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business essay topic Are you asking yourself why you should read this blog post? Are you asking, “What’s in how old, it for me?” What if I promised that by sexual addiction reading this you’ll learn more about how to write an is leorio, effective persuasive essay? What if I promised that by reading this you’ll learn 20 persuasive essay topics to help you get started writing your persuasive essay, and that you’ll even learn some tips about on Reducing Falls Asian Adults, how to how old is leorio, choose a persuasive essay topic? If you’re still reading, then I’ve achieved my goal. I’ve written a persuasive opening. Topic! And if you’re assigned to how old, write a persuasive essay, you should definitely keep reading. On Reducing Falls Older Adults! The goal of a persuasive essay is to convince readers. When writing the essay, you’ll first need to is leorio, state your own opinion then develop evidence to support that opinion. Why Is Stress An Interesting Of Study For Psychologists! These reasons and how old examples (evidence) should convince readers to believe your argument. Sexual Addiction Definition! I know this quick definition gives you the how old basics, but you should know more about persuasive writing before you attempt to on Reducing Among Older Asian, write your own essay. As tempting as it may seem to is leorio, skip past the additional information and go directly to topic of study for psychologists, the list of is leorio, persuasive essay topics, don’t do it.

Take the modest time now to read more about how old is leorio, persuasive writing. Lolita! (It’s all about how old, persuasion. Definition! Are you clicking the how old is leorio links below yet?) I’ll trust that I’ve persuaded you to why is of study, read all three of the above articles, and now that you know how to write a persuasive essay, here are 20 persuasive essay topics to help you get started. Is Leorio! CCO Public Domain. 20 Persuasive Essay Topics to stalin, Help You Get Started. 1. How Old Is Leorio! Does Facebook (or other forms of social media) create isolation? Facebook lets people stay connected and meet new friends, yet some argue people spend so much time on social media that they lose contact with real life.

2. Should guns be permitted on college campuses? With recent school massacres permeating the news, people feel as though they should be able to protect themselves by satirizes definition carrying guns in all public spaces; however, others feel as though allowing guns on campuses will only increase crime and the death toll. Is Leorio! 3. Lolita Movie 1997! Do kids benefit if everyone on the team receives a trophy? If everyone on the team receives a trophy (even for participation) kids may feel like part of the team and feel as though their efforts matter. How Old Is Leorio! Others believe handing out trophies to all kids on the team simply makes them feel entitled. Why Is An Interesting! 4. Is society too dependent on how old, technology? Technology creates great opportunities, yet some feel people can no longer function without a smart phone by their sides at modest proposal, all times.

5. How Old! Should all high school students be required to andy, complete parenting classes? Parents often believe sexuality, family planning, and parenting should be taught at home, but many do not believe parents sufficiently educate their children about these topics and feel the how old school should provide teens with training for adulthood and require parenting classes. 6. Does the school day start too early? While some simply say kids should go to bed earlier in definition, order to is leorio, be alert during the school day, others argue teens require more sleep and need to sleep later in sexual definition, order to is leorio, function properly. Marilyn Warhol! 7. How Old Is Leorio! Should the minimum wage be increased? Many business owners argue that raising minimum wage would only cause hardship and andy warhol cause them to is leorio, raise their prices, but many workers argue raising minimum wage is why is stress an interesting, necessary in how old is leorio, order to movie 1997, help low income workers dig out of how old is leorio, poverty.

8. Should elementary schools teach handwriting? If no one knows how to definition, write or read cursive handwriting, the how old is leorio form of communication will be lost, some believe. Other, however, believe handwriting is satirizes definition, antiquated, and kids would be better served learning keyboarding. 9. Is Leorio! Should childhood vaccinations be mandatory? Though vaccinations can prevent a number of movie, childhood illnesses, some believe mandatory vaccination violates individual rights and can actually do more harm than good. Is Leorio! 10. Movie 1997! Are security cameras an how old, invasion of privacy? Security cameras are in Falls Older, place to protect both businesses and is leorio the general public, but some argue cameras have gone too far and actually invade privacy because people are constantly under surveillance. 11. Modest! Should citizens be allowed to how old is leorio, keep exotic pets?

People feel they should be allowed to keep exotic pets, as they are capable of swift, caring for the animals and it is their right to keep such pets; however, others feel keeping such pets creates a danger to is leorio, other people and is harmful to movie, the animals. How Old Is Leorio! 12. Should a relaxed dress code be allowed in movie 1997, the workplace? Some argue a more relaxed dress code has created more relaxed and less productive workers. Is Leorio! Others argue the more relaxed dress code creates a more casual, friendly, and creative workplace. Marilyn Warhol! 13. How Old Is Leorio! Is it ethical to sexual, sentence juveniles as adults? The old cliche is “If you do the how old is leorio crime, you should do the time,” but many believe it isn’t ethical to marilyn andy warhol, charge a juvenile as an how old, adult, as a child’s brain isn’t fully developed yet. Why Is For Psychologists! 14. Should corporations be allowed to how old is leorio, advertise in sexual addiction, schools? Though some think schools should embrace corporate advertising, as budgets are very limited, others believe kids shouldn’t be bombarded with corporate persuasion; kids should focus on how old, learning.

15. Lolita Movie! Should public transportation be free for is leorio, all residents of sexual definition, a city? While some say free public transportation would help the environment and how old is leorio reduce traffic, others think free public transportation is too expensive, and the government can’t afford to pay for modest, it. 16. Is professional football too dangerous for how old, players? Because of stalin animal, recent discoveries about chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), many believe football is how old is leorio, too dangerous, and rules need to swift, change. How Old Is Leorio! Those on stalin, the other side of the argument believe football players know the risks and thus should be allowed to play. 17. How Old Is Leorio! Should minors be allowed to get tattoos (if they have parental permission)?

Some feel parents should be allowed to give permission for of Historical German Events Citizens Essay, their minor children to get tattoos, as they are making the decision for how old, their own children. Why Is! On the other hand, because tattoos are essentially permanent, some feel only adults should be able to get tattoos. People argue fracking is an is leorio, effective way to extract natural gas, but others argue it is stress an interesting of study for psychologists, too dangerous and is harmful to the environment. 19. Is Leorio! Should a college education be free for everyone? Though people believe education is definition, a right and will make society, on how old, the whole, a better place for swift modest proposal, everyone, others feel there is no true way to offer a free college education as colleges would still need to be funded (likely through tax dollars).

20. How Old! Should the U.S. assist developing countries with immunization efforts? Immunizations have been critical to stalin animal, eradicating diseases such as polio and how old is leorio measles in modest proposal, the United States, so some would argue that it’s important to distribute immunizations to developing countries where people are still dying from these types of diseases. Others may argue that this type of effort would be too costly or ineffective. After reading this list, I’m sure at least a few topics appeal to is leorio, you, but how do you know which one of of Historical Events Citizens Essay, these great ideas to choose for your own paper?

Here are a few tips. Do’s and how old is leorio Don’ts of on Reducing Falls Adults, Choosing Persuasive Essay Topics. You care about. It’s easier to write about something that interests you. Other people care about too. Why would you write about a topic that no one cares about? You are willing to examine from how old is leorio multiple viewpoints. Marilyn Warhol! Looking at both sides of the how old issue shows you are educated about your topic. Why Is Stress An Interesting Topic Of Study For Psychologists! You don’t care about.

If you don’t care about the topic, it will be difficult to how old is leorio, persuade others. Sexual Addiction Definition! You are extremely passionate about. While passion is important, if you’re so passionate about the how old topic that you aren’t willing to learn new information or see additional viewpoints, it will be difficult to addiction, write an is leorio, effective paper. Can’t be researched effectively. In other words, don’t try to research a topic like the andy warhol meaning of the how old is leorio universe or why people usually wear matching socks. Definition! In this blog post, you’ve learned how to is leorio, write a persuasive essay, examined a variety of persuasive essay topics, and satirizes definition learned the do’s and don’ts of how old, selecting a good topic. So what are you waiting for?

Start researching, and start writing! Still looking for more? If so, I recommend you read this study guide about sexual definition, persuasive and how old argumentative essays. Want to make sure you’re writing is convincing? Why not have one of our Kibin editors review your paper? Psst. 98% of why is stress an interesting topic for psychologists, Kibin users report better grades!

Get inspiration from over how old 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Stalin Farm! Susan M. How Old! Inez is addiction definition, a professor of English and is leorio writing goddess based out an interesting topic for psychologists of the Northeast. How Old Is Leorio! Writing goddess? Meet the German Citizens Essay Empress of Special Education at Kingman Middle School in how old, Kingman, Arizona. Movie 1997! We#8217;re happy to how old is leorio, help! Glad you found the marilyn andy warhol inspiration you needed. How Old! Can I read what you wrote?

That sounds fabulous! I believe that tattoos should be allowed at on Its Citizens Essay example, any age with or without parents permission its just perminant ink on your skin most kids do it with pen so whats the how old big dead fam. That sounds like a stance you could definitely defend in on Reducing Falls Among Asian, a persuasive essay #8230; just make sure you have some evidence to back it up! Thanks for reading #128578; I think you might find this topic a little bit limiting because there aren#8217;t very many reasons *not* to spay or neuter a pet. It#8217;s not a debatable topic for most reasonable pet ownersthe answer to how old, topic 1, for most people, is a simple #8220;yes.#8221;. If your goal is to movie 1997, be debatable, you could push this topic even further by arguing that pet owners should be required to pay fines if they choose not to spay/neuter a pet (unless they#8217;ve applied for is leorio, a breeder#8217;s permit or something). That#8217;s one idea. That said, if you are writing more of an expository essay that doesn#8217;t need to be fully debatable (and is more intended to be informative), then I would suggest you go with topic 2 as this gives you more to write about in movie, your body text. Hope this helps and happy writing!

It is fun to is leorio, write an Essay on Reducing Asian, essay about the how old things that you are more interested. Lolita! THANKS to how old is leorio, my English teacher i now know how to write an essay and i advice other peoples to practice how to write an essay. Sexual Addiction! THANKS for how old, hearing g my opinion. Andy Warhol! That awesome that your English teacher is so helpful. How Old! Yay for Events on Its Essay example, amazing English teachers!

You are right choosing a topic that#8217;s actually interesting to you makes the how old is leorio writing process so much better. Movie 1997! Thanks for the comment! glad to be friends and how old is leorio please express your self to satirizes definition, me in any way that you want PLEASE! I am very interested to how old is leorio, children learnings. The Impact On Its Citizens Example! I want to read them different stories at is leorio, the same time make them understand the modest morals and how old values of the 1997 story. How Old Is Leorio! However, some children may not understand the words. How will I make it as my topic for 1997, my research? I don#8217;t know how to how old, construct a sentence for that. Satirizes Definition! Im not good in how old, english yet.

If you#8217;re writing a persuasive essay, you could write about the definition topic #8220;Should the government fund universal pre-K to is leorio, improve early childhood reading skills?#8221; That is warhol, a broader approach. If you#8217;re most interested in is leorio, writing about definition, your own personal initiatives for is leorio, teaching children to read, you could write a persuasive essay that attempts to convince a local school district (or another more local entity) to addiction, support/create volunteer reading programs for how old, young children. I hope these ideas help! i have a cochlear implant and I found a topic for persuasive that I could write about is swift modest, why shouldn#8217;t kids or teens not wear earplugs to listen to how old is leorio, music- it could damage the nerves of satirizes definition, their hearing. It sounds like you could write quite an how old is leorio, interesting persuasive essay on that topic, great idea! thank you but I changed my mind, I am doing why 3 meals a day is better than one meal. I need to know how to farm, do an how old is leorio, attention grabber.

Hmm#8230;depends a bit on definition, the angle of how old is leorio, your paper (i.e. The Impact Of Historical German Events! whether you#8217;re arguing that 3 meals is how old, better for sexual definition, managing hunger/appetite or something else), but one way to start would be to vividly describe the feeling of hunger! You can find lots more hook ideas here (if you add your email address to how old, the field at the bottom right, we#8217;ll send you 14 examples): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ im 12 and these are great topics i seen in andy warhol, history. Awesome! Thanks for the comment #128578; Hi, can you help me in how old is leorio, my assignment. How can I explain every paragraph in Practice And Uphold Positive Attitude by Lee Am. Modest Proposal! Both of these posts will help you explain/analyze the how old is leorio text without just summarizing #128578;

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Negligence Duty Of Care Essays and Research Papers. Negligence is essentially concerned with compensating people who have suffered damage as a result of the carelessness of others .One of the . main ways in is leorio which access to compensation is restricted is through the doctrine of the duty of on Reducing Falls Older care.Essentially,this is a legal concept which dictates the is leorio, circumstances in which one party will be liable to another in negligence.Breach of a duty of care essentially means that the sexual addiction, defendant has fallen below the standard of behavior expected in someone undertaking. Criminal negligence , Duty of care , Negligence 3058 Words | 7 Pages. “ Negligence of Duty ” Failing to Follow the Standards of Care By Erica Couture Central Florida Community . College Practical Nursing Program Negligence of Duty : Failing to Follow the Standards of Care As nurses, we are expected to practice by how old a set of standards; standards that are comprised of laws and ethics that require us to practice and behave in a certain manner. When we are entrusted by the state as well as the community and given a license to practice as nurses. We are expected.

Florence Nightingale , Law , Negligence 970 Words | 3 Pages. Negligence: Duty of Care and Buick Motor Co. Negligence , duty and Breach of Duty . To constitute a legal action against some one’s negligence , . several requirements to be fulfilled. Essay Among Asian? First one is that there must exist some duty of care towards the plaintiff by how old is leorio the defendant. The second one is that the defendant should breach such duty of care imposed on modest, him. The third one is that the negligence done by the defendant should be the is leorio, cause of the harm resulted to the plaintiff.

The fourth one is that the harm should have some monetary value. . Common law , Duty of care , Law 1495 Words | 5 Pages. In tort law, a duty of care is modest, a legal obligation which is imposed on an individual requiring adherence to a standard of . reasonable care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others. It is the first element that must be established to how old proceed with an action in negligence . Definition? The claimant must be able to show a duty of care imposed by law which the defendant has breached. In turn, breaching a duty may subject an individual to liability. The duty of care may be imposed by operation of. Caparo Industries plc v Dickman , Common law , Donoghue v Stevenson 1336 Words | 4 Pages.

The law of negligence has the how old is leorio, potential to impose wide liability on satirizes definition, defendants. The approach of the courts has traditionally been to try . control the scope of how old is leorio allowable claims in negligence and to limit their bounds while balancing the rights to compensation of plaintiffs and definition the rights of defendants not to be disproportionately burdened. Elias CJ’s quote raises an interesting question about the emphasis of the courts in the formula they have developed to test actionable negligence . Similarities. Complaint , Defendant , Duty of is leorio care 1276 Words | 3 Pages. have a duty of care in satirizes your work rol? Duty of care can be defined as an how old obligation, recognised by . Of Historical German On Its Citizens Essay? law, to avoid conduct fraught with unreasonable risk of danger to others.

Every teacher and school authority owes a duty of care to take reasonable care to ensure that their acts or omissions do not cause reasonably foreseeable injury to how old their pupils. Stalin Farm? („The Law Handbook”.) A duty of care is how old, a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to a standard of lolita movie 1997 reasonable care while. Complaint , Law , Plaintiff 1608 Words | 5 Pages. Unit 054: Principles for implementing Duty of Care in Health, Social Care or Children’s and Young People’s settings . Outcome 1: Understand how duty of care contributes to safe practice What it means to have a duty of care in my work role A duty of care is a key concept in working with others. The term ‘ duty of care ’ includes the concepts: • To keep individuals safe • To keep individuals free from harm • To allow/give choice Anyone working in a childcare setting, whatever the service. Childhood , Children Act 1989 , Complaint 1889 Words | 7 Pages. Explain what it means to have a duty of care in how old your own work role (1.1) Duty of care means:- • . Movie? To keep individuals safe • To keep individuals free from harm • To give choice Duty of care is a key concept in working with other human beings. It is a legal term for safeguarding yourself and others. Adults with learning difficulties are often vulnerable as they are yet to develop the physical and cognitive capacity to fully care for themselves; they need care and protection from people around.

Complaint , Defendant , Plaintiff 1156 Words | 4 Pages. ? Duty of Care – Unit 204 1.1 Define the term ‘ Duty of Care ’ Employers have a duty of . care to their employees, which means that they should take all steps which are reasonably possible to ensure their health, safety and wellbeing. A duty of is leorio care is satirizes definition, a good way to build trust with your service user as it ensures that there is no harm caused towards them. Employers have the responsibility not to cause, or fail to prevent any harm to their customer and must do their responsibilities with consider to. Complaint , Defendant , Federal Rules of Civil Procedure 1003 Words | 3 Pages.

Unit SHC24 duty of care Denise Keable Outcome 1 1.1 duty of how old is leorio care n. Sexual? a requirement that a . person act toward others and the public with watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence that a reasonable person in the circumstances would. If a person's actions do not meet this standard of care , then the acts are considered negligent, and any damages resulting may be claimed in a lawsuit for negligence . Taken from The Free Dictionary by Farlex 2. I need to ensure that I take into consideration. Complaint , Duty of care , Hygiene 815 Words | 3 Pages. Duty of Care of a Medical Practitioner. ?In Australian society, duty of care is to take reasonable care to not cause foreseeable harm to other individuals . in any work place. Is Leorio? Saying this the duty of care of a medical practitioner is superior considering the The Impact of Historical German Events on Its, nature of their profession, where is they provide advice to people on health and medical conditions, but is the extent of their duty of care too expansive? Doctors are being sued way too frequently for negligence of cases that are generally not because the is leorio, doctor didn’t use the sexual addiction definition, required.

Duty of care , Medical malpractice , Negligence 899 Words | 3 Pages. Health Law and how old is leorio Ethics HCS/478 Negligence Paper Health care providers have a responsibility to provide competent and . safe care to their patients. Of Historical German On Its? When patient care is compromised or the patient does not have a successful medical outcome, sometimes the legal system becomes involved. It is important to be aware of the terms negligence , gross negligence , and malpractice because they are often misunderstood. This paper attempts to provide a definition of each legal term in an effort to distinguish. Duty of care , Health care , Health care provider 1021 Words | 4 Pages. ?Topic/Subtopic Cases/Law Facts /Quotation/Principle/Definition Negligence . Definition Blyth v Birmingham Waterworks Co (1856) 11 Ex. 781, . per Alderson B ‘ Negligence is the omission to do something which the how old is leorio, reasonable man, guided upon those considerations which ordinarily regulate the 1997, conduct of human affairs, would do, or do something which a prudent and how old reasonable man would not do.’ The tort of negligence Negligence is animal farm, about fault based liability.

The plaintiff must prove on the balance. Donoghue v Stevenson , Duty of care , English tort law 1200 Words | 5 Pages. “The Human Rights Act 1998 should not be seen as an opportunity to push the boundaries of the duty of care to is leorio such an extent that . public bodies find it even more difficult to fulfil their functions than is already the case” Critically Discuss The Human Rights Act 1998 came into satirizes force on how old, the 2nd October 2000 to Essay Falls Among Asian Adults incorporate the Articles and Protocols from the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) into domestic law, before the act had been introduced, a large number of how old UK cases concerning infringes. Council of modest Europe , European Convention on Human Rights , European Court of is leorio Human Rights 1832 Words | 5 Pages. Duty of Care 1.1 The term duty of care refers to the duties and responsibilities . that someone in 1997 charge and authority has to those they are caring for. In the how old, area of childcare and early years, teachers, nursery workers and other care workers have a duty of care to the children they are looking after and are responsible for. Addiction? There is a general definition for how old is leorio, duty of care as well as different definitions in greater detail. For example moral and legal duties of care . Legal duty of lolita care is where. Complaint , Duty , Law 1497 Words | 4 Pages. ?1.1 - 1.2 A duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on a carer requiring that they adhere to a good quality and standard of how old . care . It is my duty to safeguard and to take care of vulnerable adults and to ensure that their needs and stalin farm well being are looked after, it is my responsibility to ensure I exercise a good standard of is leorio care with respect to individuals safety, best interest and on Reducing Among personal choices, this includes protecting individuals within my care from any harm or abuse that may occur and avoiding. Core issues in is leorio ethics , Medical malpractice , Person 1389 Words | 3 Pages.

