Annual Update, Fiscal Year 2015. Washington DC: World Bank. Available online.

13. Christine Lagarde: Addressing corruption – openly. Traditionally, public officials have been somewhat nervous about discussing corruption openly. Over the past several years, however, I have been struck by the extent to which world leaders are now willing to talk candidly about this problem. An Advantage Of The Differentiation Strategy Is:! It is not just that the economic costs have become self-evident. It is also because there is an increasing demand for change. In a recent global survey, corruption was regarded as the ‘topic most frequently discussed by the public’, ahead of jesus the perfect poverty and unemployment (survey cited by Klitgaard 2015, p. 15). Given that both poverty and ethyl acetate melting, unemployment can be symptoms of chronic corruption, my view is that the priority given to this problem by the public is jesus the perfect leader, entirely justified. In this essay, I would like to share the IMF’s perspective on the economic impact of corruption and our experience in helping countries design and implement strategies to address it.

I recognise that there are many possible definitions of of the differentiation is: corruption, both broad and narrow. For the purposes of this essay, which is focused on jesus the perfect leader the public sector, corruption includes any abuse of public office – whether it arises from ethyl melting point, financial incentives or political interference. I would like to make three main points. Jesus Leader! First, while the Shuttle Tragedy, direct economic costs of corruption are well known, the the perfect leader, indirect costs may be even more substantial and debilitating, leading to low growth and greater income inequality. Corruption also has a broader corrosive impact on of the is: society. It undermines trust in government and erodes the ethical standards of jesus leader private citizens. Second, although corruption is an maus comic book, extraordinarily complex phenomenon, I do not accept the proposition – or the myth – that it is primarily a ‘cultural’ problem that will always take generations to address.

There are examples of countries that have managed to make significant progress in jesus the perfect addressing it in a relatively short time. Third, experience demonstrates that a holistic, multi- faceted approach is needed – one that establishes appropriate incentives and the rule of law, promotes transparency and introduces economic reforms that reduce opportunities for The Space Challenger Essay illicit behaviour. Perhaps the most important ingredient for a successful anti-corruption approach is the development of strong institutions, centred on a professional civil service that is sufficiently independent from both private influence and political interference. 13.1 The economic and social costs. Corruption afflicts countries at all stages of development. Jesus Leader! Indeed, some developing countries score better on corruption indices than many advanced countries. While there are no recent studies that quantify the overall global scale of corruption, a sense of how big a problem it is can be gauged from an estimate of the amount paid in bribes every year. A recently updated estimate points to $1.5 trillion to $2 trillion (or around 2% of global gross domestic product [GDP]) in bribes paid annually in both developing and developed countries. 23 Given that bribes are just a subset of all of the possible forms of corruption, the overall cost of corruption – in terms both of tangible losses and of lost opportunities – is a very high amount. Shuttle! The direct economic costs of corruption are easily recognised by the general public.

Two very clear examples are bribes given in order to evade taxes or to bypass public tender procurement. The first example results in jesus the perfect leader a direct loss of public revenues; the second may result in both higher public expenditure and lower-quality public investment. Corruption has a pernicious effect on the economy. Pervasive corruption makes it harder to ashford conduct sound fiscal policy. Jesus The Perfect! For example, in data covering a range of countries, we find that low tax compliance is positively associated with corruption. By delegitimising the tax system and its administration, corruption increases tax evasion: if the granting of a tax exemption is an advantage of the differentiation strategy is:, perceived to be the jesus leader, product of a bribe, it is not surprising that the public are far less willing to comply with the Analysis, tax laws. 24.

Corruption also undermines certain types of public expenditure to the detriment of economic performance. For example, it is associated with lower outlays on jesus the perfect education and skewed public investment, driven by the capacity to generate ‘commissions’ rather than by economic justification (Mauro 1998). 25 The distortion in public investment spending is particularly harmful given the importance of promoting efficient public investment as a means of reducing infrastructure gaps and Culture:, promoting growth. The indirect economic costs of corruption may be even more consequential. 26 Clearly, causation is jesus the perfect leader, difficult to establish and, in quantitative analysis, a significant effect of corruption on growth has not been found (Svensson 2005).

Nevertheless, in comparative studies of national data, corruption is associated with a number of key indicators. Countries with low per capita income tend to have higher corruption and acetate point, countries with higher corruption tend to have lower growth. Studies have identified different ways in which corruption could affect growth. First, corruption tends to impede both foreign and domestic investment. The higher costs associated with corruption are a form of tax on investment that, in turn, translates into less investment in jesus the perfect business research and development and product innovation.

Moreover, by creating uncertainty as to how the quantitative advantages, regulatory framework will be applied, it increases the ‘country risk’ associated with a particular investment project. 27 More generally, corruption generates an the perfect, unfavourable business climate in Challenger which the creation of new enterprises is stifled, reducing the economy’s dynamism. The Perfect! 28. Culture: Analysis! Second, corruption undercuts savings. The illegal use of leader public funds to acquire assets abroad shrinks the economy’s pool of savings that could otherwise be used for investment. Finally, corruption can perpetuate inefficiency. Because an quantitative research, over-regulated economy provides opportunities for regulators to demand bribes, corruption creates a strong incentive to delay economic liberalisation and innovation. The impact of corruption on social outcomes is also consequential.

Social spending on education and health is typically lower in corrupt systems. This, in turn, leads to higher child and infant mortality rates, lower birth-weights, less access to education and higher school dropout rates (Gupta, Davoodi and Tiongson 2002). These outcomes disproportionately affect the poor, since they rely more heavily on government services, which become more costly due to the perfect leader corruption. Moreover, corruption reduces the income-earning potential of the poor as they are less well-positioned to take advantage of it. For all these reasons, corruption exacerbates income inequality and poverty (Gupta, Davoodi and Alonso-Terme 2002). Corruption also breeds public distrust in government. It undermines the mcdonalds ashford, state’s capacity to raise revenue and to perform its functions as a supplier of public goods and services, regulator of markets and agent for society’s redistributive goals. Where powerful business elites collude to jesus the perfect leader control public institutions, corruption results in state capture and the ‘the privatisation of public policy’. The fallouts are all too clear: higher inequality in political influence, deterioration of public values and, ultimately, a diminution in the overall quality of life. These non-economic costs create a vicious cycle of underperformance in the public sector that is harmful to the economy in the long term.

The moral fabric of society is also put at risk. It is not just that bribery becomes part of one’s everyday life. In a society where success is more likely to depend on who you know rather than on ethyl acetate melting personal merit, the jesus the perfect, incentives for young people to pursue higher education are undermined. 13.2 Strategies for addressing corruption. Given the potential impact of The Space Shuttle corruption on macroeconomic stability and sustainable economic growth, the IMF has been actively engaged in helping our members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. The Perfect Leader! In 1997, the Fund adopted a policy on governance that provides guidance on the nature of its involvement in circumstances where issues of governance, including corruption, are judged to have a significant macroeconomic impact. Since that time, we have gained considerable experience in helping members design and implement anti-corruption strategies. This is particularly important in the context of economic crises, where effective anti-corruption measures are critical to quantitative advantages restore confidence. In some cases, the problem has been so severe that the Fund had no choice but to withhold support until a credible reform strategy was in jesus place. Clearly, any anti-corruption strategy must be tailored to the circumstances of the particular country. Yet we have found that success requires the mcdonalds ashford, existence of a number of mutually supporting features, which are briefly summarised here.

13.3 Creating the right incentives. As has been noted by one expert in this area, “Corruption is an the perfect leader, economic crime, not a crime of an advantage of the passion. The Perfect! Givers and takers of bribes respond to incentives and ethyl, punishments” (Klitgaard 2015, p. 37). A number of instruments – broadly characterised as disciplinary in nature (sticks) – can enhance individual accountability. Other instruments provide positive reinforcement (carrots). The Fund’s experience is that an effective anti-corruption approach needs both positive and deterrent measures.

Strengthening the rule of law is jesus leader, critical to increasing individual accountability. The Fund has taken an active role – including through its conditionality – to strengthen legal frameworks that are designed to ashford increase such accountability. For example, Ukraine’s current Fund-supported programme provides for the enhancement of legislation in a number of areas, including, in particular, the jesus the perfect leader, law on corruption. The Argument Rhetorical Analysis! However, unless legislation is effectively enforced, it will not be credible in jesus leader deterring corruption. Without effective law enforcement institutions – the police and maus comic book, other investigatory services, the the perfect leader, public prosecutor’s office and, ultimately, the courts – even the most robust legal framework will be ineffective.

So, the greatest challenge arises when corruption has permeated society to the point that these institutions themselves have become compromised. In these cases, it may be necessary to create specialised ‘bridging’ institutions in the hope that they can more effectively fight corruption, including in the traditional law enforcement institutions, while broader institutional reform is implemented. Maus Comic Book! These ‘bridging’ institutions include independent anti-corruption commissions and specialised anti-corruption courts such as those currently being established in Ukraine and the earlier ones in Indonesia (IMF 2015b; IMF 2004). In this context, the Fund has found that the establishment of the perfect Anti-Money Laundering Frameworks is central to the fight against corruption. Requiring banks to report on suspicious transactions provides a very effective means of deterring criminal activities. The fact that these laws generally require even closer scrutiny of quantitative transactions conducted by ‘politically exposed persons’ (PEP) makes them particularly relevant to an anti-corruption strategy. Beyond the enforcement measures discussed above, an effective anti-corruption policy must also rely on transparency.

Transparency shines a spotlight on government decisions and transactions, enabling citizens to monitor the actions of their governments which, in turn, deters corrupt behaviour. The Perfect Leader! Publicising instances of corruption and the efforts taken to address them also serves as a disincentive to melting point engage in the perfect leader corrupt activities and shores up public trust in government. Advantages! For these reasons, the Fund has been actively engaged in promoting greater transparency in the overall economic and regulatory environment. We have developed standards and codes of best practices in areas such as data dissemination, fiscal transparency and monetary and financial policies (IMF 1997). 29 Promoting transparency in jesus the perfect the extractive industries is The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, another area that the Fund has actively pursued in its technical assistance work. Under the aegis of the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI), a template is jesus leader, now available for reporting and monitoring government revenues from Rhetorical Essay, natural resources. Transparency can only go so far. It needs accountability for it to the perfect become a powerful deterrent against corruption. The Argument Analysis! It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Moreover, oversight mechanisms are needed to ensure that officials and institutions are delivering as expected.

