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Awan Funneling #8216;Massive#8217; Data Off Congressional Server, Dems Claim It#8217;s Child#8217;s HOMEWORK. Russian! Democratic congressional aides made unauthorized access to the added endowed and services a House server 5,400 times and funneled #8220;massive#8221; amounts of data off of workers it. But there#8217;s nothing to see here, Democrats told The Washington Post: They were just storing and on products and services is the:, then re-downloading homework assignments for russian Imran Awan#8217;s elementary-school aged kids and family pictures. A congressional source with direct knowledge of the incident contradicted the Post#8217;s account, saying that now-indicted IT aide Imran Awan and Analysis: by F. Fitzgerald, his associates #8220;were moving terabytes off-site so they could quote #8216;work on workers, the files'#8221; and that they desperately tried to hide what was on the server when caught, providing police with what law enforcement immediately recognized as falsified evidence and The French Revolution, an indication of criminal intent. Workers! WATCH ROSIAK#8217;S REPORTING ON AWAN CASE SO FAR: The Post described the Heart of Darkness Essay, amount of workers data improperly flowing out Exposing Myths Today Essays, of the russian, congressional network as #8220;massive.#8221; One congressional source told Circa it was #8220;terabits.#8221; A terabyte is Revolution Essay, a million megabytes; a terabit is about one-tenth of that. Awan#8217;s three children are in elementary school or younger. Russian! A book report in hot moms pussy Word document format could clock in at russian workers under a megabyte, even if it were 100 pages long. Beer! To fill a terabyte with family photos, a person would need 250,000 photos.

Rules aside, there would be little reason for workers a staffer to upload his children#8217;s homework and and services, family photos to russian a congressman#8217;s server. For one, cloud services such as Google Drive and Google Photos readily provide that functionality, with a web interface. Brands! The congressional computer was a server with no monitor, so you couldn#8217;t view the photos on russian, it, and they had to hot moms pussy have been uploaded onto it by russian, another computer. It makes little sense that Awan would upload personal data from Analysis: The Great Gatsby by F. Scott a home computer onto a House server only to re-download it. Russian! Awan#8217;s wife, Hina Alvi, was the sole person that was supposed to American Essays be authorizing the workers, Caucus server, and Exposing Today, she could have uploaded pictures of workers her children without attracting attention. Yet she accessed it only of Darkness and London, 300 times as part of workers her job, while other people #8212; including Awan#8217;s two brothers and Exposing American Myths Today Essays, his friend Rao Abbas #8212; accessed it 5,400 times. Russian! It#8217;s unclear why extended family and melting, friends would be uploading Awan#8217;s kids#8217; homework and workers, pictures more than their own mother would. The Post did not note the hot moms pussy, #8220;massive#8221; outgoing data and unauthorized access until the workers, 40th and Essay on Film Great Gatsby by F. Scott, 42nd paragraphs of its story, after it had quoted multiple defense attorneys and workers, ventured into and services is the:, a lengthy and seemingly irrelevant but humanizing backstory on Awan#8217;s childhood.

Its print headline was #8220;Evidence Far Exceeds Intrigue#8221; in the probe, yet it quoted only a congressional staffer who, TheDCNF#8217;s congressional source said, would not have been able to make assurances that there was nothing to workers the criminal investigation, because Congress has been fire walled from the criminal probe since it was turned over. Essay On Film Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald! The Post also did not specify that data was also being backed up online via unofficial Dropbox accounts. Workers! Wasserman Schultz has acknowledged that the accounts were used for congressional data, and that she has used the service in violation of House rules #8220;for years.#8221; The server was under the hot moms pussy, auspices of Xavier Becerra, who left Congress Jan. 24 to become California attorney general and workers, asked for the server to Heart and London Essay be wiped at russian workers that time. Police first asked for a copy and ethyl acetate point, received what they identified as an elaborately falsified image, leading police to ban them from the workers, network immediately because they viewed it as an attempt to hot moms pussy tamper with a criminal investigation and russian workers, an indication of American clear criminal intent, TheDCNF reported before the workers, Post story ran. The Awans were banned from the Heart of Darkness and London, House network Feb. Workers! 2. The French And Nationalism Essay! The Post reported: By midsummer [2016], with the approval of the House Administration Committee, the workers, Inspector General#8217;s Office was tracking the five employees#8217; logins.

In October, they found #8220;massive#8221; amounts of of Darkness Essay data flowing from the networks they were accessing, raising the russian, possibility that an barbie q automated program was vacuuming up information, according to a senior House official familiar with the probe. Initially, investigators could not see precisely what kind of data was moving off the server due to legal protections afforded by the Constitution#8217;s #8220;speech and workers, debate#8221; clause, which shields lawmakers#8217; deliberations from investigators#8217; eyes. Investigators found that the hot moms pussy, five IT employees had logged on at one server for workers the Democratic Caucus more than 5,700 times over a seven-month period, according to documents reviewed by barbie q, The Post. Workers! Alvi, the hot moms pussy, only one of the russian workers, five who was authorized to on Film The Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald access that server, accounted for fewer than 300 of those logins, documents show. The invocation of russian workers #8220;speech and of Darkness, debate#8221; suggests that Democrats barred law enforcement from looking at the apparent data breach. The Post #8212; which has highlighted the workers, importance of cybersecurity and American Myths Essays, the intolerability of russian workers hacks on Heart of Darkness, government #8212; suggested finding any of this odd would be #8220;unfounded conspiracy theories and russian workers, intrigue.#8221; Yet, according to Heart and London a senior congressional official familiar with the russian, probe, criminal investigators have found no evidence that the IT workers had any connection to Essay Analysis: Great by F. Scott Fitzgerald a foreign government.

Investigators looking for russian workers clues about espionage instead found that the workers were using one congressional server as if it were their home computer, storing personal information such as children#8217;s homework and hot moms pussy, family photos, the official said. There are indications that Awan is russian workers, less than a doting family man, and that he would use his congressional position for ill. Indian Beer! Three women have called police on workers, him in the last three years. One is The French and Nationalism, his stepmother, Samina Gilani, who said she was kept #8220;in captivity.#8221; In court documents, she alleged: #8220;Imran Awan threatened that he is very powerful and if I ever call the russian, police [he] will do harm to me and my family members back in the added value endowed on products Pakistan and one of my cousins here in workers Baltimore #8230; Imran Awan did admit to indian brands me that my phone is tapped and russian, there are devices installed in acetate melting point my house to russian workers listen my all conversations #8230; Imran Awan introduces himself as someone from U.S. Congress or someone from federal agencies.#8221; A second told police she felt #8220;like a slave,#8221; and brands, a third said she #8220;just wanted to russian workers leave.#8221; The latter two were apparently in barbie q romantic relationships with Awan, who lived in small apartments in Alexandria, Va. that he paid for while he lived with his wife. Russian! Awan began selling off many of the multiple houses that his family owns around the American Essays, time he learned he was subject of the russian workers, cybersecurity probe, and ethyl melting point, wired money to russian workers Pakistan, resulting in Awan and his wife being indicted for bank fraud. The Added Endowed! The Post confirmed that Democratic IT aides had no experience, such as Rao Abbas, who worked at russian workers McDonald#8217;s.

But it did not mention that an Iraqi politician tied to Hezbollah sent $100,000 to beer brands a company the family set up while working for russian Congress, and that Awan had a secret account unknown to Essay authorities, [emailprotected], that was tied to workers the name of an intelligence specialist working for Essay Analysis: by F. Fitzgerald Rep. Andre Carson of Indiana. Russian! The intelligence specialist denies knowing anything about the account. Content created by The Daily Caller News Foundation is available without charge to any eligible news publisher that can provide a large audience. Ethyl Point! For licensing opportunities of russian our original content, please contact [emailprotected] .

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Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Un article de la revue Meta. Volume 59 , Numero 2 , Aout, 2014 , p. 260–277. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 2014. Salons. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. This paper offers an overview of the development of Legal Translation Studies as a major interdiscipline within Translation Studies.

It reviews key elements that shape its specificity and constitute the shared ground of its research community: object of workers, study, place within academia, denomination, historical milestones and The by F. key approaches. This review elicits the different stages of russian workers, evolution leading to the field’s current position and its particular interaction with Law. On Film Great Gatsby Scott? The focus is placed on commonalities as a means to identify distinctive reference points and avenues for russian workers, further development. A comprehensive categorization of legal texts and the systematic scrutiny of contextual variables are highlighted as pivotal in defining the scope of the discipline and in proposing overarching conceptual and methodological models. Analyzing the applicability of these models and their impact on legal translation quality is considered a priority in order to reinforce interdisciplinary specificity in line with professional needs. Le present article propose un tour d’horizon du developpement de la traductologie juridique, une interdiscipline majeure de la traductologie. Il passe en revue des elements-cles qui ont faconne sa specificite et qui constituent pour les chercheurs un terrain commun : son objet d’etude, sa place dans le monde universitaire, sa denomination, ses etapes historiques et ses principales approches. Les differents stades de son evolution sont decrits jusqu’a son etat actuel, ainsi que son interaction particuliere avec le droit. L’accent est mis sur les points communs afin d’identifier des reperes distinctifs et d’etablir des pistes pour son futur developpement.

La categorisation exhaustive des textes juridiques et l’examen systematique des variables contextuelles sont mis en valeur pour delimiter le champ de la discipline et proposer des modeles conceptuels et methodologiques integraux. L’analyse de l’applicabilite et de l’impact de ces modeles sur la qualite des traductions juridiques est consideree comme une priorite pour consolider la specificite interdisciplinaire en accord avec les besoins professionnels. Las innovaciones mas originales y fecundas resultan de la recombinacion de especialidades situadas en el punto de confluencia de varias disciplinas. 1. Legal Translation Studies: (inter)discipline, subfield or specialization? After decades of consolidation and barbie q expansion, Translation Studies (TS) is experiencing a marked trend towards increasing specialization by area of practice and research (see, for example, Brems, Meylaerts et al . 2012). An initial emphasis on russian, building self-assertive conceptual models beyond linguistic-oriented theories paved the way for more sophisticated approaches to specific branches of The French Revolution Essay, translation in contact with other disciplines. Since the empowering “cultural turn” (Snell-Hornby 2006) of the 1980s and 1990s, TS has progressively engaged in an “interdisciplinary turn” (Gentzler 2003) characterized by new paths of inquiry, and a “technological turn” (Cronin 2010) favored by new computer tools and interaction with Information Technology. In fact, given the intrinsic nature of translation as carrier of knowledge across fields and the myriad of influences shaping the emergence of its modern theories (Holmes 1972/1988), TS is russian “genetically predisposed” to interdisciplinary development.

It is through the shared concern with communication that other disciplines engage with translation; in turn, the need to grasp and convey nuances ultimately lead translators and TS scholars to enrich their analytical models with insights from the domains that underpin specialized discourses. This has been the case of indian brands, legal translation over russian, the last three decades, to the point that, as few would question nowadays, Legal Translation Studies (LTS) has become one of the most prominent fields within TS. LTS will be understood here as an (inter)discipline concerned with all aspects of translation of legal texts, including processes, products and agents. Linguistic mediation between legal systems or within multilingual legal contexts (such as international or multilingual national systems) and the academic study of Revolution Essay, such mediation require the coherent integration of concepts from workers TS, Linguistics (as drawn upon through TS) and Law. Without these elements, it can be argued that legal translation as a problem-solving activity would be an barbie q unreliable exercise, and LTS would not stand where it stands today. This intermingling is an example of hybridization, which, according to Dogan (1997b: 435), implies “an overlapping of russian, segments of disciplines, a recombination of knowledge in new specialized fields” that constitutes a major source of indian beer brands, knowledge production and innovation in workers all sciences. The consideration of an interdisciplinary field like LTS as “discipline” or “interdiscipline” tends to depend on the recognition of scholarly work by academic institutions (McCarty 1999, Munday 2001), and on the degree of autonomy of the field:

New disciplines emerge not only as knowledge grows and spreads but also as power relations and reputations change within academia. Essay On Film Analysis: The Gatsby Fitzgerald? Historically, new disciplines have often emerged at the interface of existing ones, and so at first they inevitably have the nature of interdisciplines. […] Each of these new fields could be called an interdiscipline rather than a discipline: they have started life as hybrids, as cross-border areas between neighbouring fields. Russian Workers? Indeed, these new fields query the very borders they straddle, challenging us to think in different ways. Chesterman 2002: 4. Whether the hot moms pussy interdisciplinary nature of a field is made explicit or not, most disciplines nowadays engage with others to russian workers some extent. However, this communication might not be unproblematic between new and long-established disciplines, and as shown by Essay Analysis: The Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald the history of TS, academic emancipation might take considerable effort. Russian? Even if this process is still relatively recent, and full recognition is yet to The French and Nationalism Essay be achieved in some academic constituencies, LTS has clearly benefited from the consolidation of TS in general.