Duty of care Define the term ‘ duty of movie 1997 care ’ Duty of care means that . you must aim to provide high quality care to the best of your ability and to ensure the well being of the service users. We all have a duty of care to consider the effects of how old is leorio our actions upon other people who may be affected. In the workplace you have policies and procedures that you have to follow. These policies and procedures will affect your role as a carer. Describe how the duty of care affects own work role I keep my. Canadian Charter of Rights and Essay on Reducing Falls Older Asian Adults Freedoms , Complaint , Freedom of speech 981 Words | 3 Pages.

Explain what it means to have a duty of care in own work role. To have a duty of care means to be . accountable for the children and young people in our care by e.g. exercising authority, managing risks, working safely, safeguarding children and young people, monitoring own behaviour and conduct, maintaining confidentiality, storing personal information appropriately, reporting concerns and allegations, making professional judgements, maintaining professional boundaries, avoiding favouritism, maintaining. Abuse , Cause of action , Dilemma 912 Words | 4 Pages. SHC 34 Principles for implementing duty of care The fundamental obligation that anyone working in child care has . How Old Is Leorio? is to of Historical example keep children safe. How Old? The legal term duty of care refers to this obligation and has major implications for a setting and the operation of movie 1997 its services. “ Duty of Care ” means providing care and support for individuals within the is leorio, law and also within the policies, procedures and agreed ways of stalin animal working of how old your employer. It is about avoiding abuse and injury to on Reducing Falls Older Asian Adults individuals, their. Abuse , Law , Negligence 1719 Words | 6 Pages. ?This paper will discuss the is leorio, hypothetical scenario and satirizes definition case problem 4.4 and its implications on unintentional tort or negligence . It can be . found on page 124 of our textbook Business Law Today: Essentials, written by Roger LeRoy Miller and how old is leorio Gaylord A. Jentz. As read in the case, “Kim went to definition Ling's Market to pick up a few items for dinner. It was a rainy, windy day, and the wind had blown water through the door of Ling's Market each time the door opened. As Kim entered through the door, she slipped.

Common law , Duty of how old is leorio care , Law 1149 Words | 4 Pages. ? Duty of care Duty of on Reducing Older Asian Adults care means providing . How Old Is Leorio? care and support for individuals within the law and also within the policies procedures and agree ways of working of your employer, it is about avoiding abuse and injury to individuals, their friends and definition family and their properties. People do not have their needs met by others, so you have care of duty to them. This involves doing your job to how old is leorio best of your ability, safe guarding them, respecting their. Complaint , Federal Rules of Civil Procedure , Health care 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Unit 54 – Principles for Implementing Duty of Care in Health, Social Care or Children’s and Young People’s . Settings. Understand how duty of care contributes to safe practice 1.1 Explain what it means to have a duty of care in own work role. Addiction? A duty of care is an how old is leorio obligation that any child or young person that is in your care is well looked after and Falls Among Older Asian Adults is not harmed in how old is leorio a particular task. Within the setting in lolita 1997 which I work I would carry out daily checks to ensure that my setting from the inside and.

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Is the harm within the scope of the defendant’s liability? Breach of Duty The fault part of the negligence action An act or omission of the defendant A failure to act as a reasonable person. Duty of care , Legal terms , Negligence 758 Words | 5 Pages. there is negligence there is scope in the sporting arena for is leorio, those harmed to take legal action. During this assignment a sporting injury is . analyzed under the requirements of swift proposal Tort law and the Civil Liability Act QLD 2003 Negligence is defined as breaching the duty of care owed to someone and can be due to a person’s actions or omissions. Duty of care is the legal obligation to care for the rights of other people. Various factors and tests are often used to prove that a breach of duty of is leorio care occurred. Common law , Duty of The Impact of Historical German Citizens care , Law 1073 Words | 3 Pages. Negligence Paper Elizabeth Ruelas HCS 478 January 10, 2012 Shawishi T. Haynes Negligence Paper . Negligence , gross negligence , and malpractice are terms that healthcare professionals fear being involved in. How Old Is Leorio? We have healthcare laws and policies that guide each healthcare practice. In today’s litigious society, we see healthcare lawsuits that are wrongfully filled, some that are not valid, and some unjustly settled cases.

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Data Protection Act 1998 , Individual , Individual rights 1031 Words | 3 Pages. what you will have to sexual addiction definition prove in order to succeed. The three main things you will have to prove to the magistrate are that the defendants: - Owed you a . duty of care - Breached that duty of how old care - Resulted in damages. In proving that Free Running Australia and addiction definition Sydney City Council owed you a duty of care and how old they breached that duty of care , the on Its example, main defense you will face is how old is leorio, that there is inherent risk in your activity. They will state that you assessed the risk and willingly partook in this. Australia , Australian Greens , Evidence 930 Words | 3 Pages. INTRODUCTION Duty of care for 1997, students – ‘ Duty of care is a legal concept that relates to the common . law.

The common law is a collection of legal principles that have been established over time by the courts’ (WADE, 2007) The duty of care policy plays an integral role in schools in combination with other school policies and practices. The ‘ duty of care for how old, students’ policy explains clearly what duty of care means, and what the teaching staff responsibilities are and how teaching staff may discharge. Education , Negligence , Standard of care 1815 Words | 5 Pages. The Duty of Care in Irish Tort Law. THE DUTY OF CARE IN IRISH TORT LAW Author: Anna Louise Hinds, B.Corp.Law, LL.B (N.U.I.), LL.M (Bruges). On Reducing Falls Asian Adults? Examiner – Legal . Framework Formation 1. Introduction The duty of care arises in the tort of negligence , a relatively recently emerged tort. Traditionally, actions in is leorio tort were divided into trespass and trespass on the case, or simply ‘case’. Trespass dealt with the situation where the injury was immediate, in other words direct and foreseeable. Actions based in case however, covered consequential. Common law , Donoghue v Stevenson , Duty of care 2500 Words | 7 Pages. INTRODUCTION On the, 26th of June 2007, the Department Of Education made effective Western Australia’s current ‘ Duty of care for . students’ policy.

This policy was deemed necessary, as it strives to swift proposal protect the immediate and on-going safety of students and teachers. The aim of the policy is to create the safest possible learning environment for all students, and is leorio for to serve as a guideline for education professionals. Movie? All teachers, school authorities, some non-teaching staff and how old external providers. Education , School , Standard of care 1831 Words | 6 Pages. ? Negligence and Duty of Care Robin McClish Kaplan University Negligence and . Lolita Movie? Duty of Care Scenario: As pedestrians exited at the close of an arts and crafts show, Jason Davis, an employee of the how old is leorio, show’s producer, stood near the exit. Suddenly and without warning, Davis turned around and collided with Yvonne Esposito, an 80-year-old woman. Esposito was knocked to swift modest the ground, fracturing her hip. After hip replacement surgery, she was left with a permanent physical impairment. Esposito. Appeal , Law , Negligence 492 Words | 2 Pages. EXISTENCE OF A DUTY Before 1932 there was no generalised duty of is leorio care in negligence . Definition? The tort . did exist and how old was applied in particular situations where the courts had decided that a duty should be owed, eg, road accidents, bailments or dangerous goods.

In Donoghue v Stevenson [1932] AC 562, Lord Atkin attempted to lay down a general principle which would cover all the circumstances where the courts had already held that there could be liability for negligence . The Impact Of Historical German On Its Citizens Essay Example? He said: The rule that you. Caparo Industries plc v Dickman , Common law , Duty of care 3572 Words | 13 Pages. EDUCATION amp; TRAINING, DUTY OF CARE POLICY FOR STUDENTS. Please find enclosed a detailed guide to helping your parents / . caregivers understand the “ Duty of Care Policy for how old is leorio, Students”. This guide is an analysis of the policy document noting the key points that are easily understood by parents. The report will also detail two scenarios providing examples of The Impact of Historical German Events Citizens situations that can occur at is leorio any school and an action plan response to The Impact of Historical Citizens Essay each scenario by following the duty of care policy guidelines. TABLE. Australia , Education , Law 1979 Words | 6 Pages.

Duty Of Care Health And Social Care. Principles for implementing duty of how old is leorio care in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings . 1 Understand how duty of care contributes to safe practice (a) What it means to have a duty of care in one’s own work role A duty of care is a legal obligation to all Health and Social carers and professionals who have to act in the best interests of on Reducing Falls Among Older individuals and others, also not to act or fail to act in a way that results in harm. This duty of care can be a general implied. Complaint , Individual , Law 1245 Words | 6 Pages. Employer’s Duty of Care To what extent are employees required to perform their job with a duty of is leorio . care ? We all know that corporate officers have a duty of care to the corporation that they are employed by. They have an obligation to perform their duties with the care that a person in a like position would reasonably exercise under similar circumstances (Halbert amp; Ingulli, 2010, p 52). As a fellow employee down on lolita 1997, the totem pole, we are held to the same standard to act in good faith in. At-will employment , Duty , Employment 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Major Assignment: Directors’ Duties Case Part A: Whether the directors are in breach of how old their duties of care , . Satirizes Definition? skill and diligence Issue1: who owes the duty ? According to S 9, the how old is leorio, person who is appointed to be a director or the person who is 1997, appointed to be an alternate director and is acting in that capacity, is a director of the company. How Old? (S9) As we can see from the case, Peter Pansy, Fred Fuchsia and Marie Gold are directors of the company, and Alison Astor who is appointed to fill a casual. Debt , Default , Executive director 2127 Words | 6 Pages.

this case relates to the law of swift negligence . Specifically, whether Defendant, Vogue Beauty Salon was negligent by applying fragranced cream to . the skin of Plaintiff, Priscilla. [Note: The Employee of Vogue Beauty Salon, Veronica was vicariously liable for is leorio, the damages of her actions.] Relevant Law and Application 1 Did the Defendant owe the Plaintiff a duty of care ? As per Donogue V Stevenson, the law states that the defendant owe the plaintiff a duty of care if the negligent act causes physical. Common law , Duty of care , Law 933 Words | 4 Pages. Rebecca ‘Zorba’s’ Restaurant case, the main issue is swift proposal, whether negligence exists of the how old is leorio, defendant? There are three prerequisites must be . present before the tort of negligence can arise: a duty of care must be owed by one person to another; there must be a breach of that duty of care ; and damage must have been suffered as a result of the German on Its Citizens example, breach of duty . (FoBL, 2005, p70) In addition, another element must be satisfied to prove negligence is the causation. How Old? This essay will analysis Rebecca v. ‘Zorba’s’.

Donoghue v Stevenson , Duty of care , Law 1494 Words | 5 Pages. The Western Australia Department of Education's Duty of Care Policy. Australian Duty of care for sexual definition, students policy Document analysis The frequently used term for is leorio, the responsibility for the safety . of children at school is duty of care . (Balfour, 2001) The Western Australia Department of Education (WADE) states that department policy requires all teachers to be responsible for the supervision of students in their care , and that teachers must take reasonable care for the safety of their students. To ensure these requirements are met, WADE introduced the Duty of Care policy. Certified teacher , Education , Law 2306 Words | 6 Pages. ? DR. Swift Modest? RAM MANOHAR LOHIA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY LUCKNOW (2014-2015) FINAL DRAFT ON “TORT OF NEGLIGENCE ” . Submitted to Submitted BY Mr. R.K Yadav RAHAT ALI Astt. Prof. How Old Is Leorio? (Law) ROLL NO - 100 B.A. Common law , Duty of care , Law 1981 Words | 10 Pages. implementing duty of care Workplace: Sutton Lodge Student name: Emma Hardwick Date: Feb 2015 Unit 4- Principles for . implementing duty of care Outcome 1: Understanding how duty of care contributes to safe practice Outcome 2: Know how to swift modest address conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between an individual’s rights and the duty of care . Outcome 3: Know how to respond to complaints Outcome 1: (Knowledge) 1.? Explain what it means to is leorio have a duty of care in your.

Complaint , Individual , Individual rights 590 Words | 7 Pages. ? Duty of Care A training document for practioners to help inform an understanding, of the Duty of . Essay Falls Older Asian? Care through the early years January 2015 Table of Contents Introduction 4 Duty of care Definition 4 What is Duty of care ? 5 Your Duty Of care 6 Safeguarding and Welfare Requirements 7 Introduction What the Manual is about? This is a training manual for practitioners in the early years settings. Produced by Toni Hutton in January 2015. This manual aims to provide understanding of the principles. Law , Standard of care 1244 Words | 9 Pages. Duty of care is a requirement that all health and social care professionals, and organisations providing health . and care services, must put the interests of the how old, people who use their service first. Lolita 1997? They also have to do everything in their power to is leorio keep people safe of any harm, neglect or risk. As an individual healthcare worker you owe a duty of care to Falls Older Adults your service users, your colleagues, your employer, yourself and the public interest. Is Leorio? All duty of care is described I Code of Older Adults Practice.

Duty of. Complaint , Individual , Law 916 Words | 3 Pages. ? Negligence Marsha Ruckle University of Phoenix Health Law and Ethics 478 Francis E. Mieckzowski, Jr. March 11, 2013 . Is Leorio? Negligence Health care providers, including nurses, have a responsibility to provide competent and safe care to their patients. When an unsuccessful or unfortunate medical outcome occurs, whether it is from negligence , gross negligence , or malpractice, the legal system often is called in to action.

The health care setting is a complex arena with much potential for error and. Clinical officer , Health care , Health care provider 1351 Words | 6 Pages. ? Liability of Negligence When a person is said to be liable for an action under the satirizes, law, it means that they are responsible in some way for . the outcome that results either in the law of is leorio a nation to be violated which comes under criminal liability, or in an injury to other individuals that is considered to be a civil liability. The main requirement for a liability happens to satirizes definition be intent1, which says that, an individual is not responsible for how old, something that they did not mean to do. However, the. Common law , Duty of satirizes definition care , Law 1614 Words | 7 Pages. ?Assignment 204 Introduction to duty of care in health, social care or children’s and young people’s . settings Assignment composition Assignment overview In this assignment, you will demonstrate your understanding of what is meant by the term ‘ duty of care ’. You will consider the types of dilemma that you may arise in is leorio adult social care work, and find out where to get advice and support to Essay Falls Among handle these. You will look at how to how old is leorio respond to The Impact Events Essay example complaints, making sure you know and follow. Case study , Question 732 Words | 5 Pages. Negligence In Nursing Defined, Described, Destroyed Brian Dixon Devry University Abstract In the past the how old is leorio, word . negligence normally only satirizes, encompassed the wrongs of a physician and at that time there was a distinct division between a nurse and is leorio a physician. The roles of nurses today however have changed quite drastically.

Today’s nurses have assumed many functions and responsibilities that were previously performed solely by lolita the physician. How Old? As the roles of nurses have advanced and the profession. Health care , Hospital , Intravenous therapy 1371 Words | 4 Pages. | |SHC24 . | |Introduction to duty of care in a health and social care or children’s and young people’s settings | | | | . Service of process 559 Words | 5 Pages. succeed in his negligence claim? Explain your reasoning. Conclusion: Judge’s decision ? ie plaintiff succeed in the case? ratio decidendi? . Ratio decidendi means `reason for deciding’ and is capable of Essay on Reducing Falls Older creating binding precedent. Damages previous case support your analysis What is negligence Under the is leorio, tort of negligence , a person is only liable for harm that is Essay Falls Among Asian Adults, a foreseeable consequence of their actions, that is, their failure to exercise reasonable care and skill. Negligence is the omission.

Donoghue v Stevenson , Duty of care , Negligence 2308 Words | 7 Pages. SHC 34 Principles of implementing duty of care in how old is leorio health, social care or in Events on Its example young peoples settings Task 2 . (i) Potential conflicts or dilemmas that may arise between the is leorio, duty of care and an individuals rights In situations where there is a conflict of interest or a dilemma between an individual’s rights and your duty of farm care , it is best practice to make sure the individual is aware of the consequences of their choice that they have the how old is leorio, mental capacity to understand the Essay on Reducing Falls Older, risks involved. Best practice , Individual , Individual rights 614 Words | 3 Pages. raise and what are the how old, possible legal consequences? Issue 1-- duty of care The tort of negligence to be . constituted depend on whether the defendant violate the principle of ‘ Duty 0f Care ’. Because of the lolita, case of Donoghue v Stevenson [1], ‘ Duty 0f Care ’ has been established in common law: 1. How Old Is Leorio? Defendant whether or not fulfill the lolita movie, duty of care . How Old Is Leorio? 2. That defendant whether or not breached that duty . 3. whether Breach the duty of satirizes care is the main reason to resulting in infringement.

4. Whether the. Common law , Donoghue v Stevenson , Duty of how old care 1514 Words | 6 Pages. A duty of care is a legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they adhere to swift proposal a standard of reasonable . care while performing any acts that could foreseeable harm others. A definition from is leorio, Wikipedia. A duty of care is Among Older Asian Adults, required in how old every work place and a greater duty or care is needed especially with younger children being as they are more vulnerable. Stalin Animal Farm? A duty of care ensures support and care for individuals are provided at the required level within the law and also within the is leorio, policies and. Airline complaints , Complaint , Defendant 2046 Words | 6 Pages. Negligence Paper Nichole Ziegler University of Phoenix Health Law and Ethics HCS/478 Mary Burke August 12, 2012 . Negligence Paper Nursing’s role in providing patient care has expanded in definition response to increasing patient acuity, technology, evidence-based practice, managed care , and the advancement of the profession.

Because of this professional evolution, nurses are in a position of is leorio higher accountability (McConnell amp; Vaughn, 2010, p. 1). Negligence can be considered as carelessness. Duty of of Historical Citizens Essay example care , Health care , Health care provider 1502 Words | 4 Pages. SHC34 - Duty of Care TASK 1 What it means to have a duty of care in own work role: A . duty of care within my childcare setting - or indeed any other setting involves an obligation that I as childminder and leader of the setting ensure that all children in my care are taken care of and not harmed during any part of the day or during any particular activity. How Old? Within my work role I have risk assessments to undertake for day to day running of the setting plus assessments for any further activities. Child , Childcare Act 2006 , Childhood 1416 Words | 6 Pages. 204Introduction to duty of care in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings. to this unit. The learner will: 1. Understand how duty of care contributes to safe practice 2. Know how to address conflicts or . dilemmas that may arise between an individual’s rights and the duty of care 3. Stalin? Know how to respond to complaints Duty of care is the how old is leorio, obligation to exercise a level of care towards an The Impact of Historical German Events on Its Citizens Essay example individual, as is is leorio, reasonable in all the circumstances, to avoid injury to that individual or his property. The duty of care is therefore based on: the relationship of the different.

Duty of care , Law , Negligence 907 Words | 4 Pages. |Principles For Implementing Duty Of Care In Health, Social Care Or Children’s and Young People’s Setting . | |CT236 | |1.1 |Explain what it means to sexual addiction definition have a duty of care in own work role. | | |The overall purpose of my job role is to provide high quality care and how old learning through safe play. Child , Children Act 1989 , Complaint 2002 Words | 7 Pages. 1.1 Define the term ‘ duty of care ’: 1.1 “ Duty of Care ” means providing care and . support for individuals within the law and of Historical Events on Its example also within the policies, procedures and agreed ways of working of your employer. It is about avoiding abuse and injury to individuals, their friends and family and their property.

1.2 Describe how the how old is leorio, duty of care affects own work role: 1.2 In your role you have a duty of care to raise any concerns you may have about any aspect of your work. These can range from inadequate. Complaint , Individual , Person 1087 Words | 4 Pages. Moral Duty of Care . 1 MORAL DUTY OF CARE 2 There are so many challenges when dealing with a sick loved one. Addiction? But it can even more difficult when they are unable to speak for themselves, uninsured.

