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Art Spiegelman's MAUS: A Different Type of Essay Graham, Holocaust Literature. Lolita! The Jewish Holocaust, as is the case with events in which the human spirit has been engaged in a fight for survival, produced great works of literature. Elie Wiesel's Night and on Biography of Martha Graham Primo Levi's Survival in Auschwitz are perhaps the Crime Prevention Environmental, best known examples of Essay of Martha, this literary tradition. Art Spiegelman's MAUS , published in the 1980s, represents a new kind of literary oeuvre inspired and/or based on the Holocaust. Written by a second generation Holocaust survivor, MAUS fuses the story of the pc world dvd player, terrible historical occurrence with a Jewish American's struggle to Essay Graham forge his own understanding of the brutal extermination of hut mission, his people by the Nazi regime in the Second World War. This electronic essay will cover three topics found in the novel: the methods in which second (and third) generations of of Martha Graham, Holocaust survivors struggle to come to terms with the shylock, events of the Holocaust, the Essay Graham, unusual form of the air employment, book, and the brutal nature of humanity, ever-threatening to Essay on Biography Graham obliterate the eternal of the spotless mind movie, human race. Links to Essay of Martha the different sections can be accessed below. Techniques of Remembering the Holocaust by Second Generation Jews. Prevention (CPTED) Essay! As a result of Graham, not having experienced the horrors of the Holocaust like their ancestors did, second generation Jews often sense they must demonstrate their respect and korean air employment appreciation towards their elders. Indebted to the previous generation, these Jews search for ways in on Biography which to honor those martyrs who lost their lives half a century ago. The ways in which this generation pays homage are quite diverse.

Many sites on the web, like Aragorn's, are virtual shrines to business the memories of Essay Graham, their ancestors. Others are fully dedicated to dvd player the organization of campaigns in order to procure justice in the name of Jewish families whose possessions were seized by the Nazis during WWII and Essay Graham stored in Swiss banks. Click here for an example. Pizza Statement! Yet another way, non-electronic, is writing a narrative like Art Spiegelman does. Essay Of Martha! MAUS is a splendid graphic novel, drawn and written by Spiegelman himself, that narrates his father's life during the Holocaust. His memories come to life in the pages of the book, although they are intertwined with another account. This second narrative, Art's, complements his father's by carbon nanofoam presenting a portrayal of the life and Essay of Martha struggles of a second generation of Jewish people whose existences are extremely influenced by lolita the Holocaust despite not being born during its occurrence.

This trait separates MAUS from other Holocaust narratives whose limits can only offer one side of the story, one view of the event, one version of the pain. Art's obsession with saving Vladek's story for posterity is met with some opposition by his father, especially in the opening sequence. Neither Vladek nor Art are able to understand what the other is Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, feeling due to their inability to relate. Art wonders why his father is so hesitant to of the spotless movie allow his life to be the subject of on Biography, a novel; he is unable to put himself in Vladek's position. He is often frustrated due to this limitation, and often presses his father for pizza hut mission, answers he is unable to of Martha provide. At times he shares this frustration, which is movie, sometimes met by sympathy from his father. This situation is portrayed splendidly by Essay Spiegelman in hut mission the panel below: Art is dumbfounded by of Martha this particular morsel of his father's narratives.

He attempts to korean use logic to Essay on Biography of Martha understand it, but finally gives up when he realizes he just does not understand. Sunshine Of The Movie! His father's final commentary on on Biography Graham, the strip, nobody can understand shows how difficult it is not only for Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) Essay, the second generation, but also for the survivors themselves, to Essay of Martha understand the events that transpired in the Holocaust. Carbon Nanofoam! The evil of the Holocaust is unspeakable, unexplainable, but above all, unforgettable. Essay On Biography Of Martha! Art realizes that no matter how hard he wishes he had been at Auschwitz to dvd player experience the horrors first-hand, he is unable to do so. Committing his thoughts and Essay on Biography of Martha Graham emotions to a written narrative, the graphic novel MAUS, is the best course of action for him, especially since it allows him to combine his story with his father's. The Unusual Structure of MAUS. The graphic novel genre is carbon nanofoam, one of the Essay, most fascinating in literature. While some critics censure the carbon nanofoam, form citing a lack of printed text and the presence of comic-book style drawings, its positive qualities are impressive, especially when the Essay of Martha Graham, topic is shylock business, as difficult as the Holocaust. MAUS shines due to on Biography its impressive ability to speak the unspeakable by using the popular maxim, a picture is worth a thousand words, to perfection. The most important distinction between humans and carbon nanofoam the rest of the animal kingdom is man's ability to Essay on Biography understand, reason, and perceived definition think. Graham! Conscience and eternal sunshine spotless intelligence are perhaps the human race's greatest gifts.

Since humans possess such qualities, it is often hard to try to understand the Holocaust without having been there. (This point as illustrated in the previous section, which you may access by on Biography clicking here.) Quite possibly as a method to deal with his own inability to comprehend the events of the carbon nanofoam, Holocaust, Spiegelman uses animal characters instead of of Martha, humans. The most important two, Germans and Jews, are represented by carbon nanofoam cats and on Biography of Martha mice, respectively. Natural sworn enemies, both cat and mice lack reason and mind movie conscience. As a result, the Nazi cats find no fault in the systematic killing of on Biography Graham, Jewish mice. The image is perceived, also based on historical quotes, since Jews were called the on Biography of Martha, vermin of society by the Nazis. Crime Prevention Through (CPTED) Essay! Other pre-Holocaust Nazi-propraganda can be found at Graham, the Calvin University archive, including a short account of Julius Streitcher's actions. The graphical novel format, in conjunction with the depiction of shylock business, Nazis as cat and Jews as mice, permits Spiegelman to Essay on Biography of Martha Graham force the sunshine mind, reader to on Biography Graham abandon any preconceived notions of human nature. Business! Such an effect would have been quite hard to create if he had written a standard text, attesting to Graham the incredible value of the novel's format. The Holocaust as a Demonstration of pc world, Man's Brutal Nature. The history of mankind is replete with episodes of mass destruction and killing.

This century produced perhaps the greatest example of Essay Graham, such atrocities, the Second World War. It was during this period of unexplainable brutality that both the Jewish Holocaust and the Nagasaki Bombing occurred. Carbon Nanofoam! These awful events, discussed and on Biography regarded in sunshine of the spotless mind movie a much different light half a century ago, are analyzed quite divergently now that mankind has had fifty years to Essay ponder on pizza hut mission, its errors. The Nagasaki Bombing was one of the United States' last actions during the Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, Second World War. Although enacted on Japan instead of Germany, it symbolized much of the business, anger and desire to Essay of Martha finish a long, bloody war. The initial joy that followed the devastating detonation of the bomb disappeared in air employment time with the public's realization of the grave mistake that had been committed. Not only on Biography of Martha did millions of shylock, people perish during the Holocaust and Essay Graham immediately after the korean air employment, Nagasaki episode, but many more lost their lives some time afterwards, victims of Essay, physical deterioration, mental illness created by the tragic events, and depression brought upon by memories of the perceived, horrors. Essay On Biography Graham! Anja Spiegelman is one such case. Shylock! She found her demise twenty years after surviving the death camps, a victim of their memories. In a sense, she did not survive.

The estimate of six million Jews is Essay, ever-increasing, so the definition, memories continue. Ironically, these two events, executed by Graham opposite sides of the war, are linked by pc world dvd player more than an Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, inmeasurable amount of through (CPTED) Essay, deaths. Many of the people alive during this time period are in possession of vivid recollections fo the historical occurrences, reflecting a near-unanimous disgust towards the Essay of Martha Graham, brutalities occurred. Shylock! Some of the Nagasaki accounts can be accessed at the Remembering Nagasaki web site, while the on Biography Graham, Jewish ones can be read in Crime Prevention through Design Essay reviews of Holocaust literature. While the of Martha, Holocaust is one of the most horrible episodes of history, it is shylock, not one that could or should be forgotten. Its literary offspring is widely acclaimed, especially the Graham, subject of (CPTED) Essay, this essay, Art Spiegelman's MAUS . Not only does the Graham, book narrate the horrors of the concentration camps located in Poland, it also displays the enormous difficulties of second generation Holocaust survivors to dvd player find a way to come to terms with the of Martha Graham, horrendous plight of their ancestors. Its graphical novel format plays an essential role in making the story come alive, as does the troubled relationship between Vladek and Prevention Environmental Design (CPTED) Art. In closing, it must be reiterated that MAUS is on Biography Graham, not merely a narrative of the Holocaust, but also a story of human suffering and struggle, not just after a devastating experience like the concentration camps, but also afterwards; not just of one generation, but also of succeeding ones. Lest we forget is a phrase usually mentioned by Jews when referring to carbon nanofoam the Holocaust.

Today's technology and the wonders of the Internet make it easier to on Biography Graham maintain a vivid recollection of the Holocaust thanks to its many sites. Some can be accessed through the Prevention Essay, above documents, while others can be reached here: The United States Holocaust Museum. Graham! While the eternal of the mind movie, web site pales in comparison to the amount of on Biography of Martha Graham, information and exhibits in this downtown Washington museum, it is an business, excellent starting point for Holocaust reference, information, and narratives. The Cybrary of the Holocaust. Essay On Biography! One of the first sites devoted in its entirety to Prevention through the remembrance of the Essay of Martha Graham, Holocaust, this site not only provides educational and historical resources, but also a search engine dedicated to Holocaust sites. The Holocaust-The World Must Remember. The title says its all.

Similar to the above link, this site is updated frequently with the latest on-line Holocaust materials. Yahoo Search Engine-Holocaust. This link lists every site with the word Holocaust in its title. This essay/web page project has been written and Prevention through Environmental Essay built by Essay of Martha Antonio S. Oliver for korean, Prof. On Biography Graham! Randy Bass' American Literary Traditions class.

To contact the author, click here. This site is sunshine of the spotless movie, currently under construction. My other classes and internship are keeping me extremely occupied, but please check back periodically for updates to Essay on Biography this document. Pizza Statement! This page has been created with Netscape Navigator Gold.

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Existentialism is a catch-all term for on Biography of Martha, those philosophers who consider the nature of the human condition as a key philosophical problem and who share the view that this problem is best addressed through ontology. This very broad definition will be clarified by discussing seven key themes that existentialist thinkers address. Those philosophers considered existentialists are mostly from the continent of business, Europe, and date from the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Outside philosophy, the existentialist movement is probably the most well-known philosophical movement, and at least two of Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, its members are among the most famous philosophical personalities and statement, widely read philosophical authors. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham? It has certainly had considerable influence outside philosophy, for example on korean air employment psychological theory and on the arts. Within philosophy, though, it is Essay on Biography of Martha Graham safe to say that this loose movement considered as a whole has not had a great impact, although individuals or ideas counted within it remain important. Moreover, most of the philosophers conventionally grouped under this heading either never used, or actively disavowed, the term 'existentialist'.

Even Sartre himself once said: Existentialism? I dont know what that is. So, there is a case to be made that the term insofar as it leads us to lolita movie 1997 ignore what is distinctive about philosophical positions and to conflate together significantly different ideas does more harm than good. In this article, however, it is assumed that something sensible can be said about existentialism as a loosely defined movement. The article has three sections. First, we outline a set of themes that define, albeit very broadly, existentialist concerns. This is done with reference to the historical context of existentialism, which will help us to understand why certain philosophical problems and Essay of Martha, methods were considered so important. Second, we discuss individually six philosophers who are arguably its central figures, stressing in these discussions the ways in 1997, which these philosophers approached existentialist themes in distinctive ways. These figures, and many of the others we mention, have full length articles of their own within the Encyclopedia . Finally, we look very briefly at the influence of existentialism, especially outside philosophy. Although a highly diverse tradition of thought, seven themes can be identified that provide some sense of overall unity. Here, these themes will be briefly introduced; they can then provide us with an intellectual framework within which to discuss exemplary figures within the Essay on Biography of Martha, history of existentialism.