This is why the Fund has actively supported its members in strengthening those institutions that exercise oversight powers in the management of public funds and in jesus leader enhancing the financial accountability of state-owned enterprises. It has also provided technical assistance to help members monitor the maus comic book, use of public resources and consolidate extra-budgetary funds into the budget. Even well-meaning public officials will be tempted by corruption if they cannot earn a living wage. Research shows a correlation between increases in jesus leader wages and improvements in a country’s ranking on the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) (Van Rijckeghem and Weder 2002). This is why Fund- supported programmes have sometimes included increases in public salaries as part of an anti-corruption approach (IMF 2006). That said, there are two critical considerations. An Advantage Of The Differentiation! First, the remuneration of the public sector needs to be transparent and meritocratic; otherwise, it will be perceived as merely an instrument of political patronage. Second, studies show that an increase in remuneration will have little effect unless accompanied by clear signals that public officials will lose their jobs if they are caught engaging in corrupt acts. Jesus The Perfect Leader! 13.4 Economic liberalisation and Culture: Analysis Essay, effective regulation. As I have indicated, one of the costs of corruption is that regulators seeking bribes through approval processes have an incentive to delay the type of economic liberalisation that fosters sustainable growth. Wherever discretion is granted to an official regarding the approval of an leader, economic activity, there is a risk that this discretion will be abused.

Appropriately designed liberalisation can therefore be a powerful anti-corruption instrument. As part of its core mandate, the Fund has been actively engaged in encouraging liberalisation of trade, price and financial systems. Of The Strategy Is:! We have also advocated free and fair market-entry regulations, as well as good statistics and transparency. Importantly, where liberalisation involves privatisation, it is critical that safeguards – such as adequate and jesus leader, transparent procedures – are in place so that the sale of assets is not compromised by corruption. Of course, experience demonstrates that regulation in a market economy is essential for both sustained growth and financial stability.

The challenge, however, is to design regulatory frameworks that balance the benefits of regulation while minimising opportunities for abuse of discretion. 30 For this reason, in its core areas of expertise, the The Space Shuttle Tragedy Essay, Fund has promoted the adoption of the perfect rules, procedures and criteria that are as targeted, clear, simple and transparent as possible. These areas include public expenditure management, tax policy and administration, banking and foreign exchange systems, and data management (IMF 1997). 13.5 The role of the private sector. When people complain about corruption, they sometimes forget – perhaps conveniently – that for every bribe taken by a public official, one is given by a member of the private sector. Clearly then, addressing the behaviour of the ethyl, private sector needs to be a key component of any effective anti- corruption strategy. Jesus Leader! How can this be done? In some cases, this means using enforcement measures. For example, in those countries where bribery is a common way of facilitating foreign investment, it is critical that the country of the foreign investor enforces laws that prohibit foreign corrupt practices. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Convention on Combating Bribery of differentiation strategy Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions can be invoked in jesus leader this effort (OECD 1997).

However, experience also shows that the private sector can become effective partners in combating corruption. It is sometimes said that business might benefit from corruption by virtue of the fact that it can ‘grease the wheels’ of a rigid and inefficient bureaucracy. I disagree with that proposition. Based on my own experience, investors actually seek out countries that can give them the quantitative, assurance that, once an investment is made, they will not be blackmailed into the perfect providing bribes. Shuttle Challenger! Because corruption creates an enormous amount of unpredictability for businesses, anti-corruption strategies can be designed to solicit their support. I find Indonesia’s experience of implementing that partnership particularly illuminating.

At a recent seminar hosted by the IMF on the topic, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Indonesia’s former Minister of Finance (and currently Chief of Operations at the World Bank), described how she successfully partnered with businesses to jesus the perfect provide a streamlined customs approval process in exchange for their commitment not to offer any bribes to officials – ‘new rules of the game’. 31. The ‘new rules of the game’ concept has underpinned several technical assistance activities by the Fund and the World Bank. In reforming tax agencies in Bolivia, Bulgaria, Indonesia, Myanmar, Peru, Poland and Senegal, Large or Medium Taxpayers’ Offices (LTOs and MTOs) were established to deal with a select group of ethyl acetate melting taxpayers under streamlined conditions. Beyond the jesus the perfect leader, business community, civil society also has a role to play. Through the use of quantitative research social media, civil society can become a powerful force in combating corruption. In addition to being a very effective means of the perfect leader monitoring government activities, social media can also greatly enhance the credibility of an The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, anti-corruption campaign by linking new institutions that have a specific mandate in this area. 32. 13.6 Building values and institutions. When dealing with corruption, a robust framework of incentives and a well-calibrated economic liberalisation cannot be substitutes for strong values and effective institutions. Of course, developing values at a personal and institutional level may seem beyond the jesus leader, control of any government.

It is clearly not something that can be legislated. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work – and their independence from both political and private influence – all other efforts will fail. Building values among public officials requires sustained public education. Formal training can help but, ultimately, values are most effectively instilled through the education framework, societal pressure and – as I will discuss further below – the example of leaders. The key objective is to mcdonalds develop a cadre of public officials who are – and are perceived to the perfect leader be – independent from both private influence and political interference. Shuttle Challenger Essay! This is the single most important feature of a strong institution. Indeed, it has been noted that one way to assess the strength of an institution is to assess the extent to which key employees are replaced at the time of elections. There are other factors that lend support to the perfect effective operation, some of The Space Tragedy which – such as rules that establish transparency and the perfect, clear accountability – have already been mentioned. An area in which the Fund has been particularly active is the establishment of legislative and institutional frameworks that strengthen the independence, integrity and governance of central banks, including through the Fund’s ‘safeguards assessments’.

A recent example has been work in of the strategy Tunisia in support of the Central Bank, which strengthened its independence, internal control mechanisms and the perfect leader, powers. Maus Comic Book! Of course, enhancing the overall technical competence of officials who work in these institutions is also critical. For this reason, the jesus leader, Fund has invested considerable resources in Rhetorical capacity-building in a broad range of areas, from public finance management to the perfect leader the strengthening of the financial intelligence units, that are responsible for applying anti- money laundering laws. Research Advantages! Developing professional institutions that do not become excessively politicised is critical. Yet the irony is that in circumstances where institutions have been completely compromised by corruption, active and sustained political will is essential.

Powerful vested interests can only jesus the perfect be effectively challenged when a country’s top leadership sends a clear signal that they are committed to do so. In some cases, this may require wholesale dismissals within an agency that has a reputation for corrupt practices. Ethyl Point! Prosecuting the jesus the perfect, powerful ‘big fish’ – which is necessary in order to send a clear signal of commitment and change – can only be achieved if a country’s leaders visibly support the process. Moreover, political leaders play a unique role in setting an example of professional integrity. Shuttle Challenger Tragedy! Lee Kuan Yew is leader, a leader who was very effective in both signalling a zero- tolerance policy towards corruption and building competent institutions at a time when corruption was pervasive in Singapore. Although active and sustained political leadership is critical to the success of any anti-corruption campaign, it is important that reforms in this area are not hijacked to implement a political agenda. Research Advantages! One way of assessing whether anti-corruption efforts are credible is to note whether enforcement is limited to the prosecution of political rivals, or instead also extends to the government’s political supporters. The Perfect Leader! In addition, care should be taken to ensure that an anti- corruption campaign does not create such fear that public officials are reluctant to perform their duties. For example, in circumstances where state-owned banks have extended a loan to a company that has become insolvent, it is often in the interest of the bank, the debtor and the economy more generally to maus comic book restructure the loan (which might include principal write-downs) in a manner that enables the company to return to viability. Yet the Fund’s experience has been that, in some countries, the managers of jesus leader state-owned banks are simply afraid to engage in such negotiations.

They fear that, if they agree to any debt write-down, they will be prosecuted under the country’s corruption law for having wasted state assets – even though a restructuring might actually enhance the value of the bank’s claim relative to the alternative, the liquidation of the The Space Essay, company. The Perfect Leader! Finally, although regulatory reform can promote simplicity and automaticity, there are certain functions, such as bank supervision, where discretion will always be essential. For these reasons, regulatory reform cannot be a substitute for the development of effective institutions. As the head of an intergovernmental organisation, I recognise that there may be considerable sensitivity about the IMF shining a spotlight on The Space Essay corruption. At the same time, the alternative – turning a blind eye to the problem – is not a viable option. As is recognised under its existing policies, it is not tenable for the IMF to assess a member’s economic prospects exclusively through the lens of monetary, fiscal or financial sector policies, when the problem of corruption is endemic and has a major impact on economic performance.

In such cases, the Fund will continue to engage constructively with its members in designing and implementing anti-corruption strategies, drawing upon its cross-country experience, while partnering with other international organisations that have proven expertise in this area. Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Alonso-Terme, R. Jesus! 2002. Does Corruption Affect Income Inequality and Poverty? Economics of Governance, (3), pp. The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay! 23–45. Available online. Jesus! Gupta, S., Davoodi, H. and Tiongson, E. 2002. Corruption and the Provision of Health Care and Education Services.

In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 245– 279. Available online. IMF. 2 July 1997.

The Role of the an advantage of the strategy is:, Fund in Governance Issues – Guidance Note. News Brief, No. 97/15. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2004. Legal, Judicial and Governance Reforms Indonesia. Indonesia: Selected Issues, IMF Country Report No.

04/189. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2006. Islamic Republic of Mauritania: 2006 Article IV Consultation – Staff Report. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. 2015a. Current Challenges in Revenue Mobilization.

Washington DC: IMF. IMF. 12 March 2015b. Ukraine – Request for Extended Arrangement. IMF Country Report No. 15/69. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. IMF. The Perfect Leader! 2015c.

Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation. Country Report No. 15/32. Washington DC: IMF. Available online. Kaufmann, D. 2005. Myths and Realities of Governance and Corruption. Acetate Point! Washington DC: World Bank, pp.

81–98. Available online. Klitgaard, R. 2015. Addressing Corruption Together. Paris: OECD. Available online. Mauro, P. Jesus The Perfect Leader! 1998. Corruption and the Composition of Government Expenditure.

Journal of mcdonalds Public Economics, (69), pp. 263–279. Available online. OECD. 1997. Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. [online]. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. Svensson, J. 2005.

Eight Questions about Corruption. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 19(3), pp. 19–42. Available online. Van Rijckeghem, C. and Weder, B. 2002. Bureaucratic Corruption and the Rate of Temptation: Do Wages in the Civil Service Affect Corruption and by How Much? In: G. T. Jesus! Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance.

Washington DC: IMF, pp. 59–88. An Advantage Of The Differentiation Strategy! Available online. 14. Angel Gurria: How to battle 21st-century corruption. Over the last two decades, we have made great progress in the perfect leader taking the fight against corruption to the highest global and political levels. Many governments have strengthened their anti-corruption regulations, enforcement capacity and wider governance. Several high-profile corruption cases have seen justice served. The international community has increased its support for anti-corruption programmes around the maus comic book, world. The Perfect! And today there are various multilateral anti-corruption conventions in place at the global and regional levels, together with numerous non-legally binding international and regional initiatives.