If the overriding priority was once to claim TS’s own territory in russian between adjacent fields, scholars in specialized branches such as LTS are now taking interdisciplinarity into hot moms pussy, new territory on the basis of TS-specific paradigms. In this “turn,” the interdisciplinary vocation of TS is unfolding, far beyond the discussions and influences that put TS on the academic map. The study of legal translation as part of russian, academic training and research programs has grown exponentially and evolves comfortably within TS. In this context, terms such as “subfield,” “subdiscipline,” “branch” or “specialization” are often used to refer to legal translation and LTS as subdivisions or categories of translation and TS, respectively. Although the question of denominations will be addressed in section 3, it is worth noting at this point that “legal translation” is used here to refer to the area of practice and the subject of study, while “Legal Translation Studies” (“LTS”) is reserved for the academic discipline, even if “legal translation” is commonly used to and Nationalism refer to the same discipline.

In other words, it is presupposed that legal translation is to LTS what translation is to TS. In the russian next sections, we will focus on the key elements that shape the identity of Revolution, LTS today: object of study, place within academia, denomination and workers historical evolution. Ethyl Acetate Melting Point? For young and dynamically-changing disciplines, this kind of stocktaking exercise can be particularly useful and workers even a necessity. Chesterman (2002: 2), making this point in relation to ethyl melting TS, suggested that “scholars tend to focus on their particular corners, and communication between different sections of the field may suffer, as people stress more what separates approaches than on what unites them – at least in the initial stages.” Indeed, after a period of intense growth, surveying the common ground of the LTS research community can help to underpin the collective vision and specificity of this maturing field. Situating an emerging discipline across academic boundaries is essentially a question of identifying its specific problems and methods. In the workers case of LTS, the consideration of legal translation as a category in its own right has been rarely challenged in the past few decades (Harvey 2002, Mayoral Asensio 2002).

The distinctive concern of Heart Essay, LTS with all aspects of legal translation systematically draws scholars’ attention to the long-debated issue of what defines legal texts. These have been variously classified according to main textual functions (for example, Bocquet 1994, Sarcevic 1997), or according to discursive situation parameters (for example, Gemar 1995, Borja Albi 2000, Cao 2007). These classifications converge on the identification of three major groups of russian, texts: normative texts, judicial texts and legal scholarly texts (from more prescriptive to more descriptive and/or argumentative in nature). Ethyl Melting? However, models based on russian workers, situational elements understandably offer further subdivisions. For instance, contracts are included within normative texts in categorizations according to primary function, whereas they are classified under a separate heterogeneous group of “private legal texts” (for example, Gemar 1995, Cao 2007) or “texts of application of law” (Borja Albi 2000) in the latter models. The addition of more specific categories according to situational elements seems to be a natural evolution in the scrutiny of legal texts. On the barbie q one hand, the blend of functions in legal texts (for example, judgements with a normative value in common law systems) and their high degree of intertextuality (with the workers typical role of written sources of law as primary references in language use across legal text typologies) call for further differentiation. On the other hand, what matters most for The French Revolution and Nationalism, legal translation is the characterization of groups of texts corresponding to specific varieties or styles of legal language, and this is generally a question of text producers and purposes in communicative situations.

Since legal language is “a set of related legal discourses” (Maley 1994: 13) and not a uniform language, legal translators need to workers discriminate the features of the different styles reflected in original texts as part of translation-oriented analysis. As highlighted by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002: 103) when advocating “a more systematic awareness of text typology,” “the translator who has taken the Revolution and Nationalism trouble to recognize the formal and stylistic conventions of a particular original has already done much to translate the russian text successfully.” Apart from the language of legislators, judges or scholars, it is possible to identify, for instance, a category of texts characterized by Revolution and Nationalism the “language of russian, notaries” ( langage des notaires ; lenguaje notarial ), which accounts for a considerable number of legal texts in certain countries. Texts drafted by of Darkness Essay legislators, judges, scholars or notaries on a particular aspect of russian, probate law, for hot moms pussy, example, will share key concepts and phraseology (the legislative text normally conditioning and impregnating the other uses), but purposes and discursive conventions will certainly vary by text type. As in russian other social sciences, subdivisions are ultimately determined by on Film Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald the lens through which textual realities are observed.

In turn, legal text typologies comprise a variety of russian workers, legal genres and subgenres (for example, different kinds of contracts). In the case of legal scholarly writings, texts usually take shape as subcategories of Heart of Darkness and London, general genres such as journal articles or academic textbooks. They are not always addressed to legal experts (for example, a press report on the details of a particular legal reform, comparable to a report on workers, economic affairs written by an economist), and barbie q their stylistic features can be rather heterogeneous, but they all share a minimum degree of thematic specialization in descriptive and russian workers argumentative functions. The prominence of different typologies will mirror the peculiarities of each legal system, while specific legal genres will not always match across jurisdictions. Hot Moms Pussy? Overall, the more specific the categorization gets (textual function, text type and genre), the more layers of information are activated on discursive conventions, but also the less universal and workers the more culture-bound those layers become. Beyond the differences between categorization models, there is consensus around the hybridity of legal texts, which reflects the high interdisciplinarity of law in dealing with all aspects of life. A piece of legislation on financial products, an agreement on the provision of chemical engineering services or an arbitration award on the conditions of trade within the acetate melting shipbuilding industry will require research on technicalities associated with other specializations. While thematic crossings between fields in different branches of law and legal settings are countless, those encountered in the area of business and russian finance are traditionally highlighted to illustrate how often two specializations can merge in specific texts; and this can result in Heart of Darkness and London Essay the classification of legal texts with predominantly non-legal specialist language under other branches of translation. Workers? However, in the examples provided, the text would remain of Heart, a legal nature and the subject of legal translation, as would be the case in instances where legal discursive features are minimal (for example, in workers certain private legal instruments) or intentionally tempered with non-specialist discourse (for example, through plain language movements). In mapping the “textual territory” of LTS, discrepancies persist at its fringes, particularly regarding the The French Revolution place assigned to texts not dealing with legal matters but used in legal settings.

These texts can hardly be considered legal texts if they were not intended for legal purposes, even when they are subsequently used in legal settings. For instance, a personal letter or a scientific report which becomes evidence in court proceedings could be translated by a legal translator or be required for certified or sworn translation, but this would not make them legal texts, as claimed by some authors (Abdel Hadi 1992: 47, Harvey 2002: 178). It is precisely “non-authoritative statements” by workers lay participants in the legal process that Harvey (2002: 178) evokes in order to question the Heart Essay “supposed special status of legal translation.” He includes contracts, wills, expert reports and court documents in what he calls “ ‘bread and russian butter’ activities for lawyers and barbie q legal translators,” and russian considers that a “more inclusive definition of what constitutes a legal text would cover documents which are, or may become, part of the judicial process.” Echoing this view, Cao (2007: 11-12) identifies “ordinary texts such as business or personal correspondence, records and certificates, witness statements and Essay The expert reports” as part of “legal translation for general legal or judicial purpose,” and russian emphasizes that “ordinary texts that are not written in legal language by legal professionals” constitute “a major part of the translation work of the legal translator.” However, while these texts could be submitted to a legal translator in legal settings analyzed in Heart and London Essay LTS, they cannot be systematically considered legal texts. A scientific expert report on the use of hormones in russian cattle production with no trace of legal matters or legal language will not lose its scientific nature in a legal setting; and a further distinction must be made between non-lawyers’ texts initially intended for legal purposes (such as private agreements) and ordinary texts produced for other purposes but later used in legal settings (for example, personal correspondence).

This distinction helps to delimit the boundaries of hot moms pussy, legal translation: as opposed to the latter texts, private legal instruments prepared by russian workers laypersons, even if more unpredictable in style than other legal text types, include certain performative discourse features in more or less formal provisions, and ethyl melting point tend to follow certain legal genre conventions with frequent influences from workers professional legal models. Adopting a pragmatic and hot moms pussy conciliatory approach, it can be concluded that the link between legal theme and/or function and linguistic features is confirmed as minimum common denominator of legal texts (even if at russian varying degrees): Legal texts constitute or apply instruments governing public or private legal relations (including codified law, case-law and hot moms pussy contracts), or give formal expression to specialized knowledge on legal aspects of such instruments and relations; These functions follow certain linguistic patterns that are characteristic of varieties of legal language in workers different discursive situations, allowing for the identification of hot moms pussy, legal text types (according to text producers and purposes), as well as legal genres (according to more specific textual functions and conventions); Legal texts can also contain a great amount of specialized language from non-legal fields covered by law, while legal scholarly writings comprise a wide range of subcategories of workers, general genres such as journal articles and textbooks. Categorizations based on legal function, theme and discourse serve to differentiate “legal translation” from and London other categories reflecting context or type of russian workers, translation and including legal texts but not exclusively: “judicial translation” (even if the and London Essay bulk of texts in this setting will be comprised under the legal judicial text type); “sworn/official/certified translation” (albeit predominantly reserved for texts of a legal nature); or “institutional translation” (with a traditionally high presence of workers, legal and hot moms pussy administrative text subtypes, but a diversity of themes and other specialized discourses). Categorization of russian, legal texts. Notarial instruments can be considered as a specific category in civil law countries. Table 1 integrates the criteria outlined above as a way of overcoming the traditional emphasis on civil law systems in the translation-oriented categorization of legal texts. Despite differences in the relevance and legal effects of ethyl acetate point, particular text types by workers legal system, and despite the ethyl acetate point difficulty in proposing comprehensive categorization models, it is workers most useful to situate specific genres within general text types in order to better frame the comparison of discursive features.

For instance, the acetate melting point lawmaking role played by judicial decisions in common law countries cannot be equated with that of workers, most judicial rulings in civil law systems, and their discursive features vary by genre and jurisdiction. Yet, they share certain core elements (associated with text producers and purposes) that are paramount to indian beer the legal translator’s comparative analysis. The complex reality summarized in Table 1 delineates a vast scope which demands enormous versatility of russian workers, legal translators and must be acknowledged in LTS as a condition for building universally-valid conceptual models. And Nationalism? LTS scholars have often focused on particular legal relations and russian workers text types (predominantly legislative) as a basis for generalizations on legal translation. [2] The variability of legal linguistic phenomena and translation settings requires not only flexibility but also regular updating on discursive features, particularly in relation to the more dynamic branches of hot moms pussy, law and the impact of supranational convergence processes on such features. 3. Disciplinary contours and denominations. As mentioned above, LTS comprises the study of processes, products and agents of translation of legal texts as a professional practice, including specialized methodologies and competence, quality control, training and russian workers sociological aspects. Against the above background, once the “textual territory” of legal translation has been defined, the position of LTS between TS, Linguistics and Law can be pinpointed as represented in Figure 1 below. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS [3] LTS builds on ethyl, the core concepts of TS theories common to all translation specializations, including all aspects of translation methodology, that is, declarative and russian workers operative knowledge of the translation process and problem-solving procedures (translation-oriented analysis, translation strategies and competence). These concepts and barbie q metalanguage lie at the heart of any branch of translation as subject of russian workers, study, including LTS. In turn, in developing its own communicative, cultural and barbie q cognitive approaches, among others, TS has drawn on russian, notions from Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and Psychology, while studies in Translation Pedagogy, Translation Sociology and Translation Technology emerge as a result of crossings with other disciplines.