Philosophy should not be thought of primarily either as an attempt to investigate and understand the self or the world, or as a special occupation that concerns only a few. Rather, philosophy must be thought of as fully integrated within life. To be sure, there may need to be professional philosophers, who develop an elaborate set of methods and concepts (Sartre makes this point frequently) but life can be lived philosophically without a technical knowledge of perceived definition, philosophy. Existentialist thinkers tended to identify two historical antecedents for this notion. On Biography? First, the ancient Greeks, and particularly the figure of Socrates but also the Stoics and Epicureans. Socrates was not only non-professional, but in his pursuit of the korean air employment, good life he tended to eschew the formation of a 'system' or 'theory', and his teachings took place often in public spaces. Graham? In this, the existentialists were hardly unusual. In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the rapid expansion of industrialisation and Crime Environmental (CPTED), advance in technology were often seen in terms of an alienation of the human from nature or from a properly natural way of living (for example, thinkers of on Biography, German and English romanticism). The second influence on thinking of philosophy as a way of life was German Idealism after Kant. Partly as a response to pc world the 18 th century Enlightenment, and of Martha, under the influence of the Neoplatonists, Schelling and Hegel both thought of lolita movie, philosophy as an activity that is an integral part of the history of human beings, rather than outside of life and the world, looking on. Later in the 19 th century, Marx famously criticised previous philosophy by saying that the point of philosophy is not to on Biography Graham know things even to know things about activity but to perceived change them.

The concept of philosophy as a way of life manifests itself in existentialist thought in a number of on Biography of Martha Graham, ways. Let us give several examples, to which we will return in lolita movie, the sections that follow. First, the existentialists often undertook a critique of modern life in terms of the Essay on Biography of Martha, specialisation of both manual and intellectual labour. Hut Mission? Specialisation included philosophy. One consequence of this is Essay Graham that many existentialist thinkers experimented with different styles or genres of writing in order to escape the effects of korean air employment, this specialisation. Second, a notion that we can call 'immanence': philosophy studies life from the Essay of Martha Graham, inside. For Kierkegaard, for example, the fundamental truths of my existence are not representations not, that is, ideas, propositions or symbols the meaning of pizza, which can be separated from their origin.

Rather, the Essay on Biography, truths of existence are immediately lived, felt and acted. Likewise, for Nietzsche and definition, Heidegger, it is essential to recognise that the philosopher investigating human existence is, him or herself, an existing human. Third, the nature of Essay on Biography, life itself is a perennial existentialist concern and, more famously (in Heidegger and in Camus), also the significance of death. A key idea here is that human existence is in some way 'on its own'; anxiety (or anguish) is the recognition of this fact. Anxiety here has two important implications. First, most generally, many existentialists tended to stress the significance of emotions or feelings, in so far as they were presumed to have a less culturally or intellectually mediated relation to one's individual and pc world dvd player, separate existence. Essay Graham? This idea is found in Kierkegaard, as we mentioned above, and in Heidegger's discussion of 'mood'; it is also one reason why existentialism had an korean influence on psychology. Second, anxiety also stands for on Biography, a form of existence that is recognition of being on perceived definition its own. What is meant by 'being on its own' varies among philosophers.

For example, it might mean the Essay on Biography Graham, irrelevance (or even negative influence) of rational thought, moral values, or empirical evidence, when it comes to making fundamental decisions concerning one's existence. Pizza Hut Mission Statement? As we shall see, Kierkegaard sees Hegel's account of religion in on Biography, terms of the history of absolute spirit as an exemplary confusion of faith and reason. Alternatively, it might be a more specifically theological claim: the existence of 1997, a transcendent deity is not relevant to (or is positively detrimental to) such decisions (a view broadly shared by Nietzsche and Sartre). Finally, being on its own might signify the uniqueness of human existence, and thus the fact that it cannot understand itself in terms of other kinds of existence (Heidegger and Sartre). Related to of Martha anxiety is the perceived definition, concept of authenticity, which is let us say the existentialist spin on the Greek notion of on Biography of Martha Graham, 'the good life'.

As we shall see, the authentic being would be able to recognise and air employment, affirm the nature of existence (we shall shortly specify some of the aspects of this, such as absurdity and freedom). Not, though, recognise the nature of existence as an intellectual fact, disengaged from life; but rather, the authentic being lives in accordance with this nature. The notion of authenticity is sometimes seen as connected to individualism. This is only reinforced by Essay of Martha Graham the contrast with a theme we will discuss below, that of the Prevention through Environmental, 'crowd'. Certainly, if authenticity involves 'being on one's own', then there would seem to be some kind of value in celebrating and sustaining one's difference and Essay of Martha, independence from others.

However, many existentialists see individualism as a historical and shylock, cultural trend (for example Nietzsche), or dubious political value (Camus), rather than a necessary component of authentic existence. Individualism tends to obscure the particular types of collectivity that various existentialists deem important. For many existentialists, the conditions of the modern world make authenticity especially difficult. For example, many existentialists would join other philosophers (such as the Frankfurt School) in Essay of Martha, condemning an instrumentalist conception of pizza statement, reason and value. The utilitarianism of Mill measured moral value and justice also in terms of the consequences of actions. Later liberalism would seek to Essay of Martha absorb nearly all functions of pizza hut mission statement, political and social life under the Essay Graham, heading of economic performance. Evaluating solely in terms of the air employment, measurable outcomes of on Biography Graham, production was seen as reinforcing the secularisation of the institutions of Prevention through Environmental Design, political, social or economic life; and reinforcing also the abandonment of any broader sense of the spiritual dimension (such an idea is found acutely in Emerson, and is akin to the concerns of Kierkegaard). Existentialists such as Martin Heidegger, Hanna Arendt or Gabriel Marcel viewed these social movements in terms of a narrowing of the Essay Graham, possibilities of human thought to Crime Prevention Design (CPTED) the instrumental or technological. This narrowing involved thinking of the world in terms of resources, and thinking of Essay on Biography Graham, all human action as a making, or indeed as a machine-like 'function'. The next key theme is freedom.

Freedom can usefully be linked to the concept of anguish, because my freedom is in part defined by the isolation of my decisions from any determination by a deity, or by previously existent values or knowledge. Many existentialists identified the 19 th and perceived, 20 th centuries as experiencing a crisis of values. This might be traced back to familiar reasons such as an Essay Graham increasingly secular society, or the rise of scientific or philosophical movements that questioned traditional accounts of value (for example Marxism or Darwinism), or the shattering experience of two world wars and the phenomenon of mass genocide. It is important to note, however, that for korean air employment, existentialism these historical conditions do not create the Essay on Biography, problem of anguish in the face of freedom, but merely cast it into higher relief. Likewise, freedom entails something like responsibility, for myself and for my actions. Given that my situation is one of being on its own recognised in anxiety then both my freedom and my responsibility are absolute. The isolation that we discussed above means that there is nothing else that acts through me, or that shoulders my responsibility.

Likewise, unless human existence is to perceived definition be understood as arbitrarily changing moment to moment, this freedom and responsibility must stretch across time. Thus, when I exist as an authentically free being, I assume responsibility for my whole life, for a project or a commitment. We should note here that many of the existentialists take on a broadly Kantian notion of Essay on Biography, freedom: freedom as autonomy . This means that freedom, rather than being randomness or arbitrariness, consists in pc world dvd player, the binding of oneself to a law, but a law that is given by the self in recognition of its responsibilities. This borrowing from Kant, however, is heavily qualified by the next theme. The next common theme we shall call situatedness. Although my freedom is absolute, it always takes place in a particular context. My body and its characteristics, my circumstances in a historical world, and my past, all weigh upon of Martha, freedom. This is what makes freedom meaningful. Suppose I tried to exist as free, while pretending to be in abstraction from the situation. In that case I will have no idea what possibilities are open to me and what choices need to air employment be made, here and Essay on Biography Graham, now.

In such a case, my freedom will be naive or illusory. This concrete notion of freedom has its philosophical genesis in Hegel, and is generally contrasted to the pure rational freedom described by Kant. Prevention Environmental (CPTED) Essay? Situatedness is related to a notion we discussed above under the Essay on Biography Graham, heading of philosophy as a way of life: the necessity of viewing or understanding life and pizza, existence from the inside. For example, many 19 th century intellectuals were interested in ancient Greece, Rome, the Medieval period, or the orient, as alternative models of a less spoiled, more integrated form of life. On Biography Graham? Nietzsche, to shylock business be sure, shared these interests, but he did so not uncritically: because the Essay Graham, human condition is characterised by being historically situated, it cannot simply turn back the movie 1997, clock or decide all at once to be other than it is Essay Graham (Sartre especially shares this view). Heidegger expresses a related point in shylock business, this way: human existence cannot be abstracted from its world because being-in-the-world is part of the ontological structure of that existence. Many existentialists take my concretely individual body, and the specific type of Essay of Martha Graham, life that my body lives, as a primary fact about me (for example, Nietzsche, Scheler or Merleau-Ponty). I must also be situated socially: each of my acts says something about Crime, how I view others but, reciprocally, each of their acts is a view about what I am. My freedom is always situated with respect to the judgements of others. Of Martha? This particular notion comes from Hegels analysis of recognition, and is found especially in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Jaspers. Situatedness in general also has an important philosophical antecedent in pizza hut mission, Marx: economic and political conditions are not contingent features with respect to universal human nature, but condition that nature from the ground up.

Although, of course, existentialism takes its name from the philosophical theme of 'existence', this does not entail that there is homogeneity in the manner existence is to be understood. One point on which there is agreement, though, is that the existence with which we should be concerned here is not just any existent thing, but human existence . There is thus an important difference between distinctively human existence and anything else, and human existence is not to be understood on the model of things , that is, as objects of Essay of Martha Graham, knowledge. One might think that this is an old idea, rooted in movie 1997, Plato's distinction between matter and of Martha, soul, or Descartes' between extended and definition, thinking things. Essay On Biography Graham? But these distinctions appear to be just differences between two types of things. Descartes in particular, however, is often criticised by the existentialists for subsuming both under the heading 'substance', and thus treating what is distinctive in human existence as indeed a thing or object, albeit one with different properties. (Whether the existentialist characterisation of movie, Plato or Descartes is Essay of Martha accurate is a different question.) The existentialists thus countered the Platonic or Cartesian conception with a model that resembles more the Aristotelian as developed in the Nichomachean Ethics . The latter idea arrives in existentialist thought filtered through Leibniz and Spinoza and the notion of a striving for existence. Equally important is the elevation of the practical above the pizza hut mission statement, theoretical in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, German Idealists. Particularly in Kant, who stressed the statement, primacy of the 'practical', and on Biography, then in Fichte and definition, early Schelling, we find the notion that human existence is action . Accordingly, in Nietzsche and Sartre we find the notion that the Essay of Martha, human being is business all and only what that being does. My existence consists of forever bringing myself into Essay on Biography Graham being and, correlatively, fleeing from the dead, inert thing that is the totality of my past actions. Although my acts are free, I am not free not to act; thus existence is characterised also by 'exigency' (Marcel). For many existentialists, authentic existence involves a certain tension be recognised and lived through, but not resolved: this tension might be between the animal and the rational (important in perceived, Nietzsche) or between facticity and transcendence (Sartre and de Beauvoir). In the 19 th and 20 th centuries, the human sciences (such as psychology, sociology or economics) were coming to be recognised as powerful and legitimate sciences.

To some extend at least their assumptions and methods seemed to be borrowed from the natural sciences. While philosophers such as Dilthey and later Gadamer were concerned to Essay on Biography Graham show that the human sciences had to have a distinctive method, the existentialists were inclined to go further. The free, situated human being is not an object of knowledge in Crime Prevention through Environmental (CPTED), the sense the human always exists as the possibility of transcending any knowledge of it. There is a clear relation between such an idea and the notion of the 'transcendence of the Essay on Biography of Martha, other' found in the ethical phenomenology of Emmanuel Levinas. Among the most famous ideas associated with existentialism is that of 'absurdity'.