The OECD, working closely with its partners, has been prominent in this fight: setting standards across a range of areas from foreign bribery to public sector integrity, as well as on related issues such as tax evasion and bid rigging. And these initiatives have made a difference. Yet despite this progress, we’re still not winning the bigger battle against corruption. Recent scandals involving national leaders and major corporations, the ongoing investigations into the sports sector, and the growing threat of terrorism and its links to corruption, also remind us that we need to do more, much more. At the OECD, we believe that corruption’s harmful effects on Culture: Analysis Essay growth, equality and jesus the perfect, trust are too big to ignore, and make tackling corruption not only a moral imperative but also an economic, social and political necessity. Shuttle Essay! Corruption allows for the financing of wars; it helps to smuggle people, guns and drugs; it channels public and private funds into illicit activities; and it undermines collective action against climate change and poverty. Furthermore, because of increased global interconnectedness, the mechanisms and vehicles of corruption are becoming more sophisticated and difficult to trace. In this essay, I argue that, to deal with corruption and leader, the devastation it causes, the international community must build coherent systems that focus on all stages of the Analysis, anti-corruption process from jesus leader, prevention to detection and enforcement and, at the same time, ensure effective implementation by both governments and corporations. And we must boost global collaboration by fully engaging all countries – in the developed and the developing world – in the fight against corruption.

14.1 Significant progress has been made on tackling transnational bribery. Not so long ago, transnational bribery was considered a regular part of business and bribes were treated as a tax-deductible expense. In 1999, the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions entered into force. The Convention made it illegal for acetate citizens and businesses of signatory countries to bribe foreign public officials while doing business abroad and our work continues to ensure it is fully effective (OECD 1997). As such, the OECD Working Group on the perfect Bribery has established a rigorous monitoring and evaluation system to ensure that governments stick to their commitments (OECD 2015a).

The private sector and civil society play an integral role in the group’s activities, providing input to regular consultations and the on-site visits that form part of a country’s evaluation. Maus Comic Book! The Convention has helped governments to push the fight against bribery up the jesus the perfect, agenda. Many of the 41 countries that make up the OECD Working Group on Bribery (which comprises all OECD countries and seven non-OECD countries) have made radical changes to their laws and institutions to Shuttle Challenger Tragedy comply with the jesus the perfect, Convention. One of the most recent and successful examples is the acetate point, UK Bribery Act 2010, which entered into force in 2011. Between 1999 and 2014, 361 individuals and 126 companies were sanctioned for leader foreign bribery in 17 countries (OECD 2014). At least $5.4 billion was imposed in combined monetary sanctions and 95 people put behind bars (OECD 2014).

The 2014 OECD Foreign Bribery Report showed that, among the 427 foreign bribery cases concluded, almost two- thirds of cases occurred in just four sectors: extractive (19%); construction (15%); transportation and storage (15%); and information and an advantage, communication (10%). In the majority of cases, bribes were paid to jesus obtain public procurement contracts and, in around half of The Space Shuttle Tragedy Essay cases, management or CEOs were involved (OECD 2014). As of the perfect leader December 2014, there were 393 ongoing investigations into alleged acts of Tragedy Essay foreign bribery in 25 of the countries party to the perfect the Convention and, even as I write, new cases are being brought to light (OECD 2014). The OECD has also developed guidelines for multinational enterprises, which are addressed by governments to enterprises operating in, or from, adhering countries. These provide non-binding principles and mcdonalds, standards for responsible business conduct in a global context. Our National Contact Points (NCPs) assist stakeholders, including businesses, to take appropriate measures to implement the guidelines and provide a mediation and conciliation platform when difficulties arise (OECD 2011). For example, two non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in Cameroon recently brought a case to jesus the NCP in the United States, alleging that a company had not observed the guidelines on combating bribery. The US NCP offered mediation to help the parties involved achieve a mutually agreeable resolution. In June 2015, the company agreed to a request from the NGOs to maus comic book investigate past cases of corruption and take action against jesus any acts of corruption (US Department of State 2015). Of course, the best way to combat corruption is to an advantage of the differentiation strategy prevent it from happening altogether.

The OECD has developed specific tools to help drive this shift in behaviour, such as the OECD (2015b) guidance for managing responsible supply chains in the mineral industry across conflict or high- risk areas. This provides, among other things, measures to mitigate the risk of bribery by companies and recommends indicators for measuring improvement. In response, major industry associations have developed initiatives to implement these recommendations, with a specific focus on the gold, tin, tungsten and tantalum sectors. As a result, industry audit programmes designed to implement the due-diligence guidance now cover 90% of the refined gold, 95% of the smelted tantalum and 75–85% of the smelted tin produced every year (OECD 2015c). The Governments of jesus the perfect Burundi, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda have all integrated these initiatives into of the differentiation strategy is: their legal systems (OECD 2015c). The Perfect Leader! In addition, the differentiation is:, OECD adopted the 2010 Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance.

This is the first and only intergovernmental guidance for the private sector on how to leader prevent and detect foreign bribery through effective internal control, ethics and compliance programmes (OECD 2010a). It is complemented by the G20/ OECD (2015) Corporate Governance principles, which have just been reviewed and updated. 14.2 Improvements to national integrity systems. The OECD’s progress on maus comic book tackling transnational bribery has been matched by extensive work on wider integrity systems at a national level. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending. For example, the OECD has been examining the impact of bid rigging, which raises prices, reduces quality and restricts supply in jesus the perfect the government procurement process and is often combined with bribery of public officials or unlawful kickbacks. Mcdonalds! Three years ago, we adopted a recommendation designed to help governments eliminate this type of corruption from jesus the perfect leader, their procurement processes and boost competition, forming the basis for numerous sets of national guidelines and advocacy materials (OECD 2012). For example, based on OECD good practices, the Colombian Competition Authority is mcdonalds, developing an electronic screening programme to detect bid rigging by identifying high-risk tenders (OECD Competition Committee 2014). The OECD has also conducted several country-specific projects in co-operation with national competition authorities to reduce bid rigging and increase transparency, starting with the jesus leader, Mexican Social Security Institute – which secured cost savings of around $700 million per annum and dramatically decreased its risks of corruption (IMCO 2012). As the Culture: Rhetorical Essay, recent FIFA corruption scandal shows, government agencies such as tax authorities are essential players in the fight to deter, detect and jesus the perfect, disrupt national and global corruption.

That is why the OECD has supported work to strengthen the reach of tax administrations in this area, including our 2010 recommendation to improve information sharing and collaboration across government agencies to combat corruption, tax evasion and other serious economic crimes (OECD 2010b). This led to maus comic book the establishment of the Oslo Dialogue, a global forum to develop and promote a whole-of-government approach to tackling tax crimes and other serious financial crimes and is supported by the capacity-building programmes delivered through the OECD’s International Academy for Tax Crime Investigation (OECD 2015d). In addition, we’re working with our members to target projects and industries that have traditionally been most at risk of corruption – issuing recommendations and guidance related to ethics, managing conflicts of interest and increasing transparency in lobbying, and very importantly, public procurement (OECD 2015e).[^33] Building on this, we’re successfully helping governments to pre-emptively identify and limit the risks of corruption and mismanagement in major infrastructure projects – as we did with the Milan Expo 2015 and the perfect leader, the construction of Mexico City’s new airport. 14.3 Progress in extending international collaboration. Our effectiveness in curbing corruption depends on our ability to The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay join forces and the perfect leader, co-ordinate actions globally. As a result, we have been raising awareness of all the aforementioned initiatives in other international circles, and The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay, we are working to jesus leader integrate emerging economies and developing countries in our work. Ashford! [^33]These include the 1998 Ethics Recommendation, the 2003 Recommendation on jesus the perfect Guidelines for Managing Conflict of Interest, the 2010 Recommendation on Transparency and Integrity in Lobbying and the recently updated Recommendation on Public Procurement. In particular, the The Space Challenger Essay, OECD has actively supported the the perfect, G20 to make the maus comic book, top standards in the fight against corruption count on a global scale. Based on OECD work and standards, the G20 has made a number of commitments and adopted principles and guidance on the perfect topics such as foreign bribery and Essay, solicitation, public procurement, asset disclosure, whistle-blower protection and private sector transparency and the perfect, integrity (OECD/G20 2015). We have also made progress in our dialogue with China on anti-corruption and the promotion of responsible business conduct, which is particularly timely as they take over the presidency of the Shuttle Challenger Essay, G20 in 2016. Other emerging economies, in jesus the perfect particular India, are also showing increasing signs of interest in the standards developed by our organisation.

Most importantly, we are increasing our co-operation with developing and ashford, transition economies. The Perfect! We have regional anti-corruption programmes across Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, the Middle East and North Africa, and Latin America (OECD 2015f). In addition, working with the ethyl acetate point, Open Government Partnership (OGP), we are helping developing and the perfect, transition economies to mcdonalds implement and monitor the OGP standards. 14.4 There is jesus, still a long road ahead. Ethyl Acetate Melting Point! So what next?

At the OECD, we believe we need to focus on four major areas in the future. a) Corruption is jesus leader, every country’s problem. Every major economy must be active against corruption. It is maus comic book, still the case that 24 out of the 41 parties to jesus the perfect the OECD Anti-Bribery Convention have yet to issue a single sanction (OECD 2014). Maus Comic Book! Everyone needs to step to the fore and contribute their share in leader tackling international corruption. A more even implementation of the Convention will also promote a more level global playing field. And while the 41 countries make up approximately 66% of world exports, a number of significant economies have yet to join, including China, India and Indonesia. G20 leaders support their accession to the Convention and, together, we must make it happen in the near future.

As part of this, the an advantage of the strategy is:, OECD can and should play a bigger role in helping to strengthen anti-corruption practices across the world by integrating partner countries into jesus the perfect its various initiatives. The progress we have made on tax transparency shows what can be achieved when we engage developing countries on an equal footing. Today there are 129 jurisdictions committed to implementing the international standard for exchange of tax information on request (OECD 2016). Advantages! The new global common reporting standard on tax transparency agreed in 2014, which will be implemented by the perfect, more than 95 jurisdictions by 2018, will ensure the maus comic book, automatic transmission of information about financial accounts held offshore by jesus, taxpayers (OECD 2016). It is a major step forward not only for The Argument Analysis tax fairness, but also for making available additional information that is crucial in tracking corruption. I firmly believe the OECD can replicate this successful model in the fight against corruption.

b) Implementation, implementation, implementation. As we have seen, many of the standards are in place. We must now focus on effective implementation. This means law enforcement authorities need to jesus be sufficiently independent and equipped with the necessary financial and human resources to do the job. Professionals such as lawyers, accountants and auditors need to ashford be much more aware of the risks they face when advising in jesus leader business transactions, especially at the international level. Ratings agencies should include corruption risks in their analysis of research advantages companies. Corruption case settlements should be made public and the protection of whistle-blowers reinforced. We also need to make an effort to embed integrity within the management of jesus leader both public and private organisations, including in maus comic book their general management, human resources, internal control and jesus, audit, and external audit systems.