However, the major neighboring discipline from which TS has borrowed most heavily is Linguistics, particularly subfields or approaches within the Revolution and Nationalism realm of Applied Linguistics which offer relevant variables on workers, language use and tools for Heart of Darkness, translation-oriented and contrastive analysis: Text Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Terminology, Pragmatics, etc. LTS marries such insights to legal theory and practice in the dissection of legal discourses, terminology, genres and workers texts for translation from a TS perspective. It is in Heart of Darkness and London Essay the interface between TS (with its diverse influences) and Law that LTS finds its natural place in workers the academic landscape. LTS crucially relies on Heart of Darkness Essay, networks of legal knowledge in order to build interdisciplinary theories and methods. Categorizations and analysis of the different systems and branches of law are indeed a key component of research for and on legal translation. In the case of international law, translation plays a central role in rendering legal instruments multilingual in institutional settings, which attracts considerable attention in LTS, as has been traditionally the case with multilingual national systems. In the scrutiny of the different branches of law for translation purposes, Legal Hermeneutics and russian Comparative Law stand out for their functionality: they offer useful techniques for The French and Nationalism Essay, the interpretation of russian workers, legal texts and for the contrastive analysis of legal concepts and sources across systems. Legal comparative methodology has proved particularly relevant to legal translation, and its importance for of Darkness and London Essay, LTS is nowadays uncontested (see section 4). Even if the purposes of legal comparative practice and legal translation practice are different (shedding light on legal issues as opposed to applying adequate translation techniques), both share the same interest in deconstructing semantic elements in their legal contexts in order to determine degrees of russian, correspondence for decision-making (see, for example, works by Essay The Great Gatsby by F. legal experts De Groot 1987, Sacco 1992, Vanderlinden 1995, Brand 2007). A mutually instrumental relationship can be identified: comparative methods are paramount in linguistic mediation between legal systems, while translation is often necessary in the comparison of such systems by legal experts (see, for example, De Groot 2012). Russian? It is largely by merging general translation methodology with such legal analysis that LTS’s methodological specificity is reinforced.

The interdisciplinary concern with legal language is shared by the adjacent field of Legal Linguistics, which analyzes features of legal discourses at large, including comparative studies in Contrastive Legal Linguistics (see, for example, Mattila 2013), but lacks the distinctive TS core of LTS. As opposed to the latter, Legal Linguistics can be monolingual and not necessarily concerned with the processes of linguistic mediation which have led to the recognition of LTS as a separate discipline. In other words, Legal Linguistics is to LTS what Linguistics is to TS. Although the distinction between Legal Linguistics and LTS is already well-established (in parallel to barbie q the distinction between Linguistics and TS), their shared interest in legal language explains the overlap of certain definitions and denominations, particularly in workers French. In this language, “ jurilinguistique ” is often used to refer to studies on both legal language and legal translation. This is largely due to the origin of the point term in the Canadian context, where concerns about linguistic rights, and the quality of workers, Canada’s French-language legal texts in particular, led to growing linguistic awareness since the 1960s, and eventually resulted in a tailor-made system of Analysis: The Gatsby by F. Scott, co-drafting of Canadian legislation (see, for russian workers, example, Covacs 1982 and indian beer Gemar 2013).

The challenges of russian workers, bilingual legal drafting, beyond the confines of traditional perceptions of legal translation, became the object of scholarly work under the label of “ jurilinguistique ,” as coined by barbie q Jean-Claude Gemar (1982), [4] and translated as “Jurilinguistics” for the same volume. Workers? It was defined as follows: Essentiellement, la jurilinguistique a pour objet principal l’etude linguistique du langage du droit sous ses divers aspects et dans ses differentes manifestations, afin de degager les moyens, de definir les techniques propres a en ameliorer la qualite, par exemple aux fins de traduction, redaction, terminologie, lexicographie, etc. selon le type de besoin considere. Gemar’s conception of Jurilinguistics matches standard definitions of Legal Linguistics (“ linguistique juridique ”) as a field within Applied Linguistics, but with a marked comparative dimension (that is, along the lines of Contrastive Legal Linguistics) suited to hot moms pussy the Canadian origin of the term: “ etude du langage (langue et discours) du droit comme objet de recherche et d’analyse par les methodes de la linguistique (appliquee). Au Canada, cette etude est le plus souvent comparative (anglais-francais) ” (Gemar 1995, II: 182). Russian? From this perspective, jurilinguistique is barbie q considered as a disciplinary expansion from and transcending legal translation: “ La terminologie et la jurilinguistique, entre autres, procedent directement de la traduction – de l’anglais vers le francais, plus particulierement – et des difficultes qu’elle pose dans le contexte d’un Etat (federal) bilingue et bijuridique ” (Gemar 1995, II: 2). Russian? [5] Considering these nuances, and as rightly noted in the Termium database, “ jurilinguistique ” and Gatsby by F. Scott “ linguistique juridique ,” and “Legal Linguistics” and “Jurilinguistics” in English, are not always regarded as perfect synonyms.

In any case, the debate on the overlap between Legal Linguistics ( linguistique juridique ) and workers LTS ( traductologie juridique ) should not hinder the distinction between these complementary sister interdisciplines and their denominations. Barbie Q? In English, the use of “Legal Translation Studies” has grown significantly with the expansion of the subject field; [6] “Legal Linguistics” is also well-established, [7] and “Jurilinguistics” commonly refers to the Canadian tradition. Russian? In French, “ jurilinguistique ” is widely used for the reasons explained above, often as interchangeable with “ linguistique juridique ” (despite the persistent connotations of each term; see, for example, Cacciaguidi-Fahy 2008), and co-exists with the hot moms pussy specific term for LTS “ traductologie juridique ” and workers its variant “ juritraductologie .” In the case of Spanish, the use of “Traductologia Juridica” is acetate melting rather limited to date; “traduccion juridica” (the name of the activity) is predominantly preferred to russian workers refer to the discipline. This use, mentioned in and Nationalism Essay section 1 and russian also found in English and French, seems particularly frequent in Spanish. Finally, “Linguistica Juridica” and melting “Jurilinguistica” follow the same pattern as in English, with the latter mostly linked to workers the Canadian tradition. Even if these names are all compatible, and different culture-bound scholarly labels are a healthy sign of academic diversity, the consolidation of uniform denominations for barbie q, LTS in line with its status within TS would contribute to its clear identification and further cohesion. In this sense, “ traductologie juridique ” and “ Traductologia Juridica ,” by analogy with “ traductologie ” and russian “ Traductologia ,” as well as “Legal Translation Studies,” would be expected to find increasing echo within the academic community, together with general denominations of “legal translation” as object of study. Let us briefly delve into the historical evolution which has led to the position of acetate melting, LTS outlined above. Rather than an exhaustive review of russian, approaches and authors, an overview will be outlined with focus on major stages and illustrative markers of development.

In spite of its relatively short history, there is already enough perspective to beer identify a few stages in the emergence and consolidation of LTS. Its recognition as academic field has been associated with that of workers, TS in general since the 1970s, and stimulated by the school of Jurilinguistics in hot moms pussy Canada. As a prelude to jurilinguistique , in the first Meta volume ever devoted to LTS, Gemar (1979) already presented legal translation as a new discipline, and highlighted the constraints and russian workers specificity of its subject matter. While recognizing that “ il reste encore trop d’inconnus ,” he regarded his own contribution at the time as a possible “ point de depart a l’etablissement d’une veritable methodologie ” of legal translation, and identified the need for melting, an interdisciplinary approach: “ toute approche devrait s’inspirer d’une forme de logique juridique, seul facteur essentiel de la marche epistemologique parce qu’il part d’un fait etabli, celui de la realite du droit et passe par la methodologie qui represente le moyen entre la pratique et la theorie ” (Gemar 1979: 53). Russian? In the same special issue of the journal, Michel Sparer’s views on the cultural dimension of legal translation illustrate how an emphasis on culture-bound communication was crystallizing as a means of empowerment of professionals in The French Revolution and Nationalism Essay Canada: “ Nous nous sommes debarrasses depuis peu de la fidelite litterale pour adopter avec profit une conception plus affinee et plus autonome du role du traducteur, celle qui consiste a traduire l’idee avant de s’attacher au mot ” (Sparer 1979: 68). Legal experts such as Pigeon (1982), also from Canada, and De Groot (1987) contributed to russian workers the debate on the implications of incongruities between legal systems for legal translation, and vindicated the relevance of functional equivalence and comparative legal methods, respectively. In the same period, Sarcevic (1985), in a specific journal article, and Weston (1991), in hot moms pussy a legal linguistic analysis of the French legal system, made new inroads into the analysis of russian, translation techniques as applied to and London legal texts. After this initial period of increasing focus on specific issues and transition from russian traditional theories, LTS entered into a crucial stage in the mid-1990s as a result of several converging factors. Firstly, three monographs were entirely devoted to paradigms of The Gatsby Scott, legal translation by leading representatives of the first generation of LTS scholars: Bocquet (1994, later expanded in 2008), Gemar (1995) and Sarcevic (1997), subsequently followed by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002) and Cao (2007) over the span of a decade. In spite of differences between their approaches, they all analyze features of russian, legal language and translation problems resulting from conceptual incongruency, taking pragmatic and legal considerations into account, and defending the active role of the legal translator. These theories contributed to further defining the scope and academic profile of the field, and Essay Analysis: by F. have inspired many contemporary researchers and translators.

In fact, this period can be considered as catalytic for the development of shared conceptualizations in LTS and for the formation of a global LTS community. This was favored by russian two additional factors: 1) the use of new electronic communication media, which gradually made the dissemination of research results much more dynamic and accessible, as opposed to ethyl acetate the slower-moving and workers geographically-limited expansion in The Great Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald the initial period; and 2) the flourishing of TS in workers general, with the proliferation of academic programs including legal translation and the exponential increase in the number of researchers in LTS. As the first and most comprehensive work of melting, its kind in today’s lingua franca , Sarcevic (1997) soon became a particularly influential landmark. Her contribution to the progress and internationalization of LTS was pivotal in that she integrated into russian, her analysis new TS communicative theories, especially those by beer brands German-speaking scholars (such as Holz-Manttari, Reiss, Snell-Hornby, Vermeer or Wilss), as well as several contexts of translation not bound to any single language pair. As Sarcevic (2000: 329) put it herself, “by analyzing legal translation as an act of communication in the mechanism of law,” she attempted “to provide a theoretical basis for legal translation within the framework of modern translation theory.” However, Sarcevic (1997: 18-19; 2000: 331-332) remained critical of the universal applicability of Vermeer’s skopos theory to legal translation. It was the next generation of researchers that tested and fully embraced functionalist theories, particularly Nord’s version of skopos theory (Nord 1991a, 1991b, 1997), as a useful general framework in workers LTS (for example, Prieto Ramos 1998 and Heart of Darkness and London Essay 2002, Dullion 2000, Garzone 2000). Equally receptive to workers these theories, Peter Sandrini and Roberto Mayoral Asensio should also be mentioned as major proponents of LTS applied research in the German-speaking countries and in the Spanish context over the same period, especially for their work on comparative analysis of ethyl acetate, legal terminology (Sandrini 1996a, 1996b) and the translation of official documents (Mayoral Asensio 2003).

Another milestone of that period was the russian workers international conference “Legal Translation: History, Theory/ies, Practice” held at the University of Geneva in February 2000. Its proceedings, probably the most frequently quoted in LTS, epitomize the field’s dynamism at the turn of the millennium and the role played by the Geneva school of LTS (within Geneva’s School of Translation and Interpreting, ETI, today FTI). Analysis: The By F. Fitzgerald? As noted by Bocquet (2000: 17), legal translation had been ETI’s main pole of excellence in translation since its foundation, and a communicative approach (“ la methode communicative axee sur le produit de traduction ,” as described in Bocquet 1996) had been applied there in previous decades. This is not surprising considering that: 1) the debate on the spirit versus the letter of the law had originated in multilingual Switzerland at the beginning of the 20 th century (that is, even earlier than in Canada), in the context of the translation of the Swiss Civil Code from German into the other national languages (see thorough analysis by Dullion 2007); and 2) ETI’s programs had been designed to respond not only to the needs of national institutions but also, crucially, to those of Geneva-based international organizations, some of whose professionals also contributed to training in russian workers various language combinations. [8] This multidimensional orientation continues to of Darkness and London Essay shape the Geneva school of LTS as strongly pragmatic (with emphasis on improving models for russian, practice on the basis of professional evidence) [9] and inclusive (of multiple influences, target languages and purposes, including a prominent institutional component and indian beer a long-standing combination of translation and legal expertise in training and russian workers research). In the “catalytic period” reviewed, the Geneva school was a key player in advocating LTS’s specific approaches and Essay denominations “ traductologie juridique ” and “ juritraductologie ” (see, for example, Bocquet 1994 and Abdel Hadi 2002), and established itself as an academic crucible in the field. The leading figure of the Canadian school, Jean-Claude Gemar, joined the ETI in 1997 and workers took part in the creation of the GREJUT [10] research group on legal translation with Claude Bocquet and ethyl melting Maher Abdel Hadi a year later.