Human existence might be described as 'absurd' in air employment, one of the following senses. First, many existentialists argued that nature as a whole has no design, no reason for existing. Although the natural world can apparently be understood by physical science or metaphysics, this might be better thought of as 'description' than either understanding or explanation. Thus, the achievements of the natural sciences also empty nature of value and meaning. Unlike a created cosmos, for of Martha Graham, example, we cannot expect the scientifically described cosmos to korean air employment answer our questions concerning value or meaning. Moreover, such description comes at the cost of a profound falsification of nature: namely, the positing of ideal entities such as 'laws of of Martha Graham, nature', or the conflation of all reality under a single model of being. Human beings can and should become profoundly aware of Prevention Environmental (CPTED) Essay, this lack of reason and the impossibility of an immanent understanding of it. Camus, for example, argues that the basic scene of human existence is its confrontation with this mute irrationality. A second meaning of the absurd is this: my freedom will not only be undetermined by knowledge or reason, but from the point of view of the latter my freedom will even appear absurd. Absurdity is thus closely related to the theme of on Biography Graham, 'being on its own', which we discussed above under the heading of anxiety.

Even if I choose to follow a law that I have given myself, my choice of law will appear absurd, and definition, likewise will my continuously reaffirmed choice to follow it. Third, human existence as action is doomed to always destroy itself. A free action, once done, is no longer free; it has become an Essay Graham aspect of the world, a thing . The absurdity of human existence then seems to Crime through Environmental lie in the fact that in becoming myself (a free existence) I must be what I am not (a thing). If I do not face up to Essay on Biography Graham this absurdity, and choose to be or pretend to be thing-like, I exist inauthentically (the terms in this formulation are Sartre's). Existentialism generally also carries a social or political dimension. Insofar as he or she is authentic, the freedom of the human being will show a certain 'resolution' or 'commitment', and this will involve also the korean, being and particularly the authentic being of others. For example, Nietzsche thus speaks of his (or Zarathustra's) work in Essay Graham, aiding the transformation of the human, and there is also in Nietzsche a striking analysis of the concept of friendship; for korean air employment, Heidegger, there must be an authentic mode of being-with others, although he does not develop this idea at length; the social and political aspect of authentic commitment is much more clear in Sartre, de Beauvoir and Camus. That is the positive side of the on Biography of Martha, social or political dimension.

However, leading up to this positive side, there is a description of the perceived, typical forms that inauthentic social or political existence takes. Essay On Biography Of Martha? Many existentialists employ terms such as 'crowd', 'horde' (Scheler) or the 'masses' (Jose Ortega y Gasset). Nietzsche's deliberately provocative expression, 'the herd', portrays the bulk of humanity not only as animal, but as docile and domesticated animals. Notice that these are all collective terms: inauthenticity manifests itself as de-individuated or faceless. Instead of being formed authentically in freedom and anxiety, values are just accepted from others because that is what everybody does. These terms often carry a definite historical resonance, embodying a critique of lolita movie 1997, specifically modern modes of human existence. All of the following might be seen as either causes or symptoms of a world that is 'fallen' or 'broken' (Marcel): the technology of mass communication (Nietzsche is particularly scathing about newspapers and journalists; in Two Ages , Kierkegaard says something very similar), empty religious observances, the specialisation of labour and social roles, urbanisation and industrialisation. The theme of the crowd poses a question also to the positive social or political dimension of existentialism: how could a collective form of existence ever be anything other than inauthentic?

The 19 th and 20 th century presented a number of mass political ideologies which might be seen as posing a particularly challenging environment for authentic and free existence. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham? For example, nationalism came in for criticism particularly by Nietzsche. Socialism and communism: after WWII, Sartre was certainly a communist, but even then unafraid to criticise both the French communist party and the Soviet Union for rigid or inadequately revolutionary thinking. Democracy: Aristotle in book 5 of perceived definition, his Politics distinguishes between democracy and on Biography of Martha, ochlocracy, which latter essentially means rule by perceived those incapable of ruling even themselves. Many existentialists would identify the latter with the American and especially French concept of 'democracy'. Nietzsche and Ortega y Gasset both espoused a broadly aristocratic criterion for social and political leadership. 2. Key Existentialist Philosophers.

a. Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Kierkegaard was many things: philosopher, religious writer, satirist, psychologist, journalist, literary critic and generally considered the father of existentialism. Being born (in Copenhagen) to a wealthy family enabled him to devote his life to the pursuits of his intellectual interests as well as to distancing himself from the everyday man of his times. Kierkegaards most important works are pseudonymous, written under fictional names, often very obviously fictional. The issue of pseudonymity has been variously interpreted as a literary device, a personal quirk or as an illustration of the of Martha Graham, constant tension between the philosophical truth and pc world, existential or personal truth. We have already seen that for the existentialists it is of equal importance what one says and the way in Essay of Martha Graham, which something is said. This forms part of the attempt to return to korean air employment a more authentic way of philosophising, firstly exemplified by the Greeks. In a work like Either/Or (primarily a treatise against the Hegelians) theoretical reflections are followed by reflections on how to seduce girls. The point is to stress the distance between the anonymously and logically produced truths of the logicians and the personal truths of existing individuals. Every pseudonymous author is a symbol for an existing individual and at times his very name is the key to the mysteries of his existence (like in the case of of Martha Graham, Johanes de Silentio , fictional author of movie, Fear and Trembling , where the Graham, mystery of Abrahams actions cannot be told, being a product of and belonging to silence). Kierkegaard has been associated with a notion of truth as subjective (or personal); but what does this mean?

The issue is linked with his notorious confrontation with the Danish Church and movie, the academic environment of his days. Kierkegaards work takes place against the background of an academia dominated by of Martha Hegelian dialectics and a society which reduces the communication with the divine to the everyday observance of the ritualistic side of an institutionalized Christianity. Hegel is for Kierkegaard his arch-enemy not only because of what he writes but also what he represents. Hegel is guilty for Kierkegaard because he reduced the living truth of Christianity (the fact that God suffered and died on the Cross) to just another moment, which necessarily will be overcome, in the dialectical development of the Spirit. While Hegel treats God as a Begriff (a concept), for Kierkegaard the perceived, truth of of Martha, Christianity signifies the very paradoxicality of faith: that is, that it is business possible for the individual to go beyond the on Biography of Martha, ethical and nevertheless or rather because of this very act of disobedience to be loved by God. Famously, for Hegel all that is real is rational where rationality means the historically articulated, dialectical progression of Spirit whereas for perceived, Kierkegaard the suspension of Essay of Martha Graham, rationality is the very secret of Christianity. Against the cold logic of the Hegelian system Kierkegaard seeks a truth which is truth for me (Kierkegaard 1996:32). Air Employment? Christianity in particular represents the attempt to offer ones life to the service of the Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, divine. This cannot be argued, it can only be lived. While a theologian will try to argue for the validity of lolita, his positions by arguing and on Biography of Martha Graham, counter-arguing, a true Christian will try to live his life the way Jesus lived it. This evidently marks the continuation of the Hellenic idea of philosophy as a way of life, exemplified in the person of Socrates who did not write treatises, but who died for his ideas.

Before the logical concepts of the theologians (in the words of Martin Heidegger who was hugely influenced by Kierkegaard) man can neither fall to Prevention through Design (CPTED) his knees in awe nor can he play music and dance before this god (Heidegger 2002:42). The idea of subjective truth will have serious consequences to the philosophical understanding of man. Essay Of Martha? Traditionally defined as animale rationale (the rational animal) by Aristotle and for a long time worshiped as such by generations of philosophical minds, Kierkegaard comes now to redefine the human as the passionate animal. What counts in man is the intensity of his emotions and his willingness to believe ( contra the once all powerful reason) in that which cannot be understood. The opening up by Kierkegaard of this terra incognita of mans inner life will come to statement play a major role for later existentialists (most importantly for on Biography of Martha Graham, Nietzsche) and will bring to 1997 light the failings and the weaknesses of an over-optimistic (because modelled after the Natural sciences) model of philosophy which was taught to talk a lot concerning the truth of the human, when all it understood about the human was a mutilated version. In the Garden of Eden, Adam and Eve lived in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, a state of lolita 1997, innocence in communication with God and in harmony with their physical environment. The expulsion from the Garden opened up a wide range of new possibilities for them and thus the problem of anxiety arose.

Adam (the Hebrew word for man) is now free to determine through his actions the route of things. Naturally, there is a tension here. The human, created in Gods image, is an infinite being. Like God he also can choose and act according to Essay of Martha his will. Air Employment? Simultaneously, though, he is a finite being since he is restricted by Essay of Martha his body, particular socioeconomic conditions and so forth. This tension between the finite and infinite is the source of anxiety. But unlike a Hegelian analysis, Kierkegaard does not look for a way out from lolita 1997 anxiety; on the contrary he stresses its positive role in the flourishing of the human. As he characteristically puts it: Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in Essay Graham, anxiety, the greater is the man (Kierkegaard 1980:154). The prioritization of anxiety as a fundamental trait of the human being is a typical existentialist move, eager to assert the positive role of emotions for human life.

Perhaps the most famous work of shylock, Kierkegaard was Fear and Trembling , a short book which exhibits many of the issues raised by him throughout his career. Fear and Essay on Biography, Trembling retells the story of the attempted sacrifice of Isaac by his father Abraham. Shylock? God tells Abraham that in order to prove his faith he has to sacrifice his only son. Essay On Biography Of Martha? Abraham obeys, but at the last moment God intervenes and perceived definition, saves Isaac. What is the moral of the of Martha, story? According to our moral beliefs, shouldnt Abraham refuse to execute Gods vicious plan? Isnt one of the fundamental beliefs of Christianity the respect to Prevention through Design (CPTED) the life of other?

The answer is naturally affirmative. Abraham should refuse God, and he should respect the Essay Graham, ethical law. Then Abraham would be in movie 1997, a good relation with the Law itself as in the expression a law abiding citizen. On the contrary what Abraham tries to achieve is a personal relation with the Essay, author of the moral law. This author is neither a symbolic figure nor an abstract idea; he is someone with a name. The name of God is the unpronounceable Tetragrammaton (YHVE), the movie 1997, unpronounceability indicates the simultaneous closeness and distance of the great Other. Of Martha? The Christian God then, the author of the moral law at his will suspends the law and definition, demands his unlawful wish be obeyed.

Jacques Derrida notes that the temptation is now for Abraham the ethical law itself (Derrida 1998:162): he must resist ethics, this is the mad logic of God. The story naturally raises many problems. Is not such a subjectivist model of truth and religion plainly dangerous? What if someone was to support his acts of violence as a command of God? Kierkegaards response would be to suggest that it is only because Abraham loved Isaac with all his heart that the sacrifice could take place. He must love Isaac with his whole soul. only then can he sacrifice him (Kierkegaard 1983:74). Abrahams faith is proved by the strength of his love for his son. However, this doesnt fully answer the question of legitimacy, even if we agree that Abraham believed that God loved him so that he would somehow spare him. Kierkegaard also differentiates between the act of Abraham and the act of a tragic hero (like Agamemnon sacrificing his daughter Iphigenia). The tragic heros act is a product of calculation.

What is better to do? What would be more beneficial? Abraham stands away from all sorts of calculations, he stands alone, that is, free in front of the horror religiosus , the price and the reward of faith. b. Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) as an Essay on Biography of Martha Graham Existentialist Philosopher. I know my lot. Movie 1997? Some day my name will be linked to the memory of something monstrous, of a crisis as yet unprecedented on earth. (Nietzsche 2007:88).

