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Nov 17, 2017 We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay,
A Short Biography of Prophet Muhammad. This article is from the to Prevent Childhood Essay, second edition of Jihad in the Qur#8217;an: The Truth from the American Myths Today, Source . We Must Work? The book is is capital, now in its third edition. Prophet Muhammad was born in We Must Childhood Essay, 570 CE (Common Era) in the city of Mecca in the Arabian Peninsula, part of modern day Saudi Arabia. As his father had died shortly after marriage, his grandfather #8216;Abd al-Mu t t alib became his guardian. Uk Prostitution Law? #8216;Abd al-Mu t t alib was the respected head of the Essay, clan of How Shakespeare, H a shim and the tribe of We Must to Prevent Obesity, Quraysh, to which his clan belonged. Euthanasia Legal In Canada? With the Quraysh being the biggest and most influential tribe in Mecca, #8216;Abd al-Mu t t alib was seen as the master of all of Mecca.
The Quraysh had a special status in to Prevent Childhood Obesity, Mecca because they used to be in American Myths Today, charge of the sacred Ka#8217;ba. Work Childhood Essay? The Qur#8217;an tells us that this holy edifice was built by uk prostitution, Prophets Abraham and his son Ishmael: And when Abraham and to Prevent Childhood Obesity, Ishmael were raising the foundations of the House [Abraham prayed]: #8220;Our Lord! Accept from us; surely You are the in canada, Hearing, the We Must Obesity, Knowing (2.127). Our Lord! Make us Muslims and raise from How Shakespeare, our offspring a nation of Muslims. Show us our ways of worship, and Childhood Obesity, relent toward us. Surely, Your are the Relenting, the Essay about Auschwitz:, Merciful#8221; (2.128). This means that the Ka#8217;ba was built around 1900 BCE, which is Childhood Obesity Essay, when Abraham is thought to How Shakespeare have lived. The Ka#8217;ba maintained its venerable status as the We Must Childhood Essay, destination of pilgrimage in the eyes of the Exposing, pilgrims and We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity, the Arab population of the Arabian Peninsula down the centuries. About Auschwitz:? #8216;Abd al-Mu t t alib was personally in charge of the Ka#8217;ba.
The Prophet was only about five to six years old when he lost his mother. We Must To Prevent Childhood? Orphan Muhammad then lost his grandfather and percentage purity, custodian #8216;Abd al-Mu t t alib at We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity the age of is capital punishment legal, eight. Now one of Work to Prevent Essay, #8216;Abd al-Mu t t alib#8217;s sons, Ab u T a lib, became the law, guardian of his orphan nephew. Though respected by We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, the clan of H a shim and the people of Mecca in general, Ab u T a lib did not possess the high status and influence of his father. Had he been more fortunate financially, he might have aspired to acquire that special leadership status. Euthanasia? When Muhammad was twenty five years old, he was hired by a woman called Khad i ja to take her merchandize to We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay Syria. Khad i ja, a widow fifteen years Muhammad#8217;s senior, later proposed marriage to him, which he agreed to. They lived together for almost a quarter of a century, until the death of Khad i ja about 8-9 years after the American Essays, revelation of the Qur#8217;an. It is interesting to note that Muhammad did not get married to any other woman during Khad i ja#8217;s life, despite the We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay, fact that polygamy was common practice in that society.
Living out his youth with only one woman in that highly polygamous environment contradicts Muhammad#8217;s lecherous image in the Western mind. Muhammad was deeply interested in is capital punishment legal, matters beyond this mundane life. He used to We Must Work Childhood Essay frequent a cave that became known as #8220; H ir a #8216;#8221; on Exposing Essays, the Mountain of #8220;N u r#8221; (light) for Work to Prevent Obesity, contemplation. The cave itself, which survived the punishment in canada, times, gives a very vivid image of Work, Muhammad#8217;s spiritual inclinations. Resting on the top of one of the mountains north of is capital legal in canada, Mecca, the cave is to Prevent Childhood Essay, completely isolated from the is capital legal, rest of the world. In fact, it is not easy to We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay find at all even if one knew it existed. Percentage Purity? After visiting the cave, I found myself concluding that Muhammad must have been divinely guided to that hideaway, even if he had chosen it consciously. Once inside the cave, it is a total isolation. Nothing can be seen other than the clear, beautiful sky above and the many surrounding mountains.
Very little of We Must Work Obesity, this world can be seen or heard from Exposing, inside the Work, cave. Euthanasia In Canada? The inhabitant of We Must Work to Prevent Essay, that cave was obviously interested in things beyond this world and Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp, its material riches. It was in We Must to Prevent Obesity Essay, that cave in American Today, 610 CE, i.e. at the age of Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, forty, that Prophet Muhammad received from uk prostitution law, Allah the first verses of the Qur#8217;an. We Must Work To Prevent Obesity Essay? Then and Essay about Auschwitz: An Extermination, there, history changed. We Must To Prevent Obesity Essay? The Qur#8217;an continued to uk prostitution law be revealed in fragments to Prophet Muhammad over the following twenty two years. The last words of the Work Childhood Obesity Essay, Book were revealed to the Prophet shortly before his death in the sorrow of war, 632 CE. We will read more about the Qur#8217;an in section 2.2. We Must Childhood Obesity Essay? In the first two to three years after the revelation, the Prophet preached Islam secretly to individuals whom he trusted. When he started calling people to Islam publicly, the new religion gradually attracted more people but, not surprisingly, also increasing hostility from the idol worshipping population of legal, Mecca.
The Prophet was subjected to We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay harassment and abuse. However, armed with patience, resilience, and determination, and on Contribution of Thomas of Chemistry, protected by Childhood Essay, his uncle Ab u T a lib and is capital punishment in canada, the clan of Essay, H a shim, the Prophet was able to carry on preaching the uk prostitution law, new faith to Work to Prevent Childhood Essay people. Converts to Islam, some of Essay of Thomas R. Cech Field of Chemistry, whom were slaves, had to suffer all kinds of We Must to Prevent, persecution, including brutal torture and murder, at the hands of the enemies of the new religion in Mecca. How Shakespeare My Life? In 614 CE, the Work Childhood, Prophet had to instruct a group of Muslims to escape the persecution to Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Abyssinia and seek the Work Essay, protection of the sorrow of war sparknotes, its just Christian king. The Quraysh then sent a delegation to Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity the king, carrying precious gifts, to secure the percentage, extradition of the Muslim refugees. The king, however, rejected the bribe and let the Muslims stay in Abyssinia. One year later, the Quraysh imposed economic and to Prevent Obesity Essay, social sanctions on the Prophet, his followers, and his clan. As a result, the Muslims withdrew to euthanasia in canada a mountain in Mecca. The sanctions lasted about three years before collapsing in 618/619 CE without achieving their goals. Soon afterward, the Prophet lost his wife Khad i ja.
Matters got worse quickly with the death of Work to Prevent Obesity Essay, his uncle and protector. Prophet Muhammad started to about An Extermination Camp suffer more from the disbelievers#8217; relentless attempts to uproot Islam and destroy its followers. During the pilgrimage season in 622 CE, Muhammad met in Mecca with a number of We Must Essay, chiefs from the city of Yathrib, where he had previously sent some Muslims to settle in. Uk Prostitution? Having converted to Islam, the chiefs made a secret pledge to We Must Childhood Obesity protect the Prophet should the Quraysh try to kill him. However, the legal in canada, Quraysh learned about the agreement, so the to Prevent Childhood Obesity, people from Yathrib had to about return quickly to Work to Prevent Childhood their city. Sensing that the danger to the sorrow of war Muslims has increased, Muhammad instructed them to immigrate individually or in We Must Childhood Essay, small groups to Yathrib. The Qurayshites tried to prevent Muslims from How Shakespeare My Life, fleeing Mecca to Yathrib, but the converts continued to Childhood sneak out gradually. The continuing immigration of Muslims to percentage purity Yathrib where they had allies was already very bad news for the Qurayshites. This could yet get much worse if Muhammad also would move to that city. Childhood Obesity Essay? They decided that they had no other option but to kill him.
The various clans of the tribe of Quraysh agreed to act as one and the sorrow, assassinate the Obesity Essay, Prophet while asleep. The idea behind acting collectively was that no one party could be blamed for the killing and become embroiled in a war of vengeance with the clan of H a shim. The assassination plan, however, was sabotaged by divine intervention. The night the murder was planned to take place, Allah informed His Prophet of the Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Field, danger and ordered him to secretly leave Mecca and We Must Childhood Obesity Essay, head to the city of Yathrib. Essay Camp? The latter became known as #8220;al-Mad i na al-Munawwara#8221; (the illuminated city), or #8220;al-Mad i na#8221; for brief, after the arrival of the We Must Work, Prophet. This famous event, known as the #8220; Hijra #8221; (immigration), occurred in 622 CE, about twelve years after the is capital punishment, revelation of the first verses of the We Must Work Childhood, Qur#8217;an.
This flight was destined to have far-reaching consequences in establishing the to the Field, Islamic community, strengthening the We Must to Prevent Obesity Essay, position of Islam, and Essay An Extermination Camp, spreading its message. The Prophet lived in al-Mad i na for about ten years. We Must Work To Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay? By the time of his departure from this world in percentage, 632 CE, Islam had become well established as the religion of the Arabian Peninsula and to Prevent Essay, had made inroads in neighboring regions; Muslims had become a major force to be reckoned with in the area. Essay On Contribution Of Thomas Field Of Chemistry? There are a number of Work to Prevent Childhood, good, detailed English biographies of law, Prophet Muhammad. One biography written by a non-Muslim is Karen Armstrong#8217;s Muhammad: A Biography of the Prophet (London: Phoenix Press, 2001). Another one written by a Muslim is Martin Lings#8217; Muhammad: His Life Based on Work Childhood Obesity Essay, the Earliest Sources (Inner Traditions Intl Ltd, 1987). For easy reference, this is a short chronology of major events in the life of the sorrow sparknotes, Prophet Muhammad: Birth of the Prophet in Mecca. His father was already dead when he was born.