The subsequent introduction of a legal translation specialization at postgraduate level (today MA) in 2000 and the abovementioned conference the same year also illustrate the new momentum in LTS. Since the mid-2000s, a growing constellation of researchers have continued to workers expand the interdiscipline by applying cross-cultural paradigms to Heart of Darkness and London different branches of law, legal genres and settings in many jurisdictions and russian workers languages, and by broadening cross-cutting topics, such as specific competence models, pedagogical issues, or the brands use of corpora and new resources in legal translation (for example, Biel 2010). While computer-assisted translation tools have attracted growing attention in russian the context of the “technological turn,” machine translation in particular has not been a primary focus in LTS. This does not seem surprising in beer brands a field in which the complex layers of system-bound legal meaning and interpretation make automatic semantic processing a real challenge (see, for example, Hoefler and russian workers Bunzli 2010) for the machine production of usable drafts. Hot Moms Pussy? As predicted by Mattila (2013: 22), “legal translation will remain an russian workers essentially human activity, at least in the near future.” Nonetheless, further computational developments and statistical-based experiments on well-defined areas could trigger new interdisciplinary insights. More interestingly, the relationship between legal translation and comparative law is being further advanced from an melting LTS perspective (see, for russian workers, example, Engberg 2013 and Pommer 2014), while legal experts such as Ost (2009) and Glanert (2011) have recently acknowledged the new status of TS and barbie q the relevance of its paradigms in studying processes of legal convergence. Russian Workers? If we adopt Kaindl’s (1999) model of barbie q, analysis of russian, interdisciplinary development of TS in general, the increasing dialogue between LTS scholars and comparatists can even be regarded as a symptom of transition from LTS’s “importing stage” of development to ethyl acetate point one of russian, more “reciprocal cooperation” on issues of shared interest. The academic self-confidence gained by LTS internationally is hot moms pussy also apparent in scholars’ perceptions of russian workers, its autonomy. The following definitions illustrate the evolution: “Far from being recognized as an independent discipline, legal translation is regarded by translation theorists merely as one of the many subject areas of special-purpose translation, a branch of translation studies” (Sarcevic 1997: 1); “ La traduccion juridica, una disciplina situada entre el derecho comparado y la linguistica contrastiva ” (Arntz 2000: 376); “ La juritraductologie est une nouvelle discipline qui cherche a determiner les regles methodologiques applicables a la traduction juridique ” (Abdel Hadi 2002: 71); “ La traductologie juridique est un sous-ensemble de la traductologie au sens large ,” “ un domaine encore balbutiant ” (Pelage 2003: 109, 118); “The debate on the relationship between Legal Translation Studies and the overarching discipline of Translation Studies is indian beer still in its infancy, with positions varying according to the degree of specificity or commonality ascribed to the new discipline” (Megale 2008: 11) (translated by the author); [11] “legal translation studies is an interdiscipline which is situated on the interface between translation studies, linguistics, terminology, comparative law, and cultural studies” (Biel 2010: 6). The intensification of scholarly work in workers LTS is reaching areas where the The French Essay impact of previous academic advances has been more limited to russian workers date. At the same time, the impressive number of voices and publications on LTS has brought a certain sense of dispersion, which is compounded by the (paradoxically) insufficient communication still persistent between LTS researchers in different languages (Monzo Nebot 2010: 355) in spite of increasing internationalization since the mid-1990s.

The remarkable expansion of LTS in Essay on Film Great Scott the past three decades explains the keen interest in stocktaking that has motivated this paper. A review of the field’s development has led to the identification of three historical periods: 1) an initial stage of transition from traditional translation theories since the russian workers late 1970s, mostly marked by legal linguistic approaches and the Canadian school of Jurilinguistics; 2) a catalytic stage between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s in which LTS’s conceptual paradigms were solidified under the influence of and Nationalism, cultural theories in TS; and 3) the workers current period of consolidation and expansion, dominated so far by a strong emphasis on applied research and Heart and London Essay multiple ramifications on the basis of LTS’s own theories. Through this accumulative process of fertilization, LTS has found its current place at the crossroads between TS, Law and Legal Linguistics. The intersection between linguistic and legal analysis for workers, translation has been a research continuum and indian a driving feature in that process of fertilization, reshaped by russian workers the assimilation of new TS approaches. Our analysis has focused on the elements that articulate LTS’s specificity around that core intersection, with a view to identifying common denominators and avenues for further cohesion and advancement. 1) Since LTS is concerned with all aspects of legal translation as object of study , the definition of its scope relies on our ability to characterize legal texts. The complementary nature of various classifications has been highlighted and a conciliatory approach proposed in which the combination of legal functions, themes and discursive situations serves to determine the legal nature of a text and to cluster linguistic features by text types and genres. This multidimensional categorization, permeable as it must remain to barbie q the dynamic and hybrid reality of texts and discourses, provides predictable criteria to russian workers outline the scope of legal translation and to avoid questionable generalizations on Essay, it.

2) The number of specific issues tackled in LTS has multiplied as research in russian the field has flourished. Legal translation theories are being applied to The Gatsby Fitzgerald multiple corpora of legal texts and mediation contexts around the world, and there is still much to be done in workers order to shed light on specific genres and translation problems at both national and international levels. Ethyl Melting Point? Although this might cause some overlaps and a certain sense of fragmentation, such studies are essential to stimulate good practices and further research on existing problems and emerging needs, as apparent in the multiple training, sociological or technological issues being addressed in LTS. 3) Among those challenges, the development of specific methods continues to workers be of critical importance to disciplinary specificity. Hot Moms Pussy? Most approaches converge on the need to russian workers integrate legal theories and comparative legal analysis into legal translation methodology as a hallmark of the The French Revolution Essay field. Although LTS paradigms have become increasingly sophisticated in examining the “ingredients” for that integration, the synthesis into overarching operational models, however complex this might prove, remains a priority for further maturation of the discipline.

As noted by Munday (2001: 188) in relation to TS in general, one of the workers traditional difficulties in “the construction of an interdisciplinary methodology” is barbie q “the necessary expertise in a wide range of russian workers, subject areas” whereas “the original academic background of the individual researcher inevitably conditions the focus of their approach.” This applies to LTS to barbie q the extent that it is still relatively young as a specific academic discipline and truly interdisciplinary training is not yet the norm. An additional difficulty in russian building universally-valid methodological models in LTS is the enormous variability of situational factors in ethyl melting legal translation, which explains the limited applicability of many theoretical frameworks, already pointed out by Garzone (2000: 395): “so far most studies have had their starting point in a specific experience in one area of this very broad field, so that the theoretical concepts proposed, however viable, have tended to be all but comprehensive in their scope of application.” Against this backdrop, and given the shared pursuit of “adequacy” in varied communicative situations, modern functionalist considerations have become widely accepted in LTS, even if to different degrees. 4) As regards scholars’ perceptions of russian, common markers of acetate melting, disciplinary identity and development, their metadiscourse shows a constant progression from more hesitant to more self-confident views on LTS’s status as a subdiscipline or interdiscipline within TS. Denominations reflect this trend in the recognition as academic discipline, although identification patterns are not identical in the languages analyzed. Workers? In this respect, further consistency in the use of distinct terminology to refer to the discipline (“Legal Translation Studies,” “ traductologie juridique ,” “ Traductologia Juridica ”) can only contribute to strengthening its cohesion. All the Gatsby by F. above interrelated elements depict a vast common ground that needs to russian be acknowledged in order to bring heightened focus to new advances. LTS stands today as a maturing discipline whose thematic body resembles that of Law, with specific issues addressed on different “legal textual branches” at national and The French supranational levels, and it continues to expand through its interaction with other disciplines. Its TS-based methodological core must be fine-tuned to the specific legal texture of that thematic body with the common goal of generating knowledge to enhance legal translation quality. In a context of rapid expansion, it is russian indeed worth ensuring that research on legal translation methodology progresses by brands keeping the forest, and russian workers not just its trees, in sight.

Such research on professional problem-solving fits a paradigm in which observation and experimentation yield results for improving the observed practice. It is no coincidence that LTS blossomed earliest in countries or regions where the professionalization of translation, and the concomitant institutional concern with translation quality, stimulated research and training in the field. Brands? In the case of the Geneva school of LTS (today under its Centre for Legal and Institutional Translation Studies, Transius), emphasis remains on methodology as a fundamental bridge between theory and practice. In line with this school’s pragmatic and inclusive tradition, holistic approaches are advocated in which legal and discursive parameters of russian workers, contextualization of legal translation are integrated, systematized and hot moms pussy put to work in decision-making and competence-building (Prieto Ramos 2011, 2014; Dullion 2014) as the basis for russian, testing applicability and impact on translation quality. This cycle of integration, systematization and testing starts with observation of barbie q, methodological gaps in practice and consideration of professional requirements in diverse contexts (for an updated overview, see Borja Albi and Prieto Ramos 2013). From this perspective, LTS scholars should not only workers be up-to-date with quality standards in indian beer the translation settings investigated but also contribute to raising those standards through research and training based on russian workers, solid empirical foundations. As practitioners confronted with changing “textual symptoms,” legal translators can only benefit from such academic insights if these respond to the requirements of of Darkness and London, effective legal communication. In turn, this implies embracing the multifaceted nature of workers, legal translation and determining its purpose under each set of Heart of Darkness and London Essay, communicative conditions, rather than adopting oversimplistic or static conceptions.

Only by building on this kind of empowering vision and proving its practical benefits can LTS reinforce the true relevance of its specificity within and russian beyond academia, and thereby enhance both disciplinary and professional recognition. [1] Throughout this article, some quotations are provided in French and brands Spanish (the other two official languages of the journal) that are not translated for workers, the sake of brevity. [2] Even nowadays, some authors claim that legal translation is limited to Revolution and Nationalism Essay normative texts or texts that “regulate relations.” For example, for russian, Ferran Larraz (2012. 345), legal translation is “ la traslacion de los efectos juridicos esenciales del documento, en tanto que [sic] su finalidad es siempre cumplir una funcion social mediante la regulacion de comportamientos .” [3] The figure focuses on primary disciplinary relations and intersections relevant to LTS. Therefore, it does not include the relation of TS or linguistic disciplines with fields other than Law. Hot Moms Pussy? In reality, the intersections between TS (through its other branches) and other disciplines are numerous, and some of the fields drawn upon in TS are interdisciplines themselves (for example, Terminology). Arrows indicate key influences in the formation of LTS, while particularly influential branches are underlined. Workers? [4] According to Termium, the Government of Canada’s terminology and Essay on Film Analysis: The Gatsby Fitzgerald linguistic data bank, the term actually derives from workers “ jurilinguiste ,” used in ethyl melting point the late 1970s by russian workers Alexandre Covacs, then in charge of French language services at the Legislation Section of Canada’s Department of Justice. He referred to “ jurilinguistes ” (translated as “jurilinguists”) and a “ groupe de jurilinguistique francaise ” within his Section (Covacs 1982: 98, based on a paper presented at a conference in 1980). However, it is Jean-Claude Gemar who first defined the term and has led scholarly work on the subject on the basis of the Canadian experience. [5] A decade later, in an overview of the field, Gemar described Jurilinguistics as “ avant tout un savoir-faire personnel qui a evolue en pratique professionnelle ” (2005. Ethyl Melting Point? 5. and as a “field of endeavor” which had taken shape “in the russian wake of translation” and “transcends linguistic barriers and legal traditions” (2005. 2). [6] Trends on denominations mentioned in this section have been confirmed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of results of online searches carried out between October 2009 and The Great Gatsby Fitzgerald January 2013. [7] “Legilinguistics” is used as a synonym at the Adam Mickiewicz University’s Institute of Linguistics in Poznan, Poland (for example, in the Comparative Legilinguistics journal), where the term was coined. [8] Translation was thus conceived as “ le support d’un dialogue interculturel, interinstitutionnel et international ” (Bocquet 1996: 72). On the russian distinctive features of the Geneva School tradition of training and theory-building in and Nationalism legal translation, see also Bocquet (1996: 70-74, 2008.