Advance health care directive , Health care proxy , Hospital 2134 Words | 6 Pages.

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How to how old is leorio Make an Acting Resume With No Experience. Putting together an actor resume is probably the first and definition easiest thing an how old aspiring actor should do. But here#8217;s the conundrum: how do you make an acting resume with no experience ? If you#8217;re in this position, don#8217;t sweat it. It#8217;s not a big deal. Really, it#8217;s not. I remember myself having this exact same thought when I was just embarking on swift, the acting journey. In reality, almost every single actor has been in a position of how old, having an empty actor resume. We#8217;ve all started out acting with no credits. As a newcomer, you#8217;ll have to get comfortable with the idea that you#8217;re a fresh face on the block, you won#8217;t be signed by any top talent agencies in Los Angeles (yet) and you#8217;ll have to work with what you have. Below, I will quickly walk you through what an addiction definition actor resume is, what purpose does it serve, what resume you need for voice over is leorio, jobs, the standards for animal farm an acting resume in Los Angeles, and the best way to how old go about writing your actor resume when you have no experience to list. Before we begin, would you like a sample standard LA acting resume that you can edit with your own details?

Share some social love and you can download an editable PDF. Let#8217;s start at addiction the beginning. After reading through this acting resume guide, if you have any questions, drop your comments here and I will try to answer them the best I can. What#8217;s an is leorio acting resume, and why do you need one? I#8217;m sure everybody knows what a CV (curriculum vitae) is. It#8217;s that piece of paper that people use to show to their potential employers. Surprise surprise, an actor#8217;s resume is the exact same thing that you use when they#8217;re looking to book acting auditions in LA. It serves the stalin same purpose, and is even structured similarly.

Alongside your headshot, an acting resume is one of the most important actor#8217;s marketing tools that every aspiring thespian needs to have. It#8217;s your calling card. You will list all of how old, your acting experience, education, acting training and farm special skills that you have alongside your contact information, and a few physical stats. Look to is leorio the right. This is what a Los Angeles based working actor#8217;s resume looks like.

I removed the satirizes name and contact info. When you submit for how old is leorio an acting job, a CD will receive your full actor#8217;s package: actor resume, headshot and, if you have it, your demo reel. Of Historical German Events Example! The CD will look at your headshot first (!) and how old is leorio if you look the part, they will turn it over to movie see your acting resume on the other side. How Old! They#8217;ll scan through your physical stats, your credits and, sometimes, your special skills if that applies. Say your resume looks professional, your look fits the part, and The Impact of Historical German on Its Citizens Essay the CD is happy with your experience and how old credits. Essay Falls! In this case, you#8217;re going to is leorio get a call about an audition. Congratulations! You just got your first audition. Now back to the real world#8230; Even if you have not done any acting work whatsoever, you can still put together an actor resume with no experience, and send it over to CDs with confidence . Despite your worst delusional fears (we#8217;ve all be there, trust me), nobody#8217;s going to think of you poorly if you have little or no acting experience. Of Historical On Its Citizens Example! CDs understand that every actor has to how old start somewhere, thus you may get by on your looks, physical stats, training and/or special skills alone.

Most importantly, don#8217;t get discouraged if you don#8217;t. Simply move onto the next project. Bottom Line : An acting resume is of Historical on Its Citizens Essay example what every actor needs to is leorio put together as soon as they#8217;ve decide to farm enter show business. How Old! It#8217;s their calling card. Basics of a professional actor resume. Even though you have no credits under your belt yet, you still want to keep your actor resume looking clean and professional.

Here are some basics to go by when structuring an acting CV: An acting resume is ALWAYS only one sheet of paper. No exceptions. It must have enough white space to proposal be read easily (hey, you#8217;re perfect for it!) It should be sized to fit a 8?10 headshot so that you can staple it to the back. Use standard fonts such as Arial or Times New Roman. Do not cram the resume with too many things. Keep it simple and relevant. Do not use any colors.

It#8217;s just black and white, plus headings for how old sections. Never lie on satirizes, your resume. You#8217;ll be surprised how quickly that gets out. #8220; DON’T lie on your resume. Actors do this all the time and they always get caught. If you claim to is leorio have booked a guest star role on satirizes definition, “NCIS,” it stands to how old reason you would have footage from the show on your reel. Swift Modest! If you don’t, I’m going to ask why. And that’s where the lie will start to fall apart. #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. These are the primary #8220;rules#8221; for a professional looking acting resume. Is Leorio! Follow them and you#8217;ll be alright.

If you download the sample acting resume above , you#8217;ll notice that it#8217;s slightly different from the resume in definition the picture, but the difference is how old irrelevant. In fact, most casting directors prefer the simplicity because it#8217;s easier to definition read and remember. What matters the most in an acting resume is the basic information that#8217;s easy to see: personal details at the top, followed by credits and then training. You can choose either format, just keep it clean and easy to read. And now for the acting resume format technicalities. I suggest you opening that resume sample from above so that you understand better what#8217;s what. Bottom Line : Your acting resume should look clean, professional, adapted for quick reading, and with the how old most recent and most relevant credits. Your personal information . As you can see in the acting resume template I#8217;ve linked to swift modest above, and the provided Los Angeles actor resume example, we#8217;re supposed to how old start with some personal details. For the Events Essay example purpose of this article, let#8217;s assume that you#8217;re a non-union actor with no talent agent representation, which is most likely the case anyway.

Actor#8217;s name . This is is leorio where your stage name (not your legal name) goes. The Impact Of Historical German Events On Its Citizens! Simple. Union title. If you#8217;re not affiliated with any actor#8217;s union, then skip this part. Phone number . Always use the number by which you can be reached any time. Physical stats . Self-explanatory. NEVER put your age or date of birth on the resume. After the is leorio basic personal information, we#8217;re moving onto the credits and what acting experience you have. Your acting experience. Normally, this is where you would list all your credits, from television to film to theater to new media.

If you#8217;re pursuing acting in Los Angeles, most of swift modest proposal, your work will be focused on Film/TV, thus one resume is usually enough. How Old Is Leorio! However, people in addiction New York City, for example, will often have at least two actor resumes: one focused on screen work, one on how old, stage work. If you don#8217;t have much acting experience, then one acting CV will be enough. Film credits . In this section, start with the name of the show , followed by the type of role (NOT your character#8217;s name; see below) you did, then production company and modest finally director#8217;s name . Television credits . Similarly to film credits, start with the name of the show , then the type of role (different to film type roles; see below), followed by television network and is leorio the director#8217;s name . The same applies to Web Series/Webisodes productions. Theater credits . Again, begin with the name of the addiction definition production/play , followed by your role/character#8217;s name (this time it#8217;s the other way around), then the theater company#8217;s name and the location of where the production took place. A few quick tips: Always, always list film and television credits under separate sections. You#8217;ll see some bad actor resume examples where they#8217;re filled under #8220;Film/TV.#8221; DO NOT do this, because it will make your acting resume look very unprofessional.

The reason is mostly because role types work differently on film and how old TV (see below). Once you get more experience under your belt, try to stalin farm remove some of the how old older and/or less important stuff from the resume. Keeping it clean will make you look more professional. You also want to definition have casting directors focus on your best and most important work. How Old! You can list your credits any way you want. Some people list them chronologically, but I usually suggest listing your best work at the top so that it catches peoples#8217; attention. Never put extra/background work on your resume. The reason being is that extra work is not considered acting. Stalin! Some people will do so anyway to fill the space, but I strongly advise against that. If you#8217;re ever asked about that part, and you have to say that you were actually a background on the set, that will make you look very unprofessional.

When listing theater credits, you don#8217;t usually name the director. However, if the director#8217;s name is really well-known, I would list that either alongside the theater company#8217;s name, or instead of the location if you#8217;re short for space (similar to Film/TV credit format). Your training and how old education . Essay On Reducing Among! In this section, list all the relevant acting training that you#8217;ve had so far. That usually includes: acting classes, workshops, formal theater/acting education and other informal acting/drama training. Begin by how old listing the German on Its Citizens Essay example name of your acting teacher (for private/group classes) or the institution where you#8217;ve studied acting. Right next to it you#8217;ll list what type of acting classes those were, which you#8217;ll know after you#8217;ve taken them. How Old! There#8217;s too many for me to 1997 list, but the most common are Scene Study, Cold Reading, Audition Technique, Improv, and On-Camera Class. How Old! In the third column of sexual addiction, this section, it#8217;s the location. Now in is leorio terms of what goes where vertically. Normally, you#8217;ll have your formal and probably oldest acting education at the bottom, which is the college or drama school that you went to.

Even if you think it#8217;s the best type of definition, training you have received, that#8217;s usually not how casting directors and how old agents think. Keep the classes that you#8217;re currently taking at the very top of this section, and add #8220;(ongoing)#8221; right next to them. After that, list any other acting class or workshop that you#8217;ve taken chronologically with the definition oldest class at the bottom of the how old list. Your special skills . The least useful section of your acting resume is the one that actors truly obsess over. Addiction! You don#8217;t have to, because agents rarely even look here, unless there#8217;s something very specific that they want from an actor. With that in mind, don#8217;t over-complicate this part and list the things that you#8217;re most proficient in.

My advice for the special skills section would be to is leorio be honest with yourself. If you#8217;ve only strummed a guitar a few times in your life, don#8217;t put Guitar on there. If you#8217;ve played basketball in high school which was 10 years ago, don#8217;t put Basketball in there. Stalin Animal Farm! Also, don#8217;t write down things like Running and Whistling, unless you#8217;re a professional. The same goes for listing languages. Over-exaggerating about how old is leorio, your special skills used to be a thing back in the day, but in swift modest 2015, agents think this just looks dumb. #8220; I want all of how old, you to look up the meaning of the word “fluent.” Make sure you understand what it means before you claim you’re fluent in any language. I’m fluent in three, and I always test actors when I see one of those languages listed on their resume. Essay On Reducing Falls Among Older! Care to how old guess how many couldn’t respond to a simple question in the language they’re supposed to be fluent in? #8221; Secret Agent Man , Backstage.com. As you can see, agents do care and they do their due diligence.

Bottom Line : Always stick to the standard actor resume format, and don#8217;t reinvent the wheel. Agents and casting directors should be able to scan through your resume fast. Let me give you quick breakdown of film and television role types. This is satirizes definition something every aspiring actor in Los Angeles has to know. How Old Is Leorio! You#8217;ll be surprised how often you#8217;ll soon be using these terms. Sexual Addiction Definition! Series regular Main character(s) on the show under contract for a certain period of time, usually for the duration of the whole show/season. Is Leorio! Recurring Second most important TV acting role type. These are usually signed to appear on the show on multiple episodes. Guest star Third biggest part where the character is directly involved with the plot of the TV show, usually for a single episode, but sometimes several episodes. Swift Modest Proposal! Co-star A small speaking part that will only be involved in is leorio one episode for a small period of screen time.

Under 5 (U5) Normally applicable only to daytime dramas where the character will have less than five lines. Lead Protagonist. Main character of the story on whom the whole film is movie 1997 centered. Supporting Secondary character which can be just as important to the film/story. Principal A small part with spoken lines where the is leorio character will usually interact with one of the above characters for a short period, but doesn#8217;t add much to the story. Featured A non-speaking part where the character gets enough facetime. This is not the same as an Extra, but sometimes Extras are promoted to Featured roles. And that wraps up the whole technical part of an actor#8217;s resume. Sexual Definition! Please feel free to come back to is leorio this article when you#8217;ll need help with structuring your actor resume format.

I#8217;ve already mentioned this, but don#8217;t stress about of Historical German Citizens Essay, not having any acting experience. How Old! Yes, it is Catch-22 where you can#8217;t get work because you have no experience but you can#8217;t get experience without acquiring work. Welcome to Hollywood. A) The first thing you may want to do is satirizes definition think about whether you definitely have no experience. Maybe you#8217;ve been in is leorio some small plays, or student films, or even indie films with your friends? List them all! Anything where you have actually done acting can go on your resume, even if it#8217;s a small part in a silly project. Stalin! B) The next step is obvious: you need to search for opportunities to act.

The easiest way to acquire some credits for your resume is to visit your local community college for some stage work. You can also browse through free casting websites, Craigslist, filmmaking websites and forums where people are looking for actors who would work for free. If you#8217;re willing to do some work for no reward, that means you#8217;ll find opportunities faster. C) The third thing you can do is produce something yourself. I#8217;ve already talked about the importance for how old is leorio actors to create their own projects, and the earlier you start, the better. All you need is a few bucks, a smartphone with a decent camera and some time. You can gather up a couple of friends, write a screenplay for animal a short film, shoot it on your phone and put it up on YouTube. That#8217;s your first credit. Is Leorio! I would advise against buying memberships on casting websites just yet. If this is your first time venturing into the world of performing arts, give it some time, and see if you even like the craft of acting before spending money.

You will be surprised how quickly your resume will start growing if you dedicate some time to this, and if you#8217;re willing to work for free. There are a lot of opportunities out there, especially if you move to a big city such as Los Angeles, New York City, Atlanta, Vancouver in Canada or London in England. Once you start receiving some acting work, remove your older, #8220;silly#8221; credits and replace them with the most recent stuff. Falls Asian! Finally, try to how old is leorio have fun. People often forget about this myself included but it#8217;s an integral part of succeeding as an definition actor.

After all, don#8217;t we all want to become actors so that we can have fun instead of work?

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Fair Trade - In or Against the Market ? “Before you’ve finished your breakfast this morning, you’ll have relied on half the world.” Martin Luther King. Fair Trade is the most important and fastest growing market-based mechanism to improve the lives of producers in developing countries. It does so by offering small-scale producers in the global south fairer trade relations, including a guaranteed minimum price above world price and developmental support. Global Fair Trade sales have reached € 1.1 billion (US$1.4 billion), increasing at rates of how old is leorio, around 50 percent per year and are projected to continue to grow. Fair Trade bananas have a market share of 56 percent in Switzerland and the U.S. Satirizes. Fair Trade coffee market has been growing nearly 90 percent per year since Fair Trade coffee was launched in 1998 (Max Havelaar, 2006; TransFair USA, 2005). The success of Fair Trade is reiterated time over time by how old a variety of personalities and institutions, ranging from advocates of Fair Trade in the North and Falls Among Older, producers in the South to such prominent promoters of trade liberalization as the G 8 and the European Commission. Is Leorio. 1 The general feeling of euphoria is captured by sexual addiction definition one of the pioneers of the Fair Trade movement, Carol Wills, on a conference in the European Parliament in is leorio June 2005: “Fair Trade works! It works for poor people; it works for stalin animal, consumers.

It works as a business model; it works as sustainable development; it works to protect the environment; it works as an idea!” (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005). However, one could wonder what this is all about. After all, Fair Trade started as an alternative to free trade, explicitly focusing on solidarity and the well-being of producers and rejecting classical economic notions of competition, the self-regulation of the is leorio, market and sometimes even employing anti-capitalist rhetoric. How should one asses that at the G8 summit 2005 in Gleneagles leaders of those economically dominant countries that are continually held responsible for global trade injustices (often by lolita movie 1997 actors and organizations in the Fair Trade movement) formally acknowledged the growing success of global Fair Trade and how old is leorio, said in their final statement that they “welcome the growing market for Fair Trade goods and their positive effect in supporting livelihoods and increasing public awareness of the Essay on Reducing Falls Among Asian Adults, positive role of trade in development”? (Fair Trade Advocacy Newsletter, 2005: 4). Or, even more disturbing, how should one think about the fact that Nestlé, famously 2005’s “least responsible company” worldwide and as one of the four big roasters responsible for the coffee crisis that impoverishes millions of how old, producers, prides itself of launching a Fair Trade brand in Britain (Nestlé, 2005)? The sentiments and reactions of many people working in the field are nicely summarized by John Hilary, policy director at War on Want: “The Fair Trade movement was set up to satirizes definition, challenge the practices of companies like Nestlé. How can such a company deserve the Fair Trade mark?” (Vidal, 2005). In this paper I will try to asses if Fair Trade really works for all and even more importantly how it works for the different participants of how old is leorio, Fair Trade, mainly consumers and producers and what the wider effects of Fair Trade are. As a framework of reference I will employ a tension between two visions of Fair Trade that underlie contemporary debates in the Fair Trade movement as well as in the growing literature about Fair Trade. At the one extreme a pragmatic position interprets Fair Trade as a developmental tool to increase the sexual addiction definition, standard of is leorio, living for disadvantaged producers in developing countries by making neoliberal free trade work the way it is definition, supposed to work.

At the other extreme a more idealistic vision sees Fair Trade as a practical critique of the neoliberal free trade model that aims at transforming the capitalist market through alternative trading practices. Since these visions are at least in tension with each other, if not inherently contradictory, the question is: what is Fair Trade really? Is Fair Trade a neoliberal solution to current market failures for small scale producers in the global south that works within and thus perpetuates the free trade and how old, free market regime? Or is Fair Trade a practical tool of social change that challenges neoliberal trading practices and more generally aims at satirizes definition transforming free market and free trade? This paper will argue that these dichotomous visions are useful in how old terms of conceptualizing different possible trajectories but that they are both two one sided and The Impact of Historical German Citizens Essay, extreme. Fair Trade is neither a purely neoliberal and free market solution to certain market failure nor a tool to entirely transform capitalist free market relations. Rather, I will argue with Polanyi, Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of unrestricted market forces that tries to re-embed the economy. As such it is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors that brings about multiple and partly contradictory effects on different levels. I will first describe what Fair Trade is how it is defined, how it works, how big it is today and is leorio, what problem it tries to address. I will then analyze the two vision of Fair Trade in more detail to specify and addiction, contextualize the question this paper tries to answer. The central part of the paper tries then to assess the impact Fair Trade has, first on is leorio the level of producers and producer communities and secondly the German on Its Citizens Essay, socio-cultural, political and economic impact on the free trade market in general.

And in the end I will propose a theoretical framework of Fair Trade that tries to avoid the how old, strict dichotomy of the two visions. 2. 1. Definition, Functioning and Scope of Fair Trade. During its long history there have been many different definitions of Fair Trade, but in an attempt to come up with an modest proposal understanding that can be widely accepted, an informal network of the most important Fair Trade organizations called FINE produced the following definition in 2001: 2 “Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the rights of, marginalized producers and workers - especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in how old is leorio the rules and practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). The goals of Fair Trade that are implicit in this definition have been laid out by Redfern and satirizes, Snedker in how old a 2002 report of the stalin animal, International Labour Organization (ILO) as being: To improve the is leorio, livelihoods and satirizes definition, well-being of how old, producers by improving market access, strengthening producer organizations, paying a better price and providing continuity in the trading relationship. To promote development opportunities for disadvantaged producers, especially women and indigenous people, and to protect children from exploitation in the production process. To raise awareness among consumers of the negative effects on producers of satirizes definition, international trade so that they exercise their purchasing power positively. To set an example of partnership in trade through dialogue, transparency and respect.

To campaign for changes in the rules and practice of conventional international trade. To protect human rights by promoting social justice, sound environmental practices and economic security” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 11). Historically Fair Trade evolved out of a range of how old is leorio, faith-based and secular alternative trading organizations (ATOs) that can be traced back to relief efforts after World War II. Charities in Western Europe like Oxfam began importing handicrafts from producers in Eastern Europe and in the United States the Mennonites started to buy products from Puerto Rico in what would become Ten Thousand Villages (Redfern Snedker, 2002; Low Davenport, 2005, Kocken, 2003). The Fair Trade movement developed from these charities that understood themselves as radically opposed to the market over several stages into the mainstream. Lolita 1997. Fair Trade has thereby changed in a variety of how old, ways, the most import shift being that “Fair Trade has moved from The Impact being purely an how old is leorio activist-led advocacy and empowerment model towards being a market-led commercial success story” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 13). This shift was mirrored in the change of name and discourse from “alternative” to The Impact of Historical German Events on Its Essay example, “fair” trade (Low Davenport, 2005: 147). Especially after the establishment and international harmonization of labelling organizations in the 1990s Fair Trade has experienced enormous growth rates and since the 2000s, Fair Trade is entering a new stage of becoming a serious option for many mainstream retailers (Krier 2005, 5).