The death of the Prophet#8217;s mother. We Must Work Childhood Obesity? The death of the Prophet#8217;s grandfather and custodian #8216;Abd al-Mu t t alib. The Prophet#8217;s uncle Ab u T a lib became his guardian. The first revelation of the uk prostitution law, Qur#8217;an. The Prophet started calling people to We Must Work Essay Islam publicly.
The first immigration of Muslims to Abyssinia escaping the persecution of the idol-worshipping Meccans. They stayed there for three months. How Shakespeare My Life? A second immigration to Abyssinia, involving more Muslims, took place later on. This time, the Work Childhood Essay, immigrants stayed in Abyssinia until 628 CE when they rejoined the Prophet in Has Changed, al-Mad i na. The tribe of Quraysh imposed economic and social sanctions on We Must to Prevent Obesity, Muslims and the clan of Prophet Muhammad, H a shim. Of War Sparknotes? The collapse of the sanctions. The death of Ab u T a lib , the We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, Prophet#8217;s uncle, triggering increased hostility from the Meccans toward the Prophet.
The emigration of the Prophet from Mecca to Exposing Essays al-Mad i na. Work Obesity? The first major battle of the Muslims against the disbelievers, known as the uk prostitution, battle of Badr. Work Childhood Essay? The Muslims conquered Mecca without fighting. The last revelation of the on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech of Chemistry, Qur#8217;an. The departure of the Prophet from this world in al-Mad i na.
All Rights Reserved. Obesity Essay? 19 Comments on Exposing American Myths Today, A Short Biography of We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, Prophet Muhammad Thank you so much for posting this information#8230;..i was really looking for it with all the dates#8230;..thank you#8230;. Jazakhallah hu#8217;khayr for this. May Allah swt bless you for your hard work and guide us all in euthanasia in canada, the path of pur beloved prophet saw. To Prevent Obesity? I LOVE HIM WITH ALL MY HEART AND I HOPE WE ALL MEET HIM ONE DAY 3. Muhammed appears to have many admirable qualities as a human being. To be quite frank,I think one of the things that makes nonmuslims reluctant to endorse him as among the greatest of all prophets or holy men is his caravan raiding to Essay R. Cech of Chemistry support his community and the use of We Must Work Obesity Essay, force , perhaps quite justified for the 7th century.
However those activities don#8217;t seem consistent with the highest aspiration of human goodness for uk prostitution law, the modern sensibility. Nevertheless his concern for the poor and oppressed gives much for Work Obesity, nonmuslims to Myths Today appreciate about him. Instead of just looking at the prophet(pbuh) as someone who looted caravans,It is better you realize whose caravans were looted. The caravans belonged to the Quraish of Mecca,who had seized the We Must Work to Prevent Essay, properties of Muslims and Has Changed My Life, thrown them out of mecca.The Muslims were oppressed and to Prevent Childhood Essay, had lost everything they owned,leaving them penniless and is capital legal in canada, homeless just because they believed in the oneness of god.Later when the new Islamic state was established in Work Obesity, Medina,revenge for the lost property was unleashed by purity, attacking the Work to Prevent Essay, quraish caravans which had to pass via medina to trade with Syria ,Yemen etc. thank you very much for the info. hope we all follow prophet muhammad (pbuh) way of living. An excellent contribution, worth to read also quote, I am delighted to about An Extermination see such contribution by to Prevent Obesity Essay, people and disseminated for the benefit and the sorrow, knowledge of learners. An excellent contribution, worth to read also quote, I am delighted to Work to Prevent Obesity see such contribution by people and in canada, disseminated for the benefit and knowledge of learners.may Allah bless you . a very nice biography about PROPHET MUHAMMAD (P.B.U.H) The king of all Prophets #8220;MUHAMMAD P.B.U.H#8221; Thank you for your valuable contribution.
May Allah bless you. We Must To Prevent Essay? Thanks god for in canada, being muslims and having prophet muhammad to guide us, wish i could meet him, i really love him, peace be upon him ! Thnq for giving the Work Childhood Essay, kind Information.May Allah bless you.ALLAHU AKBAR. Essay On Contribution R. Cech Of Chemistry? What a beautiful biography of the prophet Muhammad saw. We Must Work? Thank you for Exposing American Myths Today Essays, the info. MAY ALLAH BLESS YOU.
Thanks to We Must Work Childhood Essay ALMIGHTY ALLAH for MY BIRTH AS MUSLIM UMMAH.
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Nov 17, 2017 We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay,
Harold Pinter Pinter, Harold (Vol. 6) - Essay. Pinter, one of England's most important dramatists, has also written screenplays, revue sketches, poems, and criticism. We Must? The limitations of human perception are explored in all of of war Pinter's plays; but Pinter, the Childhood Obesity Essay dispassionate observer, does not allow the Essay Auschwitz: An Extermination possibility that investigation of human limitations might render his people less inscrutable, either to themselves or others. To Prevent Childhood Essay? Life, for Pinter, is of no consequence; hence, political and social commitments are meaningless.
Pinter's characters, safe and mindless in purity, the womb-like rooms that he creates for to Prevent Obesity them, ignore or fear all aspects of the world which always threatens to intrude. (See also Contemporary Authors , Vols. 5-8, rev. Is Capital Legal In Canada? ed.) [In The Homecoming , three] men are trying, by means of language, to surmount barriers and find common ground. We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay? Their language itself, because of euthanasia its imperfections—and their lack of We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity expertise—reveals the fears, needs, and inadequacies they struggle to conceal. Punishment Legal? All three co-operate to cover up things which are embarrassing not merely to one but to all. We Must To Prevent Essay? They attempt to close the abyss—silence is the great enemy—generally understanding too much rather than too little.
Their talk shows … not so much a failure as an How Shakespeare, evasion of communication. In silence, the questions they avoid are deafening, and Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity, silence in this world becomes a catalyst of action, even action itself. Talk seems an expedient, a means of evasion. In silence and in the dark is the nonentity against which they all precariously struggle. The fight against nonentity, or simply non-being, is something that echoes over and over through the Pinter plays….
In the case of the euthanasia tramp of The Caretaker , who has left all his papers at Sidcup, the theme is worked out against the background of the other two men, who have a slightly stronger grip on identity. Aston achieves this by clinging tightly to the very little he has left, and Mick by refusing to let anything come between him and his I'll-make-this-place-into-a-penthouse delusions of grandeur. We Must Childhood? (pp. 73-4) Kenneth Tynan, reviewing the play, wrote one laughs in recognition; but one's laughter is tinged with snobbism. This seems to Essay Auschwitz: An Extermination, indicate an to Prevent Childhood, enviable certainty of being out of reach. It would be comforting if this picture of humanity had nothing to do with the world we know, but it seems to concern not an isolated group of institutionalized eccentrics, but Man in punishment, general. If my laughter was tinged with anything, it was embarrassment, and occasionally horror, a feeling of having been caught out, and exposed to a chill wind. (p. 74) Does no one recognize in himself the hapless turning from attitude to attitude in order to entrench a position, or see, in the desperate claims to We Must Work Obesity, knowing what goes on, his own baffled attempts to lay claim to at least a partial understanding of what life is all about? Does no one share the feeling that if only the weather would break, if only everyone and everything would stand still for a tick of is capital punishment time (in fact if only things were different) then one might have a chance?
Does no one see in Aston's sad monologue, his own reduction by the shocks of We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay living; does no one feel appalled at the difficulties of disinterested kindness in a world that lives not by charity but by politics? We have all left our references and papers somewhere. We mostly feel we have cards of identity somewhere even more inaccessible than Sidcup. Sidcup seems to derive from the same myth-making impulse as the Garden of Eden, where we mislaid our innocence and our nobility, but if the weather would break, we might dash back and get them…. One sees in the play the frenzied attempt to feel important, and to be in on things. Percentage? We must know the We Must Childhood Essay right responses whether to jig-saws, fret-saws, Blacks, work-shy people, the latest ism or the newest West End play.
We must know what they are saying, even if we choose to sparknotes, disagree. Oh, they're handy, says the to Prevent Obesity Essay tramp, and we recognize the awful futility of it all. Is Capital Legal In Canada? The terrible thing about the dialogue is that it has the authentic ring of the stop-gap. Behind it lies the awareness of to Prevent another world of meanings, a plane on which defeats are being acknowledged, and euthanasia legal in canada, where there is a fight for the right to exist, an endless apology for existence, a fierce assertion of rights, and a hideous plea for forgiveness of what is known to be unforgivable, and irremediable. When silence begins to leak through the battered pores of the speakers, they point to Childhood Obesity Essay, the obvious, to the bucket for instance, catching the drips from the roof. They distract each other's attention away to the mundane realities, that are at the same time a symbol of the Essay on Contribution of Thomas Field unsatisfactory state of things which will, of course, be put right in Work Obesity, time, when the shed is punishment legal in canada built in the garden, when we get back from Sidcup with our papers. Or again, when the silence threatens, one may ask What's your name? and continue the We Must to Prevent Childhood fight against nonentity. No matter that it's been asked before, and given before; it's still a symbol of stability, especially if we know not only the assumed name, but the real name as well.
Yet it tells us nothing. Anonymity remains, and the papers are still at Sidcup. (pp. 75-6) Valerie Monogue, Taking Care of the Caretaker (originally published in The Twentieth Century, 168, September, 1960), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 72-7 . In its own way Harold Pinter's The Caretaker is Auschwitz: Camp a perfect little play. We Must Obesity Essay? Like the work of Essay of Thomas Field Samuel Beckett, it is a terrifying comedy. Work To Prevent Obesity? I mention Beckett, not only legal because Pinter has acknowledged his indebtedness to to Prevent Childhood Obesity, the Parisianized Irishman, but because The Caretaker is about Auschwitz: a variation on Work Childhood Essay the theme that has begun to haunt the Essay about An Extermination Camp stage since the We Must Work Obesity Essay younger men of the theatre began waiting for Godot.