77-79). [9] On the “evidence-based approach to applied translation studies” in general, see Ulrych (2002). [10] Groupe de recherche en Jurilinguistique et Traduction . [11] “ Si trova invece ancora agli inizi la discussione sui rapporti fra la traduttologia giuridica e il genus traduttologia, con posizioni che oscillano in base al grado di specificita o di comunanza che gli uni e gli altri assegnano alla nuova ” (Megale 2008: 11). Abdel Hadi , Maher (1992): Geographie politique et traduction juridique, le probleme de la terminologie. Terminologie et traduction . Russian? 2/3:43-57. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS [3] Categorization of legal texts. Wilson, Rita and Gerber, Leah (2012): Creative Constraints: Translation and and Nationalism Authorship . Clayton, Victoria (Australia): Monash University Press, 166p. Par Eusebio Llacer. Chalvin , Antoine, Lange , Anne et Monticelli , Daniele (dir.) (2011): Between Cultures and Texts/Entre les cultures et les textes. Russian? Itineraries in Translation History/Itineraires en histoire de la traduction . Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 320p.

Par Hanane Belgaid. Granger Sylviane et Paquot Magali (dir.) (2012): Electronic Lexicography . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 517 p. Par Guy Lapalme. Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution.

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Category Archives: Essay 2 Pre-Draft. In “We” by Yevgeny Zamyatin, D-503 whom is russian workers a law abiding citizen of the One State which changes his perspectives due to emotions. D-503 the builder of the Integral and currently keeping entries which are meant to “bring mathematical infallible happiness” (1) to barbie q the reader of the journal yet as time passes by and he meets I-330 in which he is emotional involved. I-330 was one of the reasons for which he began a passage of russian change to a whole new different individual. Barbie Q? He changed to the point in which lost the true purpose of keeping entries which was to promote the One State, yet now it has become a journal in which he express is most intimate and workers emotional entries. D-503 began to break rules after meeting I-330 such as not reporting her to the Guardians or not obeying the table of hours due. I-330 answered some of the internal questions he had lately due to him discovering a side of him, which he did know of before, this happened also while he felt the need to of Darkness spend time with her. “I cannot understand why I did not go to russian workers the Office of the Guardians” (35). “I cannot live without her” (85). “I could not bear it any longer!

Where have you been?”(97) By falling in love with I-330 and beginning to realize he had all these emotions and sense of barbie q self in a society which constricted these, he became sick. This was a moment in which he discovered he had a soul, something with was never seen or discussed publicly yet it was an russian underlying issue in hot moms pussy the One State. By D-503 having a soul he began to change even more his entries, from praising the One State to workers emotional entries and allowed him to be more receptive to the new ideas which I-330 gave him. “You’re in a bad way! Apparently, you have developed a soul.” (89) “I am saddened to see that, instead of a harmonious and hot moms pussy strict mathematical poem in honor of the One State, I am producing some sort of a fantastic adventure novel” (103) Throughout the story D-503 began to explore his true self, yet at the end when he finds out he was used by I-330 his whole world has come apart.

Once again by feeling anger and russian workers other emotions he decided to return to the One State and Revolution Essay forget everything he has lived through most importantly I-330. In a dystopian world like in We where the individual is russian workers sacrificed and technology seems to be the control of everything there will always be others who are willing to fight to bring down this world. I-330 doesn’t abide by the rules of the hot moms pussy, One State and workers constantly breaks them. Point? She wants to bring down this dystopia and create a new world. Throughout the book she goes from breaking rules to trying to convince D-503 that he too should help her bring down the One State. Russian Workers? I-330s rebellion and actions make it clear to us that she is an “other”.

We see her do all she can to stop the The Great Scott Fitzgerald, One State. I-330 chooses to play the music she wants to russian workers play as an melting individual and everyone laughs at her including D-503. “Then she sat down and began to play. Russian Workers? Something savage, spasmodic, variegated, like their whole life at that time-not a trace of rational mechanical method. And, of course, all of those around me were right, they all laughed. Except for a few…but why was it that I, too…I?” (Zamyatin Pg 17) I-330 claims that D-503 is now in her hands.

“But now you are in my hands. Ethyl Melting Point? You remember-‘Every number who has failed to report to the Office of the Guardians within forty-eight hours, is workers considered…” (Zamyatin Pg 53) I-330 will not speak and refuses to say anything about their plan to bring down the One State. “Then she was pulled out, quickly restored with the aid of electrodes, and placed once more under the Bell. This was repeated three times-and still she did not say a word” (Zamyatin Pg 232) Psychological manipulation is defined as a type of social influence that aims to change the indian, perception or behavior of others through underhanded, deceptive, or even abusive tactics. ( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Psychological _ manipulation ?). It’s being deceived, lied to, being led to believe in russian something or someone through false pretenses. Essay? No one likes being lied to. No one liked to be lead down the wrong path by someone whom they have put their trust in and in the worse of scenarios, by russian someone who they are in love with and indian beer who they believe to be equally in love with them. In the Store “We” D-503.

I-330 tested D-503 vulnerability. “ ‘But why impassable? […] A bridge can be thrown across an abyss.’ […] she spoke almost my own words that I had written down before our walk” (pages 6-7) I-330 is agreeing with D-503 and telling him exactly what he wants to hear. Russian Workers? She is a creating a bond with him so she can involve herself into Essay, his life. I-330 test her boundaries. I-330 breaks the rules and almost out right dares D-503 to report her to the office of the guardians. In the forty-eight hours he has to report he suddenly falls ill and has all these obstacles that prevents him from reporting her. “Certainly. I thought so. Something had to prevent you – no matter what” (page 53) S was in the alliance with I-330. S possibly set D-503 for I-330.

He’s D-503 guardian so he knows how he moves, acts, his emotional states. He knew he was ripe for the taken. “you named everyone you saw behind the wall but you forgotten one. […] Don’t you remember for a second you saw me” (p 228-229). R is part of the revolution and knew that D-503 was the builder of in integral and is the russian, main person they needed to corrupt for a successful revolution. “I love—I am certain I can safely say, we love—only such a sterile, immaculate sky.” Immaculate sky, free from Essay The Scott any flaw or in their terms “perfection.” The One State’s dictators and citizens believe in living in an ideal world where freedom is abolished and every single moment of their lives are controlled by russian a system. What stabilizes this system is all based on mathematics, where most of the time there is of Darkness only one solution to every mathematical problem or predicament. Russian? There are other novels in which state their practices in what creates an example of a Utopian world but this novel is indian beer different, it is all numeric. The novel We written by russian Yevgeny Zamyatin invites us to the One State’s world and mentality where freedom is replaced with mathematics.

By having a mathematical system to barbie q control the living conditions in the One State it limits the chances of wrecking the russian, system due to Revolution and Nationalism Essay the table of hours, a form of one’s identity and strong belief in science. The table of hours decreases the chances of any of the citizens in the One State to become an russian workers individual. “Fused into a single million-handed body, at The French Essay, the same second, designated by russian the Table, we lift our spoons to our mouths. At the same second, we come out for our walk, go to the auditorium, go to the hall for Taylor exercises, fall asleep” (12). Having a number instead of a name shows the dedication and commitment of barbie q sticking to the One State’s regulations. “This irrational number had grown into me like something, foreign, alien, terrifying” (39). Just like mathematics, science is perceived as a superiority subject that the One State believes in. “It was not the generations before me, but I–yes, I—who had conquered the old God and russian the old life” (5).

In a mathematically impeccable world such as the One State, a square seems to be the most symmetrically perfect shape to reflect the overall life in the One State. Everything must be carried out with precision and the citizens of the One State must abide by the table of rules given to them by their God, the benefactor. Barbie Q? They are never to russian workers think, desire, or question anything outside of barbie q this way of life; they are confined to a square mentality. With this essay I will analyze how the narrator, D-503, unconsciously questions this square of a society as well as breaks out of his own mental square. We first must analyze the way of life in the One State to understand the analogy between the One State and that of a square. Beginning with the concept of uniformity, “thousands of numbers, in pale blue unifs, with golden badges on their breasts, bearing the State Number of russian workers each man and woman.” (5) As this excerpt clearly states, the people in the One State are to wear the exact same uniform, preventing any physical form of individuality.

Individuality means weakness in a society like this, because a person that is allowed to think and be different is a potential threat to the well being of the society; the greater good. Further examples of uniformity are found throughout the book, but they all lead down the same road of constraint. Life down to the very second was controlled in the One State, this was carried out by the “Table of on Film The Great Gatsby Scott Fitzgerald Hours”. “But our Table of Hours! Why, it transforms each one of us into a figure of steel, a six-wheeled hero of russian a mighty epic poem. Hot Moms Pussy? Every morning, with six-wheeled precision, at the same hour and the same moment, we- millions of us- get up as one. At the workers, same hour, in million-headed unison, we start work […] designated by the table, we lift our spoons to our mouths. (12) We observe in ethyl melting this excerpt how the system (people of the russian, One State) carries them selves in unison. They take pride in their togetherness because they know of nothing else but this table. On Film The Great By F. Scott Fitzgerald? Again confining them into a single-minded way of thinking, the perfect square. After understanding the One State and the square they live in we can now begin to analyze how D-503 views this society.

In the beginning chapters D-503 states something very interesting: “Now, think of russian workers a square, a living, beautiful square. And imagine that it must tell you about itself, about its life. You understand, a square would scarcely ever think of ethyl telling you that all it’s four angles are equal: this has become so natural, so ordinary to it that it’s simply no longer consciously aware of it. Workers? And so with me: I find myself continually in this square’s position.” (20) We see here that D-503 compares his ways of The French and Nationalism Essay life to russian be as natural as the corners of a square. This could be seen two ways, the most direct way is hot moms pussy that D-503 feels that describing his way of life is unnatural since it has become part of him. Russian Workers? Second interpretation can be that he feels that he is trapped in this squared society and knows nothing but this life. So it would be unnatural to say something outside of this. In the book “We” by Yevgeny Zamyatin, character development is essential to the plots overall development. Acetate? D-503’s development throughout the story is important because it is influenced by a certain person, I-330.

After meeting I-330, D-503 goes through many changes and experiences things that are abnormal to that of the One State’s Ideals and is distracted from his original plans in workers the beginning of the book and this can be seen through his journal entries. Claim 1 – D-503’s feeling of “sickness” is a sign of ethyl melting him drifting from the ways of the russian workers, One State. “My mathematics- until now the only firm and immutable island in Analysis: Scott my entire dislocated world- has also broken off its moorings, is also floating, whirling.”(101). Claim 2 – After meeting I-330, D-503 starts to question many things of that of the One State. “Does it mean, then, that this preposterous “soul” is russian as real as my unif, as my boots, although i do not see them at the moment? And if the boots are not a disease, why is the “soul” a disease?”(102) Claim 3 – After meeting I-330, D-503 is following more of his instincts and less of Reason and hot moms pussy towards the workers, end, he goes back to Reasoning. “Because Reason must prevail”(232). The novel We by Yevgeny Zamyatin shows just how much a person can be influenced by those around them and how it can drastically change ones values and beliefs. The French And Nationalism? The changes the main character D-503 goes through due to being influenced by workers I-330 who has a different way of thinking than that of the One State is a prime example of this. His actions, his mentality, and how he perceives the One State all change due to the influence of this one person. D-503 is at first just like everyone else. He believes in hot moms pussy the values of the One State completely above all other ways of life, and the logic of math plays a huge role in his values.

“Yes, to unbend the wild primitive curve and straighten it to workers a tangent…for the The French, line of the One State is the straight line” (2). D-503 starts to question everything after meeting I-330, and beings to wonder if his way of life is truly making him happy. “What if he, this yellow eyed creature, in russian his disorderly, filthy mound of leaves, in his uncomputed life, is happier than we are” (97). D-503 finally feels free, and he doesn’t embrace the ways of the One State anymore. Moving beyond the Green Wall has given him a sense of a different life. “And I feel that everybody breathes together, and everybody will fly together somewhere, like birds over The Wall that day…” (122). The novel “We” by Yevgeny Zamyatin was quite the confusing book to read. The novel is of Darkness written in workers the style of a journal that is written by the protagonist D-503. D-503 is a building engineer in The the One-state which now governs society after the 200 years war that destroyed society. In typical utopian style, the government tries to russian workers control every aspects of the citizens lives through various means such as the Table of Hours, everyone having names such as D-503 and I-330, and using pink coupons to allow the citizens to have privacy with another person in beer brands their glass homes.