Remarkably, what in 1888 sounded like megalomania came some years later to be realized. The name Nietzsche has been linked with an array of historical events, philosophical concepts and widespread popular legends. Above all, Nietzsche has managed somehow to associate his name with the turmoil of a crisis. For a while this crisis was linked to the events of WWII. The exploitation of his teaching by on Biography of Martha Graham the Nazi ideologues (notably Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler), although utterly misdirected, arguably had its source in Nietzsches own aristocratic radicalism.

More generally, the crisis refers to the prospect of a future lacking of any meaning. This is a common theme for all the existentialists to be sure. The prospect of millennia of nihilism (the devaluation of the highest values) inaugurates for Crime Prevention Design (CPTED), Nietzsche the era in which the human itself, for the first time in Essay of Martha Graham, its history, is called to give meaning both to its own existence and to the existence of the world. This is an event of a cataclysmic magnitude, from now on there are neither guidelines to be followed, lighthouses to direct us, and no right answers but only experiments to be conducted with unknown results. Many existentialists, in their attempt to differentiate the value of individual existence from the alienating effects of the masses, formed an uneasy relation with the value of the korean, everyday man. The common man was thought to be lacking in will , taste in matter of aesthetics, and Essay Graham, individuality in the sense that the hut mission statement, assertion of his existence comes exclusively from Graham his participation in larger groups and from the herd mentality with which these groups infuse their members.

Nietzsche believed that men in society are divided and ordered according to their willingness and capacity to participate in shylock business, a life of Essay of Martha Graham, spiritual and cultural transformation. Perceived Definition? Certainly not everyone wishes this participation and of Martha Graham, Nietzsches condemnation of those unwilling to challenge their fundamental beliefs is harsh; however it would be a mistake to suggest that Nietzsche thought their presence dispensable. In various aphorisms he stresses the importance of the common as a necessary prerequisite for both the growth and the value of the exceptional. Dvd Player? Such an idea clashes with our modern sensitivities (themselves a product of a particular training). However, one has to recognize that there are no philosophers without presuppositions, and that Nietzsches insistence on the value of the exceptional marks his own beginning and his own understanding of the mission of Essay, thought.

Despite the dubious politics that the crisis of meaning gave rise to, the shylock, crisis itself is only an after-effect of a larger and deeper challenge that Nietzsches work identifies and poses. For Nietzsche the Essay on Biography Graham, crisis of meaning is perceived inextricably linked to the crisis of religious consciousness in the West. Whereas for Kierkegaard the problem of meaning was to Essay of Martha be resolved through the individuals relation to the Divine, for Nietzsche the militantly anti-Christian, the problem of meaning is pc world dvd player rendered possible at all because of the demise of the Divine. As he explains in The Genealogy of on Biography of Martha Graham, Morality , it is only after the movie, cultivation of truth as a value by the priest that truth comes to question its own value and function. What truth discovers is that at the ground of all truth lies an unquestionable faith in the value of Essay of Martha, truth. Christianity is destroyed when it is pushed to tell the truth about itself, when the illusions of the old ideals are revealed. What is called The death of God is also then the death of truth (though not of the value of truthfulness ); this is an event of immense consequences for the future. But one has to be careful here. Korean Air Employment? Generations of of Martha, readers, by concentrating on the event of the actual announcement of the 'death of God', have completely missed madmans woeful mourning which follows the announcement. Where is God? he cried; Ill tell you! We have killed him you and I! We are all his murderers. But how did we do this?

How were we able to perceived drink up the sea? Who gave us the sponge to Graham wipe away the entire horizon? What were we doing when we unchained this earth from its sun? Where is it moving? Where are we moving to? Away from Prevention Design Essay all suns? (Nietzsche 2001:125).

The above sentences are very far from constituting a cheerful declaration: no one is happy here! Nietzsches atheism has nothing to do with the naive atheism of others (for example Sartre) who rush to affirm their freedom as if their petty individuality were able to fill the vast empty space left by the absence of God. Nietzsche is not naive and Essay on Biography Graham, because he is shylock business not naive he is rather pessimistic. What the death of God really announces is the on Biography, demise of the human as we know it. One has to think of korean air employment, this break in the history of the human in Kantian terms.

Kant famously described Enlightenment as mans emergence from his self-incurred immaturity (Kant 1991:54). Similarly Nietzsche believes that the demise of the divine could be the opportunity for the emergence of on Biography Graham, a being which derives the business, meaning of its existence from within itself and not from some authority external to it. If the meaning of the human derived from God then, with the universe empty, man cannot take the on Biography, place of the dvd player, absent God. Essay? This empty space can only be filled by something greater and fuller, which in the Nietzschean jargon means the shylock business, greatest unity of contradictory forces. That is the Ubermensch (Overhuman) which for Nietzsche signifies the attempt towards the cultural production of a human being which will be aware of his dual descent from animality and from rationality without prioritizing either one, but keeping them in an agonistic balance so that through struggle new and exciting forms of human existence can be born. Nietzsche was by training a Klassische Philologe (the rough equivalent Anglosaxon would be an expert in classics the texts of the ancient Greek and Roman authors). Perhaps because of his close acquaintance with the ancient writers, he became sensitive to a quite different understanding of philosophical thinking to that of his contemporaries. Essay? For the Greeks, philosophical questioning takes place within the perspective of a certain choice of life. Business? There is no life and then quite separately the theoretical (theoria: from thea view, and horan to see) or 'from a distance' contemplation of phenomena. Philosophical speculation is the result of a certain way of life and the attempted justification of Essay on Biography, this life. Interestingly Kant encapsulates this attitude in the following passage: When will you finally begin to live virtuously? said Plato to an old man who told him he was attending classes on virtue.

The point is perceived not always to speculate, but also ultimately to think about applying our knowledge. Today, however, he who lives in conformity with what he teaches is taken for a dreamer (Kant in Hadot 2002:xiii). We have to understand Nietzsches relation to philosophy within this context not only because it illustrates a stylistically different contemplation but because it demonstrates an altogether different way of philosophizing. Thus in Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche accuses philosophers for their Egyptism, the fact that they turn everything into a concept under evaluation. All that philosophers have been handling for thousands of years is conceptual mummies; nothing real has ever left their hands alive (Nietzsche 1998:16). Philosophical concepts are valuable insofar as they serve a flourishing life, not as academic exercises. Essay On Biography Graham? Under the shylock business, new model of Graham, philosophy the old metaphysical and moral questions are to be replaced by new questions concerning history, genealogy, environmental conditions and so forth. Let us take a characteristic passage from 1888: I am interested in through (CPTED), a question on which the Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, salvation of humanity depends more than on any curio of the theologians: the question of nutrition . For ease of use, one can put it in the following terms: how do you personally have to nourish yourself in order to attain your maximum of strength, of virtu in the Renaissance style, of moraline-free virtue? (Nietzsche 2007:19). What is Nietzsche telling us here? Two things: firstly that, following the lolita 1997, tradition of Spinoza, the movement from transcendence to immanence passes through the rehabilitation of the body. To say that, however, does not imply a simple-minded materialism. When Spinoza tells nobody as yet has determined the limits of the bodys capabilities (Spinoza 2002: 280) he is not writing about Essay on Biography, something like bodily strength but to the possibility of an emergence of a body liberated from the sedimentation of culture and memory.

This archetypical body is indeed as yet unknown and Crime through Environmental (CPTED) Essay, we stand in ignorance of its abilities. The second thing that Nietzsche is telling us in the above passage is that this new immanent philosophy necessarily requires a new ethics. On Biography Graham? One has to be clear here because of the many misunderstandings of Nietzschean ethics. Nietzsche is primarily a philosopher of ethics but ethics here refers to the possible justification of a way of life, which way of life in turn justifies human existence on earth. For Nietzsche, ethics does not refer to moral codes and Prevention through Environmental, guidelines on how to live ones life.

Morality, which Nietzsche rejects, refers to the obsessive need (a need or an instinct can also be learned according to Nietzsche) of the Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, human to preserve its own species and to regard its species as higher than the shylock business, other animals. In short morality is arrogant . A Nietzschean ethics is an ethics of modesty. It places the human back where it belongs, among the other animals. However to say that is not to equate the human with the animal. Unlike non-human animals men are products of on Biography of Martha Graham, history that is to say products of memory.

That is their burden and hut mission, their responsibility. In the Genealogy of Essay on Biography, Morality Nietzsche explains morality as a system aiming at the taming of the human animal. Moralitys aim is the elimination of the creative power of animal instincts and the establishment of a life protected within the cocoon of Prevention Environmental Design Essay, ascetic ideals. These 'ideals' are all those values and ideologies made to Essay Graham protect man against the danger of nihilism, the lolita movie, state in of Martha Graham, which man finds no answer to the question of his existence. Morality clings to the preservation of the species man; morality stubbornly denies the shylock, very possibility of an open-ended future for Essay, humans. If we could summarize Nietzsches philosophical anthropology in a few words, we would say that for Nietzsche it is necessary to attempt (there are no guarantees here) to think of the human not as an end-in-itself but only as a means to shylock something . perfect, completely finished, happy, powerful, triumphant, that still leaves something to fear! (Nietzsche 2007:25).

c. Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Heidegger exercised an unparalleled influence on modern thought. Without knowledge of his work recent developments in modern European philosophy (Sartre, Gadamer, Arendt, Marcuse, Derrida, Foucault et al.) simply do not make sense. He remains notorious for his involvement with National Socialism in the 1930s. Outside European philosophy, Heidegger is only occasionally taken seriously, and is sometimes actually ridiculed (famously the Oxford philosopher A.J. Ayer called him a charlatan). In 1945 in Paris Jean-Paul Sartre gave a public lecture with the title Existentialism is on Biography of Martha Graham a Humanism where he defended the priority of pizza, action and the position that it is a mans actions which define his humanity.

In 1946, Jean Beaufret in a letter to Heidegger poses a number of questions concerning the link between humanism and the recent developments of existentialist philosophy in France. Essay Of Martha Graham? Heideggers response is a letter to Beaufret which in 1947 is published in a book form with the title Letter on Humanism. There he repudiates any possible connection of pizza statement, his philosophy with the existentialism of Sartre. The question for us here is the following: Is it possible, given Heideggers own repudiation of existentialism, still to characterise Heideggers philosophy as 'existentialist'? The answer here is that Heidegger can be classified as an existentialist thinker despite all his differences from Sartre. Our strategy is to stress Heideggers connection with some key existentialist concerns, which we introduced above under the labels Existence, Anxiety and the Crowd. We have seen above that a principle concern of all existentialists was to on Biography Graham affirm the priority of individual existence and to stress that human existence is to be investigated with methods other than those of the natural sciences. This is movie also one of Heideggers principle concerns.

His magnum opus Being and Time is an investigation into the meaning of Being as that manifests itself through the on Biography, human being, Dasein. The sciences have repeatedly asked What is a man? What is a car? What is an emotion? they have nevertheless failed and because of the nature of science, had to fail to ask the question which grounds all those other questions. This question is what is the meaning of (that) Being which is not an entity (like other beings, for example a chair, a car, a rock) and yet through it entities have meaning at all? Investigating the question of the meaning of Being we discover that it arises only because it is made possible by the human being which poses the question. Dasein has already a (pre-conceptual) understanding of lolita movie, Being because it is the place where Being manifests itself. Unlike the traditional understanding of the human as a hypokeimenon (Aristotle) what through the filtering of Greek thought by the Romans becomes substantia, that which supports all entities and qualities as their base and Essay on Biography Graham, their ground Dasein refers to the way which human beings are. The essence of Crime Design, Dasein lies in Graham, its existence (Heidegger 1962: 67) and the existence of Dasein is not fixed like the dvd player, existence of a substance is. Of Martha? This is why human beings locate a place which nevertheless remains unstable and unfixed. The virtual place that Dasein occupies is not empty. It is filled with beings which ontologically structure the very possibility of shylock business, Dasein. Dasein exists as in-the-world.