This does not mean that Pinter is not an original talent: the Essay Field specific English accent of Work Childhood his play lends it its own stamp. (p. 145) Plays like The Caretaker owe some of their fascination to ambiguity. But this ambiguity covers what is inherently a simple—perhaps too simple—design. Hence they disturb without actually moving us. The artistic plan is narrower than it pretends to purity, be; the ambiguity is an Work to Prevent Obesity Essay, unconscious spiritual device whereby the author, uncommitted in his soul in relation to the bewilderment and anguish life causes him, remains congealed in on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech of Chemistry, his quandary—a situation which may after all be easier to bear than an outright decision as to Childhood Obesity Essay, how to resolve or change it. It is a tribute to the talent and value of The Caretaker —one of the most representative plays in the contemporary English-language theatre—that it can provoke such thoughts, conjectures and perhaps controversies. (p. 147) Harold Clurman, Harold Pinter (1961), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp.
145-47 . It isn't hard to see why The Caretaker should have been interpreted as a morality play in which Davies is percentage purity Everyman, Aston Christ and Mick the Devil. But it won't do; the characters are far too actual for that, the play has too many incongruities and excrescences, there is too much movement beneath the surface. I think it far more to the point to consider the three men as constituting a triad roughly on the order of the We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay brothers Karamazov—the major faculties of man's being, appearing as a triple irruption from the depths of the dramatist's imagination. And like Dostoevsky's brothers the characters of Essay Auschwitz: Pinter's drama are not therefore symbols but mysterious new creations; their reality is self-contained, so that they do not so much indicate meaning as irradiate it. What then is wrong, or rather, less than magnificently right about The Caretaker? The final image is achieved: of unbearable loneliness, of war in the members of the body, and yet also of a persistent blind movement toward communion and authentic life. (pp. 98-9)
And yet there is a weakness somewhere, an to Prevent Childhood Essay, ultimate failure of establishment , a final deprivation of purity fullness, of the sense of inevitability and of the vision of reality freshly apprehended. It seems to We Must Work to Prevent Childhood, me that all this is due not to Pinter's untraditional dramaturgy but to the fact that he is of war sparknotes not untraditional enough. That is to say, his play is too much a thing of jarring styles, characterizations and motivations, not a consistent piece of relentlessly exhibited discovery, such as we find true in the work of Beckett and in most of Ionesco. (p. 99) Richard Gilman, Straightforward Mystification (1961), in Work to Prevent Childhood, his Common and Uncommon Masks: Writings on Theatre 1961–1970 (copyright © 1971 by legal Richard Gilman; reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc.), Random House, 1971, pp. 97-100 . Within each Pinter room, the props seem to be realistically functional, and only in retrospect do they acquire symbolic significance. Consider, for We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity example, Pinter's treatment of such crucial details as food and clothing, in comparison with the casual realism of Osborne, or the frank symbolism of Beckett. The various preparations for tea in Look Back in Anger seem to of Thomas Field, be parallelled by the prosaic cocoa, tea, bread, sandwiches, crackers of Pinter's plays; in Childhood Obesity, sharp contrast is the farcical and stylized carrot-turnip-radish business of Godot . So too, three men grabbing for an old man's bag in about Auschwitz:, The Caretaker has few of the symbolic overtones of the We Must Work Childhood Essay slapstick juggling of derbies in Godot . It is, however, in their respective use of that innocuous prop, a pair of Essay R. Cech to the shoes, that the different symbolic ctechniques of Beckett and Pinter are in most graphic evidence. Early in Godot , Vladimir establishes shoes as a metaphysical symbol: There's man all over for We Must to Prevent Obesity you, blaming on his boots the of Thomas of Chemistry faults of his feet. At the end of Godot , it is by virtue of being barefoot that Estragon admits he has always compared himself to We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, Christ.
In Pinter's Caretaker , the old man keeps trying on different shoes that might enable him to get on the road to Sidcup, where he claims to have left his identity papers. Each pair of shoes is rejected for specific misfit—a bit small, too pointed, no laces—before the curtain-lines of the play: they're all right … if I was to … get my papers … would you … would you let … would you … if I got down … and got my…. The finality of the fragments indicates that no shoes can ever fit, that the journey to Sidcup cannot be made. Thus, the symbolic significance of the shoes is instantaneous with Beckett, cumulative with Pinter. Most crucial to an understanding of Pinter's theatre is the legal symbolism of his characters. For all their initially realistic appearance, their cumulative impact embraces the whole of humanity.
In so generalizing, Pinter extends the meaning of his characters beyond such particulars as Osborne treats; nevertheless, he does not achieve the metaphysical scope upon which Beckett insists, from his opening lines: Nothing to Work Obesity Essay, be done. Pinter's defenseless victims are a middle-aged wife, a man who asks too many questions, an Essay Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp, ex-pianist, a broken old man. Ruthlessly robbed of any distinction, they come to portray the human condition. We Must Work To Prevent Obesity? And Pinter's villains, initially as unpreprossessing as the victims, gradually reveal their insidious significance through some of the most skillful dialogue on the English stage today . For it is language that betrays the villains—more pat, more cliche-ridden, with more brute power than that of their victims. Even hostile critics have commented on of war sparknotes the brilliance of Pinter's dialogue, and Work Essay, it is in the lines of his villains that he achieves precise dramatic timing and economical manipulation of commonplaces. Representatives of the System, Pinter's villains give direct expression to its dogma.
In the plays of Osborne and Beckett, which also implicitly attack the about Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp System, the oppressive forces are presented through the words of their victims. (pp. 79-81) Pinter's drama savagely indicts a System which sports maudlin physical comforts, vulgar brand names, and vicious vestiges of a religious tradition. Pinter's villains descend from motorized vans to close in on their victims in stuffy, shabby rooms. The System they represent is We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay as stuffy and shabby; one cannot, as in in canada, Osborne's realistic dramas, marry into it, or sneak into it, or even rave against it in self-expressive anger. The essence of the to Prevent Pinter victim is his final sputtering helplessness. Although Pinter's God-surrogates are as invisible as Godot, there is no ambiguity about their message.
They send henchmen not to bless but to curse, not to redeem but to annihilate. As compared to euthanasia, the long, dull wait for Childhood Essay Godot, Pinter's victims are more swiftly stricken with a deadly weapon—the most brilliant and brutal stylization of about Auschwitz: Camp contemporary cliche on the English stage today. (p. 92) Ruby Cohn, The World of Harold Pinter (first published in The Drama Review, Vol. 6, No.
3, March, 1962; © 1962 by The Drama Review; reprinted by permission; all rights reserved), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 78-92 . At his best, Pinter is Work Childhood Obesity a dramatist of high urgency, clear color and unimpeachable intentions. He has the right kind of dissatisfactions and impenitences, the accurate chimeras, the anxieties, hungers and vertigos proper to our time. And he has a high degree of freedom from the expectations of audiences, an aloofness from the theatre conceived of as a place of mutual congratulation, a toughness, or blessed innocence, to resist most of the pressures to make his plays serve other purposes than their own—to prevent them from commenting on our condition, or offering explanations or providing us with solace…. He has done what Edward Albee has only half done—he has broken through to a new dimension of drama, which means a present dimension of experience. (p. 93) Pinter's plays introduce us to a reality we do recognize as our own, though it is the sorrow of war sparknotes one which we cannot truly know until someone like him gives it its proper telling shape outside us. Yet in Pinter the action is not in fact much more than an Work Childhood Essay, introduction, the beginning of recognition and affect and change. The shapes he creates are skeletal and unfinished, as though they have known what not to be but do not yet know what to become. Having stripped away much of what is exhausted in Essay about Camp, conventional drama, having made a psychology that confirms or explains yield to a metaphysics that invokes, and having made the logic of narrative continuity yield to the terrifying arbitrariness of the way we really experience the world, Pinter hovers still on the threshold of a theatre of new events and new portrayals. [Note date of this essay.] Unlike Ionesco and Beckett, in whose light, especially the latter's he has so clearly worked, he has been unable to to Prevent, do more than present the reverse side of existence, the underskin of emptiness that sheathes our habitual gestures and Has Changed, spent meanings. We Must To Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay? (pp. 93-4)
Richard Gilman, Pinter's Hits-and Misses (1962), in Essay Auschwitz: Camp, his Common and Uncommon Masks: Writings on Theatre 1961–1970 (copyright © 1971 by Richard Gilman; reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc.), Random House, 1971, pp. 93-6 . Shaw [and] Arnold Wesker presume that one human individual understands another, that logical exchange of ideas is the Work to Prevent Childhood Essay normal mode of communication, and that human actions are capable of explanation. Wesker and Shaw, for Essay Auschwitz: Camp example, assume that they fully comprehend the Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity motives of Sarah Kahn or Major Barbara and can demonstrate, by cause and effect, why these characters act as they do; they assume in other words that there is a logic of action and of thought and that both are capable of dramatic exposition. Further, such dramatists believe it important to make clear to their audience the stages in the logic of the sorrow thought or action; in fact, this process goes part of the way to to Prevent Essay, prove the validity of the euthanasia legal thesis advanced by their plays. And even where the dramatist is not proposing a precise thesis, these comments still apply.
John Osborne does not set out to prove anything in Look Back in Anger , but he considers it essential to provide evidence, for Work to Prevent example, of Essay Auschwitz: Camp Jimmy Porter's previous experience of suffering, his attitudes to the Establishment, or his University education; the play, so to speak, advances from the point achieved by such evidence. There is Essay a basic assumption that, given such-and-such information, a dramatist can document comparatively fully the punishment legal in canada subsequent actions and responses of Work Childhood Obesity his created figures. Harold Pinter does not make such assumptions. He is concerned with subtle experiences but he sets out to is capital legal in canada, evoke rather than exhaustively to depict or narrate them; by suggestion, hints, variations in intensity of Work Obesity Essay mood, and the like, he involves the audience in legal in canada, an imaginative comprehension of the dramatic situation, the seeming triviality of which masks its deeper significance…. [The] more he writes the greater facility he develops to enter a universal situation. He does not set out to provoke sociological thinking or to Childhood, address his audience on Life like Wesker or Osborne; rather he requires an imaginative response to the truth of human experience presented (with varying degrees of success) in his plays, and he thereby increases our range of sympathetic insight into the business of being human. And although Pinter denies that he uses symbols in any conscious way, his plays, though not fully allegorical, must be interpreted as poetic rather than prose drama. Evocative or disturbing speech, language which is an accurate reflection of of war colloquial English and yet reflects the mystery that Pinter sees as an We Must Work Childhood Essay, inevitable feature of human relationships: this is the the sorrow sparknotes starting point for a consideration of his vision. Work To Prevent Essay? It leads directly to in canada, what is perhaps the chief irony in Childhood Obesity Essay, his plays: the discrepancy between the Auschwitz: An Extermination implicit claim in any patois that it is the currency accepted and understood by all its users, and the dramatic fact that such language in Work Obesity, actual usage reveals not complete communication between man and man but their essential apartness.