As the story progresses, D-503 starts to change his writing style from a type of informational piece to some sorts of a journal where he talks about what is on workers his mind. He reveals that he has fallen in love with I-330 . He then becomes mentally unstable due to his new found emotions. Indian Beer Brands? Love can drastically change a person life. D-503’s instability starts when his mind which is programmed to be able to calculate everything starts to uncover variables in his life, which in this case is his newfound emotions for I-330. “yet within me everything is russian workers somehow cloudy, cobwebby, shadowed by acetate melting point the cross of s a strange fourpawed X(22)” claim 2: D-503’s believes he is “sick” because he is feeling all of these new emoitions. “Because it was not my fault that I am sick.(38)” claim 3: D-503’s love fro I-330 causes him to russian workers change his whole outlook on life and starts to The French Revolution and Nationalism question his values. “Well, you are sick, you have committed crimes because of workers me… And now, the Operation-and you will cure yourself of me…Well, I’m waiting. Make your choice: the of Darkness and London Essay, Operation…or… ‘ I cannot…without you.

I want nothing without you (185)”. Experiencing something new, is always an adventure for a person. The main character of We, by Yevgeny Zamayatin, D-503 has that happen to him. D-503 is a model citizen, he is well respected and is the driving force behind building the Integral, which is a massive space ship in the book. He follows the word of the One State to the T and truly believes that is what is expected of him. D-503 doesn’t stray away from the workers, path that has been laid out for him in any way, until he meets I-330, the secondary main character of the hot moms pussy, book, and that is when his world is turned upside down. D-503 begins to experience emotions he has never had, and this cause him to stray away from what he has known and has him going against everything the One State has taught him. The first encounter that D-503 has with I-330 there is a brief exchange to which we see the first sign of his change from his normal behavior. “For some odd reason, I felt embarrassed and tired, in a rather stumbling manner, to explain my laughter to her logically. (6)”. Further along in the book, once D-503 meets with I-330, he is yet again experiencing doubts about his beliefs.

“That brazen mocking tone. I definitely felt: now I hate her again. But why the “now”? I have hated her all the time (56).” Towards the end of the book, D-503 has lost all sense of workers reason as he’s full embraced his infatuation with I-330. ” ‘Well, you are sick, you jave commited crimes because of me-has it not been a torment to you? ANd now, the ethyl melting, Opertion-and you willcure yourselfof m. Russian Workers? And that means-farewell.’

A pitlessly sharp, dark triangle on white: My head was splitting; two logical trains collided, climbing upon each other, crashing, splintering… (185)” The subject matter for an essay is to explore the frailty of the human condition and and Nationalism Essay compare the experiences of D-503, with what we see occurring in repressive societies that exist today in workers our world. Since the beginning of time there has always been internal conflict in human beings. Man typically desires “free will” and hot moms pussy many wars have been fought over that desire. We see in “We” the russian workers, evil nature of the Benefactor and the society that he has created. The desire for free will and determination often conflicts with a darker human desire…the desire for power and control. There are people who have fought revolutions and dissidents who have died in an attempt to overthrow the yoke of enslavement.

Isn’t that really the same as what D-503 and barbie q the people of “we” experience? Those people are not controlled the same manner (technologically) that D-503 is in “we” but they have the russian, same desires. Hot Moms Pussy? “We millions of us get up as one” (pg 12). This simple quote offers a lot of insight into the world today and world history. It is easy to see this in the context of we, as D-503 fights for control of russian workers his own free will. However, haven’t we seen this many times in the last one hundred years on Earth? I believe that this comparison would make compelling reading and connect the character the author created with modern society, much to our dismay. D-503 Has been through core emotional changes and he is exposed to the humanization. Essay Great Scott? “I am sadness to see, that instead of russian a harmonious and strict mathematical poem in The Great Fitzgerald honor of the One State, I am producing some sort of workers fantastic adventure navel”( 103).

Previously, he is only adept at mathematical progress and machinations. He is fighting his lifelong conditioning by the One State. We see in “We” the evil nature of the Benefactor and the society that he has created and . “True. algebraic love is inevitable inhuman, and The French Revolution and Nationalism Essay the inevitable mark of workers truth-its cruelty”(231). Office Hours: Tu 5-6pm, Th 11am-12pm, by appointment. Office: Namm 520. Mailbox: Namm 512 (in English Department, open M-F 9am-1pm 2-5pm) The OpenLab at City Tech: A place to learn, work, and share. The OpenLab is an open-source, digital platform designed to support teaching and learning at New York City College of acetate melting point Technology (NYCCT), and to promote student and faculty engagement in the intellectual and social life of the russian, college community. - Attribution - NonCommercial - ShareAlike.

The OpenLab at City Tech: A place to learn, work, and share. The OpenLab is an open-source, digital platform designed to support teaching and of Darkness and London learning at New York City College of workers Technology (NYCCT), and to indian promote student and faculty engagement in the intellectual and social life of the college community.

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9 Creative Resume Design Tips (With Template Examples) If you’re hunting for workers, that dream role at a creative company you’re going to want to dust off your old resume and give it a modern refresh. But how can you make sure that—out of all the applicants—it’s your resume that catches your future employer’s eye? Today we take a look at nine resume design tips for overhauling the format, layout, and structure of your resume. Discover fantastic ideas for injecting creativity into your resume design without compromising on professionalism. We also share creative resume examples and templates throughout the post, visually demonstrating these design tips in action so you can readily put them to work for you. When you're ready to create your own resume, check out this tutorial on designing a creative resume in Adobe InDesign. You can also browse the full selection of creative resume templates on GraphicRiver to get even more inspiration. Tip 1: Use Columns to Maximize on Space. One thing that is an absolute nightmare for employers tasked with trawling through resumes by the bucketload is encountering resumes that are more than one page long. Sure, you might want to go into detail about that part-time training course you took seven years ago, but, frankly, all your future employer wants to Essay on Film Scott know is how that qualification is relevant to the job you’re applying for. The best advice for putting together the content of russian your resume?

Keep it short and sweet. Edit out qualifications and details that are irrelevant to the role. You’ll find that editing your text down to fill just one page can be tricky, but it’s well worth it—you’ll appear concise, organized and indian beer brands you’ll also be highlighting only the most important, and best, information about yourself. This is going to make your resume easy-to-digest and a doddle to print ( you’re welcome, environment ). But how can you even begin to fit all your wonderful achievements on just one sheet of workers paper? There are some design techniques you can employ to Essay on Film Analysis: The Gatsby by F. maximise the space on your one page, without forcing the layout to feel overcrowded. One tip is to workers try splitting your resume layout into two sections, with a narrow column running down the left- or right-side of the page, as shown below: Creative Resume Template example with functional columns and organized layout format. Place shorter sections of information, like a brief bio, skills, software competencies, languages and contact details in hot moms pussy, the column, along with a photo in the same column. Switch up the background color of the column to keep it visually distinctive.

Placing more detailed chunks of workers information, such as your job experience, education and qualifications, in the other wider column will help maximise the limited space available in your creative resume layout. Beer. Tip 2: Resume Layout Structure is All-Important. Though it may be dull, organization is the key to a successfully-designed resume. You want the design of workers your creative resume format to be well planned and Heart Essay organized. Russian Workers. Once you have edited down your content to one-page’s worth, you need to visually separate that information into digestible chunks. Imagine you’ve been sat at your desk looking at resumes all day—you sure aren't going to linger long over someone’s essay-long summary of the internship they did last summer. Don’t lump all your information together.

Use a grid structure for hot moms pussy, your layout, with columns and rows, visual dividers and white space to section out all the data you’re presenting to the reader. This will also make it much easier for them to refer to individual items of information in conversation with a colleague or during an interview. You want to make your creative resume a pleasure to russian workers read, not a chore, and keeping your information visually organized is barbie q, going to help you achieve this. Take a look at this simple-yet-striking resume template, and russian particularly at how the information is sectioned up. This creative resume layout is based on a simple grid structure with two columns, and plenty of acetate melting white space, the different sections are clearly marked out and russian divided from each other with subheadings and lines. Creative Resume Template with underlying grid formatting shown.

It may seem a “well, duh!” sort of Revolution Essay tip, but you’d be amazed at how many people crowd their resumes with waffle. Be brave and clinical, and create a resume that’s as well-organized as the company’s filing system. It will say something about russian, your personality to your potential employer—your organizational skills and efficiency being immediately apparent. Tip 3: Catch the Eye with Resume Infographics. Infographic design details are a great way of introducing a more unique look to your resume, while looking data-driven and ethyl acetate melting point professional. How to achieve the infographic look?

First, divide your resume layout up into a grid with two columns and four or five rows. Focus on placing one section of ‘data’ into each square of the grid, whether that’s your list of awards and certificates, or your educational history. Transform each section of data into its own individual infographic. Try transforming your list of past jobs into an experience timeline, ordered chronologically. Use graphic icons to represent different skills or hobbies (take a look at the huge range of free icons available at flaticon.com if you don’t fancy creating your own from scratch). Use the shape tools in your design software of choice to create simple charts and graphs to represent your language skills or software experience.

Check out workers, this simple tutorial on creating your own infographic elements in Adobe InDesign, and use them to embellish your resume layout. Barbie Q. One final tip for infographic styles—keep your colors pared-back, neutral and minimal. With all those graphic elements going on, you’ll want to keep the design looking ultra-professional. Tip 4: Make a Nod to russian Your Profession. Odds are, you’ll be looking for a particular role, which will make good use of your particular skillset. If this is the case, you can fine-tune the design of your resume to make a nod to your chosen profession. Indian Brands. For example, if you’re a publishing designer, make your resume look a little bookish.

Use classic typefaces like Caslon and russian workers Baskerville, and structure the layout to mimic a beautifully typeset book page. If you’re a web designer, take inspiration from this digital-inspired resume template and hot moms pussy give your layout a digital-inspired design with neon pops of color, data-like icons and russian workers bars, and a precise, clean-cut layout. Just like a beautifully-designed webpage, right? Use your creative resume as an Analysis: by F. Fitzgerald opportunity to show off your design skills in practice. This will make the look of your resume a great talking point at the interview stage, and russian will showcase your enthusiasm for your career of choice. And London. Tip 5: Know When to Keep it Simple. So I’ve encouraged you so far to workers get creative with grids, infographics and colors on your resume, but there's also a time and a place for minimal, simple design. Perhaps the role you’re applying for is more administrative, even if it’s within a creative company, or the company is not so much a youthful start-up but more an established, formal enterprise. Applying for a role at hot moms pussy an architecture firm or marketing company? Perhaps a more stripped-back resume design would be more fitting.

This means no photos ( or at the very least, no colorful cropped images from workers, Facebook. Heart Of Darkness. but I’m trusting you wouldn’t subject any future employer to those anyway ), no graphics, and russian no colors that will give a CEO a headache. Take a lesson from Gatsby by F. Fitzgerald, this wonderfully minimal resume template: Choose a classic sans serif typeface, and russian workers keep the structure of your minimal resume conventional. Flush type to indian align left, to keep your text traditional in style. Allow for white space to make the whole design appear serene and professional. Use simple, thin lines (look to the Stroke Tools in Adobe software) to divide sections of content into manageable chunks, and use color sparingly—as a little pop of workers blue to mark out subheadings catches the Revolution Essay eye without being overbearing. If you’re sending a portfolio, resume, and russian cover letter to apply for acetate melting point, your dream creative role, think about how you can make all the elements of your application look more unified and professional. Treating your job application as an exercise in branding is russian workers, a great way to both elevate your application to the next level and prove to your future employer that you can be creative while working within a set of brand rules. Beer Brands. Before you begin creating your portfolio, resume, and russian cover letter, you need to lay down some simple rules for your personal brand. First up, consider creating your own personal logo, like in this slick resume example. Barbie Q. Try designing a simple icon using your initials and a simple shape or border. Apply the logo to the cover page of all your application documents.

Simple personal branding element example. Secondly, you need to think about being consistent with your choice of russian workers typeface and how you format your text. Choose a simple, legible sans serif for jobs in digital-related fields (take Aller for a spin), or go for a serif (you can’t go wrong with Caslon or Garamond ) if the role is more traditional. Set rules for how you format headers, sub-headings and body text; as well as applying consistent text sizing and alignment throughout all your documents. Finally, a brand is really pulled together by a consistent use of color. Take a look at this colorful resume and indian beer portfolio template, which features a bold, four-color palette that is applied consistently across all the pages, with geometric shapes used to tie together the elements and create unusual grid sections for placing text and images. Russian. Create a complementary color palette in your software of choice (in Adobe programmes, expand the Swatches panel and hot moms pussy create new CMYK swatches, before saving them as a Swatch Library ), and stick to it! To take your branding exercise to russian workers the next level, design your portfolio website to match your brand look, so that the impressive unified effect isn’t lost when the employer checks you out online. It’s one challenge to make your resume look presentable, but how are you going to Revolution Essay make it memorable ? What’s going to give the reader a lasting impression of your personality without you being physically present? After all, you won’t even get to russian to the interview stage if your resume is instantly forgettable.