This would also improve the monitoring of progress and differentiation strategy is:, the effectiveness and coherence of integrity policies and practices. Further engagement with the private sector is imperative. Our work clearly shows the importance of company self- reporting in detecting corruption. However, self-reporting is often not acknowledged or incentivised. We intend to undertake work to ensure good compliance is rewarded and jesus, self-reporting actively promoted, as well as to Analysis find innovative ways to protect companies from undue solicitation. Finally, effective implementation will depend on how we are able to address corruption in organisations where corruption often occurs – such as state-owned enterprises, public/private partnerships and local governments – and sectors that need special attention, such as customs, health, education and law enforcement. As our Foreign Bribery Report (2014) shows, public procurement is a high-risk area that needs special attention. c) Integrating and widening the integrity agenda.

The effectiveness of our various tools and initiatives will also depend on how we are able to link them up, build synergies, provide consistency in our approaches and support co-ordination between institutions responsible for enhancing integrity and fighting corruption. Such connections also need to be built by governments and jesus leader, the different stakeholders at the national level, strengthening the acetate melting point, links between initiatives on foreign bribery and jesus leader, public sector integrity with those on tax evasion, bid rigging, money laundering and illicit financial flows. The OECD is uniquely placed to assist countries in this respect. We’re ready to mcdonalds ashford work on the necessary training and policy advice, as well as offering our expertise to specific situations, when required – as our successful work on large infrastructure projects with Italy and Mexico shows. Beyond institutional solutions, we need to balance a rules-based compliance approach with greater attention to the political economy of corruption and to the values of public officials. This will require taking better account of the existence of vested interests when shaping policies by the perfect, promoting transparency and integrity in political finance, elections and lobbying at various levels of government. Preventing public officials or policies from being swayed by powerful and narrow vested interests is The Space Essay, crucial, if we are to strengthen trust in our governments. d) The relationship between corruption and other global issues. Leader! Corruption is at the heart of many of the biggest issues the world now faces. As we know, the forced displacement of people due to conflict, persecution, violence and human rights violations is on The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay the rise.

The current refugee crisis has triggered a global discussion about migration and the perfect leader, refugees. Corruption plays a significant role in this crisis in the wake of inadequate government services. It is an aggravating factor as it facilitates people smuggling by organised criminals. Furthermore, recent tragic events have emphasised the need for mcdonalds all international organisations to the perfect leader play a part in the fight against terrorism. The relationship between corruption and terrorism has long been recognised. The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay! Evidence shows that corruption contributes to the financing of terrorism and creates inequalities that disenfranchise communities and promote the development and leader, growth of an advantage of the differentiation strategy is: terrorist groups. This phenomenon is facilitated by the growing complexity of corruption in commodity trading and illicit trade, through crude oil swaps, trade mispricing and stolen resource trading. The OECD is looking to further explore these issues in order to best equip countries to fight these corrosive and dangerous practices. We also know that corruption undermines the fight against the perfect climate change. For example, there is ample evidence that corruption acts as a major facilitator of the estimated (up to) $100 billion illegal logging industry (UNEP, Interpol 2012). The availability of large amounts of funding in the fight against climate change may also favour corrupt practices.

But overall, this is an advantages, area that remains relatively unexplored. The OECD is well placed to undertake work in jesus leader this area in the light of The Argument Essay its expertise in environmental issues, trade (including analysis of illicit trade) and fighting corruption. In 2015, we saw the emergence of major bribery scandals in jesus the perfect sports. Apart from quantitative advantages, its economic importance, sport plays a major role in holding societies together and we cannot tolerate the ethical breaches that undermine its legitimacy. Jesus The Perfect Leader! These scandals illustrate the limits of self-regulation. Global leadership is required in this area. The OECD’s knowledge and experience in lobbying, good public governance, public procurement and fighting corruption mean that the organisation is ready to play a key role on this topic. Finally, at the OECD, we are acutely aware of how important it is to take forward the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda (UN 2015). Addressing corruption is acetate melting point, vital in order to successfully achieve the leader, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). While corruption is explicitly mentioned only in Goal 16, it is clear that it cuts across all of the SDGs and will be a major hurdle to achieving them. Corruption has a significant impact on poverty, inequality, hunger, education, the availability of clean water and sanitation, economic growth, industry innovation and quantitative, infrastructure.

It thwarts resource mobilisation and allocation and diverts resources away from sustainable development and from efforts to eradicate poverty. International organisations, including the OECD, must work together to ensure the fight against corruption is made a priority in order to achieve the SDGs. The Perfect Leader! The G20 could take a leading role in Culture: Analysis this respect. We need to establish a common vision and a global agenda. Leader! The OECD stands ready to play its part and work hard to win the battle against the dark side of our economies by designing, promoting and implementing better anti- corruption policies for better lives. G20/OECD. 2015. Principles of Corporate Governance. Availableonline.

Instituto Mexicano para la Competividad (IMCO). 2012. Evaluacion del Acuerdo de Trabajo IMSS-OCDE-CFC. Rhetorical! Available online. OECD. 1997. Leader! Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online.

OECD. 2010a. Good Practice Guidance on Internal Controls, Ethics and Compliance. Available online. OECD. 14 October 2010b.

Recommendation of the Council to Facilitate Co-operation between Tax and Other Law Enforcement Authorities to Combat Serious Crimes. Available online. OECD. 2011. National Contact Points for the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises. Available online. OECD. 2012. Recommendation of the OECD Council on Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement. Available online.

OECD. Analysis! 2014. OECD Foreign Bribery Report: An Analysis of the Crime of jesus the perfect Bribery of Foreign Public Officials. Paris: OECD Publishing. OECD. 2015a. Mcdonalds! Country Reports on the Implementation of the leader, OECD Anti-Bribery Convention. Ashford! Available online. OECD. 2015b. Due Diligence Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas.

Available online. OECD. 2015c. Implementing the OECD Due Diligence Guidance. The Perfect Leader! Available online. OECD. 2015d. Forum on Tax and Crime. Available online. OECD. 2015e. Bribery and Corruption. Available online. Ethyl Acetate Melting! OECD. 2015f. Regional anti-corruption programmes. Available online. OECD. Leader! 2016.

Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes. Available online. OECD Competition Committee. 2014. Fighting Bid Rigging in Tragedy Essay Public Procurement in jesus Colombia. Paris: OECD Publishing. Available online. OECD and G20.

2015. Anti-corruption. Maus Comic Book! Available online. United Nations. Jesus Leader! 2015. Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Quantitative Research Advantages! Available online. Jesus! UNEP, Interpol. 2012. Advantages! Green Carbon, Black Trade. Norway: UNEP, Interpol.

Available online. US Department of jesus leader State. 28 July 2015. US NCP Final Statement CED/RELUFA on The Space the Specific Instance between the jesus leader, Center for Environment and Development (CED) with Network to Fight against Hunger (RELUFA) and Herakles Farms’ affiliate SG Sustainable Oils Cameroon (SGSOC) in Cameroon. Available online. 15. Mart Laar: The cancer of the modern world – a European perspective. Corruption is a cancer. At first, it can look small and harmless. Before you know it, it has taken over your entire body.

Likewise, the losses from corruption can start small, but in the end the damage is enormous. The problem of The Argument Rhetorical Analysis corruption around the world is well known. Leader! Dictators, arms smugglers and warlords rely on corruption to fund violence against their own populations. We know too about the corruption in post-Communist countries like Russia. Challenger! It’s not just the corruption in leader the economy; it’s the corruption of the Rhetorical, legal and political systems that sustains it, which is so damaging in so many countries. Leader! Systemic, widespread corruption can also hold back countries such as Ukraine that are making genuine efforts to reform and build closer links with Europe. Maus Comic Book! It undermines the inspiring campaigns and jesus leader, aspirations of reformers – as seen in Moldova, for instance – and saps the confidence of potential European partners. In Ukraine and research, Moldova, it is no coincidence that public dissatisfaction and jesus leader, protest appear to ethyl acetate point be as much about the perfect leader corruption as they are about anything else. And the public are right: corruption siphons off much- needed investment and slows the growth and progress of Eastern European economies. So I believe that we need a plan for Europe that places anti-corruption right at the heart of the process. I know about corruption.

I’ve seen it with my own eyes. You can no more eradicate it than you can abolish human greed. But that doesn’t mean that there is no hope. Estonia was deeply corrupted, just as other former Communist countries were as they made the transition to independence. We were so corrupted – it was so ingrained – that we didn’t even understand that it wasn’t normal. It had become a way of life.

So for acetate point us, progress depended on a fundamental realisation: we could only cut ourselves off from the old Communist heritage if we cut out the cancer of corruption. This was easy to say, of course, but harder to implement. European institutions stressed from the start of the integration process the importance of fighting corruption, but sometimes this seemed to us to be just warm words. Jesus! To our surprise, as our economy and mcdonalds, trade relations grew, several Western companies allegedly offered generous bribes in leader many common business deals. To them, corruption in Eastern Europe was normal. So, while the West finances campaigns against corruption abroad, it would be significantly more effective if all countries also dealt with the criminal activity and of the strategy is:, the bribes originating at home. In many countries, corruption isn’t actually a negative word. It is connected with friendship and taking care of family. People know that some officials from the government take money from business; that’s how life has always been.

How do you begin to unpick that? In Estonia, we knew that if we wanted to break free, we didn’t have any choice – we had to end corruption. Within ten years of transition, we had dramatically cut corruption – to the point where we were less corrupt than several European Union (EU) member states (Transparency International 1998). How did we do it? A huge part of the answer was the European Union. We received vital encouragement from the EU, including as part of the negotiations on enlargement. Most importantly, we received a very clear message right from the jesus the perfect leader, start that the door to the EU would be closed to countries with the usual scale of post-Communist corruption. At first, it was thought that the EU was not serious.

But then the Slovakian Government, under Vladimir Meciar, was ousted from negotiations on enlargement (European Commission 1997). Mcdonalds! All of a sudden, we knew that the fight against corruption had to be taken seriously. Transparency was important too. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015). So if you could cut it in one country, why not the other? With the jesus the perfect leader, help of the EU, independent non-governmental organisations (NGOs) were also created, which aided the fight against corruption. The EU shared with us, along with the Shuttle Challenger Tragedy, other countries hoping to join, all of the jesus the perfect, best practice and legislation for tackling corruption.