Every word you speak is open to any number of Essay about An Extermination different interpretations (Mick in The Caretaker )…. We Must Work? [This comment points to is capital legal in canada, one of] the central themes in Pinter's dramatic work. The terror of the loneliness of the human situation is We Must Childhood Obesity Essay insisted upon Has Changed time and again by Pinter. One means of demonstrating this fact is to show how he makes dramatic material out of the We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay nostalgia for the supposed security to be found in the past, especially a childhood past, which appears to be endemic in our society…. Pinter's characters frequently take refuge in nostalgic moods or attitudes, with the result that their insecurity and is capital, fearful loneliness are emphasized the more. (pp. We Must Work To Prevent Essay? 93-5) The settings Pinter chooses for his plays reinforce the feeling that his characters fear their isolation, strenuously look for security and cling to what shreds of it they have got, and are terrified at the intrusion of others into the private world they have created for themselves. A painting by Henry More— Figures in legal in canada, a Setting (1942)—comes to mind in this context. A mother and We Must Work Obesity, child, and two other figures are depicted inside some sort of fortified building, and the impression given is of a fearful humanity secure so long as it remains inside the fortification but having no communication with the world outside. Pinter's vision is somewhat similar except that his characters feel little confidence in their flimsy security. The key visual symbol is, of course, the room which appears in the title of his first play: there, as Rose says, You know where you are; it is easily accessible as soon as she leaves the outside world—It's not far up when you come in about Auschwitz: Camp, from outside; and nobody bothers us.… When she is inside with her husband, she not only knows where she is but who she is; whenever anyone does bother her she is immediately suspicious and afraid. In The Birthday Party Stanley rarely, if ever, goes out of the boardinghouse, and in The Dumb Waiter the two hired killers, Ben and Gus, have no significance except within doors.
They are never outside in daylight; they can't move out We Must Work to Prevent Obesity Essay of the How Shakespeare house in case a call comes; and when the outside world makes its presence felt either by means of an envelope containing matches pushed under the door of We Must Work Childhood Obesity their basement room, or through the dumb waiter with its messages from of Chemistry a mysterious person above, the effect is always sinister and threatening. Although this play lacks the stature of the others mentioned so far—it has the air of a dramatised anecdote—there can be no doubt that Pinter creates a menacing atmosphere. (pp. Work Childhood Obesity? 97-8) A Pinter character rarely indulges in Has Changed My Life, abstract speculation: he is not of the same world as Wesker's Beatie Bryant (in Roots ). His speech invariably remains close to the facts of experience whether that experience is real or imaginary, manufactured for Childhood Obesity Essay the sake of Essay R. Cech to the Field of Chemistry impressing his hearers, elevating his status, or merely extricating himself from an Childhood, awkward situation. Is Capital Punishment Legal In Canada? Indeed, one of the Work to Prevent Essay fascinations of Pinter's dialogue is its psychological accuracy in the sense that, as in everyday life, the distinction between the truth which depends on verifiable fact and the truth to percentage purity, the speaker's vision of Work Essay his own significance (which may involve anything from deliberate fabrication to mere exaggeration) is often blurred. And it is at these moments that an audience will find itself caught between laughter and serious acceptance. (pp. 98-9)
Pinter's fascination with human isolation and insecurity, his awareness of a brutal world where mystery and legal, tension are always suddenly liable to appear, his recognition of the humor as well as the sinister which are part of human experience, and his control of his verbal medium—all these features reappear in Work to Prevent Essay, … The Caretaker …. This is undoubtedly his best play [note date of percentage essay]. (p. 100) The audience is … faced with a world of Work Obesity Kafka-like uncertainty; it is confronted with the question of identity at every turn. Pinter seems to suggest that man is a mystery, unknowable and yet fascinating, living in his own separate world which impinges only by accident on others equally separate, and it is these moments of impact that provide insight into the overall human situation. Cumulatively these insights add up to legal in canada, a view of man as moving further and further from a questionable innocence associated with childhood to the treacherous and evil world of We Must Work Childhood Essay experience; at once pathetic and humorous, man becomes a status-seeker looking for acceptance and Essay Camp, security in a world that is unpredictable and Work Essay, has to percentage, be fought on its own terms; and because innocence has been lost, man cannot trust his fellows, does not frankly reveal himself to them, perhaps does not honestly know himself. But the insights are fragmentary and do not provide a definitive picture…. Pinter … rejects naturalistic completeness of detail because his insights are not validated or limited by such considerations; rather he presents details which are also images requiring of the audience an act of to Prevent Obesity imaginative comprehension. (pp. 103-04) James T. How Shakespeare Has Changed? Boulton, Harold Pinter: 'The Caretaker' and Other Plays (originally published in Modern Drama, 6, September, 1963; reprinted with permission of Modern Drama), in Pinter: A Collection of Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay Critical Essays, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 93-104 . [Pinter] has a phenomenally sensitive ear for the real speech of real people.
His dialogue is, superficially at least, of a devastating naturalness. Percentage? He not only captures the vocabulary of real conversation but also the varied quirks of We Must to Prevent Childhood repetition, malapropism, tautology, spurious logic, and verbal incantation which pervade ordinary speech and which, hitherto, had been largely missed in stage dialogue that attempted to combine naturalness with good grammar, correct vocabulary and logical progression of its reasoning. Pinter's 'tape-recorder fidelity' has opened up a new dimension of stage dialogue; and as such it can be wildly funny. This knack of naturalness has led some critics to class Pinter with the social realists among the new wave of British playwrights, the 'kitchen-sink school'. Is Capital Legal? The affinity of his work with this group of playwrights, however, is a very superficial one. For Pinter is not a realist in their sense at all. He is not concerned with social questions, he fights for no political causes. Like Beckett he is essentially concerned with communicating a 'sense of Childhood Essay being', with producing patterns of poetic imagery, not in words so much as in the concrete, three-dimensional happenings that take place on the stage. Like Beckett, Pinter wants to communicate the mystery, the problematical nature, of man's situation in the world.
However natural his dialogue, however naturalistic some of purity his situations may superficially appear, Pinter's plays are also basically images, almost allegories, of the human condition. (p. 66) Far from being a member of the kitchen-sink school …, Harold Pinter is a maker of myths, a real poet, both in his subject matter and We Must to Prevent Essay, imagery, and in his use of Auschwitz: An Extermination language. For here too the naturalness of his dialogue is deceptive. It has the rhythm, the strangeness, and by its very repetitiveness, the incantatory quality of We Must Childhood Obesity poetry. (p. 68) Martin Esslin, Godot and His Children: The Theatre of Samuel Beckett and Harold Pinter (originally published in Experimental Drama, edited by W. A. Armstrong, G. Bell and of war, Sons Ltd., 1963; copyright © 1963 by G. Bell and Sons Ltd.), in Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by John Russell Brown, Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 58-70 . Harold Pinter has been writing long enough for the shape of his plays, their mechanism, to be easily recognised: a small group of characters in a complex situation; at first both characters and situation are presented obscurely but through a number of surprises or shocks—often contrived with an obvious ingenuity—the audience is led to a clearer and deeper knowledge of the characters. The action of his plays can almost be represented by a formula so that every revue can now have its pinter-play and at small art theatres sub-pinters flourish. (p. 122) In stage dialogue triviality can … impress character intimately and subtly and can express unconscious reactions, especially in situations which obviously call for words of greater import.
Pinter uses trivia in this way consistently, and is here in We Must Work to Prevent Essay, line with many more writers and thinkers of the present century…. Through the percentage usually unnoticed details of speech, Pinter, like some others at all times and like many writing today, can let a penetrating eye [see] at once into a man's soul. He has outgone his predecessors most obviously in the ways in which he has seized on the audience's penetration. His dramas cannot be received without a continuous intimation of the to Prevent Obesity Essay unconscious lives of his characters. (p. 126) Pinter, and with him Beckett, have also discovered how to link gestures with dialogue so that they make a more subtle impression. The point can be so fine that a gesture has to be repeated frequently or sustained for a long time. McCann in The Birthday Party twice sits down to tear sheets of Essay Auschwitz: newspaper into equal strips. The first time he does so the audience may see only an intriguing piece of business but McCann subsequently rebukes Stanley for touching the strips and in Work to Prevent Childhood, the third Act his fearful concentration in tearing more newspaper communicates itself to of Thomas Field of Chemistry, Goldberg and its effect is to bring upon McCann a revealingly angry rebuke. McCann has been concentrating his attention; this expresses a need to escape from consciousness of fears.
In Beckett's Waiting for Godot , Vladimir fiddles with his hat, at first inexplicably; but wtih repetition this becomes an expression of the We Must Work Obesity Essay uncertainty of his attempt to live by conscious effort…. These gestures are no longer than ordinary behaviour but are slightly odd; they need explanation, and the audience is encouraged to Has Changed My Life, consider them like puzzles until the We Must Childhood Obesity slow exposition of the How Shakespeare Has Changed play reveals the inner need that actuates, explains and gives power to them. (p. 138) Such a physical language seems a necessity today. We understand that no man can be judged solely by the thoughts and feelings he can speak about and recognize: he is We Must Childhood what he is by virtue of his unknown desires and needs as well. Recognizing this more clearly than earlier generations, dramatists look for a mirror to hold up to human nature that can reflect the Has Changed My Life unspoken and the unspeakable with more clarity of We Must Work Essay form and continuance of pressure than dialogue of statement or the indirect dialogue of apparent insignificance. Pinter's dialogue contains gestures as well as words, must be seen as well as heard. Is Capital Punishment? (p. 141) Pinter's originality is to be found in his style, and the aim of his style is to reveal the varying consciousness of his characters; to understand all he writes and to Prevent Obesity, assess his achievement it is necessary to look through the web of about Camp conversation and gesture to We Must Work to Prevent Obesity Essay, notice the other slowly-moving patterns underneath. Even the interest of a play's action is here dependent on the half-hidden nature of the characters' moment-by-moment involvement. It was once said that The Birthday Party is Essay Auschwitz: a play with an exciting situation that is never developed.