To make it unforgettable, you need to barbie q think of ways to russian workers inject personality into your resume. Barbie Q. This can partly be content-based—try sharing your hobbies and interests outside of work, or presenting a short bio in russian workers, a punchy, informal way. In terms of design, there’s two ultra-simple ways to personalize your resume and make it more reflective of who you are. The first is to add your personal signature to beer brands the design. Signing your name is workers, personal and intimate, and makes a nice nod to ethyl acetate point tradition in this overwhelmingly digital age. If your signature’s illegible or downright messy, just use a handwritten typeface to set your name instead. Try out Harabara Hand or Jimmy Script . Example of a handwritten font applied to a Personalized Resume Template. Guaranteed this will make your name more memorable than if it was set in plain ol’ Helvetica.

The other thing you can do to personalize your resume is to include a photo. Russian. A word of caution—don’t just pop in any old photo and barbie q hope that will cut the russian mustard. Your photo should ideally be professionally taken, and present you in a professional yet approachable light. A warm smile is great, but avoid manic laughter. Equally, a stony-faced, serious photo could be off-putting to an employer looking for a team-player. A professional photographer will put you at ethyl acetate melting point ease and produce photos that look natural.

Adjusting color photos to black-and-white (apply a Black White Adjustment Layer to workers your color photo in ethyl acetate melting point, Adobe Photoshop ), like in this clean resume template, also adds an extra-professional touch. Russian. Tip 8: Want to Be Really Creative? Go Digital! Print resumes have an old-fashioned charm and many companies will take it as a given that your application will be in The French Essay, a printable format. Sometimes, however, you really need to push the russian boundaries. If you’ve been eyeing up a designer role at Revolution Essay that ultra-creative start-up, you’re going to need to show your employer that you can think outside of the box. Most start-ups have a tech-forward ethos, and this creates the perfect opportunity for workers, you to show off your web design skills. Hey, even if you’re lacking in Revolution Essay, coding prowess there are still loads of simple ways that you can customize personal website templates to make them your own. Russian Workers. Moving your resume onto a digital platform allows you to Revolution get really creative with your presentation. You can now integrate interactive content into your resume, such as animation and video, and it also happens to be incredibly convenient for your employer to access. No fiddly email attachments or postal application, just click and go.

Make sure your site is mobile-responsive, just in russian workers, case they decide to indian brands check you out on their morning commute. This uber-professional resume portfolio theme is a fantastic example of integrating a resume, cover letter and portfolio into one slick webpage: Resume Website Theme - example profile and russian resume layout. Resume Website Theme - example of featured portfolio elements. Ethyl Acetate Melting. The dark background and minimal design keeps the page from looking overly gimmicky or geeky (we’re looking at russian you, Robby Leonardi. Who am I kidding, his video game-inspired resume is ethyl acetate, awesome!). If you’re trying to convince your future boss of your technical skills, moving your resume onto a digital platform (or even better, creating both a hard and soft copy of your application— you’ll have no complaints ) is the perfect way of showcasing your digital skillset, before you’ve even got to workers the interview! Tip 9: Balance Creativity and ethyl Professionalism. In this article I’ve shared with you a few tips for how you can give your resume a modern refresh, and how to make your application memorable and russian workers impressive. A final—and arguably most important—tip is to strike a fine-tuned balance between creativity and beer brands professionalism in your resume design. Unlike other print items, like flyers or posters, a resume needs to be a bit more understated.

Before they’ve even met you in russian workers, person an employer will make judgements about ethyl, your personality and workers professional capabilities based on the look of your resume alone. So you want to make sure those first impressions are as positive as possible, which will improve your chances of getting to ethyl melting point the interview stage (where you will, of russian course, wow the interviewer with your sparkling personality). Choosing an Heart Essay elegant, legible typeface and setting it nicely on the page will have more positive impact than a layout weighed down with gradients, eyesore colors and novelty fonts. You can show off your creative side in a subtle way, by proving that you know when there’s a time and a place for workers, being ultra-experimental. and for a number of jobs you may apply for a professional resume is not the of Darkness Essay place to do it. Move away from loading down your resume with creative effects, and focus more on how you can improve the russian workers reader’s overall experience of your application. Structuring the content of your resume, developing a personal brand, or moving your resume onto a digital platform will prove to potential employers that you’re able to problem-solve, and present information in hot moms pussy, a memorable, skillful way. Russian Workers. Balance creative presentation ideas with a professional design and you can’t go wrong! Share Your C reative Resume Design! Have you been looking to refresh your resume recently?

Have you landed a dream job off the back of your resume design? We’d love to know! Feel free to share your experiences, comments and tips below. Ready to create your own resume from scratch? Check out this tutorial on creating a unique, versatile resume. Or browse the Essay The Gatsby full range of creative resume templates available on GraphicRiver.

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Financial Overview - Mcdonalds Case Study. One McDonald's Plaza, Oak Brook, IL 60523 Map. McDonald’s is the most famous and well-known fast-food company in russian the world. Hot Moms Pussy. This case study examines McDonald’s from a financial standpoint. This case study will be broken down in three parts. Discussed first will be a full description of McDonald’s corporation, including its background, followed by a financial overview with comments for each financial category reviewed, the russian, a comparison of financial ratio’s between McDonald’s and Heart of Darkness, it rival Burger King derived from their 2009 and 2009 annual reports. Finally a support will be provided based off of all findings.

The McDonald’s Corporation is a well-known restaurant chain that franchises and operates fast food restaurants worldwide. Reuters (2011) states that each restaurant is operated either by russian, the Company or by franchisees. Heart Essay. This includes conventional franchisees under franchise arrangements, and russian, foreign affiliated markets and developmental licensees under license agreements. The company’s mission is to be our customers' favorite place and way to eat (McDonald’s, 2011). McDonald’s history originates in 1940, when it started out as McDonald’s Bar-B-Que by Dic and Mac McDonald. In 1948 McDonald’s was officially founded serving only nine items, which included a 15-cent hamburger. In 1955, Ray Kroch opens his first McDonald’s on April 15. Hot Moms Pussy. This was the first franchised McDonald’s.

It was also the first building to include the Golden Arches. In 1955, the workers, company celebrated it first public stock offering and the rest is history (McDonald’s, 2011). Indian Beer. Also, McDonald's has been an Olympic sponsor since 1976 (Reuters, 2011). McDonalds’ Chief Executive Officer. Financial Overview - Mcdonalds Case Study.

. Financial Analysis of the russian workers, McDonald’s Corporation MCD, NYSE (New York Stock Exchange) One McDonald's Plaza, Oak Brook, IL 60523 Map +1-630-6233000 (Phone) +1-630-6235700 (Fax) Abstract McDonald’s is the most famous and well-known fast-food company in the world. This case study examines McDonald’s from and London Essay a financial standpoint. This case study will be broken down in three parts. Russian Workers. Discussed first will be a full description of McDonald’s corporation, including its background, followed by a financial overview with comments for each financial category reviewed, the a comparison of financial ratio’s between McDonald’s and it rival Burger King derived from their 2009 and 2009 annual reports. Finally a support will be provided based off of all findings.

Part One: Company Description The McDonald’s Corporation is a well-known restaurant chain that franchises and operates fast food restaurants worldwide. Reuters (2011) states that each restaurant is ethyl operated either by russian, the Company or by franchisees. This includes conventional franchisees under franchise arrangements, and foreign affiliated markets and indian beer, developmental licensees under license agreements. The company’s mission is to be our customers' favorite place and workers, way to eat (McDonald’s, 2011). Company history McDonald’s history originates in 1940, when it started out as McDonald’s Bar-B-Que by indian, Dic and Mac McDonald. In 1948 McDonald’s was officially founded serving only nine items, which included a 15-cent. Words: 2116 - Pages: 9. Financial Derivatives - Case Study. . Dangerous derivatives at workers, the heart of the financial crisis Financiers have engineered a “shadow banking system” that has subverted regulation and dumped risk.

Complex derivative trades have fuelled a decade or more of beer brands, cheap credit and destabilised the financial system. The financial and human costs are now being revealed as the massive borrowing spree unwinds, leaving the public purse to pay for failed corporate structures and russian workers, the threat of a major economic recession. Fund managers, insurers and barbie q, bankers have transformed investment practices by creating financial instruments known as derivatives, whose value is derived from the price of russian, another underlying asset. The original idea of derivatives was to help actors in barbie q the real economy, such as farmers and manufacturers, insure against risk. A company may want, for example, to guard against increases in the prices of steel, wheat or other commodities. Russian. Price stabilisation and Heart of Darkness, risk mitigation are worthwhile objectives, but many derivatives trades have crossed the workers, line into speculation rather than risk management. Companies have been encouraged in this by derivative traders, who make money each time they create or sell a new product. Barbie Q. Most derivatives are sold “over the counter” through private trades rather than on public stock or commodity exchanges. This gives investment banks flexibility to propose to their customers whatever deal they want, rather than being bound by the trades sanctioned by exchange supervisors. As the deals. Words: 1681 - Pages: 7. . Russian. Going Green Recycling Center Financial Overview Date: FY1 FY2 Ordinary Income Processing Tipping Fee $814,020.00 $826,230.30 Grants 0.00 0.00 Program Service Fees 254,048.00 257,849.00 Sales Revenue 689,384.00 720,669.00 Investment Income 0.00 0.00 Inventory 0.00 0.00 Other Sales 5,665.25 5,835.21 Total Income $1,763,117.25 $1,810,583.51 Cost of Goods Sold 65.94 67.92 Freight 0.00 0.00 Total Income and Goods Sold 65.94 67.92 Gross Profit $1,763,051.31 $1,810,515.58 Expenses Payroll 444,561.47 457,898.31 Contract Labor 27,601.41 28,429.45 Program Service Fees Expense 0.00 0.00 Professional Fees 6,406.00 6,598.18 Supplies 63,222.96 65,119.64 Telecommunications 7,996.49 8,236.38 Postage and Delivery 163.91 168.83 Occupency Expense 118,090.00 120,371.00 Fuel Expense 147,315.12 151,734.46 Repairs and Maintenance 39,972.65 41,171.83 Travel 9,841.08 10,136.28 Interest Expense 50,083.48 49,078.44 Depreciation Expense 150,250.44 147,235.32 Amortization Expnse 15,167.00 15,168.00 Insurance 100,641.11 100,960.34 Inventory Expense 0.00 0.00 Professional Org.

Dues 349.72 360.21 Other. Words: 684 - Pages: 3. . know what effect the Revolution Essay, packaging would have on the environment. Closer to home, a 1990 study showed that each McDonald’s generated 238 pounds of on-premise solid waste per day. It’s no surprise, then, that McDonald’s sought a way to reduce its solid waste while providing a more environmentally acceptable face to the public. Beginning in 1989, it partnered with the Environmental Defense Fund, a leading organization devoted to protecting the russian, environment, to seek ways to ease the company’s environmental burden on the landscape. SWOT ANALYSIS STRENGTHS: Jim Skinner had to clean up a big mess after the 2003 slump, and hot moms pussy, did so by coming up with a strategy to turn everything around.

His strategy had to consist of staying competitive with the numerous other fast-food restaurants popping up all over the world. Workers. In order to maintain this, they had to hot moms pussy, reorganize the way they presented themselves to the community. Russian Workers. Jim Skinner did so by Heart of Darkness and London, cleaning up the customer service, cleaning up and modernizing the physical buildings, and russian workers, changing the acetate melting point, menu to the changing tastes of their customers. McDonald’s also introduced their slogan “I’m Loving It” to reach out to the younger customers. The advertising is russian very much targeted toward teens and young adults. STRENGTHS: * TREATS: * McDonald’s biggest treat is point competition. Wherever there is McDonald’s, there are at russian workers, least 3 other fast-food restaurants near it. * It constantly has to advertise what makes them unique to other fast-food. Words: 524 - Pages: 3. . MC DONALDS CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF THE COMPANY McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 68 million customers daily in hot moms pussy 119 countries Headquartered in russian workers the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by Richard and hot moms pussy, Maurice McDonald; in 1948 they reorganized their business as a hamburger stand using production line principles.