The most important labelling organizations are organized under the umbrella of the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO). FLO was formed in how old 1997 out of 14 national labelling organizations with the aim of collaborating on satirizes defining international Fair Trade standards, certifying and how old is leorio, auditing Fair Trade producers organizations and traders and on animal farm providing support to producer organizations that need external help (FLO, 2005a: 23). Today 20 national labelling organizations joined FLO-International (FLO, 2006). These marks in the U.S. and Germany for example called TransFair and in the Netherlands and Switzerland called Max Havelaar guarantees independent third party auditing of Fair Trade products. How Old. However, due to the complex and expensive process of getting the modest proposal, mark, not all Fair Trade products are sold under these labels Tradecraft for example, the largest Fair Trade company in the UK, offers most of its products without it (Nichols Opal, 2005: 11). 3. In operational terms Fair Trade is characterized by several key practices that are practiced by the labelling organizations as well as by the alternative trading organizations that do not participate in certification (Nichols Opal, 2005: 6-7): agreed minimum prices, usually above or independent of world market prices, that allow for a living wage for producers; an emphasis on development and technical support through the payment of a social premium; direct purchasing from producers to shorten the is leorio, global supply chains and reduce the margins of middle men; transparent and satirizes, long-term partnerships; provision of credit when requested and is leorio, pre-financing of up to 60 per cent of the modest proposal, total purchase value; producers are democratically organized, often in a cooperative; sustainable and is leorio, increasingly organic production is practiced; there are no labour abuses and unionization must me allowed. Since most products are certified through the national labelling organizations this paper will focus on the standards established by the FLO. These standards, which must be met by producer groups, traders, processors, wholesalers and on Reducing Among Older Asian, retailers, can be divided into three parts (FLO, 2006; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131): First there are two sets of generic organizational producer standards, one for co-operatives of small-scale producers and family farmers and another one for plantations. Independent small-scale farmers must be organized into democratically organized cooperatives that transparently account for and distribute the how old, Fair Trade income, especially the social premium. Fair Trade plantations must have a democratically elected worker body or a union that is able to decide on and distribute the Fair Trade social premium (FLO, 2006).

Secondly there are several sustainable production requirements. These environmental standards vary by sexual products but in general prohibit the use of pesticides and require protection of drinking water and endangered resources (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 131). And thirdly there are, as the is leorio, core of Fair Trade, certain trade requirements that govern the relations between producers and importers. Traders have to Essay on Reducing Falls, pay a price to producers that covers the costs of how old is leorio, sustainable production and addiction definition, living; they must pay an how old additional social premium that has to be invest in development; they must pay up to 60 percent in advance, when producers ask for it; and the trading contracts have to allow for long-term planning and sustainable production practices. And producers have to meet the above requirements, have to accord with the labour standards of the satirizes, International Labour Organization and have to meet certain quality requirements (FLO, 2006). How Old. These trade standards vary by product and are determined by the labelling organizations and the quality standards can be extremely specific and rigid. 4 . The minimum price for washed arabica coffee for example is stalin, set by the FLO at US$1.21 per pound (455 gram) in how old Central America, Mexico, Africa and German on Its, Asia (and at US$1.19 for South America and the Carribean). In addition to is leorio, this minimum price producers get US$0.15 per pound for certified organic coffee and a social premium of US$0.05 per pound for all coffee. Swift Proposal. And if the market price is how old, higher than the Fair Trade minimum price, the market price applies but the social premium is still paid on top of the market price (FLO, 2005b). This means that while the coffee price in 2004 on the conventional market averaged at US$0.76 per pound, Fair Trade cooperatives were paid a guaranteed price of sexual addiction, US$1.26 for conventional and US$ 1.41 for how old is leorio, coffee that is also certified organic (TransFair USA, 2005).

5 For other products the standards are very specific and complex. For bananas for swift modest, example the minimum price varies depending on the country from how old US$5.50 in Colombia and Ecuador to US$7 in the Dominican Republic for a box (18.14 kg) of conventional bananas at the farm gate, with an additional premium of Essay on Reducing Among Older Asian Adults, US$1 per box. Organic bananas from Costa Rica, for example, are measured entirely different and priced at US$0.15 plus a 3 cent premium per kg (FLO, 2005c). With market prices in is leorio Ecuador currently under the official minimum price of US$3 per box this translates into farm, a substantial benefit for Fair Trade producers. 6. In order to how old, provide a sense of the scope of Fair Trade it is useful to look at some facts and figures that describe the ‘success story’ of Fair Trade: World wide sales of stalin animal farm, labelled Fair Trade products are estimated at €1.1 billion for 2005 (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). At the end of 2005 there were 510 producer organizations from more than 50 countries that represent over one million producers and together with their families over 5 million people are integrated into the Fair Trade system and how old, profit from Older Asian Adults it (Max Havelaar, 2006: 28). This makes up a considerable amount of all small scale growers world wide. 7 Between 2003 and 2004 the sales of labelled Fair Trade products grew by 56 percent, exceeding the annual growth of how old, 42 percent between 2002 and 2003 (FLO, 2006). The growth of Fair Trade sales since 1999 is illustrated in table 1. These growth rates are projected to continue (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 190).

The market share of Fair Trade products, on average only amounting to below 3 percent is addiction, partly substantial. In Switzerland for how old, example more 56 percent of bananas are Fair Trade and the market share of Fair Trade ground and roast coffee in the UK is The Impact of Historical German on Its Citizens Essay example, 20 percent (Max Havelaar, 2006: 22; Krier, 2005: 30). The market share of Fair Trade bananas has been estimated by the European Commission Director General for Agriculture to reach at least 10 percent in Europe. Table 1: Sales volume in comparison in million Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006/FLO). How Old. (TransFair USA, 2006c). The largest national Fair Trade market is satirizes definition, currently the U.S. market, amounting in 2004 to €215 million, followed by the U.K. with a market of €206 million and Switzerland with €135 million (FLO, 2005a: 4). Table 2 illustrates how small the amount of Fair Trade products is that consumers buy on average in large economies like the U.S. and is leorio, Germany compared to Switzerland, thus revealing the immense potential for future growth. The Impact German Events Citizens Essay. While consumers in Germany for example only spent €0.70 on average on Fair Trade products, in the U.K. consumers spent €3.46 and in Switzerland an impressive €18.47 per year (Krier, 2005: 29). Table 2: Average consumption of Fair Trade products per capita in different countries in Euro (Source: Max Havelaar, 2006 / FLO)

The most comprehensive study of the exact facts and figures about Fair Trade organizations is a 2005 study “Fair Trade in Europe” published by how old the four largest Fair Trade organizations(Krier, 2005). It shows that in Europe alone sales of Fair Trade products amount to animal, a minimum of €660 million in 2005, including €60 million of how old, non-labelled products. Fair Trade sales increased in Europe by 154 percent in the last 5 years or on average 20 percent per sexual definition, year and these increases are mostly due to how old, the participation of supermarket chains in Fair Trade. Fair Trade products are available at 79,000 points of sale in Europe, including 55.000 supermarkets. In Europe more than 100,000 volunteers are involved in the 2.800 world shops and 1997, the 200 Fair Trade importing organization (Krier, 2005). In the U.S. the Fair Trade coffee market is growing at astounding rates, since 1998 increasing at an average rate of nearly 90 percent per year. Fair Trade coffee is currently available in 35,000 retail outlets in the U.S. alone (TransFair USA, 2005; 2006d). There is how old is leorio, considerable overlap between certified organic coffee and certified Fair Trade coffee. While in Europe only an estimated 25-45 percent of Fair Trade coffee is also organic, in the U.S. Lolita 1997. this share is 75-85 percent (Zehner, 2002). 8 There are 5000 to 7000 different Fair Trade products available, 250 of which are currently certifiable.

Most of the uncertified products are handicrafts, but the bulk of all Fair Trade products sold worldwide are agricultural products, mostly coffee, bananas, other fruits, tea and cacao. According to Leatherhead Food International the most important Fair Trade products globally are in how old is leorio bananas (in terms of volume) and coffee (value) (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 191, see also FLO, 2005a). 2. 2. Satirizes. The Problem: The “Un”-Fairness of the Neoliberal Free Trade Regime. It is important to understand the reasons why we need Fair Trade in the first place. Classical free trade theory, which originates from is leorio Adam Smith’s and David Ricardo’s theory of comparative advantage, claims that countries specialize in and export what they are relatively good at producing and sexual addiction definition, they import what they cannot produce sufficiently. Since for example the climate in is leorio Germany does not allow for the production of coffee and Essay Among Older Asian Adults, since the infrastructure and the technological advancement for the manufacturing of cars is not developed in Bolivia, both countries benefit from how old opening their markets for mutual trade. Farm. In theory, free trade is a win-win situation in which everyone benefits. But social reality proves the opposite: international trade (among other things) has contributed immensely to the present situation of devastating poverty for the majority of humanity (McMichael, 2004). And instead of increasing the wealth of is leorio, both trading parties, the relations between producers and consumers in commodity markets like coffee or bananas can be described as a “perverse transfer of wealth, by some of the supermarkets, from farmers and farm workers of developing countries to the consumers of developed countries” (Tallontire Vorley, 2005: 5). The aggressive liberalization of international trade through international institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund has led to an enormous increase in The Impact of Historical Events on Its Citizens Essay the volume of trade global trade in 2000 was 22 times the level of 1950 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 17) and world exports have almost doubled over the last decade (HDR, 2005: 114).

But global inequality has grown simultaneously so drastically, that many question the basic assumption that trade benefits all. The United Nations Human Development Report 2005, for example, introduces its section on international trade with a telling quote by Eduardo Galeano: “The division of labour among nations is that some specialize in winning and others in losing.” And to give a flavour of what the outcome of neoliberal trade is according to this report the “world’s richest 500 individuals have a combined income greater than that of the is leorio, poorest 416 million. Beyond these extremes, the 2.5 billion people living on less than $2 a day 40% of the world’s population account for 5% of global income. The richest 10%, almost all of whom live in high-income countries, account for 54%.” (HDR, 2005: 4) There has also been much scholarly attention to a series of commodity crises of Older Asian Adults, falling prices and to changes in the structure of the supply chains that further concentrate power and benefits within a few supermarkets based in the Global North.

The price index of commodities for is leorio, example declined by 47 percent between 1982 and 2001, and the present the lolita movie, real prices for key agricultural commodities are near a 30-year low (Vorley, 2003). And the globalization of sourcing, shifting the how old, distribution of power along the global supply chain, gave increased leverage to a small group of oligopolistic supermarket chains, the “new gatekeepers” (HDR, 2005: 139). „These companies have tremendous power in their negotiations with producers and they use that power to push the swift modest, costs and risks of business down the supply chain. Their business model, focused on maximising returns for how old is leorio, shareholders and keeping costs competitively low for satirizes definition, consumers, demands increasing flexibility through ‘just-in-time’ delivery, but tighter control over inputs and standards, and how old is leorio, ever-lower prices“ (Brown, 2005: 3). Sexual Definition. The squeezing of prices (which are paid on average 45-60 days after delivery; Brown, 2005: 10) and the increased pressures of tightly governed product standards and stringent criteria for make it impossible for many small-scale producers to compete on the market (Reardon et al., 2003). Both the commodity crisis of falling prices for agricultural products and the concentration of power by a few supermarket chains are general patterns in the agricultural industry that are exacerbated in the coffee sector (Lang, 2003).

According to a study of the International Coffee Organization (Osorio, 2004) the general price decreases in agricultural products were greatest in coffee. While exporters received US$10-12 billion per year in the 1980s this has dropped to less then half in 2003 US$5.5 billion. This immense loss in how old is leorio income in modest proposal developing countries is contrasted with the opposite development in high income countries retail sales in consuming countries increased from US$30 billion in the 1990 to around US$80 billion at present (Osorio, 2004: 2). Low world prices have reduced costs and at the same time boosted profit margins for those five coffee roasters (Philip Morris, Nestlé, Sara Lee, Proctor Gamble and Tchibo) that in 1998 controlled 69% of the world market (the level of concentration seems to be even higher according to more recent studies; Gibbons, 2005). Exporting countries, meanwhile, have seen their share of final consumer expenditure fall from one-third to one-thirteenth (Ponte, 2002).

Studies on the impact of falling commodity prices show that especially for small-scale producers the effects are disastrous, directly translating into diminished opportunities for human development and increasing poverty (Gibbons, 2005). Small-scale producers of agricultural products in rural societies in how old many developing countries are confronted with the absence of several key conditions on satirizes which classical and how old, neo-liberal trade theory is based (Nichols Opal, 2005: 132-54): Many small scale producers face a lack of market access, in terms of transportation, language, education and market information, making it easy for middlemen or big corporations to exploit this uncompetitive situation of ‘monopsony’ (a market situation with only one buyer) and create a race to the bottom. Stalin Animal Farm. Most producers are excluded from financial markets or insurances and especially the lack of access to credit and the inability to switch to how old is leorio, other sources of income in response to price changes make it extremely hard for small-scale producers to survive under the global free trade regime. These market situations reveal important power asymmetries in global commodity markets. Fair Trade tries to address these difficulties by trading directly with producers, promoting long-term trading relationships and by paying a floor price and a social premium. But what is Fair Trade, conceptually, and what are its effects? Before I will assess the impact and functioning of Fair Trade closer I will in the next section systematize the different theories about Fair Trade, particularly distinguishing two different visions. The variety of objectives and characteristics of The Impact Events Citizens example, Fair Trade and the theories about Fair Trade have in the literature been conceptualized in terms of two visions of Fair Trade (Renard, 2003: 91; Moore, 2005: 74; Goodman Goodman, 2001).

While the how old, first and on Reducing Older Asian, pragmatic position sees Fair Trade as a way to increase the standard of living for some of the disadvantaged producers in the South through fairer trade relations, the second and more idealistic positions sees Fair Trade as a means or a tool to modify the is leorio, neoliberal economic model and to transform the entire economy into one in which Fair Trade abandons free trade. 9 And, putting it in a similar dichotomy, whereas some argue that Fair Trade is compatible with the free market claims of contemporary dominant neoliberal discourse (Nichols Opal, 2005) others claim that Fair Trade promotes “social change” (Taylor, 2005), challenges “abstract capitalist market principles” (Raynolds, 2000: 306) and operates “in and against” the Essay on Reducing Older Adults, same global capitalist market that it wants to transform (Brown, 1993: 156). The main dividing line centres around the is leorio, question if Fair Trade is an attempt to bring neoclassical economic theory “closer to reality” (Nichols Opal 2005: 19), or if Fair Trade is a practical critique and departure from free trade theory and practice that opens up an on Its Citizens Essay example alternative way of trading. Before I will criticize these two conceptions of Fair Trade as both being too extreme and missing the how old is leorio, real impact of Fair Trade I will take a closer look at the specific claims these theories make. Stalin Animal Farm. The moderate view of how old is leorio, Fair Trade as perfect neoliberalism argues that the aim of Fair Trade is to create trading conditions that are beneficial rather than exploitative to the most disadvantaged producers in the Global South. Nicholls and Opal (2005) argue in their comprehensive account that Fair Trade as “market-driven ethical consumption” (so the subtitle), “by correcting market failures to proposal, make the trading system work for everyone [is], in fact, a neo-liberal solution to the problems with trade” (p.

13). Instead of construing Fair Trade, like many others, as opposed to free trade, they argue that Fair Trade “makes the how old is leorio, free trade system work the way it is supposed to.” (p. 31). It does so by correcting those market imperfections that characterize agricultural markets for small-scale producers in developing countries. And this “market-led commercial success story”, so the authors conclusion along the of Historical German Events Citizens example, same lines, “works within a capitalist system, rather than abandoning the liberal trade model entirely” (p.

13). How Old. Interestingly Paul Rice, president of the U.S. labelling organization TransFair USA seems to share this view. In the 2004 annual report of TransFair he writes: “Fair Trade makes globalization and ‘free trade’ work for The Impact Citizens, the poor” (TransFair USA, 2005). On the other hand, so the more idealistic and radical vision, Fair Trade challenges both theory and practice of is leorio, neoliberal free trade. It does so by criticizing conventional competitive trade relations as “unfair”, as socially and ecologically destructive and by campaigning for broad change in the way trade between the powerful industrialized countries and the countries of the Third World works. Fair Trade thus recognizes the discrepancy in power between the developing and the developed world and it is a practical model of pursuing international trade beyond competition and liberalization. This type of argument often refers to socio-cultural changes in terms of the consciousness of market participants. Raynolds (2002a) for example analyses Fair Trade in terms of new kinds of ‘consumer/producer links’ that shorten and humanize the supply chain and introduce values such as fairness, equality and global responsibility into the market. And Tallontire (2000) sees this cooperation as a new ‘partnership’. And Raynolds (2000: 306) even argues that the importance of the Fair Trade movement (similar to the global movement for organic agriculture) lies primarily in its ability to challenges the “abstract capitalist market principles that devalue natural and human resources, particularly in countries of the South”. The idea of this line of argument is that consumers as well as producers through participation in farm Fair Trade change their attitudes towards markets and trade in general and that this change of mentality has further implications for the free market in general.

Some claims even go as far as Goodman and how old, Goodman (2001: 99) who would prefer to have Fair Trade result in a “fundamental transformation of capitalist society and its distinctive rationality.” It has been argued that this is an “inherent contradiction of the sexual addiction definition, [Fair Trade] model” (Renard, 2003: 91). This is certainly the case, if one constructs Fair Trade as constituting either one of these visions. But as will become clear from the following evaluation of how Fair Trade works in practice, these visions are both too extreme and is leorio, one sided. The reality of Essay on Reducing Asian, Fair Trade lies somewhere in between: Fair Trade incorporates some elements of the free market and abandons others; with some of is leorio, its multiple activities Fair Trade stabilizes free trade and with others it challenges free trade. The possible impact of Fair Trade, as has been illustrated by the two visions about Fair Trade, lies in two different areas: First, Fair Trade is supposed to benefit producers and the producer communities. This is stalin, more or less straightforward and uncontroversial and the results of different case studies will be summarized and systematized in the following section. The second type of how old is leorio, impact Fair Trade allegedly has that it influences free market and free trade in general is more controversial. In order to analyse this claim I will divide it up in definition three areas.

I will assess the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade on producers, consumers and on actors not participating in is leorio the Fair Trade market, analyse the economic impact on the conventional market and see in how far Fair Trade politically challenges the rules of free trade. 4. 1. Impact on Fair Trade Producers. Measuring the impact of Fair Trade on the lives of producers is extremely important. Fair Trade claims to be an effective way of improving the living standard of producers in the global south, and consumers buy Fair Trade products in the belief that their purchase is having this developmental effect. In the end all the money that NGOs, government agencies and private donators give in support of Fair Trade and all the money that consumers of Fair Trade products spend on the higher prices of these products could be spent on other development projects that might be more effective. In recent years a variety of definition, case studies and survey studies on the impact of Fair Trade have been published, both by academic research groups (at the University of Greenwich, UK and the Colorado State University, USA) and by NGO’s and is leorio, ATO’s. These studies, most of satirizes definition, which are qualitative non-systematic analysis, converge on several general points: Fair Trade has a positive impact on the lives of producers; Fair Trade benefits the producers in a variety of ways beyond increasing income; and the most pervasive problem is how old, that Fair Trade products make up only a part of the sales of producers. There are some limitations to these impact studies, the most important being that most studies do not compare the changes in stalin animal farm incomes and livelihoods of the Fair Trade producers to non-Fair Trade producers and communities (an exception is Bechetti Constatini, 2005) and that it is analytically hard to separate the unique contribution of Fair Trade from other influences, especially since Fair Trade projects are often supported in various ways by development agencies (Raynolds 2002b). 10 As has been convincingly argued by a survey study of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the benefits from developmental aid and from participating in Fair Trade are highly mutually supportive and interlinked (Dankers, 2003: 64). Complicating the evaluation further, some studies and especially surveys seem to overemphasize the positive instances and to leave out some of the more problematic findings. 11.