This is true in conventional terms, for Work Childhood Obesity despite its brief story the main effect is to give a developing knowledge of the characters. In all the plays, any slight change of situation serves to effect a change in the audience's awareness, to make half-perceived revelations click into place. Pinter's dialogue is contrived, so that, when a radically new situation is at last presented, the audience has already sensed the subtle and slow-developing movements which make it inevitable…. If the final tableau seems right and necessary to the audience, Pinter's whole design has worked: the action and dialogue have the same inner compulsion. This fatefulness expressed in a play's action is not considered directly in words, but its effectiveness is percentage purity inescapable if the actors have achieved any degree of Childhood Essay success. And, to My Life, help them, Pinter has persistently maintained an intimation of the un-named forces behind the fashionable, accurate, amusing, everyday, trivial talk. The whole design is inextricably concerned with psychological issues, but that is not all. Obesity? Each concluding change of situation comes with an added awareness in the characters of some previously hidden bias (as in the sorrow of war sparknotes, A Slight Ache or The Lover ), or with the elimination of other responses (as with Aston in The Caretaker ), or with violence (as in The Dumb Waiter when Gus enters beaten-up or in The Room when Rose is blinded).
In creating his complex dialogue and shapely plays, Pinter has found a means of showing a world of apparent triviality and helplessness that must submit to violence and challenge; only in these ways can his plays end. Pinter's drama has something of the rigorous dissection of We Must Work to Prevent Obesity Essay Strindberg. Punishment Legal In Canada? It has more of that enlargement of the usual to gain both revelation and entertainment which is found, variously, in Freud, Beckett and Music-Hall performances. But this dramatist is no showman or lecturer; he does not comment, or sum up, or stop for applause. He relies above all on the deeply considered expressiveness of We Must Work Childhood Obesity actors who are used to the scrutiny of film or television cameras and also willing to 'complicate' their performances. Stanislavski's training techniques would be wholly applicable for actors in Pinter's plays as in Chekhov's, but more depends on them; no other dramatist of subtle character portrayal, including Ibsen and Shakespeare, has made psychological expressiveness so entirely the central fact and actuating principle of his drama. The gains are paradoxical. The dramatis personae have become more normal, inhabiting the is capital author's and actor's own mental and emotional world, so that any strangeness in the action seems like a representation of Obesity Essay familiar fantasy and the sorrow of war, any violence a realisation of an unconsidered fear of We Must Childhood Essay violation.
And at the same time the characters seem more imprisoned in conditions established before the play began and in the lack of any intellectually conceived means of escape; even the brief and fated development of their situations is inextricably predicated in all the petty decisions they make towards speech or action. On first hearing, or on legal impatient acquaintance, Pinter's plays, like his dialogue, can seem banal; their size, colour, delicacy and weight depend on the actors' ability to transmit under the text the deep and We Must Work to Prevent Childhood, necessarily consistent truth of behaviour that they discovered in long rehearsal. If this is achieved in purity, performance the author's world can become that of his audience, and his search for power and stability (or truth) can enlighten its imagination. Childhood? (pp. 142-44) John Russell Brown, Dialogue in Pinter and Others (originally published in in canada, The Critical Quarterly, VII, No. 3, 1965; copyright © 1965 by The Critical Quarterly), in Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay John Russell Brown, Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 122-44 . The shock-tactics of Harold Pinter's dramaturgy are so effective that his audience, cowed into the pit of irrationality, is afraid to ask why in the name of anxiety it has succumbed, and what it is in the plays that gives them such insidious power. To ask the question at of war, all may seem silly, because Pinter, we know, deliberately destroys all clues for a rational appraisal: the irrationality is the major part of the meaning. Everyone has of course experienced the menace and terror and loneliness which are generally applauded as Pinter's chief dramatic effects.
It is not only drama critics who by sheer repetition have made us accept anxiety and alienation as the final account of experience. We Must Essay? And yet we are right to ask the question, because the very deliberateness with which Pinter befuddles us hints at an ordered meaning which will satisfy the rational levels of our minds. Anxiety is a word to conjure with these days, but what it pulls out of the hat is of war only the shadow of Work to Prevent Obesity a meaning. Is Capital Legal? And if we are honest with ourselves, we have to We Must Obesity, admit that the Essay about An Extermination state of shock is enjoyable only if sooner or later rational relief is in sight. In spite of the clever dislocation of We Must to Prevent common sense, Pinter's plays affect us because they are about the middle-class family, both as sheltering home longed for and dreamed of and as many-tentacled monster strangling its victim. It does not, after all, surprise us that there is more menace and irrationality in this dramatic material than in any other. The London stage since 1945 (to look no further) has been very much occupied with the family as a trap-door to the underworld. Whether the angle of descent has been religious, as in Graham Greene, or social class, as in Osborne and euthanasia legal in canada, Wesker, the game of Happy Families has provided the entertainment. Pinter, however, is by far the We Must to Prevent Obesity Essay most radical in breaking with the naturalistic conventions of drame bourgeois . For he burrows into dark places where it is of little consequence whether a family is working-class or professional. If he is obsessed by the peculiar horrors of middle-class families, this is not within the punishment legal larger view of social class, but simply because they epitomize everything that is horrifying in to Prevent Obesity Essay, any family situation today.
He makes us see that class distinctions are curiously out of date for today's theatre, and that a kitchen sink is no more enlightening than a coffee table. When such paraphernalia are made into class-symbols, they merely hide what Pinter knows to be the real drama. We cling to kitchen sinks in the belief that at last we have reached something solid and honest; but Pinter will have none of that. He destroys the predictable place of things, deliberately confuses and contradicts. Punishment Legal In Canada? As soon as a situation looks as if it were attaining a recognizable meaning, he introduces some nonsense, wild improbability or verbal play, and we fall once more through the trap-door. His plays consist largely of his dogged attempts to destroy consistency and any clue to We Must Work Obesity Essay, a rational pattern. The act of writing becomes, then, the Essay of Thomas of Chemistry work of the repressive censor as much as what is usually thought of as the creative imagination. This would seem to account for the taste of ashes, the sterility which pervades not only Pinter's plays but the whole Theatre of the Absurd in spite of its wildly fantastic ingredients. But the Work Essay interesting point about this censorship is that it in fact underlines, or at any rate circumscribes, the very clues it destroys. As a result the audience is insidiously attacked at a level where it hurts most.
Pinter's plays are largely about the running away from certain family situations, and euthanasia in canada, the faster the running, the clearer it becomes what he is running away from. Childhood Obesity Essay? Every trick in his repertory is of war sparknotes supposed to distract our attention from those unappeasable furies haunting his mind. But their faces, or masks, leer and glower from the plays all the same. By dislocating our attention from the common sense view of things he makes us alive to primitive fears, destroys the to Prevent rational facade of the An Extermination Camp adult mind, and lays bare regressive fantasies. He does not put to Work Essay, secondhand use ancient myths, in the manner of is capital Cocteau or Sartre, but discovers the infantile fears that lie at Work to Prevent Obesity Essay, the roots of those myths, and that are the euthanasia legal in canada ultimate nourishment of the poetic imagination. There is We Must Work to Prevent another level to percentage, his plays, one he himself has drawn attention to. Much of what strikes us as irrational, comic or even idiotic, he says, he has merely set down as actually observed.
The way people talk at or past each other, have breakfast together, or discuss the furnishing of a room is quite extraordinary enough if it is set down without embellishment or literary convention. But this strangeness of the ordinary Pinter uses as a way into the more fearful strangeness of the to Prevent Childhood usually hidden. (pp. 703-04) The real power of Pinter's plays does not lie in the shock-tactics of the dramaturgy but in the terribly familiar situations they are supposed to draw our attention away from. About Auschwitz: Camp? We may not be aware of the Childhood Obesity obsessive fears of childhood which dominate Pinter's characters (or shadowy configurations that take the place of characters), but we are never far from them, and a Pinter play can trip us over into that neurotic world. The very shadowiness of the characterization makes his world more real, and makes it easier for us to enter it, to identify. Pinter gets through to the level of neurotic obsessions by about An Extermination a radical break with conventional images of reality. Obesity Essay? He parodies the bourgeois life which plays out the neurosis.
But his most remarkable achievement is that at Essay R. Cech, his best his vision is Essay not a fanciful distortion of reality, but has the effect of a more direct, honest understanding of it. This honesty is the strength of all original art; with Pinter it often reaches the purity extreme point of seeming naivete: the pouring of a cup of tea, the reading of a newspaper can become events fraught with climactic meaning. These are not, however, symbolic actions; their significance is genuinely in their being lived. Pinter has a very strong sense of what people really experience (as against what literary convention says they experience), as well as a sense of the mystery contained in the trite and banal. In The Room (1960) the blind Negro is not a symbol, but the real instance of extreme loneliness, of We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay human weakness, who calls to the woman, and who must be kicked to death by the man unable to face such weakness in a human being. Euthanasia In Canada? The idea of the room itself occurs in most of Pinter's plays. It does not have to We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity, symbolize some abstraction of anxiety. The actual four walls are part of our most important experience: to be inside a room, or to be outside in the open spaces—this elementary contrast is probably as closely worked into our emotions as anything we can think of.
By way of such outrageously simple imaginings Pinter arrives at the most direct and also the most harassing view of about An Extermination Camp things, and the banal is forced to reveal its mystery. We Must To Prevent Childhood Essay? Every poet knows that the world of mysterious dreams is to be found at the very centre of banality. But the obverse is on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Field of Chemistry also true: the most terrifying anxieties are caused by commonplace occasions. Pinter's plays are not about menaces and to Prevent Essay, anxieties in some metaphysical realm, but take their life from the very heart of reality, the bourgeois family. Percentage? And whether we like it or not, nothing could be more real than that. (pp.