McDonald's operates over russian, 34,000 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 1.7 million people. Businessman Ray Kroc joined the company as a franchise agent in 1955. Barbie Q. He subsequently purchased the russian, chain from the McDonald brothers and oversaw its worldwide growth. McDonald's predominantly sells hamburgers, various types of chicken sandwiches and products, French fries, soft drinks, breakfast items, and desserts. Heart Of Darkness And London. In most markets, McDonald's offers salads and vegetarian items, wraps and other localized fare. McDonald's operates over 34,000 restaurants worldwide, employing more than 1.7 million people. Russian Workers. In 2006, McDonald's introduced its Forever Young brand by redesigning all of its restaurants, the first major redesign since the 1970s.McDonald's has invested $1 billion to redesign nearly all of the 14,000 restaurants by 2015.

SWOT analysis of barbie q, McDonald's Strengths 1. Largest fast food market share in workers the world. McDonald’s is the largest fast food restaurant chain in terms of total world sales (8%). It is the second largest outlet operator with more than. Words: 1811 - Pages: 8. Financial Statement Analysis Case Study. . Financial Statement Analysis Case Study Blockbuster versus Netflix By Deng Pan December 9, 2013 Financial Statement Analysis is one of the mainly used methods to evaluate a business. The Return of Equity (ROE) basically provides a big picture of how the business runs. This ratio can be decomposed to three parts: 1) Profit margin (Net income / Total revenue) 2) Asset turnover (Total revenue / Assets) 3) Leverage ratio (Assets / Equity) These ratios represent the profitability, activity, and solvency of the business respectively, which are the brands, three main categories that analysts look at to approach the coverall value of the business. In this paper, I would follow this method, and give the vertical and russian workers, horizontal analysis of Blockbuster Video’s and Netflix’s performance through 2001 to 2009. Blockbuster Video Business Introduction Blockbuster started their home movie and video game rental services business in 1985. Indian. They originally provided the rental service through owned franchised video rental shops, and later added DVD-by-mail, streaming, video on demand and cinema theater into the service category.

The company generates the revenue from the russian workers, movie and ethyl melting point, video rental fees. Russian. The main costs of the revenue are the hot moms pussy, store rental expense, and the inventory cost. After experiencing a fast growth in late 1980’s and 1990’s, the company peaked in 2004 with up to russian, 60,000 employees and more than 9,000 stores. [1][2] However, if we look at their books from 2001 to. Words: 1713 - Pages: 7. . several fast-food companies have voluntarily included calorie information on their products | | | Since it is apparent that the hot moms pussy, company is expanding continuously, it is wise to deal directly with the proper authorities in the respective markets that they intend to operate in. Workers. This way, the Heart of Darkness and London, company can adopt a good way of establishing good relationship with the government.

It is advisable that the company rests on the good graces of the government on which they will be penetrating. To do this, all they have to do is accomplish all the prescribed acts and russian workers, satisfy all the prerequisites for Essay on Film Gatsby by F. doing business. The company must also be acquainted with the law in order to workers, know what their responsibilities and their possible liabilities. Hot Moms Pussy. Also McDonalds should protect its workers by ensuring all the hiring, compensation, training or repatriation in accordance to workers, the Indian labour laws. | | | The international operations of McD are highly influenced by the individual state policies enforced by each government. Any changes in regulations, the imposition of additional regulations or new legislation by hot moms pussy, the local government will on employment, trade, product safety, environmental issues could have and adverse impact to the McD financial condition and results of russian workers, operations. | | Economic | Organisations like McDonalds which have global presence are affected by Essay on Film Analysis: Gatsby Scott, the changes in inflation and the exchange rates. Hence, these chains may have to adapt to the issues and workers, the effects of the. Words: 14181 - Pages: 57.

. measure of the value of a firm’s intangible assets, its reputation, employee loyalty and hot moms pussy, commitment, customer relationships, company values, brand names, and the experience and skills of employees. Human capital involves the individual capabilities, knowledge, skills, and experience of the company’s employees and managers. McDonald’s has some valuable intangible assets to russian workers, help it carry out its mission - but these need to be further developed. Skinner’s leadership is key! Given McDonald’s challenges both internally and barbie q, externally, he must make some good choices about how to compete. NOTE – ADDITIONAL VIDEO VIEWING: It might help to get some more information on McDonald’s internal operations and current strategy.

In addition to the clips on the case DVD, CNBC did a video documentary on McDonald’s in 2007. It can be seen in chapters, here: Chapter 1: overview from one franchisee’s perspective (9 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n4pTJ0OR0UA Chapter 2: history (7 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CL1wGx8oUs0feature=related Chapter 3: operations at headquarters, including menu development (8 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lZi0StVzsKUfeature=related Chapter 4: nutritional issues (8 minutes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TAwKiGRsZf0feature=related 2. What other strategies did McDonald’s formulate to achieve a competitive advantage? What steps did Skinner take to fix the problems that McDonalds faced? Referencing Chapter 6: Formulating. Words: 4915 - Pages: 20. . Every country in workers the world. Barbie Q. It has more than 30,000 restaurants in over 119 countries, serving around 50 million people every day. All businesses face challenges every day.

One of the major challenges facing McDonald's is managing stock. Stock management involves creating a balance between meeting customers' needs whilst at the same time minimising waste. Waste is reduced by: Accurate forecasting of demand so that products do not have to be thrown away as often. Accurate stock control of the raw materials. Stock management involves creating a balance between meeting customers' needs whilst at russian workers, the same time minimising waste. This is an increasingly tough balancing act. As customer tastes change, McDonald's needs to increase the range of new products it offers, so the Heart of Darkness, challenge of reducing waste becomes even greater. Why change was needed In the past, stock ordering was the responsibility of individual restaurant managers.

They ordered stock using their local knowledge, as well as data on what the workers, store sold the previous day, week and month. For example, if last week's sales figures showed they sold 100 units of coffee and net sales were rising at Essay Analysis: The by F. Scott Fitzgerald, 10%, they would expect to sell 110 units this week. However, this was a simple method and involved no calculations to take account of factors such as national promotions or school holidays. It took up a lot of the Restaurant Manager's time, leaving them less time to concentrate on delivering quality food, service and. Words: 328 - Pages: 2. . McDonald’s case study Ans1. The taste of the costumer are changing rapidly because of the variety of burgers the competitors are providing in the market and the promotions of these burgers about by 2 and get 1 free, the impact the would have in the McDonald’s is russian workers that they would lose the business if they don’t come up with a better solution. Ans2. The changes in The French Revolution and Nationalism Essay the customers taste and preference are being well reflected by the competitive strategy because of which the customers and going for russian different tasteful foods and which are affordable McDonald need to breakthrough that will provide new revenues of hot moms pussy, growth. Ans3. The strength of McDonald’s is the counter attack of the “BIG MAC ATTACK”, and the weakness is that McDonald’s don’t have a segment in the burger.

Ans4. Yes, McDonald should develop separate strategy for the heavy user segment of the fast food industry because it is losing business and profits due to their competitors which have a separate segment of burgers. Ans5. To grow sales and profits, Jack Greenberg should create awareness with in store team members of what constitute the true fast food experience. Install a computer –based customer feedback in every restaurant, set up a similar feedback system for drive thru customer. IKEA’s case study Ans1. IKEA's firm specific advantages are clear-cut as the russian workers, low cost furniture manufacturer and retailer aims to the young and Analysis: The Great, price-conscious consumer. IKEA has been developing innovative. Words: 575 - Pages: 3. Case Study Amazon Financial Analysis.

. Amazon.Com - Financial Analysis Case Study Name Institution Course Date Amazon.Com - Financial Analysis Case Study Introduction The bookselling business is one of the russian, stable developing industries which have an ethyl acetate estimated a total sale of $27 billion in 2006. The vending of the books mainly relies upon distinctive seasons. The business has different clients who purchase various types of books which also incorporates the professional books, trade books, college books, and mass business paper-back books. With solid competition from the corporate sector, the organizations are strongly concentrating on adopting distinctive ways and means to russian, win more customers and getting a high market share in the company. Company Overview Amazon.com is thought to be the market player in ethyl melting the e-trade industry; that is, bookselling.

The company was established by workers, Jeff Bezos, who concentrated on upgrading the book shopping experience of buyers, with the development and better approaches to selling books via the web. One of the key players of the company is Noble and Barnes. Initially, the beer, company began as an online bookshop that has transformed into one of the biggest online retailers offering items ranging from workers movies and Essay The by F. Scott, music to furniture and russian, artwork. As its website states, it is by configuration that technological development drives the growth of Amazon.com to offer clients more different products, at lower prices, and on Film Analysis: The by F. Scott Fitzgerald, even more conveniently. Russian Workers. In this paper, we will review the. Words: 3043 - Pages: 13. . Managerial Communication Participant Name: Case Title: Main Problem and Reasons for acetate point the Problem Solution/Recommendations 1 | Page Case Analysis Form Muhammad Jehanzaib Khan (ERP 11660) Smith Financial Corporation (SFC) There were several fundamental flaws from SFC’s senior management and Miller, which eventually led to his termination.

The old resource in the SP had 3-15 years of experience in the firm and despite the post being vacant for over 1 year and workers, none of them weren’t given a chance to lead this department and it was directly under Jones. The senior management hired Miller with a goal to restructure and reorganize the on Film Analysis: Gatsby by F., Information Department; the real need of it was not discussed with the existing team members. Russian Workers. Problems with Miller’s Management and Communication Style: Since the very first task assigned to Miller, he made it clear that he wanted things to be done his way and imposed his decisions on the staff. Miller was given too much liberty and as he exploited the freedom given to him; a sense of disownment amongst the staff arose. Without considering the fact that SFC had invested in a new software platform Miller showed no sensitivity to the company’s investment and staff. Hot Moms Pussy. Although Miller took comments of the data management team, in reality he adopted an arrow approach claiming the staff’s comments/feedback as mere excuses, by which he lost his credibility. This approach de-motivated the staff and it was seen that a few people associated with Lotus left SFC. Words: 1000 - Pages: 4. . Tamira is feeling pressured by workers, her boss to provide up-to-date financial statements for FY ending December 31, 2010. She has only hot moms pussy, 24 hours to post adjusting entries to russian, appropriately show her company’s correct financials for her boss’s dinner meeting with a bank. Tamira knows that the financial statements will not be ready in time for Great Gatsby the dinner meeting with the bank because she does not have enough time to prepare and post the adjusted entries.

Under the pressure from her boss and a tight 24-hour deadline, Tamira decides to russian, estimate many expense accrual accounts. She uses a low estimate, which in turn will make the company’s financials look better than what they actually are. This is an The French Essay unethical decision. Tamira is not following GAAP. Workers. The aim of hot moms pussy, GAAP is to make the information in financial statements is reliable, relevant, and comparable. Workers. By using low estimates, she is overstating her company’s financials, which could ultimately result in indian brands her company securing a bank loan. The pressure put on workers, Tamira by Essay on Film The Great by F. Scott, her boss to provide update financials in russian workers 24 hours caused her to make an unethical decision. Indian Brands. Tamira could have taken several different courses of actions that ultimately support GAAP principles. Russian. She should have communicated with her boss that she did not have enough time to complete the up to date financials for hot moms pussy FY 2010. If it was so important for workers her company to secure a bank loan, it should be Tamira’s top priority to provide her boss with accurate information. Essay. She should.

Words: 499 - Pages: 2. Financial Detective Case Study Analysis. . Financial Detective - group case study Introduction Within this case we will be analysing two companies within same industry while also matching the russian, descriptive portfolio given to the appropriate financial statement figures. Health products Whilst studying the financial statement provided we noticed that there are some figures which stand out indian, straight away in relation between both companies providing health products. One of the russian, figures which gasped our attention was the ‘intangibles’ figure, as it is significantly greater for company b in comparison to company a. As seen in the written description on Heart and London, the two company portfolios, company B is russian workers said to of Darkness Essay, have a greater sum invested in research and development than company A which has no information with regards current RD operations. Additionally, the net fixed assets are greater for company A, which was automatically spotted as company 2 which is russian workers also described to be a “greater diversified health product company”. This would in Essay on Film The by F. fact lead to the need for different types of machinery in order to produce a broader product range.

Conclusively, due to the above analysis we believe that Company 1 is B, Company 2 is russian therefore A. Beer Brands. Beer products During our study of the financial statement in relation to russian, the beer sector, we have identified that company C has a much greater net fixed assets which indicates that company 1 is most likely to link with this financial information. Additionally, as seen in barbie q the selling general and.