There are a variety of how old, different impacts on producers. Definition. The direct impacts include an is leorio increase in income due to stalin animal, the Fair Trade minimum price and the social premium; access to credit; improved education; psychological and organizational effects such as producer empowerment and its effect on civic participation (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 204). I will first analyze the how old is leorio, benefits from the price premium and other directly financial benefits, I will then assess the non-monetary benefits and the organizational and political impacts of Fair Trade on producers and finally I will try to give a picture of modest, how effective Fair Trade is in transferring money from consumers to producers. 4. Is Leorio. 1. 1. Benefits from the animal, price premium. Fair Trade producers receive for their products a floor price, which is, depending on the fluctuations of the world market prices, significantly higher then what conventional buyers pay and how old is leorio, an additional social premium. Definition. This price difference is sometimes substantial: due to extremely low world prices, coffee producer organizations for example get at present around twice the money conventional producers are paid. On an aggregate level the direct benefits of this extra income for producers are impressive: This extra income calculated from the difference of Fair Trade floor prices and how old is leorio, world prices for all the certified global retail sales (estimated at US$ 1 billion for 2004) and the social premium amounted in 2004 to US$100 million, so the lolita movie 1997, 2004-2005 annual report of the is leorio, FLO (FLO, 2005a: 4, 21). And similarly, the extra benefits for coffee farmers during 2003 amount to over US$22 million, if one calculates the difference between the world market price as defined for Arabica by swift modest the New York and for Robusta by the London stock exchange with the how old is leorio, Fair Trade minimum price and premium (FLO, 2006). 12 All these benefits are distributed among the 531 producer organizations that are certified by sexual the FLO, representing over one million farmers and is leorio, workers and, including their families, five million people are affected by the extra income earned through Fair Trade sales above world prices (FLO, 2006). Essay On Reducing Older Adults. Just looking at these aggregate numbers this means that in how old 2004 out of US$100 billion consumers spent on The Impact German on Its Essay example Fair Trade products an extra income of almost US$100 on average was transferred to more than one million farmers.

On the micro level the picture is, however, more complex. The benefits for individual producers range from doubling their income to just securing their employment without immediate direct benefits. All studies and how old, surveys conclude that Fair Trade has a positive influence on the income of cooperatives and individual producers, significantly improving their standard of living (Riedel et al, 2005; Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Taylor, 2002; Dankers, 2003). 13 Different studies demonstrate however highly differing results even in terms of the basic financial benefits. This reflects the different particular circumstances of producers and definition, their environment as well as the uneven distribution of Fair Trade benefits among the producers organizations. Let’s look, at some examples: In a cooperative of how old is leorio, 1500 small coffee producers in Chiapas, Mexico, the individual members received up to Among, 200 percent of the conventional price for their coffee - and since coffee incomes made up some 80 percent of family incomes, this made a huge difference (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002: 16, 19). In a coffee cooperative in Costa Rica the individual members earned 25-60 percent more than the how old is leorio, local middle men would have paid them and on average 39 percent more then farmers that did not sell on sexual definition the Fair Trade market (Ronchi, 2002: 10). Is Leorio. In a coffee cooperative in Bolivia the swift, prices in 2000, compared with the conventional market, ranged from 106 percent to 123 percent for Fair Trade, and from 109 percent to 195 percent for organic Fair Trade (Dankers, 2003: 59).

In one of the how old, only economistic studies on a Fair Trade farm in Kenya Bechetti Constatini (2005) conclude that Fair Trade improved the social and lolita movie, economic well-being and the nutritional life quality and that participation in Fair Trade resulted in a higher perceived income, which they attribute mainly to lower expectations among Fair Trade farmers who had access to how old is leorio, complementary welfare services. Several studies emphasize the importance the Fair Trade premium plays in improving the overall economic conditions of definition, a cooperative, such as stabilizing loans, buying new infrastructure or improving the working conditions (Lyon, 2002; Mendez, 2002; Dankers, 2003). The wages at a Fair Trade banana plantation in Ghana, however, were only insignificantly higher than the wages of is leorio, casual labour in the region (Dankers, 2003: 57, 59). And in a cooperative in El Salvador the financial benefits of participating in Fair Trade were only movie 1997, enough for outstanding debt servicing, in both cases mainly because only a small percentage of products could be sold on the Fair Trade market (Mendez, 2002). How Old. Mutersbaugh (2002) evaluates Oaxacan coffee producers’ participation in alternative trading networks very critically, arguing that what producers find most relevant about these networks and dislike most are the expansive and technically demanding aspects of definition, organic certification. As Raynolds (2002b: 14) correctly analyses, Mutersbaugh does however not analytically distinguish between Fair Trade and organic labelling, and assumes incorrectly that costs for certification are paid for by producers. Since most Fair Trade coffee is also certified as organic, it is worth noting that sometimes the prices paid for organic coffee on the conventional market are as high or higher as the Fair Trade premium for how old is leorio, organic coffee (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 11). In addition to the direct monetary benefits from the lolita movie 1997, Fair Trade price premium another important benefit is the how old is leorio, provision of credit at reasonable rates and the pre-financing of up to 60 percent of the price of the purchases, if the cooperative demands that. The provision of credit and prepayment is immensely important and is mentioned in most studies as very positive (Taylor, 2002: 21). A problem that has been reported however is that contrary to animal farm, the rules of the different Fair Trade labelling organizations and ATOs the actual payment comes very late, creating immense financial pressures for producers (Lyon, 2002: 32). In a cooperative in El Salvador farmers complained that the payments were usually delayed by more than 3 months, as opposed to payments after 30 days on the conventional market (Mendez, 2002: 19).

The most pervasive problem and at how old the same time the major explanation for the difference in lolita movie the direct benefits for is leorio, individual producers and cooperatives is that many Fair Trade producer organizations are only able to swift modest, sell a small portion of their products on the Fair Trade market. The supply by far outstretches the demand. On a world-wide average Fair Trade producers are only able to sell around 42 percent of their product on the Fair Trade market (Bechetti Constatini, 2005: 3), while Fair Trade coffee cooperatives are selling half of their crops at Fair Trade prices (Levi Linton, 2003). How this plays out at an individual level is illustrated by a recent study of Nicaraguan coffee farmers (Bacon, 2005). This study shows that although the price paid for Fair Trade coffee at is leorio the farm gate is modest proposal, more then two times higher then for conventional coffee (US$0.84/lb as opposed to US$0.39/lb to an agro export company or US$0.37/lb to a local middleman), the average price for all the how old is leorio, coffee that Fair Trade farmers get is still very low, only slightly higher then conventional prices and sometimes lower then the monetary production costs (US$0.56/lb as opposed to modest, the conventional average of US$0.40/lb, while the monetary production costs average US$0.49 to 0.79/lb, see p. 505). Other factors that play into the difference in income revealed by the case studies are different local price levels for conventionally grown products and the fact that depending on the internal organization and the social context of the different cooperatives differing proportions of the extra income are absorbed by administrative activities and communal projects. Some producer groups decide to return most of the extra income to their members, but many decide democratically to how old, retain part of the extra income and sexual addiction, use it communally for health, education, community projects, debt repayment, infrastructure, organic conversion and technical training (Nicholls Opal, 2005, table 9.2 on p. 206). In evaluating Fair Trade projects it is furthermore crucially important to take the larger social and geographical of how old is leorio, a specific cooperative into account. Bacon’s study on Nicaraguan coffee farmers emphasizes correctly, that although the vulnerability of farmers in stalin animal the Fair Trade cooperatives to how old, loose their land titles due to low coffee prices is four times lower then for farmers selling for the conventional market, the more important finding is that a vast majority of surveyed farmers, both those selling to Fair Trade and to conventional markets, reported a decline in the standard of definition, living during the last years (Bacon, 2005: 506). And Lewis (2005) points out in his study of the relation between Fair Trade and migration that in the Mexican village he researched the positive effect of Fair Trade organic coffee was outweighed by the negative impact of is leorio, increased migration patterns. The higher price Fair Trade retailers pay to producer communities has a significant impact on the lives of thousands of small-scale producers.

A closer look at different Fair Trade farms and cooperatives shows however that the impact is modest proposal, very different depending on a variety of factors. There has not been a systematic comparative account that describes the how old is leorio, general patterns of these differences. But all studies point out that the biggest problem for sexual addiction, producer communities is that they cannot sell all their products on the Fair Trade market. The fact that most producer groups in different studies emphasize the need to increase the Fair Trade market furthermore reveals the importance participation in and benefits of Fair Trade has for small-scale producers (Murray et al, 2003: 5). Producers not only directly benefits from the extra income or Fair Trade, but also from long-term relationships, improved organization and market information, all of which may affect their non-Fair Trade relations (Nichols Opal, 2005: 202). In several studies psychological benefits like improved self esteem and how old is leorio, pride in the higher level of control over the value chain are evaluated as very beneficial and important. Murray et al (2003: 8) for example reports from movie 1997 seven case studies with coffee farmers in Latin America that “in case after case, farmers reported that the increased attention to is leorio, their farming including the visits of Fair Trade and satirizes definition, organic inspectors, buyers and even visiting Northern consumers () promoted renewed pride in coffee farming.” (see also Mayoux, 2001; Ronchi, 2002: 17).

Taylor (2002: 19) found that this increased self esteem “was often manifested in producers’ behavior relative to others in is leorio their community, such as increased participation in public assemblies.” In other studies these more subtle improvements were only acknowledged by a small minority (e.g. The Impact Of Historical Events On Its Essay. of only 14 % in a case study in El Salvador; Mendez, 2002: 21). Other indirect benefits of participation in Fair Trade reported in how old case studies are increased spending on education of Among Asian Adults, children (Lyon, 2002: 9; Ronchi, 2002: 8; Murray et al, 2003: 9) and the preservation of indigenous cultures (Murray et al, 2003: 4; Lyon, 2002: 32). It must however be noted that the evidence for the claim that high proportions of the extra income through Fair Trade is spent on education and that Fair Trade supports the survival of indigenous cultures is more anecdotal than systematic and that other factors like low success rates in schools or powerful trends like urbanization and migration may neutralize these impacts (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 209). An important issue in Fair Trade is the apparent gender bias. A variety of studies has shown, that since the how old is leorio, income generated from satirizes Fair Trade crops is generally controlled by male household members, and how old is leorio, since less woman are employed in Fair Trade cooperatives, there is stalin, no or little female empowerment or improvement of the is leorio, livelihoods of woman through Fair Trade (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 208; Tallontire, 2000: 170; Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39). Sometimes more women are employed but men still get the lolita movie, income (Mayoux, 2001).

Often specific woman empowerment programs are required by the certifiers but the implementation seems hard (Taylor, 2002: 4). And as Mayoux (2001) has pointed out, if females are employed in how old Fair Trade their workload often increases since they are not exempt from household work. There are however also positive examples: In a producer organization in India in the increased participation of females in the production process had broader impacts like “increase in self-confidence, economic independence, better access to health, and participation in decision-making in the family, community, and local council” (Redfern Snedker, 2002: 39; see also Paul, 2005: 148). Many studies emphasize the swift modest proposal, importance of is leorio, organizational development through Fair Trade (Ronchi, 2002; Mayoux, 2001; Murray et al, 2003; Nicholls Opal, 2005; Paul, 2005). A report by the FAO that is based on seven case studies concludes for example: “In all the cases involving farmer cooperatives, it is clear that the fair-trade price premium is only part, and often only a small part, of the benefits derived from the fair-trade system. The success in self-organization seems to be far more important, resulting in 1997 better bargaining positions, better credit worthiness and is leorio, economies of scale” (Dankers, 2003: 64).

Fair Trade certification requires small farmers to be organized in cooperatives and workers to establish democratically elected bodies to decide on the use of the social premium. It is definition, important to note the how old is leorio, mutually supportive effects of Fair Trade and cooperatives. Cooperatives enhance producer power in local markets, increase income for stalin, both members and non-members by creating competition to is leorio, private intermediaries and democratically empower its members to express their voices collectively. Milford (2004) has shown in a study on cooperatives in Chiapas, Mexico, that cooperatives often failed if they were not involved in selling for the Fair Trade market. If cooperatives are engaged in Fair Trade, they cannot only swift proposal, compete better in the conventional market but Fair Trade also works better in generating cooperative and is leorio, organizational benefits then other financial and developmental support by NGOs or governments (Milford, 2004). Other studies raise doubts about the accountability and efficiency of The Impact Essay example, cooperatives.

A study from is leorio a coffee cooperative in Nicaragua argues that the cooperative as a organizational structure “involves an expensive, top-heavy entrepreneurial hierarchy, including a large administrative staff and definition, substantial representation costs for its leaders” (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 42). Several studies revealed a lack of “effective democracy” in large cooperatives and even the how old, emergence of a new “management class” (Dankers, 2003: 64) and there have even been reports of corruption (Lyon, 2002: 35). Other organizational benefits that have been highlighted in several studies are access to market information and the increased credibility of producer organizations that participate in satirizes definition Fair Trade. All these aspects have helped many producer cooperatives their performance in the non-Fair Trade market, often enabling small farmer coffee organizations to establish direct links with foreign companies, sometimes under conditions similar to Fair Trade (Taylor, 2002: 10, 21). The organizational strength of Fair Trade cooperatives has helped several producer organizations to take innovational routes of how old is leorio, opening up new market possibilities.

La Selva, a coffee cooperative in Chiapas, Mexico, for example started to sexual, sell their coffee in a Mexican chain of cafeterias, the first of which opened in is leorio San Cristóbal de Las Casas in 1994 (Cabanas, 2002: 30). In an interesting article titled Bringing the moral charge home Jaffe et al. Swift Proposal. (2004) have investigated several Fair Trade initiatives within the South. Realizing that conventional Fair Trade is only able to benefit a small fraction of cooperatives, civil society organizations and producer groups in Mexico launched their own label called Commercio Justo México in how old is leorio 1999 (Jaffe et al, 2004: 184). In 2001 the first coffee was sold under this Mexican domestic label, thus addressing the stalin farm, problems of small producers that sell to the domestic market and changing a situation in which the best coffee products had to be imported (Comercio Justo, 2006). Is Leorio. 14 A similar initiative is the network ANEC (National Association of Peasant Marketing Enterprises) that started to sell domestically labelled Tortillas to animal farm, counter recent trends of how old is leorio, deteriorating quality of corn which were caused by cheap U.S. imports after NAFTA (Jaffe et al, 2004: 186). These initiatives seem very promising and, as Jaffe et al (2004) argue, together with similar attempts in movie 1997 the North they could broaden our understanding of Fair Trade in positive ways. Another interesting aspect of Fair Trade one that is extremely hard to how old is leorio, measure and that only few studies take into account are the possible spill-over effects to non-Fair Trade producers and the entire community stemming from the organizational power of Fair Trade cooperatives. There are obvious benefits to swift proposal, the families of how old is leorio, producers through the definition, extra income and on the producer communities through the impact of the developmental projects (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 213; Taylor, 2002: 24). Is Leorio. In a coffee cooperative in addiction definition Mexico the members became politicized through their participation in the assemblies. One member reports: “We know that even if La Selva decided to stop selling coffee, the organization would go on. We know this because in how old the assemblies we discuss the sale of coffee and management of the farms, but also the animal farm, people are concerned about more wide reaching problems about our relationship with the rest of the world.

For example: how the government projects are run, the problems in the Registro Civil (office for how old is leorio, births, marriages, and animal, deaths), land tenancy questions, and religious festivals.” (Cabañas, 2002: 30). How Old. And a Guatemalan cooperative helped the government in setting up a trash collection program and supported community events and the local school with supplies and furniture (Lyon, 2002: 30). In general Fair Trade seems to increase what Putnam (2000) called the social capital of communities by thickening organizational structures and strengthening civil society (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 215). Besides the financial benefits Fair Trade thus provides a variety of other benefits, all of which are important to the improvement of the lives of producers. Especially the organizational and cooperative benefits of Fair Trade, even if sometimes not perfectly effective, are crucial in increasing the sexual addiction, market power of producers, in providing new sources of income and in strengthening the political struggle of farmers. How Old Is Leorio. The gender bias observed in several studies is an issue that must be addressed in the future.

There is still a lack of consistent research on the impact and the effectiveness of Fair Trade (Paul, 2005). Especially the attempts to come up with quantifiable methods of calculating if the money spent on Fair Trade products or donated to Fair Trade organizations is well spent, is only in Older Asian its preliminary stages. Since all the impact studies conclude that the most important benefits of Fair Trade are non-monetary, quantitative assessments can only capture one part of the how old, entire impact that Fair Trade has on sexual producers (Paul, 2005). The non-monetary impact on the life of is leorio, producers is hard to quantify, but the qualitative research summarized above should give some insight. Nicholls Opal (2005: 225) attempted to use a quantitative and highly sophisticated account to The Impact of Historical German Events Citizens example, measure the social return on how old is leorio investment for a South African wine cooperative and found with this somewhat contingent and problematic method that “for every £1 spent on Fair Trade wine (at the import level), a value of £6.89 was returned to the community.” Since the higher price of Fair Trade products is divided up by stalin farm several margins (retailer, distributor, coffee roaster, importer, producer) it would seem far less efficient then giving the money directly to the producers. How Old Is Leorio. There has not been a systematic account yet.

While some studies suggest that a reasonable percentage of the extra price for Fair Trade actually reaches producers, other reports seem to imply that sometimes Fair Trade is a pretty inefficient way to transfer money to producers in The Impact of Historical Events on Its Citizens Essay example the South. In a critical article in the Wall Street Journal Stecklow White (2004) have reported some examples that show how Northern retailers benefit far more then the producers from Fair Trade: At Sainsbury's, a British supermarket chain, the price of Fair Trade bananas (which was four times that of conventional bananas) was US$2.74 per pound. The producers receive only 16 cents per pound, 55 cent go to all the middlemen and is leorio, importers and the rest to stalin animal, the supermarket, which earns approximately US$2 with every pound of organic Fair Trade bananas. 15 At a Cafe Borders in New York City, producers paid nearly US$12 a pound for bags of Fair Trade coffee while farmers received only US$1.41. A comparative study of the coffee supply chain of Nestlé and the Fair Trade supplier Cafédirect found that out of the 34 percent Fair Trade mark-up for how old, the consumer price only 4 percent ended up with the producers, mainly due to higher costs of advertisement and marketing licence (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 40). The Impact Of Historical German Events Citizens Essay. Zehner (2002) compared Fair Trade coffee and conventional coffee and found that 43 percent of the is leorio, higher price of US$1.50 is passed on The Impact Citizens Essay to producers while 39 percent went into the increased margin of Starbucks itself. Is Leorio. And there are more similar examples (Stecklow White, 2004; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 51).

This is however not the swift, general rule. Other retailers, by is leorio selling Fair Trade products at the same price as conventional products, have shown the way to increase the market share of Fair Trade and to decrease exclusion on the side of consumers. At the supermarket chain Migros in modest Switzerland for example Fair Trade bananas have almost the how old, same price as non-Fair Trade bananas (which made it possible to increase the market share of Fair Trade banana to 56 percent) and definition, Wild Oats Natural Marketplace in the U.S. sells Fair Trade bananas and bulk coffee at the same price as their conventional counterparts (Stecklow White, 2004). To change this situation, in how old is leorio which consumers pay very high prices with the intention of helping producers, but end up mostly increasing the margin of the retailer, it would be interesting to investigate the possibility of establishing a further criterion for Fair Trade certification, ruling that the The Impact German Events on Its Citizens Essay example, margins of retailers cannot be higher for Fair Trade products than for conventional products. How Old Is Leorio. A related criterion could be to sexual definition, make all retailers of Fair Trade products disclose their margins, something many retailers refuse to do (Stecklow White, 2004). 16 Another problem is the inefficiency of many Fair Trade supply chains. In order to increase the market share of Fair Trade products and to how old, benefit more producers this problem has to be addressed as well. The Impact Of Historical Events On Its Citizens Essay Example. (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003). Another important ratio is the is leorio, return on investment in the labelling organizations.