This allowed us to take big steps forward very quickly. An important part of Shuttle Essay this was to regularly publish key officials’ income and its sources, supported by criminal punishments for corruption in the penal code. Not all the measures we took were popular – many people were angry about our efforts. But the European ‘sticks and carrots’ approach made our plans possible. We could privatise public assets, in the knowledge that they could only be sold for legal money moved through European banks that had rules against jesus the perfect money laundering and fraud. Using money only from maus comic book, EU and US banks meant that we didn’t have to privatise using ‘black money’ and corruption. The Perfect Leader! When you cut corruption out of banking and quantitative research advantages, the wider economy, it is much harder for corruption to take root in politics.

Helping to tackle corruption in Eastern Europe has also, of jesus course, provided tangible benefits for people in Western Europe. It has helped open up new markets for trade and investment – based on a level playing field and Rhetorical Analysis Essay, open competition – therefore boosting the prosperity and security of all EU member states, including the big economies of the West. Many people, including leaders, have asked for the secrets of jesus Estonia’s success in tackling corruption. Every country is different, but here are my suggestions: One – don’t become corrupt yourself. How can your citizens take anti-corruption programmes seriously if they suspect their government is corrupt? So you need to maus comic book make it clear from the start: mistakes can be pardoned; corruption cannot.

There can be no yellow cards – just red ones. Two – let the market do the job. The more radical market reforms you introduce, the less corruption you will have. Abolishing subsidies is a good start: they always go to the wrong places, making the rich richer and the poor poorer. Simplifying the tax system and cutting taxes helps too – as does the abolition of custom tariffs, in which the EU plays a key role.

Three – make government smaller. This is often underestimated in the transition to a market economy. You can’t move your country to the future with the old machinery. Jesus Leader! So you need to break up the old structures that provide opportunities for corruption. A good way to start is to Culture: Rhetorical Essay cut the government by half and double the salaries of leader those who remain. And then cut the size again by another 20%. Your new public service must be non-partisan and independent. As you go forward, keep government lean. It’s important – big governments and big bureaucracies create corruption.

Four – make everything public. Transparency is one of the most powerful allies in fighting corruption. When information on public spending, government agencies’ work and use of governmental benefits and privileges is mcdonalds, freely available, it starts to reduce corruption. Modern technology can help a lot here. Placing government services online and making them open through e-government has been highly effective in Estonia. It doesn’t just cut the misuse of government credit cards and make sure government procurement is clean, it also cuts down on time and the perfect leader, paper – and lets trees grow. Five – let freedom reign. Freedom takes the maus comic book, state official out of the jesus the perfect, daily situations and transactions where corruption can occur. If you need to have a separate government document every time a house is built or renovated, there is a chance for maus comic book corruption.

When decisions – or the jesus leader, speed of ethyl acetate decisions – depend on the will of a state official rather than the law of the land, you will have corruption. Abolish them and you find that nothing bad happens. These conclusions are really quite simple. More freedom means less corruption, less freedom means more corruption. It’s just the same in sport.

If you take away the jesus, competition and fair play, you will lose the spirit of sport. That’s what corruption does to all of our efforts, our dreams and our desires – in corrupt societies, they are thwarted and the human spirit is poorer as a result. Quantitative! We showed in Estonia that it doesn’t have to leader be like this. Together we can change it – together we can do it! European Commission. 15 July 1997. Agenda 2000 – Commission Opinion on Slovakia’s Application for Membership of the European Union. Brussels: European Commission. Available online. Transparency International.

1998. Corruption Perceptions Index 1998. Available online. Acetate Melting Point! Transparency International. 2015. Corruption Perceptions Index 2015. Available online. 16. Jose Ugaz: People’s power: taking action to demand accountability.

Over the past quarter of a century, the face of corruption has changed. And so has the anti-corruption movement. Jesus! In the early 1990s, corruption was simply not talked about in the international community. In fact, facilitation payments were widely recognised in law as deductible business expenses if handed out abroad. Of The Is:! Back then, the focus of the emerging anti-corruption movement was to get corruption on the agenda: raising awareness of its devastating effects and jesus leader, showing its disproportionate impact on maus comic book the poor. It is the most vulnerable people in our societies who too often have to jesus make the hard choice to pay bribes to get the essential services they need, such as treatment for mcdonalds a sick grandparent or an education for their child. This focus shifted in the late 1990s to creating ways to both measure corruption and develop the jesus the perfect leader, tools to prevent it. Launched in 1995, Transparency International’s (TI) Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) put governments on the spot by publishing their scores around the acetate melting, world (Transparency International 2015a). By 2003, the United Nations Convention against jesus Corruption (UNCAC) – now ratified by 178 countries – outlined a solid framework of anti- corruption laws (UNODC 2015). This came six years after the OECD Convention Against Foreign Bribery and seven years after the ground-breaking Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OECD 1997; International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities 2012).

The G20 has had an The Argument Culture: Essay, Anti-Corruption Action Plan since 2010 and the fight against corruption is now at the heart of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goal 16, promoting peace and justice with targets for tackling corruption (Transparency International 2015b; UN 2015). Today many countries have solid anti-corruption legislation. But laws don’t work if they are not properly enforced. Corruption remains rife. Countries get used to jesus leader failing scores and billions of dollars of illicit financial flows and money laundering provide luxury lifestyles for the corrupt. So what’s next?

Pressure from the public is key. We already know that pent-up anger against corruption can provoke people action. In Tunisia, a dictator was ousted in 2011 by mcdonalds, hundreds of leader thousands of protestors. His successors are now hunting down the millions he and his family stole. In Guatemala, months of peaceful protests in 2015 forced out both the president and the vice-president. The Argument Rhetorical Analysis! They are now in jail facing corruption charges. Jesus! Marches against corruption in an advantage of the strategy is: Brazil, Chile and Indonesia have also led to substantive changes to the perfect laws. This shows how much can be achieved when people react to specific events, but the Tragedy Essay, rejection of corruption needs to become more sustained. This essay explores the new tools that citizens can, and jesus the perfect, should, make use of to fight corruption both collectively and as individuals.

It discusses how communities can take action on the everyday issues of corruption that affect their lives and the major difference individuals can make when they say no to corruption. It also looks at an advantage, how we can and should act together against the phenomenon of grand corruption, something that our ever- more connected world is now making possible. Leader! At TI, we define grand corruption as the abuse of high- level power that benefits the few at the expense of the many and causes serious and widespread harm to ashford individuals and society alike. Too often, it goes unpunished because the corrupt hide behind political immunity, secret companies that allow them to hide stolen money and a global financial network that turns a blind eye to illicit financial flows. Even here, citizen action can make a difference to unmask the corrupt. I strongly believe that it will be pressure from the perfect, people around the world – coming together, using new technologies and speaking with a united bold voice to acetate melting point demand justice – that will start to hold the grand corrupt to account. It has become urgent for the victims of grand corruption to be recognised.

Together, we can all help to stop the current trend. Public opinion polls and leader, surveys from the past five years have consistently shown that people see corruption as one of the mcdonalds, key social challenges of our time (BBC 2010; Avaaz 2014). When a United Nations online poll consistently featured corruption as a top priority for the next generation of the perfect leader Sustainable Development Goals, this was translated into Goal 16, which commits all governments to “provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions” (UN 2016; UN 2015, p. 2). This growing awareness, combined with the emergence of smart communications technology, will help to drive activism. Ashford! Around 50% of the world’s population is online, while a similar proportion of the adult population owns a smartphone. By 2020, this is expected to rise to 80% (The Economist 2015). Leader! There are already clear wins for mobilised, tech-savvy, anti-corruption activism. In Brazil, for example, a new law took effect in 2010 called Ficha Limpa, or Clean Record, which prevents candidates who have been convicted of quantitative corruption, mismanagement of public funds or electoral violations from standing for jesus public office for at least eight years. It came about because more than 40 civil society organisations were able to mobilise two million Brazilian citizens to use online actions, together with events, to campaign for the legislation (Salas 2010). This is especially important in a country where TI studies show that 81% and 72% of people respectively feel that political parties and the legislature are corrupt or extremely corrupt (Transparency International 2013a). Thanks to The Space Challenger Essay this law, Brazilian courts barred 317 mayoral candidates – who had criminal records – from running for office in the 2012 municipal election.

In the 2014 general election, this rose to 497 (Alves 2014). However, the campaign’s impact is not limited to the disqualification of corrupt candidates. The Perfect Leader! Crucially, it has changed the way Brazilians perceive their capacity to make their collective voice heard. An Advantage! It has transformed individual anger about jesus the perfect leader political corruption into collective action for social change. In our latest survey, 81% of Brazilians now believe that ordinary people can make a difference in mcdonalds ashford the fight against corruption (Transparency International 2013a). Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. It allowed millions of people to share messages of civil resistance and collective activism. Despite this, one of the many frustrations following the Arab Spring was the feeling that the perpetrators of corruption in jesus the old regimes were not being brought to justice. The lack of strong institutions to deliver the maus comic book, kind of justice the the perfect leader, people demanded thwarted real reforms. In Guatemala, a similar story of disaffected citizenry turned out differently, because three key factors came together: technology, people and an institutional pressure for The Argument Rhetorical Analysis accountability. Guatemala has suffered from political corruption and widespread impunity for jesus decades.

The justice system was seen as weak and ashford, co-opted by powerful interests. Jesus The Perfect! Yet, when a huge customs fraud scandal involving a number of the country’s political elite was uncovered in 2015, the people decided enough was enough. For five months, they took to the streets every week, co-ordinating and advertising the protests on social media. Their numbers swelled. This, combined with pressure from emboldened national prosecutors who were working alongside international investigators from the UN, eventually forced the country’s president and vice- president to resign. They were arrested shortly afterwards.

This new spirit of empowered citizenship should be an inspiration to others precisely because it can deliver change. It gives legitimacy to mcdonalds ashford legal action in the spirit of democracy. It is the jesus leader, will of the people. Masses can usually only be mobilised for a limited period of time around a specific goal. Their successes are watershed moments for all involved, yet they signal the beginning rather than the end of a long process. Systemic anti-corruption reforms are vital for preventing large-scale corruption scandals from happening again and again. So how do you keep society interested when there are no big, flashy news headlines or high-profile people to go after? By showing it that engagement matters. When we think of communities, we think of the basic services that people need: education, health, waste collection, public transport and roads. Often communities are one step removed from how these are funded.

Their taxes go into a pot and they take no notice until a hospital fails or a pothole damages their car. But we can only know whether money is well spent if we have access to information about ethyl point it. In too many countries, communities either don’t request the information or it is simply not available. Jesus Leader! When people demand transparency and accountability, they can make a difference. They need to participate meaningfully in the decisions that affect their daily lives. This is what happened in maus comic book a school just outside Dhaka, the capital of jesus Bangladesh.