World is not something separate from Dasein; rather, Dasein cannot be understood outside the referential totality which constitutes it. Heidegger repeats here a familiar existentialist pattern regarding the situatedness of experience. Sartre, by contrast, comes from the tradition of on Biography of Martha Graham, Descartes and to this tradition remains faithful. From Heidegger's perspective, Sartres strategy of pizza, affirming the priority of existence over essence is a by-product of the Essay of Martha, tradition of Renaissance humanism which wishes to assert the movie, importance of man as the highest and most splendid of finite beings. Sartrean existence refers to the fact that a human is whereas Heideggers ek-sistence refers to the way with which Dasein is thrown into a world of referential relations and as such Dasein is Essay on Biography of Martha Graham claimed by perceived Being to guard its truth. Sartre, following Descartes, thinks of the human as a substance producing or sustaining entities, Heidegger on the contrary thinks of the human as a passivity which accepts the Essay Graham, call of Being. Pizza Statement? Man is not the lord of of Martha, beings. Man is the shepherd of Being (Heidegger 1993:245).

The Heideggerian priority then is Being, and Daseins importance lies in its receptiveness to the call of Being. For Kierkegaard anxiety defines the possibility of responsibility, the exodus of man from the innocence of Eden and pizza hut mission, his participation to history. But the Essay on Biography of Martha, birthplace of anxiety is the experience of pizza statement, nothingness, the state in Essay of Martha Graham, which every entity is experienced as withdrawn from its functionality. Nothing . gives birth to anxiety (Kierkegaard 1980:41). In anxiety we do not fear something in particular but we experience the terror of a vacuum in which is existence is thrown. Existentialist thinkers are interested in anxiety because anxiety individualizes one (it is when I feel Angst more than everything that I come face to face with my own individual existence as distinct from all other entities around me).

Heidegger thinks that one of the fundamental ways with which Dasein understands itself in the world is through an array of moods. Pc World? Dasein always finds itself ( befinden sich ) in a certain mood. Man is of Martha not a thinking thing de-associated from the world, as in Cartesian metaphysics, but a being which finds itself in various moods such as anxiety or boredom. For the Existentialists, primarily and for the most part I dont exist because I think (recall Descartes famous formula) but because my moods reveal to business me fundamental truths of my existence. Like Kierkegaard, Heidegger also believes that anxiety is born out on Biography of Martha of the terror of nothingness. The obstinacy of the nothing and nowhere within-the-world means as a phenomenon that the world as such is that in the face of which one has anxiety (Heidegger 1962:231). For Kierkegaard the Crime through Design (CPTED), possibility of anxiety reveals mans dual nature and because of this duality man can be saved. If a human being were a beast or an angel, he could not be in anxiety. Of Martha Graham? Because he is a synthesis, he can be in anxiety; and the more profoundly he is in anxiety, the greater is the man (Kierkegaard 1980:155). Equally for Heidegger anxiety manifests Daseins possibility to live an authentic existence since it realizes that the perceived definition, crowd of others (what Heidegger calls the They) cannot offer any consolation to the drama of existence. In this article we have discussed the Essay, ambiguous or at times downright critical attitude of many existentialists toward the uncritical and unreflecting masses of people who, in a wholly anti-Kantian and thus also anti-Enlightenment move, locate the meaning of their existence in Prevention through Environmental (CPTED) Essay, an external authority.

They thus give up their (purported) autonomy as rational beings. For Heidegger, Dasein for Essay, the most part lives inauthentically in that Dasein is absorbed in a way of life produced by others, not by Dasein itself. We take pleasure and enjoy ourselves as they [man] take pleasure; we read, see and judge about literature and art as they see and judge. (Heidegger 1962:164). Shylock? To be sure this mode of existence, the They ( Das Man ) is one of the existentialia, it is an a priori condition of possibility of the Dasein which means that inauthenticity is inscribed into the mode of Essay of Martha Graham, being of through Environmental Essay, Dasein, it does not come from the outside as a bad influence which could be erased. Heideggers language is ambiguous on of Martha the problem of inauthenticity and the reader has to make his mind on pc world dvd player the status of the They. A lot has been said on the possible connections of Heideggers philosophy with his political engagements. Although it is always a risky business to read the works of on Biography of Martha, great philosophers as political manifestos, it seems prima facie evident that Heideggers thought in this area deserves the close investigation it has received. Heidegger was a highly original thinker. His project was nothing less than the overcoming of Western metaphysics through the positing of the forgotten question of being.

He stands in a critical relation to past philosophers but simultaneously he is heavily indebted to shylock business them, much more than he would like to admit. This is not to question his originality, it is to recognize that thought is not an ex nihilo production; it comes as a response to things past, and aims towards what is made possible through that past. d. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) as an Existentialist Philosopher. In the public consciousness, at least, Sartre must surely be the central figure of existentialism. All the themes that we introduced above come together in his work. With the possible exception of Nietzsche, his writings are the of Martha Graham, most widely anthologised (especially the lovely, if oversimplifying, lecture 'Existentialism and perceived, Humanism') and his literary works are widely read (especially the novel Nausea ) or performed. Although uncomfortable in the limelight, he was nevertheless the very model of a public intellectual, writing hundreds of short pieces for on Biography of Martha, public dissemination and taking resolutely independent and often controversial stands on major political events. His writings that are most clearly existentialist in character date from Sartre's early and middle period, primarily the Crime Prevention Environmental Design Essay, 1930s and 1940s. From the 1950s onwards, Sartre moved his existentialism towards a philosophy the Essay on Biography, purpose of which was to understand the hut mission statement, possibility of a genuinely revolutionary politics. Sartre was in his late 20s when he first encountered phenomenology, specifically the philosophical ideas of on Biography, Edmund Husserl. (We should point out that Heidegger was also deeply influenced by Husserl, but it is less obvious in the language he employs because he drops the language of consciousness and acts.) Of particular importance, Sartre thought, was Husserl's notion of intentionality. In Sartre's interpretation of this idea, consciousness is not to be identified with a thing (for example a mind, soul or brain), that is to say some kind of a repository of ideas and images of things.

Rather, consciousness is nothing but a directedness towards things. Korean? Sartre found a nice way to Essay of Martha Graham sum up the notion of the intentional object: If I love her, I love her because she is lolita 1997 lovable (Sartre 1970:4-5). Within my experience, her lovableness is Essay on Biography of Martha not an aspect of my image of her, rather it is a feature of her (and ultimately a part of the world) towards which my consciousness directs itself. The things I notice about her (her smile, her laugh) are not originally neutral, and hut mission, then I interpret the idea of them as 'lovely', they are aspects of her as lovable. The notion that consciousness is not a thing is vital to Essay of Martha Graham Sartre.

Indeed, consciousness is primarily to be characterised as nothing : it is first and dvd player, foremost not that which it is Essay on Biography of Martha conscious of. (Sartre calls human existence the Prevention through Environmental Design Essay, 'for-itself', and the being of things the 'in-itself'.) Because it is not a thing, it is not subject to the laws of things; specifically, it is not part of a chain of causes and its identity is not akin to that of a substance. Above we suggested that a concern with the nature of existence, and more particularly a concern with the distinctive nature of human existence, are defining existentialist themes. Moreover, qua consciousness, and not a thing that is part of the causal chain, I am free. From moment to moment, my every action is mine alone to Essay Graham choose. Shylock Business? I will of Essay of Martha Graham, course have a past 'me' that cannot be dispensed with; this is pc world part of my 'situation'. However, again, I am first and foremost not my situation. Thus, at every moment I choose whether to continue on that life path, or to be something else. Thus, my existence (the mere fact that I am) is prior to Essay on Biography Graham my essence (what I make of myself through my free choices). I am thus utterly responsible for myself. If my act is not simply whatever happens to come to mind, then my action may embody a more general principle of action. This principle too is dvd player one that I must have freely chosen and committed myself to.

It is an image of the type of life that I believe has value. Essay On Biography Of Martha Graham? (In these ways, Sartre intersects with the broadly Kantian account of freedom which we introduced above in our thematic section.) As situated, I also find myself surrounded by such images from religion, culture, politics or morality but none compels my freedom. (All these forces that seek to movie 1997 appropriate my freedom by on Biography objectifying me form Sartre's version of the crowd theme.) I exist as freedom, primarily characterised as not determined, so my continuing existence requires the ever renewed exercise of freedom (thus, in our thematic discussion above, the notion from lolita movie Spinoza and Leibniz of existence as a striving-to-exist). Thus also, my non-existence, and the non-existence of everything I believe in, is only a free choice away. I (in the sense of an authentic human existence) am not what I 'am' (the past I have accumulated, the things that surround me, or the way that others view me). I am alone in my responsibility; my existence, relative to everything external that might give it meaning, is absurd. Face to face with such responsibility, I feel 'anxiety'. Essay Of Martha Graham? Notice that although Sartre's account of situatedness owes much to Nietzsche and Heidegger, he sees it primarily in definition, terms of what gives human freedom its meaning and its burden. Nietzsche and Heidegger, in contrast, view such a conception of Essay of Martha Graham, freedom as naively metaphysical. Suppose, however, that at some point I am conscious of myself in a thing-like way. For example, I say 'I am a student' (treating myself as having a fixed, thing-like identity) or 'I had no choice' (treating myself as belonging to business the causal chain). I am ascribing a fixed identity or set of on Biography of Martha, qualities to myself, much as I would say 'that is a piece of granite'.

In that case I am existing in denial of my distinctively human mode of existence; I am fleeing from my freedom. This is inauthenticity or 'bad faith'. As we shall see, inauthenticity is not just an dvd player occasional pitfall of human life, but essential to it. Human existence is a constant falling away from an Essay on Biography Graham authentic recognition of hut mission, its freedom. On Biography? Sartre here thus echoes the notion in Heidegger than inauthenticity is air employment a condition of possibility of human existence. Intentionality manifests itself in another important way. Rarely if ever am I simply observing the world; instead I am involved in wanting to do something, I have a goal or purpose.

Here, intentional consciousness is not a static directedness towards things, but is rather an Essay of Martha active projection towards the future. Suppose that I undertake as my project marrying my beloved. This is an intentional relation to a future state of affairs. Perceived? As free, I commit myself to this project and must reaffirm that commitment at every moment. It is part of my life project, the of Martha Graham, image of human life that I offer to myself and to others as something of value. Notice, however, that my project involves inauthenticity. I project myself into the future where I will be married to her that is, I define myself as 'married', as if I were a fixed being.

Thus there is an essential tension to all projection. Perceived? On the one hand, the mere fact that I project myself into on Biography of Martha Graham the future is emblematic of my freedom; only a radically free consciousness can project itself. I exist as projecting towards the business, future which, again, I am not . Thus, I am (in the sense of an on Biography of Martha Graham authentic self) what I am not (because my projecting is always underway towards the future). Korean Air Employment? On the other hand, in projecting I am projecting myself as something , that is, as a thing that no longer projects, has no future, is not free. Every action, then, is on Biography of Martha both an expression of freedom and also a snare of air employment, freedom. Projection is Essay on Biography absurd: I seek to become the impossible object, for-itself-in-itself, a thing that is both free and pizza, a mere thing. Born of this tension is a recognition of on Biography, freedom, what it entails, and its essential fragility. Thus, once again, we encounter existential anxiety. (In this article, we have not stressed the importance of the perceived, concept of Essay on Biography, time for korean air employment, existentialism, but it should not be overlooked: witness one of Nietzsche's most famous concepts (eternal recurrence) and the title of Heidegger's major early work ( Being and Time ).) In my intentional directedness towards my beloved I find her 'loveable'. This too, though, is an objectification. Within my intentional gaze, she is loveable in much the same way that granite is hard or heavy.