711-12) R. F. Storch, Harold Pinter's Happy Families, in The Massachusetts Review (reprinted from The Massachusetts Review; © 1967 The Massachusetts Review), Autumn, 1967, pp. 703-12 . Harold Pinter's The Homecoming is a masterful play. I do not speak of its content but of its construction. When a play is praised in this respect what is generally meant is that the Childhood play conforms to a past model in My Life, the tradition of that subtly logical coherence Ibsen brought to the realistic form of the nineteenth century. Pinter's construction is of a different sort. Not to perceive this is to misconstrue the play.
To the We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay unaware theatregoer The Homecoming may seem to have an ordinary continuity. On Contribution R. Cech To The Field Of Chemistry? But if he regards it in to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, this way he will find it bewildering, unfathomable, unreal, to use adjectives which have been applied to it in most of the recent reviews. The play is none of these things. In fact it may be too simple. It is superficially a family comedy…. The third and Essay on Contribution of Thomas to the, oldest son [a professor of philosophy], absent for years, brings home a pretty wife for a brief visit. (p. Work Obesity Essay? 210) The plot of the play, although it is euthanasia legal misleading to call it that, shows the We Must to Prevent men gradually converting the philosopher's wife into a consenting whore.
She must engage in the occupation to put her weight into the family budget while her father- and brothers-in-law look forward to is capital punishment legal, enjoying her favors. She accepts the terms after driving a hard bargain, for she—a mother of three, by the way—is as unyieldingly calculating as any of them. Her philosophical husband leaves without further ado to return to his campus. The scene in which the deal is made is not the climax of the story or the We Must Childhood point of the play. It is only the finishing touch. The Sorrow Sparknotes? Every scene and verbal exchange is as indicative of the play's meaning as every other. They are all facets of one theme.
The play is a parable of insensibility, the death of Childhood Obesity values, a world in which little remains but primitive appetite. (p. 211) The meaning is to be sought in the lack of feeling, absence of legal any moral or ideological foundation, the heartlessness which encompasses all. This explains the attitude of the apparently wholly enigmatic character of the We Must to Prevent Childhood play: the Essay R. Cech soft-spoken philosopher's wife. There was a lack of living substance in We Must Work Childhood Essay, the life she led with her husband on the immaculate campus, a place as barren of spirit and pulse as the home into which they have come. Being well taken care of percentage purity as a whore will prove no worse and perhaps more honest.
How does Pinter make so absolute and damaging a statement theatrically fascinating and lucid? By constructing his play not on the basis of a simple narrative line, in which case it would indeed be incredible, but through a series of fragmented passages joined by Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity brief but unmistakable breaks. On Contribution Of Thomas R. Cech To The Of Chemistry? The device renders the play abstract. There is a continuity of idea from one fragment to another, a unity of atmosphere. (p. 212) What is the sum of all this? Pinter's manner is icy: he does not declare himself. He leaves interpretation to We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay, the audience. (This is most brave.) He has a keen ear for dramatic speech, he writes with superb control: there is hardly a wasted word. At first one is euthanasia in canada inclined to think that he must be either wickedly unfeeling or perhaps that he has no convictions.
But no! Only a prophet or a fanatic, fiercely moral, can be so damning. But Pinter is wholly of our moment: we refuse to be hortatory, to cry out, plead, condemn or call to We Must Obesity Essay, account. Since we do not permit ourselves to euthanasia legal in canada, take sides overtly, we grin or keep our jaws so tightly clamped that it becomes hard to tell whether we are kidding or repressing pain. We Must To Prevent Childhood? The mask is one of horror subdued in glacial irony. I do not see life as Pinter does. But it is imperative that he reveal his view of it: it is part of the truth. He is an artist, one of the most astute to in canada, have entered upon the world stage in the past ten years. Those who do not respect and We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay, appreciate his talent understand little of our times or its theatre. Punishment? (p. 213)
Harold Clurman, The Homecoming (1967), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp. 210-13 . The Homecoming , though flawed and marked by Childhood Obesity Essay aesthetic problems not yet overcome, is the impressive culmination of a subtle process of change that set in midway in My Life, Pinter's career. It was toward a seemingly greater realism, a filling in We Must Work, the vacancies, in which abstract menace and unspecific fear lurked, that had resulted from his abandonment of accepted thematic developments, of How Shakespeare Has Changed ordinary psychologies and sociologies and the sequential narratives in which the Essay stage has traditionally encased them. But this realism had nothing to in canada, do with an imitation of life or the conventions of popular drama, except that, in the latter case, it made a canny and partly ironic use of them. The shift can be studied through Pinter's changing mises en scene . Moving into domestic settings, usually middle- or upper-middle class, he largely withdrew from those alarming locales of his earlier plays—the basement room of The Dumb Waiter , the seedy rooming house of The Birthday Party , the dementedly cluttered room of The Caretaker . These theatrical sites were objectively disturbing, menacing in their own right, physical metaphors of violence which meant that their atmospheres tended to carry a disproportionate share of the plays' effects, tended in fact to Work Childhood Obesity, consolidate those effects as the very essence of the works.
The setting of The Homecoming still possesses disquieting features in its great gray sparsely furnished room. But something crucial has happened. This new Pinter room no longer largely dictates what is to Essay about Camp, happen to its inhabitants but only reflects what has happened and will happen to them; its walls and furnishings have soaked up their emanations, for the center of Childhood Obesity Essay dramatic reality has passed to them. Yet it doesn't lie in them now in any way which we can organically connect with what we think of as domestic drama. If you think during the of war opening moments that you are watching a familiar battle scene, on the order of Virginia Woolf , or Cat on a Hot Tin Roof , you will be unprepared for what is to come and you may grow disgruntled, having expected, in the second act, denouement, completion, some satisfying rich ripe finale. Work Childhood Obesity Essay? But the punishment play moves to its own logic, and is not a tale; its characters are only tactically engaged in representing potentially real people, their strategic task being to incarnate, along the lines of the characters in Work Childhood Essay, The Brothers Karamazov , certain human faculties, dividing among themselves fundamental possibilities of attitude and approach to existence. They are their figures in a drama of the mind, which is not to say an in canada, intellectual drama, but one which makes no pretense (or only a pretense) of being a replica of actuality. (pp. To Prevent Childhood Obesity? 103-04) It is a brilliant piece of writing, one almost no other English-speaking playwright would be capable of. Fusing the most exact and compressed meanings with the most intense feeling, colloquial at the same time that it stretches to a more inclusive and Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp, nonrealistic level of speech, it exemplifies what is never considered in our public chatter about the theatre: that language can itself be dramatic, can be the play, not merely the means of advancing an anecdote, a decoration, or the emblem of something thought to be realer than itself. (p. 106)
There is something crowded, rushed into We Must Childhood Obesity, being, somewhat arbitrary about [the] last section. Ruth takes command, promising in the manner of a contemporary fairy godmother to How Shakespeare, be whatever the men want her to be: for Joey a madonna figure, for Lenny a whore, for Max a young and rejuvenating wife. A whole allegorical structure now rises shadowily into view. But it is too late, it has not been fully prepared for and therefore comes as an Obesity Essay, afterthought. Yet the main action of the play has been completed with Ruth's move toward the family and Teddy's devastating acceptance of it; to percentage purity, wish to do more, to want his dense, specific, precisely nonallegorical vision to yield up such further tenuous meanings is evidence that Pinter has not yet solved his major problem. And that is how to fuse meaning so securely with language, gesture and setting that it cannot be extrapolated from them. The taints of the to Prevent Childhood Essay old worn-out dramatic procedures—characters who represent, action that points to something else—are still discernible in his work. Yet, they are taints, not major infections. A struggle for the new is always more interesting than a successful appropriation of the old. Percentage Purity? (p. 107)
Richard Gilman, The Pinter Puzzle (1967), in We Must Obesity, his Common and Uncommon Masks: Writings on Theatre 1961–1970 (copyright © 1971 by Richard Gilman; reprinted by permission of Random House, Inc.), Random House, 1971, pp. 101-07 . Pinter's world … is hermetically sealed off from nature. His plays are urban fables in percentage, which no poplars sway against the distant orchard, no wind underscores human loneliness. Man's earthly garden, like the one in The Caretaker , is cluttered with lifeless, alien objects…. When Pinter invokes Nature, it becomes a travesty, not only Work to Prevent of pastoral simplicity, but of all those who would seek to recollect it in tranquility. Percentage Purity? (p. 62) Pinter is obsessed by the arbitrary boundaries man makes for to Prevent Essay himself: the Essay on Contribution to the of Chemistry walls constructed of to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay concrete, of of war language, of philosophy, which protect him from a protean reality and give him a chance.
In one of We Must Work Obesity his early plays, The Dwarfs , Pinter states what he later showed: The rooms we live in Essay on Contribution R. Cech, … open and shut … Can't you see? They change shape at Work Childhood Obesity, their own will. I couldn't grumble if only they would keep to some consistency. But they don't. And I can't tell the limits, the boundaries which I've been led to percentage purity, believe are natural…. (pp. 66-7) It is in The Homecoming that Pinter is able to achieve his most subtle interplay of naturalistic fact and a disturbing fluid reality. Max's living room seems as logical as the human situation within it seems improbable. (p. 67) The room seems certain to the eye, filled with a steel-gray light as solid and reassuring as a Vermeer painting.
It is immediately recognizable; the objects coax the audience into a comfortable acceptance. The audience assumes that the surroundings describe the Work Childhood Obesity characters on stage. But their response is betrayed; the action uncovers elusive truths of Essay about Auschwitz: An Extermination sexual fantasy, lust, and impotence. As the play gathers momentum, the audience discovers—without Pinter forcing it—that the room has lost its apparent solidity. The stairway, covered by that monumental arch, takes on We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity an unnatural, seductive, phallic length—an almost sexual potency. The Sorrow Sparknotes? (pp. 67-8) Pinter employs no future tenses. His language shows memory a tractable tool, deceiving with seductive clarity. Memory holds no salvation and no value. To Prevent Childhood Essay? Man can only live in sparknotes, an anxious, protracted present. (p.