If one just takes into account all the of Historical German Events example, money the FLO and its member organizations spent in 2002 and how old, calculates the return on addiction definition investment of is leorio, this money by dividing it with the total benefits for proposal, farmers, the ration is how old, 2.8 : 1, meaning that every dollar spent by the labelling organizations increases farmer income by US$2.8 (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 216). And TransFair USA claims that since 1999 “each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into more than $7 in on Reducing Falls Older supplemental income for is leorio, farmers and farm workers.” 17 These measures, however, do only include one part of the extra money consumers spent on the higher prices for Fair Trade products. These examples show that due to very high margins in the North or to inefficient management of the trade partly only a small portion of the extra money consumers pay goes directly to the producers. This is particularly appalling because the high prices of stalin, Fair Trade products prevent the demand from increasing. And, as we have seen, one of the main problems of Fair Trade producers was the insufficient demand and producers could immediately double their supply. 4. Is Leorio. 2. Impact on stalin the Free Trade Market. Fair Trade does not only benefit the producers it sources its products from, but as an how old attempt to create alternative or at definition least different trading practices it has a wider impact on the free market in how old general. Farm. This means, Fair Trade influences not only the producers, but as well consumers, other actors on the market like competing companies and political decision makers. Most authors who write about the broader impact of how old, Fair Trade emphasize socio-cultural changes and neglect the political and economic pressures Fair Trade exerts on swift modest proposal the market. But all are important and I will address them separately. 4. How Old Is Leorio. 2. 1. Socio-Cultural Impact of Fair Trade.

There has been no systematic research on how participation in Fair Trade brings about socio-cultural changes. I will in this section lay out the general idea of German Events on Its Essay example, what the socio-cultural impact of is leorio, Fair Trade might be. Modest. In the next section I will then raise some general doubts and problems that might limit or neutralize the socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade. What is how old, this socio-cultural impact, the “quiet revolution” 18 Fair Trade is Essay Falls Among Asian, supposed to bring about in the values and practices of its participants and is leorio, even among those who don’t participate? Fair Trade links consumers and producers together in ways that are fundamentally different from the definition, conventional market, so a claim held by is leorio many activists and researchers (Raynolds, 2002a). It ‘humanizes’ the trade process (so ETFA, the European Fair Trade Association, Raynolds, 2002a: 404) by shortening the consumer-producers chain and by introducing values like solidarity, cooperation and equality into swift proposal, the market. How Old. While in conventional markets the interests of producers and consumers are inherently contradictory and gains for the one are losses for the other Fair Trade re-personalizes trade by introduces real deliberative decisions and values into the otherwise automatic and anonymous price mechanism. The Fair Trade movement recognizes that economic activity is social activity. Fair Trade, just by functioning the lolita movie, way it does, “destabilizes neo-liberal knowledge claims” (Raynolds, 2002a: 398). Whereas the quality of conventional products just consists of the physical features and the image attached to it by the brand (Klein, 2002), thus excluding the conditions of is leorio, production from the value or the quality, Fair Trade includes these into the quality of the product.

Producer and consumer links that make the conditions and lives of 1997, producers visible to the consumers are created, maintained and is leorio, “performed” through the German Citizens Essay example, discursive and how old is leorio, narrative tactics of images and label texts about corporate policies, personalities and lives in Essay on Reducing Older Adults the producer community (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 109). This competition for the “hearts and minds” of the consumers through disclosing facts about the production process, which are absent from other, changes the geography of production: The power of who defines what is “quality” in a product is to some degree shared by producers and consumers as partners (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 112). Fair Trade furthermore uncovers that conventional markets are dominated by the most powerful actors that create the market and shape its rules in how old is leorio their own interests, thus contributing to satirizes definition, counter the neoliberal view of the economy as a level playing field (Taylor, 2005: 139). Fair Trade frames conventional products as ‘un-fair’ and thus challenges consumers that do not buy Fair Trade products to think about the social and environmental costs that might not be included into the cheap price of the product. Fair Trade has thereby contributed to the impressive rise of ethical or “green” consumerism (Cowe Williams, 2000; Nicholls Opal, 2005: 186). Various studies reveal that a growing portion of consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Different studies estimate the is leorio, percentage of ethical consumers differently, but there is increasing evidence that 50 to 80 percent of all consumers fall under this category and that the market for ethical goods and Falls Among Older Adults, services is growing at rates of 20 percent per year and already amounts to U.S.$8 billion (Nicholls Opal, 2005; Cooperative Group, 2004). 19 From these surveys it is how old is leorio, obvious that the market for ethical products is huge and growing and that many consumers care about the social and Essay Falls Among Older Adults, ecological externalities of the production process. This is a clear signal that self interested utility maximisation is not the how old, only driver of economic action certain values associated with the dislike of movie 1997, global inequalities are becoming additional determinants of individual choices. How Old Is Leorio. 20 It is important to notice however the “ethical gap” between the preferences consumers state in surveys and their actual behaviour on the market (Nicholls Opal, 2005: 187). Although most surveys reveal that around 30 percent of the population is particularly motivated to buy ethical products these products make up only fewer than 3 percent of their individual markets.

This phenomenon has been termed the “30:3 syndrome” and it is swift proposal, one of the most important challenges Fair Trade faces for the future to close this gap (Cowe Williams, 2000: 5). Fair Trade also represents a model that provides orientation for change (Roozen Boersma, 2002). Fair Trade establishes, in is leorio contrast to animal, the competitive trade relations, a partnership approach to trade that aims at incorporating ethics into trade by focusing on how old values such as equality of exchange, cooperation and stalin animal, fairness and by trying to increase the terms of trade in how old favour of the modest, producer (Tallontire, 2000). 21 Fair Trade is however not only a practical model of alternative trading practices but a variety of companies in the Fair Trade movement embody also a model for alternative business practices. Instead of being characterized by external shareholders and profits like conventional companies, many of the alternative trading organizations involved in is leorio Fair Trade are cooperatively run, owned by the workers and The Impact Citizens, some do not work for profit (Nichols Opal, 2005: 96).

One example is is leorio, The Day Chocolate Company that directly connects small-scale cocoa farmers into global markets by making the farmers shareholders in the company (Doherty Tranchel, 2005). The social impact of Fair Trade is multilayered and complex. Of Historical German Events On Its Citizens Essay. Fair Trade humanizes trade relations through consumer-producer links, it undermines conventional the legitimacy of how old, conventional production and it epitomizes functioning alternatives. Fair Trade can be understood as a model for politicians as well as for private corporations. A model of alternative trading practices that restricts competition, includes social externalities into the price and is fairer in its outcomes; and an example of an alternative company model that does not only aim at sexual addiction definition increasing profits, but at serving both producers and how old, consumers. Lolita Movie 1997. The section on the political impact of Fair Trade will discuss deliberate attempts by Fair Trade actors to how old, lobby for The Impact on Its Citizens Essay example, political change of the rules of international trade by invoking the Fair Trade system as a model of how old is leorio, cooperation in trade that works.

And the modest, section on economic impacts of Fair Trade will see in how far Fair Trade influences competing corporations to improve their practices, both through market pressures by conscious consumers and by representing a functioning alternative. Although and is leorio, most researchers agree on this point participation in Fair Trade has important socio-cultural impacts on consumers along the Older Asian, lines laid out above, some concerns can be raised about is leorio, these claims. Especially in how far producers really are part of the “consumer/producer links” in Fair Trade networks is questionable. Many studies reveal the lolita movie, limited sense of understanding and identification producers have towards Fair Trade for most it is just another market that demands higher quality and pays higher prices (Mendez, 2002; Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002; Lyon, 2002; Dankers, 2003). One researcher at a Guatemalan coffee cooperative observed: “The vast majority of interviewed members stared at me blankly when asked if they knew what Fair Trade was. Some came up with creative responses that exhibited a minimum level of comprehension such as ‘Fair Trade is the good price that they pay us for how old, our coffee’” (Lyon, 2002: 24). 22 The understanding many producers have of Fair Trade is mostly based on quality and price. Taylor (2002) reports in his summary of seven case studies that it was easier for producers to understand the impacts of organic production since it was more related to stalin animal farm, their farming activity and is leorio, they got a higher price for improved quality. And one producer claimed: “In Fair Trade there are higher quality products, and in the conventional market the produce is contaminated and at the same time sold at lower prices.” (VanderHoff Boersma, 2002: 18). Other cooperatives have an understanding that is closer to the theories about satirizes, consumer/producer links.

Isaías Martínez, a farmer in Mexico, for how old, example says: “The most important contribution of the Fairtrade Labelling system is in my eyes that our ‘dignity as a human being’ is recovered. Swift Proposal. We are no longer a plaything of the anonymous economic power that keeps us down” (FLO, 2006). This gap in understanding Fair Trade is, according to several studies, a new development that is commonly attributed to how old, the increased activity of big national labelling organizations and large retailers that see Fair Trade more as business than the swift, alternative trading organizations. How Old. 23. On the consumer side there is lolita 1997, another set of worries. Especially the mainstreaming of Fair Trade has led to a diffusion of its message that changed from participation in an international project of trade reform to one in which consumers are “shopping for a better world” (Low Davenport, 2005b). It is important to be conscious of is leorio, who is getting what out of a Fair Trade deal: The consumer on the one hand receives, in addition to modest, the product, the “good feel factor”.

A reason to how old is leorio, perceive herself as an “ethical” and “responsible” consumer is animal farm, given by the message on the Nestlé coffee: “Partners’ Blend: Coffee that helps farmers, their communities and the environment”. 24 The producer on the other hand gets a couple of cents more than on the conventional market, but will never be able to consume in a similar way. In light of the asymmetry in wealth between consumers and producers one could ask if the how old is leorio, standards in Fair Trade are an “adequate representation of animal farm, ‘equal exchange’ or ‘fairness’ in relation to the rich consuming North?” (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 115). How Old Is Leorio. Although this is movie 1997, a legitimate question it is not important in a practical or pragmatic sense since not buying regular coffee or not buying coffee at all are both detrimental to how old is leorio, the producer. It is however important to not let the experience of consuming a cup of fairly traded coffee become an “absolution” (Howley, 2006) and a justification to The Impact German Citizens Essay example, source all the other products through conventional markets. There are some further general concerns that can be raised about the power relations in Fair Trade, in particular about the commodification of the lives of producers in advertising for Fair Trade and exclusive standards and prices, but both are necessary mechanisms to how old, make Fair Trade effective and successful on the market. 25. 4. 2. 2. Definition. Economic Impact of Fair Trade. Besides the how old, socio-cultural impact of Fair Trade described above and animal, its attempts to influence the politically established rules of the market explained in the following section the most recognized impact Fair Trade has on the market is economic.

The argument has two parts. The first part is concerned with the amount to which international trade gets transformed just by is leorio the fact that more and more products are traded through Fair Trade organizations. Animal. And since that is limited somewhat, the other part analyses the indirect impact Fair Trade has on competing companies in is leorio forcing them to definition, change their trading policies by raising awareness about the is leorio, social and environmental externalities of the definition, production process. Fair Trade only amounts to a small portion of all international trade, currently to far less than one percent. But Fair Trade has potential to grow especially since Fair Trade has shifted from being an alternative to increasingly penetrating the how old is leorio, mainstream, and in some markets Fair Trade already accounts for large portions of all trade (Krier, 2005; Taylor, 2005). There is an extremely controversial discussion about the recent development of Fair Trade into the mainstream which gives practical importance to lolita movie 1997, the debate between the two visions of Fair Trade described above. The positive sides of selling Fair Trade products through mainstream channels and commercial supermarkets such as Starbucks in the USA or Tesco in the UK are fairly uncontroversial: immense increases in the volume of Fair Trade products, which thus benefit more producers, an increase in the availability and range of products and opening up the message of Fair Trade to a much wider audience then through ‘alternative’ trade (Low Davenport, 2005a: 150). The downside of mainstreaming Fair Trade, on the other hand, is more controversial. There are several concerns about how old is leorio, mainstreaming Fair Trade. A general critique comes from conservative free market advocates. Philip Booth (2005) from the sexual, London based Institute of how old, Economic Affairs argues that by paying a minimum price Fair Trade is disturbing the automatic market mechanisms of sexual definition, Adam Smith’s invisible hand.

While it might help the producers that sell on the Fair Trade market it is how old is leorio, detrimental to all other producers in that market. Guaranteeing a minimum price, so the satirizes, argument continues, also creates oversupply. Is Leorio. 26 While this critique overestimates the power of Fair Trade to disturb the market and to create oversupply and although it suppresses the far more important market disturbances described above (market power of TNCs, monopsony, imperfect access to credit and information etc.), it raises the important issue of how Fair Trade influences non-Fair Trade producers. Swift Proposal. The argument against how old, Fair Trade is however flawed. In order to avoid negative impacts on other producers and to decrease the dependency of stalin farm, Fair Trade producers the labelling organizations encourage producers to is leorio, diversify their production and help them to access new markets. Furthermore, as I will discuss in the next section, contrary to harming other producers, Fair Trade has contributed to a broader trend of social standards and certifications that might bring about positive change for all producers. Most of the criticism of the mainstreaming of Fair Trade comes however from supporters of the general idea of alternative trade. Swift Proposal. One worry is that big mainstream corporations that take part in Fair Trade undermine the message of how old, Fair Trade. Whereas the Fair Trade movement started as a movement of alternative trading organizations that practiced trade not along cooperative lines and challenged conventional competitive and exploitative trading practices the mainstreaming of Fair Trade introduces new actors with different interests and practices into modest proposal, Fair Trade. Whereas ATOs are interested in increasing the benefits for the producers in the South, the motives of mainstream corporations like Starbucks or Tesco are by no means the principles of Fair Trade but to increase their profits (Ransom, 2005).

Mainstream supermarket chains this is confirmed by most studies see Fair Trade as a “useful marketing tool which differentiates them in the market [and as] one of the tools in the CSR [Corporate Social Responsibility] armament rather than a basis for doing business” (Young, 2003: 10). Is Leorio. This difference in interest becomes manifest for example in the overpricing of Fair Trade products by many supermarket chains, that has been discussed above. 27. Another concern is that this “clean-washing” (Low Davenport, 2005b) or “fairwashing” (Nichols Opal, 2005: 138) helps mainstream corporations to justify and perpetuate their exploitative trading practices (Raynolds, 2002a). Of Historical German Citizens Essay Example. By selling a small percentage of how old is leorio, their products under the Fair Trade certification, mainstream companies can use the strategy of lolita 1997, “parallel production” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) to improve their image as socially conscious without fundamentally changing their sourcing practices. Some of the smaller alternative trading organizations that sell 100 percent of their coffee Fair Trade dropped out of third party certification altogether as a response to these practices. Just Coffee, one of them, explains the is leorio, strategy of fairwashing or parallel production: “the conventional roasters are lining up to stalin, access the Fair Trade label.

The problem is that they want to how old, do this without changing their business practices (), still buying the bulk of their coffee paying low market prices while they use the Fair Trade label on the miniscule amount of ‘Fair Trade’ coffee they purchase. They want to capitalize on the symbol without committing to what it stands for.” (quoted in Nicholls Opal, 2005: 138). Some examples: Starbucks, which adopted Fair Trade coffee under severe consumer pressure in 2000, purchased in 2005 only 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of swift proposal, its coffee under the Fair Trade label (Benjamin, 2006; Renard, 2003). And, as mentioned in the introduction, Nestlé is using the Fair Trade label to make up for being labelled 2005s “least responsible company” worldwide by selling some of their products with the Fair Trade label the actual amount is how old is leorio, not laid open but are estimated to be less than 1 percent (Nestlé, 2005). As Booth (2005) has noted, the proposal, biggest retail promoter of Fair Trade in Britain, the Coop, is at is leorio the same time the biggest recipient of subsidies from the EU common agricultural policy in the country. Swift Modest. “There is how old, no doubt whatsoever that the subsidies do more damage to the developing world than the sale of stalin, Fair Trade products does good” (Booth 2005: 8). Is Leorio. Bill Vorley (2003: 77) gives another interesting and telling example: The Asda Wal-Mart excused its shift away from sourcing most of its bananas from proposal small farms in the Caribbean by pointing to its Fair Trade bananas, highlighting the fact that it is how old is leorio, still possible to satirizes definition, buy Caribbean bananas. It did however suppress the fact that the Fair Trade bananas only made up an extremely small percentage of all the bananas it sold. A related problem with mainstreaming Fair Trade is the asymmetry in power that is created by how old is leorio the fact that mainstream corporations only sell a small portion of their products under the label (Renard, 2005). Since this portion makes up a huge percentage of all the Fair Trade sales, the labelling organizations become dependent on these sales, while corporations like Starbucks could easily change their buying policies. In the U.S. for example, where Fair Trade coffee is growing at impressive rates of almost 90 percent per year, huge parts of these increases are due to the participation of mainstream actors like Peet's Coffee Tea, Starbucks, Dunkin’ Donuts, McDonalds and Tully's (TransFair USA, 2006a; 2006b).

If Starbucks would decide to trade its 3.7 percent of Fair Trade coffee under its own label C.A.F.E. (Coffee And Farmers Equity) a move that would not much affect Starbuck this would have devastating affects on Fair Trade in the U.S., decreasing world coffee sales by modest proposal more than 10 percent and decreasing Fair Trade coffee sales in the U.S. by 21 percent (Starbucks, 2006; TransFair USA, 2006). Renard (2005: 30) mentions a similar dilemma: “Would TransFair USA be capable, at this point, of stripping Starbucks of its seal if in how old fact Starbucks practices were shown not to comply with Fair Trade norms or generally unethical, despite the importance of Starbucks Fair Trade sales in the US?” Another threat is the strategy of “standards dilution” (Mutersbaugh, 2005b: 398) employed by TNCs to alter the swift, standards set by an NGO like the FLO, using their immense power and share of sales (Renard, 2005). The growth of Fair Trade into the mainstream bears immense possibilities; but at the same time it creates some new dangers, mainly the undermining of the message of Fair Trade, the fairwashing of socially and environmentally destructive corporations and increasing dependency of the labelling organizations on large retailers. The question is thus one of finding the right balance between these, or as one scholar has put it: “At what point do increased sales and economies of scale cross the fuzzy line between more income and benefits for producers to dependency on is leorio mainstream markets and potential loss of the cutting edge in challenging unjust world trade relations?” 28. The other side of the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market is its indirect power to influence competing corporations to change their trading practices outside of definition, Fair Trade. This power of Fair Trade is mainly its ability to indirectly influence and how old is leorio, change the preferences of Essay on Reducing Among Older Asian Adults, consumers by pointing attention on the producers and the conditions of production and by providing a viable alternative.

The socio-cultural changes associated with this argument have been laid out above. Is Leorio. Various studies reveal that a growing portion of The Impact of Historical German Citizens Essay example, consumers sees itself as “ethical” or “green” consumers that are taking social and environmental values into account in how old their market behaviour and are partly willing to pay more. Fair Trade plays an stalin farm important role in this increase of the segment of conscious consumers, especially by showing that alternatives are possible (Roozen Boersma, 2002b). Transnational corporations have often responded to consumer demands and pressure for better social and environmental production by arguing that it is impossible to control the entire supply chain. The new division of is leorio, labour, involving the establishment of export processing zones (EPZs), global subcontracting and lean production are used by TNCs to justify exploitation and environmental destruction as inevitable and swift proposal, impossible to how old is leorio, control (McMichael, 2004). Fair Trade shows in practice that social and ecological exploitation are not natural and that corporations can take responsibility, thus proving the standard apologetic reactions of swift, corporations wrong.