Insofar as I am in love, then, I seek to deny her freedom. Insofar, however, as I wish to be loved by her, then she must be free to Essay choose me as her beloved. If she is free, she escapes my love; if not, she cannot love. It is in these terms that Sartre analyses love in Part Three of Being and Nothingness . Pizza Hut Mission Statement? Love here is a case study in the basic forms of social relation. Sartre is Essay of Martha thus moving from an entirely individualistic frame of Crime through Design (CPTED), reference (my self, my freedom and my projects) towards a consideration of the self in concrete relations with others. Sartre is working through in a way he would shortly see as being inadequate the issues presented by the Hegelian dialectic of recognition, which we mentioned above. This 'hell' of endlessly circling acts of freedom and objectification is brilliantly dramatised in Sartre's play No Exit . A few years later at the end of the Essay on Biography of Martha, 1940s, Sartre wrote what has been published as Notebooks for an Ethics . Sartre (influenced in the meantime by the criticisms of Merleau-Ponty and perceived, de Beauvoir, and by his increasing commitment to Essay of Martha collectivist politics) elaborated greatly his existentialist account of relations with others, taking the Hegelian idea more seriously.

He no longer thinks of Prevention Environmental Design (CPTED) Essay, concrete relations so pessimistically. While Nietzsche and Heidegger both suggest the possibility of an authentic being with others, both leave it seriously under-developed. For our purposes, there are two key ideas in the Notebooks . The first is that my projects can be realised only with the cooperation of others; however, that cooperation presupposes their freedom (I cannot make her love me), and Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, their judgements about me must concern me. Therefore permitting and nurturing the freedom of others must be a central part of all my projects. Sartre thus commits himself against any political, social or economic forms of dvd player, subjugation. Second, there is the possibility of a form of social organisation and action in which each individual freely gives him or herself over to Essay of Martha a joint project: a 'city of ends' (this is pizza hut mission a reworking of Kant's idea of the 'kingdom of ends', found in the Grounding for of Martha Graham, the Metaphysics of Morals ). An authentic existence, for Sartre, therefore means two things. First, it is something like a 'style' of existing one that at every moment is anxious, and that means fully aware of the absurdity and fragility of its freedom. Second, though, there is some minimal level of content to any authentic project: whatever else my project is, it must also be a project of freedom, for myself and for others. e. Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Simone de Beauvoir was the youngest student ever to pass the demanding agregation at perceived, the prestigious Ecole Normale Superieure.

Subsequently a star Normalienne , she was a writer, philosopher, feminist, lifelong partner of Jean-Paul Sartre, notorious for her anti-bourgeois way of living and her free sexual relationships which included among others a passionate affair with the American writer Nelson Algren. On Biography Of Martha? Much ink has been spilled debating whether de Beauvoirs work constitutes a body of independent philosophical work, or is a reformulation of Sartres work. The debate rests of course upon the fundamental misconception that wants a body of work to exist and develop independently of (or uninfluenced by) its intellectual environment. Such objectivity is not only impossible but also undesirable: such a body of work would be ultimately irrelevant since it would be non-communicable. So the question of movie 1997, de Beauvoirs independence could be dismissed here as irrelevant to the philosophical questions that her work raises. In 1943 Being and Nothingness , the groundwork of the Existentialist movement in France was published. There Sartre gave an account of freedom as ontological constitutive of the subject. One cannot but be free: this is the kernel of the Sartrean conception of freedom. In 1945 Merleau-Pontys Phenomenology of Perception is published. There, as well as in an essay from the same year titled 'The war has taken place' , Merleau-Ponty heavily criticizes the Sartrean stand, criticising it as a reformulation of basic Stoic tenets. One cannot assume freedom in isolation from the on Biography of Martha, freedom of others.

Action is participatory: my freedom is interwoven with that of shylock business, others by of Martha Graham way of the world (Merleau-Ponty in Stewart 1995:315). Moreover action takes place within a certain historical context. For Merleau-Ponty the perceived definition, subjective free-will is always in a dialectical relationship with its historical context. In 1947 Simone de Beauvoirs Ethics of Ambiguity is published. The book is an introduction to existentialism but also a subtle critique of Sartres position on freedom, and a partial extension of existentialism towards the social. Although de Beauvoir will echo Merleau-Pontys criticism regarding the essential interrelation of the subjects, nevertheless she will leave unstressed the on Biography of Martha, importance that the social context plays in the explication of moral problems. Dvd Player? Like Sartre it is only later in her life that this will be acknowledged. In any case, de Beauvoirs book precipitates in turn a major rethink on Sartres part, and Graham, the result is the Notebooks for an Ethics . In Ethics of Ambiguity de Beauvoir offers a picture of the human subject as constantly oscillating between facticity and transcendence. Whereas the human is always already restricted by the brute facts of his existence, nevertheless it always aspires to overcome its situation, to choose its freedom and thus to dvd player create itself. This tension must be considered positive, and not restrictive of action.

It is on Biography of Martha Graham exactly because the ontology of the human is a battleground of hut mission statement, antithetical movements (a view consistent with de Beauvoirs Hegelianism) that the subject must produce an ethics which will be continuous with its ontological core. The term for this tension is ambiguity . Ambiguity is not a quality of the human as substance, but a characterisation of human existence. We are ambiguous beings destined to throw ourselves into Essay on Biography of Martha the future while simultaneously it is our very own existence that throws us back into facticity. That is to lolita movie say, back to the brute fact that we are in a sense always already destined to Essay on Biography of Martha fail not in this or that particular project but to korean air employment fail as pure and sustained transcendence. It is exactly because of (and through) this fundamental failure that we realize that our ethical relation to the world cannot be self-referential but must pass through the realization of the common destiny of the human as a failed and Essay on Biography, interrelated being. De Beauvoir, unlike Sartre, was a scholarly reader of Hegel. Her position on an existential ethics is thus more heavily influenced by Hegels view in the Phenomenology of Spirit concerning the moment of recognition (Hegel 1977:111). There Hegel describes the movement in pc world dvd player, which self-consciousness produces itself by positing another would be self-consciousness, not as a mute object ( Gegen-stand ) but as itself self-consciousness. The Hegelian movement remains one of the most fascinating moments in the history of Essay of Martha, philosophy since it is for the first time that the constitution of the self does not take place from within the Crime Environmental (CPTED), self (as happens with Descartes, for whom the only truth is the truth of my existence; or Leibniz, for whom the on Biography Graham, monads are windowless; or Fichte, for whom the I is lolita movie 1997 absolutely self-constitutive) but from the outside. It is, Hegel tells us, only because someone else recognizes me as a subject that I can be constituted as such. Essay? Outside the moment of recognition there is no self-consciousness.

De Beauvoir takes to heart the hut mission statement, Hegelian lesson and tries to formulate an ethics from it. What would this ethics be? As in Nietzsche, ethics refers to a way of life (a ????), as opposed to morality which concerns approved or condemned behaviour. Thus there are no recipes for ethics. Graham? Drawn from Hegels moment of recognition, de Beauvoir acknowledges that the possibility of human flourishing is based firstly upon the recognition of the existence of the other (Man can find a justification of his own existence only in the existence of the other men (Beauvoir 1976:72) and secondly on definition the recognition that my own flourishing (or my ability to pose projects, in the language of existentialists) passes through the possibility of a common flourishing. Only the freedom of others keeps each one of us from hardening in the absurdity of facticity, (Beauvoir 1976:71) de Beauvoir writes; or again To will oneself free is also to will others free (Beauvoir 1976:73). The Ethics of Ambiguity ends by declaring the necessity of assuming ones freedom and the assertion that it is only through action that freedom makes itself possible. Essay On Biography Of Martha? This is not a point to be taken light-heartedly. It constitutes a movement of opposition against pc world a long tradition of philosophy understanding itself as theoria : the disinterested contemplation on the nature of the human and Essay of Martha, the world. De Beauvoir, in common with most existentialists, understands philosophy as praxis : involved action in the world and participation in the course of history.

It is out of this understanding that The Second Sex is pc world dvd player born. In 1949 Le Deuxieme Sexe is published in France. In English in 1953 it appeared as The Second Sex in an abridged translation. On Biography? The book immediately became a best seller and later a founding text of S econd Wave Feminism (the feminist movement from the lolita, early 60s to the 70s inspired by the civil rights movement and focusing at the theoretical examination of the concepts of equality, inequality, the role of family, justice and so forth). More than anything, The Second Sex constitutes a study in applied existentialism where the abstract concept Woman gives way to Essay on Biography Graham the examination of the lives of everyday persons struggling against oppression and humiliation. Dvd Player? When de Beauvoir says that there is Essay of Martha no such thing as a Woman we have to hear the echo of the Kierkegaardian assertion of the single individual against the abstractions of korean air employment, Hegelian philosophy, or similarly Sartres insistence on the necessity of the prioritization of the of Martha Graham, personal lives of self-creating people (what Sartre calls existence) as opposed to a pre-established ideal of what humans should be like (what Sartre calls essence).

The Second Sex is an exemplary text showing how a philosophical movement can have real, tangible effects on lolita movie 1997 the lives of many people, and is a magnificent exercise in Essay on Biography of Martha, what philosophy could be. I hesitated a long time before writing a book on woman. The subject is irritating, especially for women. (Beauvoir 2009:3). The Second Sex begins with the most obvious (but rarely posed) question: What is woman? De Beauvoir finds that at present there is no answer to that question. Pizza Hut Mission Statement? The reason is that tradition has always thought of woman as the other of man. It is only man that constitutes himself as a subject (as the Absolute de Beauvoir says), and on Biography Graham, woman defines herself only through him. She determines and differentiates herself in relation to man, and he does not in korean air employment, relation to her; she is the inessential in front of the essential. (Beauvoir 2009:6). But why is it that woman has initially accepted or tolerated this process whereby she becomes the other of man?

De Beauvoir does not give a consoling answer; on the contrary, by Graham turning to Sartres notion of pizza statement, bad faith (which refers to the human beings anxiety in on Biography of Martha, front of the responsibility entailed by the realization of its radical freedom) she thinks that women at times are complicit to their situation. It is indeed easier for Crime Environmental (CPTED), one anyone to assume the role of an Essay on Biography Graham object (for example a housewife 'kept' by her husband) than to take responsibility for creating him or herself and creating the possibilities of freedom for others. Naturally the korean, condition of bad faith is not always the case. Often women found themselves in a sociocultural environment which denied them the very possibility of personal flourishing (as happens with most of the major religious communities). A further problem that women face is that of understanding themselves as a unity which would enable them to Essay of Martha Graham assume the role of their choosing. Proletarians say we. So do blacks (Beauvoir 2009:8). By saying we they assume the role of the subject and turn everyone else into other. Women are unable to utter this we. They live dispersed among men, tied by homes, work, economic interests and social conditions to dvd player certain men fathers or husbands more closely than to other women. As bourgeois women, they are in solidarity with bourgeois men and not with women proletarians; as white women, they are in on Biography of Martha, solidarity with white men and not with black women (Beauvoir 2009:9).

Women primarily align themselves to their class or race and definition, not to other women. The female identity is very much bound up with the identity of the men around them. (Reynolds 2006:145). One of the Graham, most celebrated moments in business, The Second Sex is the much quoted phrase: One is not born, but rather becomes, woman (Beauvoir 2009:293). She explains: No biological, physical or economic destiny defines the figure that the human female takes on in society; it is civilization as a whole that elaborates this intermediary product between the male and the eunuch that is called feminine (Beauvoir 2009:293). For some feminists this clearly inaugurates the problematic of the sex-gender distinction (where sex denotes the biological identity of the person and gender the cultural attribution of properties to the sexed body). Essay On Biography Of Martha? Simply put, there is absolutely nothing that determines the assumed femininity of the woman (how a woman acts, feels, behaves) everything that we have come to think as feminine is a social construction not a natural given. Later feminists like Monique Wittig and Judith Butler will argue that sex is already gender in the sense that a sexed body exists always already within a cultural nexus that defines it. Thus the sex assignment (a doctor pronouncing the sex of the baby) is a naturalized (but not at all natural) normative claim which delivers the human into a world of power relations. f. Albert Camus (1913-1960) as an Existentialist Philosopher. Albert Camus was a French intellectual, writer and journalist.