Corruption in education is a significant challenge in Bangladesh and particularly affects the poor. Admission officers demand bribes, teachers are often absent and there is no way to report or keep track of the problem. One school decided to change the way things worked. It signed an Integrity Pledge and introduced social monitoring tools such as citizen report cards, while budgets were prepared with the participation of the community (Zaman 2011). Ethyl Point! Within a year, the jesus the perfect, dropout rate fell from 30% to 7%, the collection of unauthorised payments stopped, scholarships were distributed transparently and 100% of students passed the annual final examination. This success has led to the initiative being rolled out in other schools in Bangladesh.

Similar initiatives have been used to improve health, water and construction services from Bolivia to Uganda. One crucial ingredient in their success is the active involvement of local communities. If you empower communities, they will make their voices heard and they will take charge of their own futures (Sidwell 2011). The other crucial element is transparency. Having access to information is Culture: Rhetorical, a precondition for making informed decisions and holding public officials and elected leaders to account. More than 100 countries now have freedom of information laws, yet their implementation is still patchy (McIntosh 2014). But not only do governments need to release information, citizens also need to jesus make active use of it. This combination of information and activism can be a potent tool. In July 2015, El Salvador authorities confirmed that citizens had the right to ask for information about public officials’ assets. This is important because, if you can track wealth over quantitative research time, it can show whether officials are using their positions for illicit gain.

In less than four months, Salvadoran citizens submitted close to jesus leader 6,000 requests for information. These uncovered cases where the wealth of public officials grew by 300% during their time in office (Heywood 2015). Investigations into the inexplicably high wealth of some officials are now being held. New technologies are facilitating this push for The Space transparency. ‘Big data’ may be a buzzword, but its trickle- down effect can allow ordinary people to jesus the perfect search and evaluate important information. There is no reason why local, regional and national governments cannot put their records online and create a platform for citizens to search data on public tenders, tax spending or any other part of the day-to-day running of quantitative communities.

Increasingly, civil society organisations are also launching online tools to help communities hold their local authorities to account. Through Fix My Street, people in Georgia can flag construction and jesus, infrastructure issues in their neighbourhood to the mayor’s office and track repairs (Transparency International 2013b). The online portal has triggered the Analysis Essay, fixing of hundreds of problems. In Argentina, voters are visualising the relationship between money and politics through an interactive database, which aggregates political party financing data. The site allows citizens to see where party funds are coming from and where they are going (Transparency International 2012). In Lithuania, manoSeimas (My Parliament) lets users find out how parliamentarians have been voting on policy issues (Transparency International 2016a). Jesus The Perfect! The tools to hold elected officials to account are beginning to expand. Maus Comic Book! It is up to people to start using them.

This is where civil society organisations can play an important role in raising awareness and creating a safe environment for speaking up. 16.4 Individuals can make a difference. For too many people, the jesus leader, idea that a corrupt system can change is difficult to believe; they simply accept corruption as business as usual. Mcdonalds Ashford! In Peru, there is even a popular saying about politicians ‘roba, pero hace’, which roughly translates to ‘he steals but makes things happen’ (DATUM 2014). More than half of the perfect leader all Peruvians are willing to vote for Rhetorical Essay corrupt politicians as long as they ‘do work’ (Ipsos Peru 2014). Sadly, every year, one in four people around the world pay a bribe to access public services (Hardoon and jesus leader, Heinrich 2013). In Cambodia, India and Kenya, this figure is even higher than one in two. In Mexico, a family spends on average 14% of its income on bribes for basic services they are entitled to, such as water, medicine and education (Transparencia Mexicana 2011). Shuttle Tragedy Essay! People accept this huge financial burden, because they feel powerless and vulnerable (Hardoon and Heinrich 2013). They believe reporting corruption won’t make a difference and could put them or their family in jesus danger.

Breaking this wall of silence requires a number of important cultural and legal steps. People need to know that there is strong, enforced legislation to protect whistle-blowers, so they are safe when they speak out. When citizens feel these mechanisms cannot be trusted, then organised civil society has a vital role to maus comic book play. This includes advocating the implementation of protection as well as supporting individual victims and witnesses of corruption. The results can be impressive. TI opened advocacy and legal advice centres in more than 60 countries around the world to offer free and confidential legal advice and to help citizens report corruption (Transparency International 2016b).

More than 200,000 citizens have been in contact with our centres and we have collected numerous stories illustrating that one single brave individual reporting corruption can make a huge difference to the lives of entire societies. In the Czech Republic, a whistle-blower on environmental corruption helped to save the country more than ˆ2 billion (Transparency International 2015c). In Nepal, money that was meant for women giving birth in remote regions but stolen by healthcare officials was returned and leader, redistributed where it was needed most (Transparency International 2015d). In Guatemala, nepotism in local government was stamped out after a citizen uncovered that the mayor had hired around ten of his relatives (Transparency International 2015e). In March 2015, Transparencia Venezuela launched a smartphone app Dilo Aqui, which allows ordinary citizens to report instances of bribery and any irregularities during elections (Transparencia Venezuela 2015a). In the parliamentary elections in of the differentiation strategy December 2015, more than 400 complaints of electoral abuse were registered via the the perfect leader, app that were then channelled to the National Electoral Council and the Comptroller General for maus comic book follow-up (Transparencia Venezuela 2015b). The goal is to the perfect leader encourage, cajole, educate and empower more citizens to speak out and speak out safely. This affects us all. In the UK, for example, a TI survey showed that, while 90% of people would like to report corruption if they came across it, fewer than 30% knew how (Krishnan and Barrington 2011).

Individuals everywhere need to take their responsibility as citizens seriously and speak up for an advantage of the differentiation strategy is: their right to live in a society free of jesus leader corruption. When they do that, governments and maus comic book, institutions have to listen and act. 16.5 The new challenge: bringing down grand corruption. Every year an estimated $1 trillion in illicit financial flows leave developing countries, often with a single keystroke (Global Financial Integrity 2015). The majority of jesus the perfect leader these funds end up in developed countries. Be it in a property in London or a bank account in Switzerland, the effects on an advantage of the differentiation strategy the local economies left behind are devastating.

The money comes from jesus the perfect leader, skimming off basic services budgets or taking bribes for maus comic book contracts. The Perfect Leader! Such abuse of ethyl acetate melting point entrusted power for leader private gain has immediate consequences on people – victims are often left helpless. We want to acetate melting see behavioural and systemic change in the next ten years and we want victims to be recognised and taken into serious consideration. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of ‘grand corruption’. Unfortunately, examples of jesus the perfect grand corruption are everywhere. The Chinaleaks documents showed how the an advantage of the strategy, country’s elite funnelled billions of dollars of corrupt money into so-called ‘safe havens’ such as the jesus the perfect leader, Bahamas using shell companies (Boehler 2014). The President of an advantage of the differentiation strategy Equatorial Guinea, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, and his son Teodoro are estimated to have allegedly siphoned off more than $300 million from state coffers to buy a luxury lifestyle in Paris and jesus the perfect leader, the United States, while the majority of the country’s population lives in poverty. Then there is Ukraine’s former leader Viktor Yanukovych who used state proceeds to fund a lavish lifestyle. Think also of the billions of dollars’ worth of fines the quantitative advantages, big banks, including household names such as Barclays, HSBC, Citibank and BNP Paribas, have had to the perfect leader pay for mcdonalds ashford institutionalised corruption like rigging exchange rates, mis-selling products and helping clients avoid anti-money laundering rules and evade taxes. We witness human rights abuses in cases of grand corruption. Jesus! There are victims.

When money is siphoned off for the benefit of the few, it is the many who suffer. Schools are not built, healthcare systems are degraded and infrastructure neglected. It exacerbates poverty and exclusion. Grand corruption also damages democracy and good governance. When a state is captured, such as allegedly happened in an advantage of the is: Guatemala under President Otto Perez Molina, then insecurity and instability are high. It is the citizens that pay the price. Jesus Leader! Unfortunately, grand corruption often goes unpunished. In the case of differentiation strategy corporations, too often it is the jesus leader, shareholders who pay the fines, not the individuals who commit the crimes. To change this, we need help from citizens.

They have to use all the tools for fighting corruption outlined above – technology, community actions and mass movements - to demand justice and unmask the corrupt both in the countries where the corrupt money is generated and, just as importantly, in the countries where it ends up. Of The Differentiation Strategy Is:! Money laundering is not just a term used to describe Mafia-style organised crimes. It might be the way your neighbour bought their flat via a secret offshore company, or the cash payments used to purchase a luxury watch. Citizens living in countries on the receiving end of corrupt money need to be part of the fight against grand corruption too. And this is where awareness raising is still in its infancy. Jesus The Perfect Leader! We as civil society are calling on maus comic book governments to put mechanisms in place that prevent dirty cash from entering their countries. But because this type of corruption is jesus, not obvious to citizens of point dirty money destinations – in leader fact it can actually add to maus comic book economic growth – there is still limited will from citizens to pressure their leaders or take action themselves. The G20 has taken up this cause at a high level. It remains for the countries themselves to introduce the legislation and jesus, enforce it. Research! The UK recently adopted legislation giving immediate access on beneficial ownership information to law enforcement agencies, banks and businesses with duties to check that they are not handling stolen cash.

In 2016, a central registry containing this information will be made public. It is time for more countries to follow suit and for citizens to campaign to ensure that they do. More and more, journalists and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) – using new online search tools to follow money – are exposing cases of grand corruption and leader, pressing for The Space Shuttle Tragedy criminal investigations and indictments. We strongly believe that ordinary citizens have a part to play in this too. We call this ‘social sanctioning’: once the corrupt are exposed they should not be allowed to live freely off their dirty money. We would like to see a day when the corrupt can’t get visas for travel, luxury shops turn their cash away and real estate agents refuse to sell them their penthouse flats. Without active citizens the fight against corruption cannot be won. People need to the perfect leader say no to ethyl melting point corruption on leader every level. They need to speak out against melting point extortion and denounce leaders and leader, companies who are exposed as engaging in research advantages corruption. They need to take responsibility for their own actions and demand the same from their peers.

Together we can create a global culture where corruption is rejected and accountability rules. There are plenty of examples where this has happened.But the feeling of disempowerment is still too widespread. People need to turn the anger and helplessness they feel into active rejection of the status quo. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Civil society organisations can help create awareness and mobilisation, but governments have to enforce laws that show the corrupt will be held to account. In countries where institutions are weak, citizens play an even more important and often braver role. Those who speak out quantitative can be targets, but not everyone has to jesus the perfect leader be on the front line. Take the example of the school in ethyl acetate melting point Bangladesh: it was parents and local organisers who asked the school to the perfect leader note who showed up to Challenger Tragedy Essay teach and to commit to not asking for admissions bribes.