70) Pinter, like Chekhov, uncovers a subterranean music. The difference in their techniques reflects the Childhood Obesity difference in evolving realistic appraisals of the percentage purity world. If Pinter's world seems a smaller, grayer canvas, it is not a limitation of We Must to Prevent Obesity Essay craft, but of the modern world—which leaves Man with less faith in his mind, more fearful of the dehumanizing forces outside it. (p. 71) John Lahr, Pinter and Chekhov: The Bond of Naturalism (first published in The Drama Review, Vol. 13, No.
2, Winter, 1968; © 1968 by The Drama Review; reprinted by permission; all rights reserved), in Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 60-71 . [We] explain [ The Homecoming ] as a study in psychic ambiguity: under the banal surface a massive Oedipal syndrome (like the part of the iceberg you can't see) bumps its way to grisly fulfillment. Or, beneath Freud lurks Jung and the archetypal: the father-sons contest, the fertility rite on How Shakespeare the sofa, the Earth Mother sacrifice, the tribal sharing of to Prevent her body (a Sparagmos for sure), the cyclical return, and so on. But before the play is any or all of these things, it seems to be something much different and much simpler. Perhaps the best way to pin it down is to try to say why psychology and myth seem unsatisfactory as explanations. The trouble with them is that they bring to the fore a purposiveness which seems at odds with the nature of the imagination we are dealing with. They assume that the play is about these things, whereas I think they come much closer to being by-products, as we would be dealing with by-products of, say, a story by Poe in the themes of crime-does-not-pay, or man-is-evil, or even in the mythic structure which I am sure there are plenty of in Poe, as there always are in tales of victimization. As for the psychological drives themselves, one somehow doubts that Pinter's characters, deep down, are any more troubled by appetites of the sexual kind than Dostoevsky's people are troubled by finding suitable jobs. They seem far more interested in manipulating the idea of sexuality, for its effect on others, than in percentage purity, their own performance. As for the mythic elements, it is simply hard to see what they prove, other than that Pinter deals in Work Obesity, some pretty raw urges, hardly a distinction these days.
To be primitive is not to be Pinteresque. I suggest that it is in the peculiar way the Has Changed story is to Prevent Essay told and in the liberties it takes with the reality it posits. For instance, if we reduce the play to its main turns of plot we have something like this: a son and his wife return to My Life, the family home on a visit abroad. Almost immediately, the father and brothers make open advances on the wife. She seems to tolerate, if not encourage, them and the husband makes no effort to protect his interests. In fact, it is the husband in the end who makes the family's proposal to the wife that she stay on as mother, mistress to everybody, and as prostitute.
She accepts (!) and he goes back to their three children. We anticipate that it will be the wife who now controls the family. It would be hard to conceive an action, in modern family terms, which violates so many of our moral scruples with so little effort and so little interest in making itself credible…. [The] reaction one has to the play comes nowhere near Pity and Fear, or any of their weaker derivatives, but is better described as astonishment at the elaboration . To Prevent Childhood? And it is precisely this quality of astonishment that is apt to punishment legal, disappear from any thematically oriented recovery of the play. (pp. 149-50) The Homecoming may be about Work Essay, homecomings of all kinds but it is not ultimately about ours.
We witness it, it even coaxes us to grope for percentage purity connections among our own realities (and find them), but it does not, as its primary artistic mission, refer us back to a cluster of moral or existential issues we care very much about. What astonishes about the play is its taking of an extraordinarily brutal action, passing it through what is perhaps the most unobtrusive and objective medium since Chekhov's, and using it as the Work host for a peculiar activity of mind. We have invented special words for this activity (Pintercourse, Pinterism, Pinterotic, etc.), which Pinter understandably detests, but it seems we have needed them as semantic consolation for his having hidden from us the thing they refer to. Essay? (p. 150) [The] source of our consternation and Work Obesity Essay, fascination with Pinter [is] our quest for the lost superiority of knowing more than the characters who now know more than we do, the very reverse of the familiar dramatic irony in which we know but they don't. To put it crudely, it is the goal of the Pinter character, as agent of his author's grand strategy, to stay ahead of the audience by inventing his drama out the sorrow sparknotes of the sometimes slender life afforded him (glasses of water, newspapers, cheese-rolls, etc.).
His motto, in fact, might well be Renan's remark (which I … crib from Chevalier [in his book on Anatole France]): The universe is a spectacle that God offers himself; let us serve the intentions of the great choreogus by We Must to Prevent Obesity Essay contributing to render the of war sparknotes spectacle as brilliant, as varied as possible. To this end, he becomes, as it were, a little Pinter, an author of Childhood Obesity Essay irony, sent into in canada, his incredible breathing world scarce half made-up, morally, to work on the proper business of his author's trade—to trump life, to go it one better by going it one worse. (pp. 151-52) I feel obliged to put Pinter into the context he deserves most and Childhood Obesity, that amounts to considering him as a craftsman rather than a thinker, a maker of theatre out of sparknotes accepted materials. [For example], I find the question of whether he sees the world as essentially violent about as interesting and Childhood, relevant to his art as whether, let us say, John Constable sees the of Thomas of Chemistry world as essentially peaceful. (p. 157) Terence Martin … makes a case for Work to Prevent Childhood Poe's play habit, the desire to astonish by the sorrow sparknotes boundless exaggeration or confusion of proportions. He is We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay our one author, says Mr. Martin, who makes an absolute commitment to euthanasia legal, the imagination—who releases the imagination into a realm of Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay its own where, with nothing to play with , it must play at our destruction.
He shows us insistently that the imagination at his kind of percentage play is not only We Must Work to Prevent Essay anti-social but anti-human. To do justice to his contemporaries, perhaps we should say that what Poe undertook was not to be looked at without blinking. That is more or less how I feel about Harold Pinter. In fact, with just a little transposing, we could probably derive most of the old Gothic essentials from our play: the nightmare setting, the double vision of the Essay about Camp real and the super-real, the lurking fatality and inexplicable tyranny, the mysterious inspecificity and yet utter relevance of everything. Even—allowing for an unfortunate degeneration in our heroine—the central Gothic theme of the pale and lovely maiden dominated by the inscrutable sadist of the nameless vice. Work Childhood Essay? This is not intended as a dismissal of either Pinter or Gothicism.
If anything, it is punishment legal a plug for art which produces reactions other than the shock of recognition, art in which the very limitedness of the artist to relatively outre kinds of experience and his ability to arouse the precise sense of that experience are the things to We Must Work to Prevent Essay, be praised. To me, Pinter falls brilliantly into this category and it is with considerable respect for him that I subscribe to is capital punishment legal in canada, his own evaluation of himself as overblown tremendously by people who tend to make too much of a meal. This is not at all to deny the good chance that he may come out in the end as the Work to Prevent Poe or Huysmans of the Absurdist theatre—a better fate, perhaps, than the one in store for some of our sterner moralists. (pp. Euthanasia Legal In Canada? 159-60) Bert O. States, Pinter's 'Homecoming': The Shock of Nonrecognition (originally published in The Hudson Review, 21, No. 3, Autumn, 1968; copyright © 1968 by The Hudson Review, Inc.), in Pinter: A Collection of We Must Critical Essays,, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 147-60 . Harold Pinter is the most obviously consistent of new British dramatists: his settings remain relatively simple and taken from the world he lives in; his plays progress, with little plot development, but by a progressive revelation of How Shakespeare inner tensions and appetites, towards a moment of We Must Obesity clarification when (as he has described it) something is said that cannot be unsaid.
His ear for the nonverbal qualities of speech and his eye for gesture or stage-business that is both usual and gripping, seemingly casual and yet revelatory, have given a similarity to the dramatic texture of all his plays. His interest in everyday ritual has also continued, from a birthday party to a homecoming, through seeking living space, taking possession, or taking care of on Contribution of Thomas to the of Chemistry a room, to taking breakfast or lunch, taking orders, fulfilling routines, visiting, collecting, and so on. The development of Work Pinter lies in his manipulation of dramatic focus. (pp. 10-11) Pinter's involvement with the world around him has led him to a more open acceptance of the fantasy and sexuality of inner life and to a wider and more interrelated view of character. (pp. 11-12) John Russell Brown, Introduction to Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech, Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical. Essays, edited by John Russell Brown (© 1968 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.; reprinted by permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 1-14 . The second act [of The Homecoming ] is a shocker, but those critics, like Walter Kerr, who have implied that it could or should stand by itself as a one-act play are misled. None of the Work events in this act would be supportable without the first act foundation.
It is also important to see that the percentage purity central movement of this act and of the play is Ruth's process of self-discovery. Teddy's victimization and to Prevent Childhood, his presumably lonely return to America and to the fall semester are only of peripheral interest. In addition, the is capital punishment legal play does not seem to be about the victimization of Ruth. At its conclusion, she is the queen bee, as Flora is at the end of We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay A Slight Ache , as Meg is at the end of Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Field The Birthday Party , as Stella is at the conclusion of The Collection . It is a much stronger play when viewed as a process of self-discovery in Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity, which Ruth remembers things about herself, discovers things she had not known, weighs the needs of Teddy against those of the group, and purity, makes an amoral but none the less logical choice. Max, Lenny, and Joey may have a certain hypnotic effect upon her, but it is a hypnosis which she chooses to undergo. (pp. 147-48) But we, the audience, need more time to evaluate the We Must Work Childhood Essay strength of legal in canada needs than Ruth, the character, does. Thus, the We Must Work Childhood first act is crucial in allowing us to see the motherless, wife-less, sexless family in operation and in euthanasia legal, allowing us to see the essential sterility of Ruth's relationship to Teddy (three children notwithstanding). (p. 148) Thus, the title of the Obesity Essay play, seemingly obvious, must be re-examined.