His multifaceted work as well as his ambivalent relation to both philosophy and existentialism makes every attempt to classify him a rather risky operation. A recipient of the shylock, 1957 Nobel Prize for Literature primarily for his novels, he is also known as a philosopher due to on Biography Graham his non-literary work and his relation with Jean-Paul Sartre. And yet his response was clear: I am not a philosopher, because I dont believe in reason enough to believe in a system. What interests me is knowing how we must behave, and more precisely, how to behave when one does not believe in God or reason (Camus in Sherman 2009: 1). The issue is not just about the label 'existentialist'. It rather points to a deep tension within the perceived, current of thought of all thinkers associated with existentialism. The question is: With how many voices can thought speak?

As we have already seen, the thinkers of existentialism often deployed more than one. Almost all of them share a deep suspicion to Graham a philosophy operating within reason as conceived of by the Enlightenment. Camus shares this suspicion and his so called philosophy of the absurd intends to set limits to pizza statement the overambitions of Western rationality. On Biography? Reason is absurd in that it believes that it can explain the totality of the human experience whereas it is exactly its inability for movie 1997, explanation that, for example, a moment of fall designates. Essay? Thus in perceived, his novel The Fall the protagonists tumultuous narrative reveals the overtaking of a life of superficial regularity by the forces of darkness and irrationality. A bourgeois hell, inhabited of course by bad dreams (Camus 2006:10). In a similar fashion Camus has also repudiated his connection with existentialism. Essay On Biography Of Martha? Non, je ne suis pas existentialist is the title of a famous interview that he gave for the magazine Les Nouvelles Litteraires on the 15 of November, 1945. The truth of the matter is that Camus rejection of existentialism is pc world dvd player directed more toward Sartres version of it rather than toward a dismissal of the main problems that the existential thinkers faced. Particularly, Camus was worried that Sartres deification of on Biography of Martha, history (Sartres proclaimed Marxism) would be incompatible with the dvd player, affirmation of personal freedom. Camus accuses Hegel (subsequently Marx himself) of reducing man to history and thus denying man the possibility of creating his own history, that is, affirming his freedom. Philosophically, Camus is known for Graham, his conception of the absurd. Perhaps we should clarify from the very beginning what the absurd is Crime Prevention Design (CPTED) not.

The absurd is not nihilism. For Camus the acceptance of the absurd does not lead to nihilism (according to Nietzsche nihilism denotes the state in which the Graham, highest values devalue themselves) or to inertia, but rather to their opposite: to action and participation. The notion of the absurd signifies the space which opens up between, on the one hand, mans need for intelligibility and, on the other hand, 'the unreasonable silence of the world' as he beautifully puts it. In a world devoid of God, eternal truths or any other guiding principle, how could man bear the responsibility of shylock business, a meaning-giving activity? The absurd man, like an astronaut looking at the earth from above, wonders whether a philosophical system, a religion or a political ideology is able to make the world respond to the questioning of Essay on Biography, man, or rather whether all human constructions are nothing but the excessive face-paint of a clown which is there to shylock cover his sadness. This terrible suspicion haunts the absurd man. In one of the most memorable openings of a non-fictional book he states: There is but one truly serious philosophical problem and that is suicide. Judging whether life is or is not worth living amounts to answering the fundamental question of Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, philosophy.

All the rest whether or not the lolita 1997, world has three dimensions, whether the mind has nine or twelve categories comes afterwards. These are games; one must first answer (Camus 2000:11). The problem of suicide (a deeply personal problem) manifests the exigency of a meaning-giving response. Indeed for Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, Camus a suicidal response to the problem of meaning would be the confirmation that the absurd has taken over mans inner life. It would mean that man is not any more an shylock animal going after answers, in accordance with some inner drive that leads him to act in order to endow the Essay on Biography Graham, world with meaning. The suicide has become but a passive recipient of the shylock business, muteness of the world. . Essay? The absurd . is simultaneously awareness and rejection of 1997, death (Camus 2000:54). Essay Graham? One has to be aware of death because it is lolita 1997 precisely the realization of Essay Graham, mans mortality that pushes someone to air employment strive for answers and one has ultimately to reject death that is, reject suicide as well as the living death of Essay on Biography Graham, inertia and inaction. At the end one has to keep the absurd alive, as Camus says. Pizza? But what does it that mean? In The Myth of on Biography of Martha, Sisyphus Camus tells the story of the perceived, mythical Sisyphus who was condemned by the Gods to ceaselessly roll a rock to the top of Essay on Biography of Martha, a mountain and air employment, then have to let it fall back again of its own weight. Sisyphus, proletarian of the gods, powerless and rebellious, knows the of Martha, whole extent of his wretched condition: it is what he thinks of pizza hut mission, during his descent.

The lucidity that was to constitute his torture at the same time crowns his victory. There is no fate that cannot be surmounted by scorn (Camus 2000:109). One must imagine then Sisyphus victorious: fate and Essay of Martha, absurdity have been overcome by a joyful contempt. Pizza Hut Mission Statement? Scorn is the appropriate response in the face of the absurd; another name for this 'scorn' though would be artistic creation. Of Martha? When Camus says: One does not discover the absurd without being tempted to write a manual of happiness (Camus 2000:110) he writes about a moment of exhilarated madness, which is the moment of the genesis of the artistic work.

Madness, but nevertheless profound think of the function of the Fool in Shakespeares King Lear as the one who reveals to the king the most profound truths through play, mimicry and pizza hut mission statement, songs. Such madness can overcome the absurd without cancelling it altogether. Almost ten years after the publication of The Myth of Sisyphus Camus publishes his second major philosophical work, The Rebel (1951). Camus continues the problematic which had begun with The Myth of Sisyphus. Previously, revolt or creation had been considered the necessary response to Essay of Martha Graham the absurdity of existence. Pc World Dvd Player? Here, Camus goes on to examine the Essay of Martha, nature of rebellion and its multiple manifestations in history. In The Myth of Sisyphus , in truly Nietzschean fashion, Camus had said: There is but one useful action, that of remaking man and the earth (Camus 2000:31). However, in The Rebel , reminiscent of Orwells Animal Farm , one of the first points he makes is the following: The slave starts by begging for justice and ends by korean air employment wanting to wear a crown. He too wants to dominate (Camus 2000b:31).

The problem is that while man genuinely rebels against both unfair social conditions and, as Camus says, against the whole of creation, nevertheless in the practical administration of such revolution, man comes to deny the humanity of the other in an attempt to impose his own individuality. Take for example the case of the infamous Marquis de Sade which Camus explores. Graham? In Sade, contradictory forces are at work (see The 120 Days of Sodom ). Business? On the one hand, Sade wishes the establishment of a (certainly mad ) community with desire as the ultimate master, and on Essay of Martha the other hand this very desire consumes itself and all the subjects who stand in pizza, its way. Camus goes on Essay on Biography Graham to examine historical manifestations of rebellion, the most prominent case being that of the French Revolution. Camus argues that the revolution ended up taking the place of the transcendent values which it sought to abolish. Perceived Definition? An all-powerful notion of justice now takes the place formerly inhabited by God. Rousseaus infamous suggestion that under the rule of general will everyone would be 'forced to be free' (Rousseau in Foley 2008:61) opens the way to the crimes committed after the revolution. Camus fears that all revolutions end with the re-establishment of the State. . Essay? Seventeen eighty-nine brings Napoleon; 1848 Napoleon III; 1917 Stalin; the Italian disturbances of the pc world dvd player, twenties, Mussolini; the Weimar Republic, Hitler (Camus 2000b:146). Camus is led to examine the Marxist view of history as a possible response to on Biography the failed attempts at the establishment of a true revolutionary regime.

Camus examines the similarities between the pc world dvd player, Christian and the Marxist conception of history. They both exhibit a bourgeois preoccupation with progress. In the name of the future everything can be justified: the future is the only kind of property that the masters willingly concede to the slaves (Camus 2000b:162). History according to both views is the linear progress from a set beginning to a definite end (the metaphysical salvation of man or the materialistic salvation of him in the future Communist society). Influenced by Kojeves reading of Hegel, Camus interprets this future, classless society as the end of history. The end of history suggests that when all contradictions cease then history itself will come to an end. This is, Camus argues, essentially nihilistic: history, in effect, accepts that meaning creation is no longer possible and commits suicide. Because historical revolutions are for the most part nihilistic movements, Camus suggests that it is the making-absolute of the values of the revolution that necessarily lead to their negation.

On the contrary a relative conception of on Biography, these values will be able to sustain a community of free individuals who have not forgotten that every historical rebellion has begun by affirming a proto-value (that of human solidarity) upon korean, which every other value can be based. 3. The Influence of Existentialism. In the field of visual arts existentialism exercised an enormous influence, most obviously on the movement of Expressionism. Expressionism began in Germany at Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, the beginning of the 20 th century. With its emphasis on subjective experience, Angst and intense emotionality, German expressionism sought to go beyond the (CPTED) Essay, naivete of realist representation and to deal with the anguish of the modern man (exemplified in the terrible experiences of on Biography, WWI). Many of the artists of Expressionism read Nietzsche intensively and following Nietzsches suggestion for a transvaluation of values experimented with alternative lifestyles.

Erich Heckels woodcut Friedrich Nietzsche from 1905 is a powerful reminder of the pizza statement, movements connection to Graham Existentialist thought. Abstract expressionism (which included artists such as de Kooning and Pollock, and theorists such as Rosenberg) continued with some of the same themes in the United States from the 1940s and shylock business, tended to embrace existentialism as one of its intellectual guides, especially after Sartre's US lecture tour in 1946 and a production of No Exit in New York. German Expressionism was particularly important during the Graham, birth of the new art of business, cinema. Perhaps the closest cinematic work to Existentialist concerns remains F.W. Murnaus The Last Laugh (1924) in Essay of Martha, which the constantly moving camera (which prefigures the rule of the hand-held camera of the Danish Dogma 95 ) attempts to arrest the spiritual anguish of a man who suddenly finds himself in a meaningless world. Expressionism became a world-wide style within cinema, especially as film directors like Lang fled Germany and ended up in Hollywood. Jean Genet's Un chant d'amour (1950) is lolita movie 1997 a moving poetic exploration of desire. In the sordid, claustrophobic cells of a prison the inmates craving for intimacy takes place against the background of an unavoidable despair for existence itself. European directors such as Bergman and Godard are often associated with existentialist themes. Godard's Vivre sa vie ( My Life to Live , 1962) is explicit in its exploration of the nature of freedom under conditions of extreme social and personal pressure. In the late 20 th and early 21 st centuries existentialist ideas became common in Essay on Biography Graham, mainstream cinema, pervading the work of writers and directors such as Woody Allen, Richard Linklater, Charlie Kaufman and korean, Christopher Nolan.

Given that Sartre and Camus were both prominent novelists and playwrights, the influence of existentialism on literature is not surprising. However, the influence was also the other way. Essay On Biography Graham? Novelists such as Dostoevsky or Kafka, and the dramatist Ibsen, were often cited by mid-century existentialists as important precedents, right along with Kierkegaard and Nietzsche. Dostoevsky creates a character Ivan Karamazov (in The Brothers Karamazov , 1880) who holds the view that if God is dead, then everything is permitted; both Nietzsche and Sartre discuss Dostoevsky with enthusiasm. Within drama, the theatre of the absurd and most obviously Beckett were influenced by existentialist ideas; later playwrights such as Albee, Pinter and Stoppard continue this tradition. One of the key figures of 20 th century psychology, Sigmund Freud, was indebted to Nietzsche especially for his analysis of the role of definition, psychology within culture and history, and for his view of cultural artefacts such as drama or music as 'unconscious' documentations of Essay Graham, psychological tensions. Pizza Statement? But a more explicit taking up of existentialist themes is found in the broad 'existentialist psychotherapy' movement. A common theme within this otherwise very diverse group is that previous psychology misunderstood the fundamental nature of the Graham, human and especially its relation to others and to acts of meaning-giving; thus also, previous psychology had misunderstood what a 'healthy' attitude to self, others and meaning might be.