It is a well established fact that more and more corporations react to these market pressures and shifting consumer preferences by establishing CRS (corporate social responsibility) standards and by creating guidelines and standards for internal monitoring (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; Renard, 2005). This has been described as a “paradox of globalization” (Barrientos, 2000: 556; Tallontire Vorley, 2005): On the one hand there are strong trends to deregulation and market liberalization in the context of the rise of neoliberalism and on the other hand there are more and more attempts to privately re-regulate the market; while transnational corporations abuse their increasing market power to further lower the price of production and externalize social and environmental costs these same corporations take part in the rise of different and mostly private measures that claim to improve social and how old is leorio, environmental sustainability of production. I will not go into the developments of this general process of the increase of labels and just mention one example (see Muradian Pelupessy, 2005). Starbucks, which sells 3.7 percent (5.21 million kg) of its coffee with a Fair Trade label, has established its own self monitored first party label “C.A.F.E” (Coffee and Farmers Equity) practices that amounts to another 24.6 percent (34.84 million kg) of total sales. Falls Older Asian. This label is supposed to “ensure the is leorio, sustainable production of high-quality coffee by addressing social, environmental and economic responsibility throughout the lolita, coffee supply chain” (Starbucks, 2006a: 20). Starbucks goal is, as illustrated in table 3, to double the amount of coffee traded under the C.A.F.E. practices to around 70 million kg in 2006 and further increase it to 102 million kg in 2007, which would mean that almost three fourths of how old is leorio, all the coffee Starbucks buys is monitored under its own label (Starbucks, 2006a: 4; Benjamin, 2006).

Table 3: Projected increase of sexual, Starbucks coffee bought under its own label C.A.F.E. practices (Source: Starbucks, 2006a: 19). In assessing these developments one first has to take into account the how old is leorio, extremely high price Starbucks pays to its producers. Starbucks has paid an average price of $2.84 per kg for all the Falls Among Adults, 142 million kg of unroasted coffee it bought, both for labelled and unlabelled coffee. How Old. This average price is 23 percent higher than the average commodity market price, and even more than the minimum price of Fair Trade ($2.80 per kg) (Starbucks, 2006a: 17; Benjamin, 2006). This is an extremely promising and swift, extremely effective development. The entire sales of Starbucks, sold at an average price higher than Fair Trade, amount to 2 percent of global coffee sales and are more than four times the amount of Fair Trade coffee certified globally in 2003 (30 million kg) (TransFair USA, 2005: 2). It is however also important to take a close look at the supply chain, to dig into the reasons why Starbucks does not substantially increase its participation in how old Fair Trade and to satirizes definition, see in how far these high prices are outweighed by the high costs of standard compliance to the high quality requirements. The high price Starbucks pays for its coffee can partly be explained by the fact that Starbucks only how old, buys gourmet coffee with extremely high intrinsic qualities.

And the C.A.F.E label is only a “code of conduct-lite” (Renard, 2005: 429), focusing first and foremost on the intrinsic quality and the taste of the coffee and adding ecological and social standards as secondary. Further important differences to the Fair Trade label are among others (Starbucks, 2006b): the payment of higher premium prices increases with better performance instead of a guaranteeing a minimum price; the infrastructure of certification remains internal to Starbucks, making it impossible for producers to influence the standards (Mutersbaugh, 2005a); there is movie 1997, no substantial third party monitoring; verifiers are not autonomous, making it a “fully private” as opposed to the “semi-public” space in Fair Trade certification (Mutersbaugh, 2005b); and there is less organizational and developmental support. How Old Is Leorio. Since the high price is only one of the modest, benefits of how old, participation in Fair Trade, and as shown in the case studies above not even the most important benefit, all the non-monetary benefits of Fair Trade do only partially apply to sexual addiction, those producers selling to Starbucks through its C.A.F.E. scheme. Besides these trends to undermine the Fair Trade label there are reports of problems at is leorio the producer level that forced several cooperatives to break up their trading relations with Starbucks. 29.

There are some important dangers in this general trend towards voluntary certification that are important to fully assess the economic impact Fair Trade has on the market. Definition. These are mainly the way power relations in the production process change and a curious convergence between the rhetoric of Fair Trade and contemporary discourse in dominant institutions. While voluntary standards are often praised as the positive influence of consumer power on corporations and the increasing social and how old is leorio, environmental accountability and satirizes definition, awareness of those corporations, studies like the Human Development Report conclude that “the growth of private standards is acting as a barrier to how old, market entry for smallholder farmers” (Brown, 2005: 5; Vorley, 2003: 70). It has been argued that this “just in space production” of certified products transforms rent relations, shifting the farm, costs of standard compliance to how old is leorio, the producers, increasing rents for swift proposal, retailers and giving the how old, retailers more power and governance over the supply chain (Mutersbaugh, 2005a; 2005b; 2005c). 30 This line of lolita 1997, argument, seeing certifications as a place of conflict and power rather than cooperation, criticizes the broad trend towards the is leorio, establishment of semi-public spaces through NGO-third party certification. Fair Trade, so the argument, by promoting the privatisation of sexual addiction definition, standards, facilitates the already existing tendency of the demise of the how old is leorio, state in market regulations. Fair Trade, without intending to do so, thus stabilizes neoliberal globalization and supports the further decline of state power to regulate markets and to restrict exploitation and environmental destruction. A similar argument can be made on the level of contemporary development that converges with the discourse of Fair Trade in an interesting way. 31 Faced with the controversial debate about the East Asian miracle in the early 1990s, the destructive Asian economic crisis in definition 1997 and is leorio, the emergence of powerful NGOs and social movements, the dominant paradigm in the major development institutions like the World Bank and Essay on Reducing Falls Older Asian, the IMF shifted in how old the late 1990s from neoliberalism towards a more “inclusive liberalism” (Porter Craig, 2004; Gore, 2000; Hart, 2001; Wade, 1997). Revisionist or inclusive neoliberalism, while using a slightly different, more inclusive and empowering discourse, shares with orthodox neoliberalism the preference of the market over the state, has enabled processes of immense social and environmental destruction and is in similar ways interpreted as yet another discourse of domination and control (Porter Craig, 2004; McMichael, 2004). And the rhetoric of the Fair Trade movement conforms to an astounding degree with this discourse of revisionist neoliberalism.

Central parts of animal, both discourses converge albeit with different connotations on notions like market ‘opportunity’, ‘empowerment’, social and economic ‘inclusion’, ‘social capital’, ‘civil society’ and ‘partnership’. What should one think about the fact that these concepts are employed both by how old institutions from the centre right like the World Economic Forum and by the Fair Trade movement? This convergence of revisionist neoliberal discourse and Fair Trade discourse helps explain why this small movement of alternative trading organizations could move into the mainstream; why several studies interpret Fair Trade as part of neoliberalism or social capitalism; and why such prominent supporters of free trade as the European Commission and the G 8 summit are celebrating the success of Fair Trade. In both cases by Events on Its Citizens Essay using private certifications and by employing a certain discourse of market empowerment Fair Trade converges with contemporary reactionary tendencies. While this certainly carries the dangers of supporting (as an unintended consequence) the privatisation of market regulations and the justification and naturalization of neoliberal discourse, there is also the how old, potential for change. Swift Modest. Private standards are not inherently opposed to state regulations and through its political efforts Fair Trade actively tries to lobby for change in the political market rules.

And discourses are contradictory, unstable and contested and how old, political and social pressures can, alongside with Fair Trade, transform a discourse of lolita 1997, domination and oppression into is leorio, a discourse of entitlements and rights, taking serious the modest, ‘inclusive’ and ‘empowering’ part and how old is leorio, turning it against the inhumane consequences of neoliberal hegemony. The discussion and analysis of the possibilities for Fair Trade to economically influence the conventional market has revealed opportunities as well as dangers. There is first impressive potential for Fair Trade to grow into the mainstream and to swift modest, directly change trading practices. But these possibilities depend on the participation of big mainstream corporations that only use Fair Trade to their advantage without sharing its message and taking the responsibilities. This brings along the how old, dangers of undermining the message of Fair Trade and stalin farm, of becoming dependent on how old is leorio these mainstream companies. Secondly by showing that ecologically and socially responsible trading practices are possible Fair Trade is part of a more general push by consumers that brought about the rise of private standards and swift, certifications. Is Leorio. This development in a similar way opens up new possibilities to introduce social and environmental standards on a broad basis into the mainstream economy but at the same time bears the danger of stalin animal farm, getting down-washed into intransparent and how old, unenforceable standards-lite that are (mis)used by big mainstream corporations to stalin, control and exploit the supply chain in new ways. Fair Trade certification and the general trend towards private standards are not intrinsically good or bad. How Old. Both are social institutions that are sites of conflict and power where contesting interests get negotiated and fought out between different actors.

Future developments depend among many other social forces on the evolution of Essay on Reducing Falls Older Asian Adults, Fair Trade. 4. 2. 3. The Political Impact of Fair Trade. Contrary to dominant discourses and public opinions on trade issues, the current trade injustices are not “natural” or the outcome of different levels of knowledge, technology and education. These factors surely play their part, but the unjust system of international trade is politically established and maintained by countries with very different levels of power. The rules that enable the how old, free market and free trade to function are not “neutral” or “natural” but serve certain interests and not others. Without going into detail this can be illustrated by looking at the unjust tax system and the immense amounts of subsidies in the global north, which both make trade with agricultural products very difficult for developing countries. According the United Nations Human Development Report 2005 the average tariffs low-income countries, which are exporting to high-income countries, face are three to four times higher than the satirizes definition, barriers applied in trade between high-income countries (HDR, 2005: 126). 32 Since primary products like cacao beans are taxed less then processed products like chocolate, this perverse tax structure also makes it impossible for many developing countries to do the high value-added processing and retailing parts of the production process in their country, ensuring that most profits in the value chain are added in the Global North. In the European Union, for example, tariffs rise from 0 to 9 percent on cocoa paste and to 30 percent on the final product, which explains why 90 percent of cacao beans are produced in developing countries while only how old is leorio, 44 percent of cocoa liquor and 29 percent of cocoa powder exports originate in those countries, making Germany the worlds largest exporter of cacao products (HDR, 2005: 127). The unbelievably high levels of agricultural subsidies, especially in Europe and the U.S. furthermore undercut any comparative advantage of developing countries and the UNDP calculates that the real costs for developing countries of rich country agricultural subsidies is as high as all official aid flows in 2003 - US$72 billion a year (HDR, 2005: 130). The global legal framework for trade justifies exploitation and the externalization of social and environmental costs of production.

This can be illustrated by addiction the fact that the WTO under the PPM clause (Production and Processing Methods) does not allow discriminating against products that are produced through social and ecological exploitation. 33 There is considerable discussion in how old is leorio the Fair Trade movement if the PPM clause, created for sexual, governments, does also apply to labelling organizations like the FLO, but it is generally assumed that voluntary discrimination does not violate the how old is leorio, WTO rules, even if they include non-physical characteristics such as the real social or environmental costs. 34. Whenever those institutions that currently determine how the sexual, markets function mainly the World Trade Organization and its sisters World Bank and International Monetary Fund there are powerful attempts by NGOs and social movements to protest and how old is leorio, lobby for market and trading rules that are fairer to the most disadvantaged producers. This Trade Justice Movement is “campaigning for trade justice - not free trade - with the modest, rules weighted to benefit poor people and the environment” (Trade Justice Movement, 2006).

Fair Trade is part of this push for fair market rules. And it is the deliberate goal of Fair Trade, stated by the four major Fair Trade organizations as one of three strategic intents, to “play a wider role in the global arena to how old is leorio, achieve greater equity in animal farm international trade” (FINE, 2001: 1). Also the above mentioned widely recognized definition of Fair Trade states: “Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers) are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and how old, practice of conventional international trade” (FINE, 2001). Just one example: At the WTO meeting in Hong Kong in 2005 FINE, the informal network of Fair Trade organizations, organized a “Fair Trade Fair” that featured producers from sexual Asia, Africa, the is leorio, Middle East and Latin America which were displaying and selling their products, including coffee, chocolate, spices, crafts, textiles and many others. On Reducing Among Asian. At a symposium producers shared their stories the impact Fair Trade had on their communities and experts discussed the development of Fair Trade and the implications of the WTO rules for its functioning.

35 Besides this eventful critique of free trade FINE also lobbied the WTO with a position paper stating what the Fair Trade movement thinks “is wrong with the WTO” (FINE 2005a). The style of this document is is leorio, captured in its beginning statement: “We, members of the international Fair Trade movement, know from experience that trade can reduce poverty and contribute to sustainable development. However, if not carried out in a fair and responsible manner, trade can exacerbate poverty and inequality.” FINE, acting as the advocate of small scale producers around the world, demands the end of subsidies and tariff escalation mechanisms, argues against deregulation and liberalization and promotes the expansion of Fair Trade principles of regulating and managing the lolita movie 1997, global supply chain (FINE, 2005a). After the meeting, another publication described the outcome of the WTO summit as serving “the interests of companies operating globally” instead of promoting an agenda that is in any way favourable to how old, the developing countries (FINE, 2005b). The political impact of Fair Trade operates as well on the micro level. Besides contributing to animal farm, a necessary change in how old is leorio consciousness that has been described above Fair Trade politicizes people and strengthens the Global Justice Movement through the The Impact on Its, thousands of world and solidarity shops that are important centres of this movement. Is Leorio. Although some activists might see this as the most crucial part of Fair Trade, arguing that the structural change promoted by the Global Justice and Third World Movements is 1997, necessary for real improvement in the producers lives, the political side of Fair Trade should not be used as an excuse for the economic and social problems described above (Mendoza Bastiaensen, 2003: 41). Organizations working with Fair Trade are thus using the practical example of Fair Trade to lobby for a change in the international trading rules away from free trade and how old, towards cooperative trade, essentially seeing Fair Trade as a practical prefiguration of a more desirable trade. 5. Conclusion: Fair Trade as a Re-embedding Countermovement. So what is Fair Trade: A neoliberal solution to modest, current market failures that works within the free market regime or a practical tool of social change that aims at transforming the free market? The discussion of the impact of Fair Trade on the level of how old is leorio, producers as well as on the level of the free market in general has shown that there is swift proposal, no easy and clear-cut answer to this question.

The social reality of Fair Trade entails both, free market mechanisms and non-markets restrictions and is leorio, Fair Trade seems to both undermine free trade and to be used and swift modest, interpreted as supporting neoliberalism. To better understand this rather puzzling result I will propose a theoretical framework to understand Fair Trade that is heavily influenced by Polanyi’s work. In order to is leorio, better understand the effects of Fair I will situate Fair Trade historically using Polanyi’s theory of the double movement. And I will then use Polanyi’s concept of embeddedness to argue that Fair Trade is neither a free market solution nor a transformation of modest, free trade. In order to situate the emergence of how old, Fair Trade in a broader context the work of Karl Polanyi (1944), especially his understanding of capitalism as progressing in form of a ‘double movement’ concerning the relations between the market and society has been increasingly used and seems very instructive (Barham, 2002: 350-352; Murray Raynolds, 2000; Mutersbaugh, 2005a). Sexual Addiction. Polanyi argued that the unleashing of markets for the three ‘fictitious commodities’ land, labour and money causes intense social and environmental destruction and is leorio, generates counter-tendencies that demand regulation, intervention and social protection from these destructive market forces. This protective countermovement is, however, not an external intervention into a structurally determined process but these opposing forces are contained within capitalism (Hart, 2002: 304). Polanyi’s historical analysis of the double movement has its contemporary parallels (Silver Arrighi, 2003): 36 The neoliberal revolution of the modest proposal, 1980s on the one hand destroyed societal regulations protecting labour, money and land/nature by is leorio promoting free market economies as the sexual addiction definition, only model, liberating financial transactions and privatising and destroying natural resources.

The growing importance of civil society in the 1990s and the rise of how old is leorio, transnational social movements that push for “counter-hegemonic globalization” (Evans, 2005) on the other hand represent efforts to re-embed the destructive market forces into societal norms and regulations. These actors promote political regulations for financial markets, fight against the commercialization and privatization of modest, natural resources and counter the dismantling of labour regulations that restrict exploitation. 37 It is important to note that these attempts to how old is leorio, re-embed the market have also been incorporated into conservative discourses and stalin animal farm, practices where they represent efforts to contain dissent and to enable the neoliberal project to continue. They are employed by personalities in neoliberal institutions like the world bank and the IMF (Wade, 1997; 2001; Sachs, 1998; Stiglitz, 2000) and have shaped the paradigm shift from orthodox neoliberalism to is leorio, ‘revisionist’ or ‘inclusive’ neoliberalism (Hart, 2001; Porter Craig, 2004). And exactly here is where Fair Trade comes into the picture: Fair Trade, so I will argue, is of Historical German Essay, part of the how old, protective countermovement. I will come back to 1997, this point, but first I want to employ Polanyi to argue that Fair Trade is neither a neoliberal free market approach nor an how old is leorio attempt to transform free trade. Fair Trade is movie 1997, concerned with the unleashing of markets for how old, the fictitious commodities labour, and, to a lesser degree, land/nature. While markets might be useful and efficient mechanisms to produce and sexual, distribute products, if labour and is leorio, nature are included into the market as free and unrestricted commodities the results are destructive. Free trade theory rests on satirizes the notion that free competition results in the lowest possible price, and how old is leorio, that because the producers with the lowest price outcompetes other producers competition stimulates efficiencies and German Events Essay example, improved technologies.

Free trade theory does, however, falsely assume that competition does only take place regarding technological innovation, productivity and marketing. How Old Is Leorio. 38 In reality, and especially in trading relations between large retailers and Falls Among Asian, small-scale producers in the global south, business companies use the how old is leorio, externalization of costs onto other parties as one of the stalin animal farm, main strategies of competition. If Chiquita cannot outcompete another retailer in the banana market with improved technology or better marketing strategies it can do so by externalizing the social and environmental cost of production. This means that the social cost of production is passed on is leorio to the producer and the environmental cost of production is passed on addiction definition to future generations. This is possible if labour and how old is leorio, nature are not socially embedded through political legislations like minimum wages and environmental restrictions or social forces like unions or NGOs. And Fair Trade is exactly this, an attempt to satirizes definition, re-embed the market within society by internalizing both the how old is leorio, real social and environmental cost of production into the price. The real price of a product and lolita, the price Fair Trade tries to pay thus consists of the real social cost of the work (human wages, dignified working conditions etc.) plus the is leorio, real environmental cost of production. Roozen and VanderHoff Boersma (2002), two founders of the first labelling organization Max Havelaar, argue convincingly: “The costs of a socially responsible production are included in the price of the product in animal the Fair Trade market. Competitiveness does not depend on how old is leorio the level of exploitation that goes into the production of the product.” Fair Trade is thus not abandoning the market, but it also does not provide a free market solution. Fair Trade rather re-embeds the market by internalizing the social and environmental cost of production into the price.

By paying a guaranteed minimum wage that reflects the real social and lolita 1997, environmental costs of production it restricts market competition from exploiting labour and nature, but at the same time uses competition in the production process to function in the market. The essence of Fair Trade is how old, according to Brown (1993: 158) “that the consumer should be told the truth, not only about what is in the product but also the truth about the Among Asian Adults, producer, her or his conditions of life and work, what they get for how old, their work and what it does to the environment.” Far from pure competition or state-led planning, Fair Trade combines the power of producers and consumers to Events on Its Citizens Essay example, create links between them that both limit and engage competition and is leorio, that consist of information: 39 “Connections between consumers and Fair Trade organizations [and producers] are rooted largely in flows of information. Fair Trade networks socially re-embed commodities, so that items arrive at the point of consumption replete with information regarding the social and environmental conditions under which they were produced and traded” (Raynolds, 2002a: 415). Fair Trade challenges the animal, idea that the setting of prices on is leorio the market as an automatic and depersonalized process is the stalin animal, only instrument for valuing commodities (Raynolds, 2002a: p. 409). Instead of competition as the main driver of the how old is leorio, market, Fair Trade introduces an interesting type of “contract economy” into the market, in which the price is negotiated between consumers, producers and Falls Among Older Asian Adults, salesmen and their contradictory interests are resolved in cooperation. How Old. As one scholar has put it: “Fair Trade is primarily about definition, reasserting human control over a mechanism that claims to how old, be in the best interests of everyone but no longer even bothers to prove it” (Ransom, 2001: 9). The fact that Fair Trade does not challenge the lolita movie 1997, existence of the market as such does not mean that it is not a radical vision, since, as the domestic Mexican Label Comercio Justo insists, Fair Trade is about transforming the very purpose of markets; by reorganizing markets in a way that can benefit the more disadvantaged members of society Fair Trade creates un mercado donde todos quepamos “a market where we all fit” (quoted in Jaffe et al, 2004: 192). Fair Trade, as an attempt to re-embed the market in how old the sense described here, is part of the protective countermovement. But back to farm, the question do the how old, broader effects of Fair Trade stabilize or transform free trade? The dichotomous and stalin, somewhat mutually exclusive conceptualizations of Fair Trade in the two visions that underlie the question this paper tried to is leorio, answer both turn out to be present and future tendencies and movie, trajectories of the how old, Fair Trade movement rather than descriptions of stalin farm, Fair Trade.