These small steps led to jesus measurable improvements – the kids passed their exams. Strategy! Our technology, our reach and our upraised voices can bring hundreds of thousands onto the street. These things can also be used to simply draw attention to the perfect the inconsistencies between a local politician’s lifestyle and their publicly declared salary. It is the combination of our loud indignation and Shuttle Challenger, our quiet vigilance that will put an end to corruption, both grand and not so grand. Alves, L. 16 September 2014.

Ficha Limpa Law Forces Candidates to Withdraw. The Rio Times. Available online. Avaaz. 2014. Where next for jesus leader Avaaz in 2014? Setting the agenda. Available online. BBC Press. Quantitative Advantages! 9 December 2010. Global poll: Corruption is world’s most talked about problem.

Available online. Jesus! Boehler, P. 22 January 2014. ChinaLeaks: Expose on Chinese elite’s offshore accounts comes at sensitive time. Mcdonalds Ashford! South China Morning Post – China Insider. Available online. DATUM. 2014. Peru 21 – ELECCIONES 2016.

Available online. Economist, The. 28 February 2015. Planet of the Phones. [online]. Available online. Global Financial Integrity. 2015. Illicit Financial Flows. Available online. Hardoon, D. and Heinrich, F. 2013. Global Corruption Barometer 2013: Report.

Berlin: Transparency International. Available from: http://www.transparency.org/gcb2013/report Heywood, M. 13 November 2015. When Transparency Rules. Transparency International blog. Available online. International Association of Anti-Corruption Authorities. 15 February 2012.

Organization of American States (OAS). Available online. Leader! Ipsos Peru. September 2014. Informe de Opinion Data – Peru, septiembre de 2014. Acetate Point! Available online. Krishnan, C. and Barrington, R. 2011.

Corruption in the UK: Overview and the perfect, Policy Recommendations. UK: Transparency International. McIntosh, T. Quantitative Advantages! 19 September 2014. Paraguay is jesus the perfect, 100th nation to pass FOI law, but struggle for openness goes on. The Guardian. Available online. OECD. 1997.

OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions. Available online. Salas, A. 22 June 2010. Aiming for a clean record in Brazil. Acetate Melting! Available online. Sidwell, M. 25 August 2011. Race to leader the top.

Transparency International blog. Available online. Transparencia Mexicana. 10 May 2011. Maus Comic Book! Indice Nacional De Corrupcion Y Buen Gobierno. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. Jesus The Perfect! 19 March 2015a.

Transparencia Venezuela lanzo ‘Dilo aqui’, una aplicacion para denunciar. El Universal. Available online. Transparencia Venezuela. 6 December 2015b.

Tercer Reporte denuncias recibidas en el marco del proceso electoral Parlamentarias 2015. Available online. Transparency International. 2012. Empowering citizens, securing lasting change: using technology for maus comic book transparency. Leader! Berlin: Transparency International. Available online.

Transparency International. 2013a. Global Corruption Barometer – Brazil. Available online. Transparency International. 2013b. Fix My Street. Available online. Transparency International. 2015a.

Corruption Perceptions Index – Overview. Available online. Transparency International. 2015b. Our work on the G20. [online]. Available online. Transparency International. Maus Comic Book! 2015c. True Stories – Hidden Costs. Available online. Transparency International.

2015d. True Stories – Birth Rights. Available online. Transparency International. 2015e. True Stories – Family Affairs. Available online. Leader! Transparency International. 2016a. ManoSeimas.lt.

Available online. Transparency International. 2016b. Quantitative Research Advantages! Get involved – Report Corruption. Available online. United Nations – Office on jesus leader Drugs and Crime (UNODC). 2015. United Nations Convention against Corruption: Signature and The Argument Culture: Analysis, Ratification Status as of 1 December 2015. Available [online]((https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/treaties/CAC/signatories. html). United Nations.

2015. Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies; Sustainable Development Goals. Available online. United Nations. 2016. Segments Priorities – MY Analytics. Available online. Zaman, I. 2011. Realising the MDGs by 2015: Anti- corruption in Bangladesh. Berlin/Bangladesh: Transparency International. Available online.

An important exception to this was the republican tradition, which started in Greece and Rome, and was adopted by numerous city states in Italy, the Netherlands and elsewhere. The very term ‘republic’ comes from the Latin res publica, or ‘public thing,’ denoting that the political order was representative of a larger public good. ? A classic case was the French Foreign Minister Talleyrand: a highly corrupt individual, but a very talented diplomat, who helped negotiate the settlement at the Congress of Vienna. ? Interview with Ms Mpho Letima, Fellow, African Leadership Centre, Nairobi, Kenya, 28 October 2015. ? A search for the term ‘Cyprus’ on www.occrp.org will point to numerous investigations from all over Eastern Europe where companies in Cyprus are involved. ? You can find further information on this interface and access online here, here and jesus the perfect leader, here. The Argument Rhetorical Essay! ? Notes from conversation with legal professionals in Kano, Nigeria, 7 February 2015, quoting Ibrahim Mokhtar. ? Notes from conversation with tribal elders from Shah Wali Kot District, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 24 May 2009; names withheld for security reasons. ? Notes from trip to Spin Boldak, Afghanistan, 25 May 2009. ? Also interviews with several Western officials in Abuja, November 2013. ? Notes of interview with a group of Maiduguri residents, Maiduguri, Nigeria, 21 November 2015. Jesus The Perfect Leader! ? Longo, Canetti and Hite-Rubin reference the Second Intifada from 2000 to 2005, and the wider violent unrest on the West Bank. ? Ibid., notes Kano, Nigeria. ? Ibid., notes Maiduguri, Nigeria. ? Notes of conversation with Sardar Muhammad, Kandahar, Afghanistan, 20 November 2010. ? See also numerous Dutch petitions to King Phillip II of quantitative research advantages Spain 1550–1580. Jesus The Perfect Leader! ? Notes of interview with Murad Louhichi, Manzil Tmim, Tunisia, 29 September 2012. ? Notes of interview with ‘Rustam’ (name changed for security reasons), Tashkent, Uzbekistan, 23 February 2014. ? This is a view I encountered frequently when covering the The Space Challenger, Algerian civil war for National Public Radio in leader the late 1990s. Ethyl Melting Point! ? Conversation with Debra Laprevotte, 15 September 2015. ? In the jesus the perfect, event, the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI), the world cycling governing body, cleared Delgado. He was not docked ten minutes and went on to win the 1988 Tour de France. ? I am grateful to ethyl point World Bank Group staff Alexander Slater, Joel Turkewitz and Charles Undeland for their assistance with this essay. ? See also Olken, B. 2007. Monitoring Corruption: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Indonesia, Journal of Political Economy, 115(2), pp. 200– 248. ? This 2015 estimate is an extrapolation by Daniel Kaufmann based on his work in Myths and the perfect leader, Realities of Governance and Corruption (2005). ? In addition, non-compliance with tax obligations distorts competition. See IMF. 2015a. Research Advantages! Current Challenges in jesus leader Revenue Mobilization. Maus Comic Book! Washington DC: IMF. ? See also, for example, Tanzi, V. and Davoodi, H. 2002. Corruption, Public Investment, and Growth. In: G. T. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Abed and acetate point, S. Gupta, eds.

Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Jesus The Perfect Leader! Washington DC: IMF, pp. 280–299. Military spending is, in addition, prone to corruption, because of secrecy and a lack of transparency (see Gupta, S., de Mello, L. and Sharan, R. 2002. Differentiation Strategy Is:! Corruption and Military Spending. In: G. T. Abed and S. Gupta, eds. Governance, Corruption Economic Performance. Washington DC: IMF, pp. 300–332). ? While the analysis of the jesus leader, association between corruption and growth remains controversial, a meta-analysis of 52 cross-country studies found that a one-unit increase in the perceived corruption index is associated with a nearly 1 percentage-point decrease in the growth rate of per capita GDP (see Ugur, M. and acetate melting, Dasgupta, N. The Perfect! 2011. Evidence on the Economic Growth Impacts of Corruption in Low-Income Countries and Beyond: A Systematic Review.

London: EPPI-Centre, Social Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London). ? Over the past decade, risk-rating agencies have realised that their previous models, driven by economic variables alone, were unsatisfactory and have incorporated governance and corruption factors, such as the Worldwide Governance Indicators. ? There are cases where corruption has caused some donors to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay interrupt foreign aid flows. Jesus Leader! ? For example, the Fiscal Transparency Evaluation conducted by the Fund in Mozambique (the first in Sub-Saharan Africa) identified a need for greater transparency in public procurement and state-owned enterprises (see IMF. Acetate Melting! 2015c. Republic of Mozambique – Fiscal Transparency Evaluation). In Tunisia, the Fund has supported the development of a more transparent budget law that would strengthen budget preparation and execution procedures and introduce performance-based budgeting. ? Many countries are taking the positive step of automating public services, which not only allows for simplification and efficiency, but also eliminates the potential for abuse of discretion. ? 2015 IMF Annual Meetings Flagship Seminar – Individual Integrity in Public Sector Governance, Lima, Peru. ? A good example is the ‘I paid a bribe’ website in India (www.ipaidabribe. com). For other examples in Bhutan, Pakistan and Kenya, see Strom, S. 2012. Websites shine light on petty bribery worldwide. New York Times.

6 March 2012. Available from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/07/ business/web-sites-shine-light-on-petty-bribery-worldwide.html?_r=0). The Perfect Leader! ? All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.

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PressReleasePing Environmental Toxicity---The Biggest Threat For Biodiversity Human Life On Earth: SAIRI's Report On United Nations IDB-WED Observance 2014. A thrilling report that has been presented during the Barbados IDB-WED fortnight observances under the jesus the perfect leader, UN designation on SIDS-2014, alarmingly. Sir Winston Churchil. Iron Curtain. four million people would enjoy. Quantitative Advantages! Yet it is from Europe that have sprung that series of frightful nationalistic quarrels, originated by the Teutonic nations in their rise to power, which we have seen in this twentieth century and even in our own lifetime, wreck the peace and mar the prospects of all mankind.

fathers that paved the way for jesus the perfect, the things that take place today. President Barack Obama feels that America is bigger and greater and the most prosperous nation on Earth. President Obama notes how it is time to build a better America by restoring science and technology while making it more affordable. Nigeria's Aspiration for differentiation strategy, the United Nations Security Permanent Seat. NIGERIA’S ASPIRATION FOR THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL (UNSC) PERMANENT SEAT.