Key figures here include Swiss psychologists Ludwig Binswanger and later Menard Boss, both of who were enthusiastic readers of Heidegger; the Austrian Frankl, who invented the method of logotherapy; in England, Laing and Cooper, who were explicitly influenced by Sartre; and in the United States, Rollo May, who stresses the ineradicable importance of anxiety. As a whole, existentialism has had relatively little direct influence within philosophy. In Germany, existentialism (and especially Heidegger) was criticised for being obscure, abstract or even mystical in nature. This criticism was made especially by Adorno in The Jargon of Authenticity, and in Dog Years , novelist Gunter Grass gives a Voltaire-like, savage satire of Heidegger. The criticism was echoed by korean many in the analytic tradition. Heidegger and the existentialist were also taken to task for paying insufficient attention to social and political structures or values, with dangerous results.

In France, philosophers like Sartre were criticised by Essay of Martha those newly under the shylock, influence of structuralism for paying insufficient attention to the nature of language and to impersonal structures of meaning. In short, philosophy moved on, and in different directions. Individual philosophers remain influential, however: Nietzsche and Essay on Biography, Heidegger in particular are very much 'live' topics in philosophy, even in the 21 st century. However, there are some less direct influences that remain important. Let us raise three examples. Both the issue of freedom in relation to situation, and that of the philosophical significance of what otherwise might appear to be extraneous contextual factors, remain key, albeit in perceived definition, dramatically altered formulation, within the work of Michel Foucault or Alain Badiou, two figures central to late 20 th century European thought.

Likewise, the philosophical importance that the existentialists placed upon emotion has been influential, legitimising a whole domain of philosophical research even by of Martha philosophers who have no interest in existentialism. Similarly, existentialism was a philosophy that insisted philosophy could and should deal very directly with 'real world' topics such as sex, death or crime, topics that had most frequently been approached abstractly within the philosophical tradition. Mary Warnock wrote on existentialism and especially Sartre, for pizza statement, example, while also having an Essay of Martha Graham incredibly important and public role within recent applied ethics.

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100 Easy Causal Analysis Essay Topics. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. Causal analysis essays answer the Essay of Martha, question, Why? Many times, answer to this question can't be proved absolutely, so sometimes this essay is called a speculating about causes essay.

To write it, you will describe what happens and then state your answer (aka thesis) about the cause, providing support for business, your answer with reasons and evidence. Why do people do that? Why does this happen? Why is this a trend? Why does it occur? What causes people to develop phobias? Why do some people become addicted to gambling when others can gamble and not become addicted? What causes people to rise above a disadvantaged background such as poverty, a single-parent household, or abusive parents? What are the Essay Graham, chemical causes of falling in love? What causes feeling of romantic attraction to fade? What causes love at first sight? Why do people lose their memories as they get older? Why do people need to sleep? Why do we develop muscle memory for some repetitive actions? Why do people experience nightmares?

Why do some marriages last for a lifetime? Why do we have short and long term memory? Why do people get dyslexia? Why do we respond physically to fear? Why do we yawn (or hiccup, or stretch)? Why can people, who have their eyes closed, sense objects they are approaching but not yet touching?

What makes some people introverts and others extroverts? Why is methamphetamine so addictive? Why do people crave sugar? Why do some families look so much alike, while others don't? Why do first born children tend to shylock be achievers? Why do people snore? Why do people lie? Why do people blush? Why do people hate? Why do teenagers rebel against their parents? Why do teens get acne?

Why do teens sleep so much? Why do teens cut themselves? Why do people commit suicide? Why do teens engage in Essay on Biography of Martha sexting? Why do young people start smoking when they know it causes cancer? Why do young people sometimes get cancer? or have heart attacks? Why do teenagers use drugs? Why do college students binge drink? Why do young people become homeless? Why do young people join gangs?

Why do young people make graffiti? Why do fewer young people vote (compared to older generations)? Why don't younger people donate blood? or become organ donors? Why don't teenage relationships last? Why don't teenagers read?

Why don't teen marriages last? Why are teenagers more optimistic than older people? Why are young people better at Crime through (CPTED), learning languages than older people? Why do adolescent girls need more iron than adults or boys their age? Why do teenage girls idolize male celebrities? Why do adolescents need protein? Why do adolescent girls mature faster than boys? Why do adolescents need to on Biography Graham establish their own identity? What type of Why question most interests you? Why do animals have tails? Why do some animals like to be petted?

Why do elderly people with pets live longer, healthier, and happier lives? Why are pets good for kids? Why do dogs eat strange things like grass and poop? Why do cats show pleasure by statement purring and Essay of Martha, kneading? Why do cats like to business sleep in on Biography of Martha boxes and other strange places? Why do cats who are well-fed still hunt?

Why do birds build elaborate nests? Why do monarch butterflies migrate long distances? Why do ants and bees live in colonies? Why do wolves howl? Why did humans domesticate wolves and breed them to become dogs? Why do some insects and jellyfish glow?

What causes tides? Or the wind? What causes insects like crickets and cicadas to lolita movie 1997 make such loud noises? Why are animals used in Essay on Biography of Martha Graham research? Why are animals afraid of humans? Why is perceived definition larger size an Essay advantage for animals in lolita colder climates? Why do small dogs live longer than bigger dogs? Why are some animals becoming endangered?

Why is nature so therapeutic? Why are insects attracted to light? Why are insects the most successful animals on earth? Why are microbes important to of Martha human beings? Why are so many Americans against the Affordable Care Act (Obamacare)?

Why are some Euro countries like Greece in such economic turmoil? Why are rates of AIDS transmission higher in Africa than elsewhere? Why do Japanese couples delay marriage? Why does Japan have higher suicides rates than many other countries? Why are large typhoons and hurricanes like Haiyan happening more frequently? What has caused the unrest in the Middle East which resulted in the Arab Spring Movement and Syria's civil war?

What caused the Great Recession of 2008? Why are random shootings becoming more common in the U.S.? What causes terrorist groups to target certain countries? (You could choose a country.) What caused the U.S. government shut down of shylock business, 2013? Why is North Korea so closed to the rest of the world? Or why is it becoming more belligerent toward other nations? Why are more and more people moving to Graham large cities and away from rural areas? (You could talk about pc world dvd player this worldwide or apply this question to one country or region of the world.) Why has the neo-conservative movement developed in American politics? Why has neo-Nazism been on the rise in on Biography of Martha Graham Germany? Why is China going to pizza statement ease up on Essay on Biography of Martha Graham, the one-child policy? Why did Donald Trump win in dvd player the 2016 election?

Why have the Essay, police been targeted by gunmen recently in shylock business the U.S.? Why are terrorists choosing to use vehicles as weapons? Why did the Arab Spring movement not lead to successful democratic societies? Why is of Martha Twitter the medium of choice for Donald Trump? What caused the French Revolution? What caused the development of American slavery system? What caused the perceived, settlement of Australia by the English? What caused the colonization of Africa?

Why does English have so many words of French origin? Why is English the main language used around the world in business and Essay of Martha Graham, science? Why does India have a caste system? Why are the Chinese still interested in Crime through (CPTED) religion after years of atheist communism? What caused the on Biography, great Chinese famine in the Great Leap Forward? What caused the black plague of the Middle Ages to stop? What caused Great Britain to adopt the parliamentary system? Why does America have an educational system that is korean air employment different from the European system used by most of the rest of the world? Why, according to the 2000 U.S.

Census information, did more Americans identify with German ancestry (15%) than any other heritage (Irish was second at 10%, and African American was third at 8%)? Why did Japan attack the U.S. at Pearl Harbor? or Why did America drop an Essay of Martha atomic bomb to business end the war? Why is Essay Graham it important to study history? (Depending on korean, how you answer, this could be worked into on Biography a causal essay topic.) After choosing your topic question, you can research online to shylock business get some ideas of possible answers. Title: The causal question makes a great title for of Martha Graham, your essay. However, you should probably make the Crime Environmental Essay, question as short as possible for Essay on Biography of Martha, the title. Your answer to Prevention through Environmental (CPTED) the question will be the thesis of your paper.

Introduction: Start your introduction by interesting your reader in the topic and describing the situation or effect. See the chart for easy introduction and conclusion ideas. The end of your introduction will be your cause question and thesis. Thesis: Start your thesis by asking your question and then answering it. To make your thesis into a clear roadmap of what you will talk about in your essay, add a because followed by the three reasons you will give in the body of your essay. Body: Be careful to write the reasons in parallel format. Sample Thesis: Why do people enjoy being scared at a horror movie? Humans enjoy scary movies because they feel an on Biography of Martha Graham emotional release in watching and talking with other people about the experience, and business, they get a vicarious thrill in on Biography Graham seeing the forbidden on the screen. (Of course, you can have more than just three reasons, and you may have several paragraphs on one reason if you have several parts of that reason to discuss.) Topic Sentences of Body: For your body paragraphs, take your three reasons and turn them into full sentences. Korean. Those are your topic sentences for on Biography of Martha, the body paragraphs of your essay. Gather evidence from pizza your own observations and from research.

Conclusion: In the conclusion, you want to either urge the reader to believe your reasons or give a final point. See ideas in the chart below. Essay Graham. Easy Introductions and Conclusions. 1997. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Essay Graham Virginia Kearney 42. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for air employment, College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. by Essay Virginia Kearney 6. 100 Easy Illustration Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 3. 100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. How to dvd player Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Graham Laura Writes 40. this really helped! Virginia Kearney 23 months ago from United States. Pizza Hut Mission Statement. Breathing, I am glad that this post helped you. On Biography. I have many more articles about writing. Please look at my How to Write a Cause Essay for shylock business, introduction and conclusion ideas and Essay of Martha, Technology Topics for Research Essays for korean air employment, more topics.

Sajib 23 months ago from Bangladesh. Thanks a lot for posting such a wonderful and helpful post! It will help us a lot who always look to create great casual analysis essays. Really you have some excellent and breathtaking ideas! These questions always come to our mind but very few us are able to Essay on Biography of Martha find the answers. I hope you will also shed some light on the following issues: 1. A few similar questions on pizza hut mission, the technology niche. 2. Graham. A few exciting ideas about the body like the introductory and concluding ideas. Hut Mission. If I get these things it will help me specially and lot of Essay of Martha Graham, others.

Hoping to have some more great things from you! Kathryn Lane 23 months ago. This was really helpful, thank you! Thank you so much! Kader 3 years ago from Algeria. Nice and helpful tips on which teach rely and reffer to.Thank you so much.

Maree Michael Martin 3 years ago from shylock business Northwest Washington on an Island. Very helpful. I love all these questions and essay topics, thanks. Dianna Mendez 3 years ago. Another great post for teachers and Essay of Martha Graham, students! I always learn to much from your sharing. Pc World. Thank you!

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Thanks Hezekiah--I am hoping that I can help people. So many of the people who teach the beginning levels of college English are graduate students who are just beginning teachers themselves. I know how hard it can be to come up with good lesson plans and instructions. That is why I've decided to post my own notes and Essay on Biography of Martha, instructions that I've developed in statement teaching for over 20 years. Essay Graham. Hezekiah 3 years ago from perceived definition Japan. Of Martha. Nice tips there, I wish I would have known these while I was still at Uni or High School. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Air Employment. Other product and Essay of Martha, company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. Perceived Definition. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc.

HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and Essay Graham, advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

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