As such the two visions both describe somewhat idealized versions of different simultaneous and is leorio, contradictory effects of modest, Fair Trade. A definite answer to this ‘either, or’ question is impossible since the impact study shows that Fair Trade as a multilayered social phenomenon works both in and against the market, partly stabilizing neoliberal free trade and partly challenging it. Instead of the how old is leorio, question what Fair Trade is in terms of its broader effects the impact study forces one to ask more specific questions about how Fair Trade works and what exactly its effects and outcomes are in Essay Falls Among Adults the multiple arenas it works in. Rather than being either “in or against” the market Fair Trade can be analyzed as a complex and multilayered process of social defence against destructive effects of how old, unrestricted market. But this process, since it is part of capitalist development, is a site of contestation, conflict and negotiation between different actors with different and partly opposing interests. Because the protective countermovement as a whole is fundamentally threatening those power structures that rely on the exploitation of land, money and lolita, labour, these power structures, Polanyi’s “liberal creed”, engage in containing, controlling and weakening the movement. These opposing interests, as has been demonstrated in many examples in this study, bring about multiple and partly contradictory effects on is leorio different levels. Anticapitalist activists support and propagate Fair Trade as a practical alternative to capitalist trading relations while revisionist neoliberals see Fair Trade as useful mechanism to privately regulate a small part of the proposal, market without fundamentally changing the political market rules.

Both support Fair Trade for different reasons, they thus understand Fair Trade differently and these contradictory understandings in turn shape and change what they try to explain, the Fair Trade movement. Similarly, what small-scale coffee growers in Ecuador think about Fair Trade and what they want Fair Trade to how old, do differs dramatically from the understandings and interests of large retailers like Nestlé. How these different, partly contradictory and The Impact of Historical on Its, partly mutually supportive interests play out depends on the power relations between the different stakeholders. Particularly since Fair Trade entered the mainstream market in the late 1990s and actors with opposing interests became stakeholders, Fair Trade is at a crossroads: On the one hand the how old, mainstreaming of Fair Trade opens up immense possibilities to increase the sexual addiction, impact of Fair Trade in transforming neoliberal trade relations, in benefiting more disadvantaged producers and in further re-embedding the market. But on the other hand the mainstreaming of Fair Trade bears a variety of how old is leorio, dangers, mainly due to the power of the mainstream companies to undermine the meaning and practice of Fair Trade and, instead of swift modest, using Fair Trade to the advantage of producers, to misuse it for the interests of their shareholders. Ancelovici, Marcos. 2002. “Organizing against globalization: The case of how old, ATTAC in France,” Politics and definition, Society 30 (3): 427-463. Bacon, Christopher. 2005. How Old. “Confronting the Coffee Crisis: Can Fair Trade, Organic, and Specialty Coffees Reduce Small-Scale Farmer Vulnerability in Northern Nicaragua?” World Development 33 (3): 497511. Barham, Elisabeth. “Towards a theory of values-based labelling” Agriculture and Human Values 19: 349360.

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Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics. -. 1993. “Democracy and the ‘Washington Consensus” World Development 21 (8):1329-1336. -. 2000. “What Should the is leorio, World Bank Think about the sexual addiction, Washington Consensus?” in The World Bank Research Observer 15 (2): 25164. Young, Graham. How Old. 2003. “Fair trade's influential past and the challenges of its future”, paper presented at Fair Trade, An Asset for Development, An international dialogue, Conference organised by the King Badouin Foundation, Brussels, 28-05-03, www.kbs-frb.be/files/db/en/PUB%5F1337%5FFair%5FTrade.pdf (April 2006). Zehner, David. 2002. “An Economic Assessment of ‘Fair Trade’ in Coffee” Columbia Business School’s Chazen Web Journal of International Business, Fall 2002. 1 Peter Mandelson, EU commissioner for addiction, trade, said in 2005, after having emphasized the success of the Fair Trade movement: “Fair Trade has shown that those working in difficult conditions in commodity-dependent and how old is leorio, poor developing countries can aspire to a better life for themselves and stalin, their families” Mandelson (2005). 2 FINE involves the Fairtrade Labeling Organizations International (FLO), the Network of European Shops (NEWS!), the International Federation for Alternative Trade (IFAT), and the European Fair Trade Association (EFTA). Is Leorio. The aim of FINE is to enable these networks and their members to The Impact German on Its Citizens Essay example, cooperate on strategic levels on crucial issues affecting the future of the Fair Trade movement, such as advocacy and campaigning, standards and monitoring.

See http://www.worldshops.org/fairtrade/netw.html (April 2006). 3 This paper will focus mostly on those products that are certified by the Fairtrade Labelling Organization International (FLO), since most data are only how old is leorio, available for certified products and since certified products make up the huge bulk of German Events example, all Fair Trade products sold worldwide. 4 All standards are publicly available under http://www.fairtrade.net/sites/standards/sp.html (Mai 2006). Quality requirements for how old is leorio, Fair Trade bananas for example include among others: “Size of bananas. Minimum length 16 cm (baby bananas 14 cm), minimum thickness 27 mm. Tolerance: 10% of the bananas. Packing. Satirizes. slippage and “high pack” are not permitted. There must be reasonable uniformity among the bananas in a carton. Tolerance: 5% of packing cartons. () Residue and foreign matter. No residue or foreign matter may be encountered in the cartons. Tolerance: 1% of the cartons.” FLO (2005c: 10).

5 The coffee market price is fluctuating highly. The current prices are summarized by is leorio the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations): “Coffee prices reached 101.44 US cents per pound in March 2005, a 67 percent increase compared to the level of 60.80 US cents per pound the corresponding month last year. In April 2005, the lolita 1997, average daily price fell to 98.2 US cents per pound, following some profit taking by how old is leorio investment funds”. See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 6 According to the FAO “Industry sources report that farm-gate prices in Ecuador decreased below the Falls Asian, official minimum price of US$3 per box, and in some cases, fell to how old is leorio, less than US$1 per animal farm, box.” See http://www.fao.org/documents/show_cdr.asp?url_file=/docrep/008/J5667e/j5667e04.htm (Mai 2006). 7 In 2001 the FLO had registered over 300 coffee grower associations that represent 500,000 small-scale growers. This amounts, according to how old, one estimate, to 30 percent of the movie 1997, world’s small-scale coffee growers most of which however could only sell a small portion of their harvest on the Fair Trade market. (Murray et al, 2003: 6). 8 The scope of the organic world market is considerably larger than the Fair Trade market. In 2003 organic sales amounted to US $ 31,3 billion while Fair Trade only how old, reached one billion in 2005 (Nichols Opal, 2005: 182). 9 “Though blurred by the uniform term “Fair Trade” tension remains between two visions: one, a more radical conception that sees ‘‘fair’’ trade as a tool for modifying the satirizes definition, dominant economic model, and the other, more pragmatic, that emphasizes the insertion of products from the South under fair conditions in the markets of the North.” Renard, 2003: 91.

10 For a further discussion of these difficulties see Mayoux (2001) and Nicholls Opal (2005: 201). 11 A report of the Fair Trade coffee market in Latin America that is based on seven case studies concludes, for example, by exclusively citing the most positive study (Perezgrovas and Cervantes, 2002), concluding (and thereby implying this as the general finding) that the direct financial “revenues for Fair Trade coffee [are] twice the street price for conventional coffee, even after deductions were made for how old, cooperative management and addiction definition, other expenses.” (Murray et al, 2003: 7). Other studies by the same research team (which are only cited at other instances), however, sound less promising. In a cooperative in El Salvador for example, the financial benefits were only enough for is leorio, outstanding debt servicing (Mendez, 2002). 12 But to Essay on Reducing Older Asian Adults, put this into perspective it is interesting to note that more or less the same amount (€ 18.3 million) is spent annually only in is leorio Europe by Fair Trade organizations for education and satirizes definition, awareness-raising campaigns (Krier, 2005: 31). 13 And even the most studies point at several advantages of Fair Trade. Robbert Maseland and Albert de Vaal (2002) at is leorio the University of Nijmegen in Holland for example compared Fair Trade with free trade and protectionism and concluded that it was “obvious” that Fair Trade is the only way to guarantee the 1997, fulfilment of how old is leorio, minimum requirements such as stopping child labour or environmentally harmful effects. They however argued also that concerning the reduction of inequality it is Citizens Essay example, not clear that Fair Trade is always fairer than other options. 14 “The low prices paid to how old, small producers on the national market mean that the satirizes, best Mexican products are exported. Fair Trade makes it possible for small producers to also receive dignified prices in the national market and to not depend exclusively on export.” Comercio Justo México on its webpage in 2001, quoted in how old Nicholls Opal (2005). 15 “Sainsbury's, which says it sells more fair-trade bananas than any other British supermarket, sells the fruit in bagged bunches of six, not by weight.

A bag of fair-trade Dominican Republic bananas, weighing about a pound, recently cost around $2.74 in London. That's more than four times the price of a pound of unbagged regular bananas, also from the movie, Dominican Republic. According to FLO, Dominican Republic fair-trade banana growers receive about 16 cents a pound from middlemen. Sainsbury's won't disclose its banana margins, but industry executives estimate British supermarkets pay their suppliers about 71 cents a pound for fair-trade bananas from the Dominican Republic. If that's the case, Sainsbury's is earning almost $2 a pound.” 16 This claim totally goes against what Paul Rice, chief executive of Transfair USA argues: “As a core philosophy, Fair Traders believe in as little market intervention as possible [and: regulating retail prices goes against the idea of] using the how old, market as a vehicle for creating a win-win scenario for farmers and for industry.” The growth of fair-trade sales in the U.S. suggests “millions of U.S. consumers are willing to pay a bit more to feel that they are making a difference.” (Stecklow White, 2004) 17 “In the past six years, TransFair has leveraged limited resources to certify 74.2 million pounds of Older Adults, Fair Trade coffee. This has provided coffee farmers in some of the poorest communities in Latin America, Africa, and Asia with over $60 million more than they would have earned selling their harvests to local intermediaries. This means that each dollar of TransFair USA's budgets has been translated into is leorio, more than $7 in supplemental income for farmers and farm workers since 1999.” TransFair USA (2006). 18 Harriet Lamb, Fairtrade's executive director in the UK, in Jones (2004). 19 Nicholls Opal (2005: 181-190) have collected a variety of research and surveys.

A survey of 30.000 consumers in Britain by the Cooperative Group and MORI in 2005 for example showed that 84 percent of consumers are willing to pay a little extra to stalin farm, help producers in developing countries and 6 out of 10 are willing to is leorio, boycott for their ethics. Producers especially emphasized the importance of complete product information on food labels, which was important to 96 percent of the sample (Cooperative Group, 2004). Another study argues: “The most in-depth research into ethical consumerism to date reveals that just over half the population have bought a product and recommended a supplier, because of modest proposal, its responsible reputation, at some time in the last year. A third of consumers are seriously concerned with ethical issues when shopping and is leorio, a quarter have investigated a company’s social responsibility at stalin least once. How Old. Roughly one in six shoppers say they frequently buy or boycott products because of the manufacturer’s reputations” (Cowe Williams, 2000). 20 In a recent survey the “ 2003 Corporate social responsibility monitor ” finds that the amount of consumers looking at social responsibility in their choices jumped from 36 percent in 1999 to 62 percent in 2001 in Europe. 21 “The approach to Fair Trade becoming dominant among ATOs can be termed `partnership’, where partnership is defined as a trading relationship between stakeholders that has both market-based and ethical elements and that aims to be sustainable in the long term. For Fair Trade, the key stakeholders are the satirizes, producers, the producer group, the ATO, and the consumer; and how old, the partnership between these stakeholders is based on a combination of market and ethical elements.” (Tallontire, 2000: 167). Partnership in an economic relationship like Fair Trade can be understood with Tallontire (2000: 172) as requiring the following necessary conditions: a shared understanding of the problem or issue and its context, shared objectives, mutual commitment to the partnership, a distinct or unique contribution, and mutual trust.

Besides that some related structural condition can be identified that will determine the success of the relationship, such as a shared timeframe, equal participation, a balance of stalin, responsibilities, autonomy of the how old is leorio, partners, accountability and stalin animal farm, transparency (Tallontire, 2000: 173-176). 22 This lack of understanding that is how old is leorio, prevalent in most case studies applies even to leading positions. An example given by Lyon (2002: 24): A member of the Junta Directiva in this cooperative told a researcher that the FLO had visited their plantations and, asked whether the FLO had certified the cooperative, answered: “no she [the FLO person] is just here to see how everything is going with us.” 23 “Many Mexican interviewees concurred in calling for definition, a renewed commitment to developing and how old, maintaining direct ties between Northern consumers and Southern producers. These visits help producers better understand the nature of the Fair Trade market, and create positive impacts on producer self-esteem and coffee quality.” Taylor (2002: 10). 25 It has been argued that Fair Trade by including the livelihood, culture, indigeneity and difference of the producer communities into satirizes, their advertising strategies “deepen rather than subvert the processes of commodification by objectifying and commoditising the is leorio, very things they are trying to save“ (Goodman Goodman, 2001: 114).

Another concern points at the contradiction between Fair Trade’s message of inclusion and Citizens Essay, cooperation and its exclusive elements. Since it is a label that relies on quality standards and higher prices, Fair Trade is exclusive both on the producer side with its “dictates of quality” (Goodman and Goodman, 2001; Mutersbaugh, 2005c) and on the consumer side with its higher and sometimes extraordinarily high prices (see Jaffe et al, 2004: 183). 26 “What happens if there is adjustment to world supply or demand and prices in one part of the how old is leorio, market are fixed? Prices in other parts of the of Historical Citizens example, market must fall by more other growers suffer more. How Old Is Leorio. What happens to those employees of large producers when Fair Trade consumption shifts away from them towards small producers who frequently offer poorer working conditions than the multi-national corporations?” Booth (2005: 7).

27 A further example: In 2003 several supermarkets in Britain were accused of charging too much for Fair Trade products Tesco among them overcharging one US dollar per kilogram bananas, more then double the premium for producers. The Sunday Times, 29 June 2003, quoted in addiction definition Ransom (2005). 28 Thomson (2003), quoted by how old Low Davenport (2005a: 151); see similar comments in Tiffen (2000) 29 Renard (2005: 430) reports: “Furthermore, Starbucks obligates producers to sell their coffee through Starbucks-affiliated importers which, in this case, turns out to satirizes definition, be the largest Mexican coffee marketing corporation, AMSA (of the Omnicafe-Atlantic Coffee group), which engages in decidedly non-equitable commercial practices. A few cooperatives have broken off from how old is leorio Starbucks, denouncing the AMSA practice of misusing the registry of certified-organic producers for AMSA’s benefit.” 30 While this is an important critique for international trade with organic products and might apply to first party certifications of some TNCs like Starbucks it does not apply to Fair Trade.

Contrary to Mutersbaugh (2005a) the cost for compliance with the standards are in the Fair Trade system paid for modest proposal, by the consumers, not by the producers (Raynolds, 2002b). 31 The contemporary discourse and practice regarding development in the dominant institutions and in academia has been characterized by several observers as constituting an important departure from orthodox neoliberalism and how old, the Washington Consensus of the late 1980s and the early 1990s. While the Washington Consensus held that good economic performance merely required getting the prices right through liberalized trade, macroeconomic stability and by getting the state out The Impact German example, of the market, the post-Washington Consensus is a more inclusive approach that focuses on good governance, new institutional economics and is leorio, the state (Williamson 1990; 1993, 2000) 32 This translates into the following: “Developing countries account for sexual, less than one-third of developed country imports but for two-thirds of tariff revenues collected. Is Leorio. They also account for two-thirds of developed country imports subjected to tariffs higher than 15%.” (HDR, 2005: 127) 33 The WTO makes bans this as discrimination against foreign or domestic “like products” on the basis of “related characteristics”, wher like product is defined as “products with the movie 1997, same or similar physical characteristics or end uses” (Dankers, 2003: 74; Young, 2003: 11). 34 A full discussion of WTO rules and voluntary labelling initiatives is given in a FAO report by Dankers (2003: 73-88). See notes of a panel on the PPM clause at is leorio the Fair Trade symposium during the WTO meeting 2005 in Hong Kong under http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/symposium.cfm?refID=78673. This clause is defined on the world bank webpage: “ PPM : Production and processing method. Used in instances where trade policy action by a country is motivated by stalin animal a desire to ensure that imports have been produced in a way that satisfies a national or international production or process norm. Often these norms will be environmental in nature.“ http://www.worldbank.org/research/trade/glossary.htm#P (April 2006).

35 The webpage http://www.fairtradeexpo.org/index.cfm gives a good overview of the events and features a variety of resources, including transcripts from the how old, symposium. A similar event was staged at lolita 1997 the 2003 WTO summit in Cancun. 36 Polanyi analyses the first movement, the economic liberalization and integration of the late 19 th century, as one that involves the replacement of local and traditional socio-cultural relations by mere market relations. In particular the is leorio, incorporation of the three fictitious commodities money, labour and land/nature into the market and thus the total disembedding of the market from society unleashed destructive tendencies, which in turn lead to definition, a variety of is leorio, counter movements. This second and Essay on Reducing Older Asian Adults, embedding moment is the attempt by social movements and ‘enlightened reactionaries’ to counter the social disruption of the market-led liberalization with social and environmental protection and intervention. Is Leorio. The main question Polanyi is trying to answer with this framework is the rise of fascism in Europe. He interprets fascism as part of the protective countermovement, suggesting that the protective countermovement is not inherently good but rather that it contains a variety of different responses to the destructive market forces, some of swift proposal, which are very dangerous.

37 Examples would be firstly the promotion of the is leorio, Tobin tax by the international ‘anti-globalization’ network ATTAC that would tax all the financial transactions and invest the money in swift proposal poverty alleviation (Ancelovici, 2002); secondly the how old is leorio, environmental and the anti-privatization movement that fight deforestation, genetically engineered food, patents on living beings or destructive infrastructure projects like the Narmada dam in India; and lastly efforts to counter the definition, neoliberal agenda to create a global labour market without any restrictions, that has produced an incredibly destructive downward spiral of wages and, especially in the Global South, leading to conditions of immense exploitation. McMichael (2004) has collected a variety of is leorio, case studies that vividly illustrate this situation. 38 This argument is explained in length in definition Roozen Boersma (2002). 39 “Decentralization of economic decision-making and ensuring that authorities are made accountable to the people for their actions is where we need to start. But such democratic models have generally been based either on workers' control at the work place or on consumer power in the market.

The fact is that the two have to be combined. Markets which split us into two halves - into producers and consumers - have to be modified so that we can once more become whole.(. ) The conclusion of this book is that it will be by new forms of cooperation and not by relying solely on is leorio competition, that this [the new economic order] will be done. We cannot now foresee what the new structures will be.” (Brown, 1993:191).

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