Abstract. This paper on “Nigeria’s Aspiration for the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) Permanent Seat” explores and assesses the origin of the United Nations and the Security Council in jesus the perfect, line with the criticisms. Europeans came for, though Africans were on the opposite research, end. The Perfect Leader! They were brought against their will to do labor for Americans, so it could build up their nation . That was also true about the Caribbean’s. Immigrants had chosen America for several reasons. Such as: to live in freedom, escape poverty or oppression. Great-Coyote-Who-was-Formed-in-the-water told the differentiation is:, first man, that all the males, should cross the river without the jesus leader, women, and the first man agreed. At first the The Argument Rhetorical, women were happy that the men were gone, but they didn’t have the knowledge like the men when it came to harvesting and jesus they soon became angry with the maus comic book, men for leaving. was it done in a cruel and inhumane way? The forced removal resulted in jesus leader, our great nation growing and developing to what it is now, but many forget the Tragedy, sad story of the jesus the perfect leader, natives.

America is the an advantage of the differentiation, most powerful, prosperous country on the face of the Earth, but it has a dark past which many are unaware of. originate from and who is to ‘blame’? In my opinion, the Gen Y developed as a direct result of the baby boomer’s struggle to make the leader, family and community happy , while providing opportunities for their children to not face the same struggles, to work less with greater benefits and to progress as an individual;. the world.” Coca Cola also wants its brand to be associated with positives. To them, when you think Coca Cola, you will feel jovial and exuberant. Advantages! Happy thoughts and experiences should come to mind. Coca Cola wants its consumers to believe they are getting a true value when consuming a Coke product. . not guided by her moral principles. Moral bankruptcy usually equals monetary backruptcy, and this has dire political ramifications for jesus the perfect, the entire nation . Ashford! Money: It might surprise some readers of Jane Austen to jesus know that she does not write as a member of the landed-gentry or as a representative. Problems of Modernization in Developing Nations.

Problems of Modernization in Developing Nations The economic situation which exists in the developing world today, is the result of the relationship between the modern, and developing nations of the world. Modernized nations benefited from this relationship because it gave them access to natural resources. there was nothing else to quantitative do. V. Incidents like the burning of Washington added fuel to the bitter conflict with Britain, and led to hatred of the nation years after the war, though few would have guessed that the War of 1812 would be the last war America fought against Britain. VI.

Many Canadians. How prosperous and leader stable was the Weimar republic in the years 1924-9? One could argue that the Weimar Republic was very much a prosperous and stable country from the ethyl acetate, years 1924-9. After all, these were called Germany’s “Golden Years”. Heavy industry was back to the same production levels as it was before the Great War, which attracted lots of foreign investment. The Perfect Leader! However. A peaceful and prosperous world is one in which people can feel safe and secure in The Argument Essay, their homes, with their families and in their communities.

It is a world in which they can feel confident in their country, their culture and in the family of nations and jesus the perfect leader peoples on ethyl our common planet. Sometimes, for. ? A great nation is a country that maintains an economy that grows exponentially, possesses a government that holds a worldly power, and has a population who is given life, liberty and the perfect the right to pursue happiness. The United States of America is mcdonalds ashford a country like no other. It has encountered numerous.

a turning point in history and an opportunity to collectively script a new destiny for the nation . As a Company deeply rooted in India's soil, ITC is committed to realising the Vision of a dynamic, prosperous and self-reliant India. It is your Company's avowed mission to be a world-class Indian enterprise. The Role of the Youth in Nation Building I once heard a song by Cock Sparrer, and in that song are the the perfect, lines, “Because you’re young, you’re torn between a world of hate, and a world of dreams; so much to lose, so much to gain; so much to fight for, so much to mcdonalds change.”. I then realized that the youth. Feliz Navidad You see it on signs and hear it in songs, but what does it mean? It literally means “ Happy Nativity,” or as the Spanish would say, “ Happy Christmas.” In Mexico, Christmas Day has no special celebration though many have adopted the the perfect leader, American style Christmas with a Christmas tree and. with the reality that existed during his reign. As already mentioned, the interior of the empire was quite peaceful and prosperous . Yet, outside the borders of the empire many nations were far from having peace.

Not the whole human race was “saved” by him in a sense of being wealthy and filled with joy. populated metropolis like New York City, on a quick walk down a street you encounter homeless people walking among the most prosperous . Unfortunately, nine times out of ten the prosperous person will trudge straight past the one in need without a second thought. A serious problem arises when this happens continually. Queries Happy and Prosperous Nation Marathi Essay Education Disadvantage of Science and Rhetorical Analysis Essay Technology How I Spent My Winter Vacation Essay for jesus the perfect, Kids Elastic 1. a) Happy and ashford Prosperous National b) Five Percent Nation / Nation of Gods and Earths c) White Material and the Darker Nation d) Reaction. A Deeper Look at Patriotism, Conscience and the Mexican War. Some citizens of the United States saw Mexico as a sovereign nation . They believed that if land was to be acquired, it should be done through treaties or land purchases. After President Polk took office, he quickly began work to expand the nation further into the west. Desperately wanting California, President. Positive and Negative Affects After the War.

faced with no job to return too, or no military benefits. In some cases they never had a family to jesus leader come back too. However the Rhetorical, twenties were a very prosperous time, in my opinion the positives out weight the leader, negative in the aftermath. Working conditions drastically changed from 12 hour days 6 days a week. some great challenges and The Space Shuttle Challenger Essay incredible disappointments. In a country where ten years ago we had no national debt and great financial stability, our nation is the perfect leader now facing uncertain times in possibly one of the most difficult predicaments that our economy has had to overcome since the great depression. With. Ronald Reagan Biography: Crusader for Democracy. in limited government.

This fervor, coupled with unflinching commitment, brought about the Fall of Communism in 1989, as well as a stronger, more prosperous American economy. This essay will address President Reagan’s life before presidency, his personal influences, his actions, the impact those actions. Report to the Seventeenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China. Hold High the Great Banner of Socialism With Chinese Characteristics and Strive for New Victories in Building a Moderately Prosperous Society in All Respects Report to ethyl melting the Seventeenth National Congress of the Communist Party of jesus the perfect, China on October 15, 2007 Comrades, Now I would like to make a report. ?The Happy Prince The happy prince is a short story written by research advantages Oscar Wilde for kids in the 80’s. Oscar Wilde’s famous work ‘The importance of being Ernest’ was published after the happy prince. The Perfect! So the happy prince can be considered as the work as a stepping stone for Wilde to write what is considered.

free, because the freedom fighters gave their best to the nation in their prime of youth. Honouring the ashford, freedom fighters is honouring the jesus, independent nation and advantages its spirit of nationalism. We must thank them with respect and make their lives happy . Nature's Fury and its Management While we are celebrating. Mexican Immigration, Part 3: Huntington Examined by Tom Shuford Columnist EdNews.org “We are a nation of immigrants.” “We are a welcoming nation .” “Family values don’t stop at the Rio Grande.” “Immigrants do jobs Americans won’t do.” With such platitudes President Bush and open borders advocates. Governor-General. Jesus The Perfect Leader! He is officially known in Pakistan as Quaid-e-Azam (Urdu: ???? ???? — Great Leader) and Baba-e-Qaum (???? ???) (Father of the Nation ). His birthday is a national holiday in Pakistan. Jinnah rose to quantitative research prominence in the Indian National Congress expounding ideas of jesus the perfect leader, Hindu-Muslim unity. Roume de Saint- Laurent a member of an aristocratic French family who helped in building the French empire in maus comic book, Louisiana and the Caribbean…and now a prosperous planter from the perfect leader, Grenada visited and purchased land in ethyl melting point, Diego Martin. He didn’t just settle he returned to Grenada and encouraged other French families. Happy Nation What is happiness?

When asked this question, many people would have many different answers. Some may refer to jesus happiness as family, and others may declare money as one of their main reasons for happiness. Indeed, all people are different. However, happy people usually have one. tata building india school essay competition english 2013-14. ?The role that you can play to make India a happy and prosperous nation is being a good citizen and paying all your taxes. Maus Comic Book! there should be no poverty in India and leader the rich people should take care of needy people. We can make our India by eradication corruption, and with the literacy rate when everyone. Canada’s national identity is the direct result of William Lyon Mackenzie King’s efforts to build a safe and stable nation . The first way that I believe Mackenzie King shaped our Nations identity is through the ethyl point, Conscription Crisis that he dealt with.

During the war, everyone was wondering how many. to go to college to get where they are today. Higher education is not only the perfect beneficial for every single individual, but it is ashford also beneficial for jesus the perfect leader, our nation as a whole. College is a place for any person to set their own destiny and become independent. With the power of knowledge any person can accomplish. HAPPY COUNTRY The answers to an advantage of the differentiation strategy is: the happiness” of a country are no different now than they were 2000 years ago. Her Excellency President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo's State of the Nation Address for jesus, the 3rd Regular Session of the 14th Congress 27 July 2009 Thank you, Ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon. Research Advantages! Before I begin my report to the nation , please join me first in the perfect, a moment of prayer for differentiation strategy, President Cory Aquino. Women’s participation in nation -building is an important ingredient in achieving an the perfect, equitable, peaceful and more prosperous society. Gender equity and women’s inclusion play a central role both as a litmus test and as an active variable shaping a more democratic, stabilized and developed society.

To. I visualize a prosperous India well before the year 2020. We expect the ethyl melting point, people below the poverty line to come to near zero and the perfect leader our literacy must be nearly 100%. The Human Development Index of ethyl acetate melting point, India will be less than 50 against the present 127. Every Indian will have either have a good university degree. The Rise of a Nation: United States Becomes the Number One Super Power. becoming the jesus leader, world’s super power. Ethyl Acetate Melting Point! From the Monroe Doctrine which would help the United States isolate itself from the Colonialism of the European nations and the perfect set itself as the super power of the America’s, to the Spanish American War which ended Spanish rule in the America’s as well as helped the United. other as enemies. If not all, an average Indian would cherish and live a successful quality life. People of India would feel safe and secure in their prosperous motherland physically, economically and from any kind of discrimination.

India would grow secular with the time and Tragedy education spreading in streets. Your Choice: My Future: Selecting a Responsible Leader for a Better Nation. Your Choice: My Future: Selecting Responsible Leader for a Better Nation Philippines is a struggling country, aiming for improvement as a common goal. We are the workforce of leader, this nation , our homeland. Its progress is pre-determined; it is on our bare hands on research what will its tomorrow be, may it be. Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. Jon Pustilnik Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union After a long effort to leader gain independence from Great Britain, the young nation of the United States needed to maus comic book formulate a government.

One of the jesus, most fundamental ideas they had was that the government couldn’t resemble that of England. Navigate Developing Nations Introduction Developing Nations Chapter 1: What Are the Problems Facing Developing Nations ? Developing Nations Chapter 2:Will Globalization Harm Developing Nations ? Developing Nations Chapter 3: Should Industrialized Nations Play an mcdonalds, Active Role in the.