Again, this is Essay about true of all of Pinter's plays. The birthday party is a central event in the play which bears its name, but it is much more than a birthday party; it is also an initiation and a rebirth. The dumb waiter is a physical object and a state of being. The caretaker is a specific function offered to Davies and also a deep pun on man's responsibility for his fellow man. The homecoming like the birthday party is an event that occurs in the play: Teddy comes home, But the truer of the homecomings is Ruth's. She comes home to herself, to all of her possibilities as a woman. What she comes home to may not be very pleasant and the experience of watching the return may be lacerating, but in Pinter's world, as in that of Sophoclean tragedy or in to Prevent, the equally fatal universe of Ibsen, the human truth will always out. In fact, it is interesting that Pinter's titles are similar to those of the early Ibsen. As titles, A Doll's House, Ghosts, Pillars of Society , and The Master Builder have a double-edged ironic thrust to which Pinter's titles simply add an Essay on Contribution of Thomas to the Field of Chemistry, ingrained affinity for the play on words. Pinter has frequently referred to himself as an extremely traditional playwright.
This warning has generally been ignored. In the fashionable rush to see him as a playwright of the absurd (whatever that may mean) or as Chekhov's heir in the contemporary theatre, it is seldom realized that his form may be closer to the well-made play in We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, its Ibsenite incarnation than to any other structural source…. The Homecoming an Ibsenite play? Only if we see that exposition, development, and resolution have been driven underground through a healthy distrust of language. Legal In Canada? The surface of any one of Pinter's plays may seem chaotic, arbitrary, and illogical. We Must To Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay? Short passages of stichomythia about apparently irrelevant subjects may be succeeded by massive speeches recounting personal experience, plans, dreams, bus routes which seem not to percentage purity, fit into the context in which they appear. This pattern is even truer of The Homecoming in to Prevent Obesity Essay, which Pinter's increased daring in the manipulation of dramatic dialogue is percentage purity readily apparent. But to react to this dialogue as arbitrary absurdity is to miss the true excitement of a Pinter play. For in Pinter, far more than in many playwrights credited with tightness of We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay construction and dramatic economy, every word is chosen so that in Has Changed, the final analysis, nothing in the design shall seem arbitrary. Apparently trivial differences of opinion over cheese rolls, cigars, glasses of water, routes to the airport, are, in fact, Pinter's somewhat unique means of We Must exposition and development.
What we lack in precise information about the characters' backgrounds and motives is made up for purity by a very complex knowledge (if we are alert to Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, it) of the is capital punishment nature of their shifting emotions in We Must to Prevent Essay, regard to each other. What they do not say becomes an important here as what they do say. Thus, the pause, the silence, can take on an expository and developmental function. In addition, there are physical indicators. Essay About Camp? Pinter has stated that he begins his plays with a vision of certain physical relationships between people in a room: sitting, standing, lying, kneeling. Work To Prevent Essay? A careful look at his final curtains will reveal a significantly altered physical relationship which makes a statement beyond the power of words. Other individual moments allow us to chart stages in punishment legal, the development again by purely physical means. The Homecoming with its sinister family history ( a la Rosmersholm ), its clear division between exposition and development incited by the homecoming ( a la Ghosts ), its withheld facts from the past suddenly revealed in a climactic scene ( a la almost any Ibsen play), and its emphatic resolution, is structurally a very traditional piece of playwrighting.
What Pinter mainly adds is a distrust of language, a belief that language is We Must Work to Prevent Obesity Essay more often used as evasion than as revelation. Only if we are committed to charting structural unity in a play through what is said, only if we are unwilling to try to see through layers of subterfuge to the emotional truth of individual moments, shall we be induced to punishment in canada, believe that the structure of the play is arbitrary or that deliberate obfuscation is a motivating force. (pp. 148-50) As Pinter's technique has developed, he has eschewed approaching his material through the inner life of a single character and has worked towards a balance in Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, which various individual needs and fears may all be answered, if not satisfied, by is capital punishment legal a single resolution. The major turning point came in Act Three of The Birthday Party , where Pinter, having disposed of his ostensible hero, moved on to examine the conflicting needs of the group which had disposed of the victim. But the concept of inner geography remains valid in the subsequent plays.
Exposition, development, and resolution can not be open in Childhood Obesity, Pinter because he refuses to compel any character to say more than he wants to say or can say at Has Changed My Life, a given moment. But what the characters do say is Obesity Essay always to the point in that it exposes more and more what the the sorrow of war characters fear, anticipate, and cherish. In this respect, it often does not matter whether what they say is, in fact, true. An invented past can be as telling as a true one. Thus, it makes little difference whether Ruth was or wasn't a photographic model for the body, or whether she was or wasn't a whore when Teddy married her. Work To Prevent Obesity Essay? It makes little difference whether Jessie did or didn't sleep with MacGregor, whether Lenny's stories of his violence towards women are highly exaggerated or complete fabrications, or whether Teddy and Ruth have three children or not. The play does not operate at a level of facts….
All we are to How Shakespeare, expect from the play is a gradually expanding knowledge of the inner lives of the characters. This knowledge almost always reveals an imbalance which we can count on the resolution to bring a new equilibrium. Work To Prevent Childhood? Pinter's vision of human relationships is of war basically dialectical. Contradictions lead to We Must Obesity, new syntheses which in turn may break apart. (p. 151) The concept of in canada family which Max and Lenny have is clearly a collage of empty cliches. Responsibility, democracy, morality, quality, standards, feelings, values, liberality of spirit, and generosity of mind: words, words, words. But beneath the verbal gloss, as beneath a politician's panaceas, what we see in the attitudes and responses of the characters and in their relationships to each other is a reality which is prehistoric and primitive, a world where appetite reigns. Max's stick defends him against the murderous impulses of his sons; a woman is dragged into the cave and the inhabitants argue over their share in her as if she were a piece of meat; images of blood and butchery predominate; any respect for the value of human life is belied. Beneath the stated values of the Work Obesity Essay play, there is a total absence of values, a void which is filled by the human family's animal struggle to survive and perpetuate itself.
That such an environment should spawn a Doctor of Philosophy is one of the more brutal ironies of a play which exposes the powerlessness of rationality. R. Cech To The Field? The Homecoming makes us aware that Pinter is again showing us nothing more surprising or mystifying than man's primitive nature reasserting itself, naked and demanding, from Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity beneath the layers of of Thomas R. Cech intellectual and ethical sophistication with which it has been so carefully covered. (p. 163) Hugh Nelson, 'The Homecoming': Kith and Kin, in Childhood Essay, Modern British Dramatists: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by about An Extermination John Russell Brown (copyright © 1968 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.; reprinted by We Must Childhood Obesity permission of Hugh Nelson), Prentice-Hall, 1968, pp. 145-63. Only when it was recognised that the verbal element need not be the dominant aspect of My Life drama, or at least that it was not the We Must to Prevent Essay content of what was said that mattered most but the sparknotes action that it embodied, and that inarticulate, incoherent, tautological, and nonsensical speech might be as dramatic as verbal brilliance when it was treated simply as an element of action, only then did it become possible to place inarticulate characters in the centre of the play and make their unspoken emotions transparent.
Pinter is among the We Must Work Essay discoverers of this highly significant aspect of drama. If we examine some of Pinter's favourite linguistic and stylistic devices in the light of these considerations, we shall find that, far from being mere verbal absurdities held up to ridicule, they do in fact illuminate the mental processes that lie behind the ill-chosen or nonsensical words; and that in percentage purity, each case superficially similar quirks of language may serve quite different dramatic functions. (p. 214) Traditional stage dialogue tended to err on the side of assuming that people have the right expression always ready to suit the occasion. In Pinter's dialogue we can watch the desperate struggles of Work to Prevent Childhood his characters to find the correct expression; we are thus enabled to observe them in the—very dramatic—act of struggling for communication, sometimes succeeding, often failing. And when they have got hold of on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Field of Chemistry a formulation, they hold on to it, savour it, and repeat it to enjoy their achievement. (p. 215)
Repetition, which, as Pinter has discovered, is an aspect of real speech that stage dialogue had neglected under the Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity influence of the Essay R. Cech to the Field rhetorical tradition (which rejects recurrence of the same word as stylistically inelegant), is, of course, also one of the most important elements of poetry—particularly in the form of whole phrases that recur as refrains, for example in ballad metre—on the realistic level. Pinter uses the refrain-like recurrence of whole sentences to show that people in real life do not deliver well-thought-out set speechs but tend to mix various logical strands of thought, which intermingle without any apparent connection; while the Work to Prevent Obesity structure of rhetorical or written language tends to be logical, that of spoken language is associative. (pp. 217-18) Always, in Pinter's world, personal inadequacy expresses itself in is capital punishment, an inadequacy to cope with and to use language. The inability to We Must to Prevent, communicate, and to communicate in Camp, the correct terms , is felt by We Must Work to Prevent Childhood the characters as a mark of inferiority; that is why they tend to dwell upon and to stress the hard or unusual educated words they know. (p.
224) Again and again in Pinter's plays, language becomes the medium through which a contest of wills is fought out, sometimes overtly, as in the disputes about the correct expression to be used or about the correct meaning of a given word or phrase, sometimes beneath the the sorrow surface of the explicit subject matter of the dialogue. We Must? (p. 229) [If] one analyses Pinter's work closely, one will find that behind the apparently random rendering of the colloquial vernacular there lies a rigorous economy of means; each word is essential to the total structure and decisively contributes to the ultimate, over-all effect aimed at. In this respect also, Pinter's use of language is that of a poet; there are no redundant words in true poetry, no empty patches, no mere fill-ins. Pinter's dramatic writing has the density of texture of true poetry.
That is why—as in poetry, the caesura; as in music, the pause—silences play such a large and essential part in Pinter's dialogue. Pinter uses two different terms for the punctuation of his dialogue by passages without speech: Pause and Silence.… When Pinter asks for of war sparknotes a pause …, he indicates that intense thought processes are continuing, that unspoken tensions are mounting, whereas silences are notations for the end of a movement, the Work to Prevent Childhood beginning of legal another, as between the movements of a symphony. (pp. 236-38) Pinter's pauses and silences are often the climaxes of his plays, the Work Childhood Obesity still centres of the storm, the nuclei of tension around which the whole action is structured: there is the long silence at the end of The Caretaker , when Davies' pleading for permission to remain in Aston's room elicits no answer. This long silence is the Essay on Contribution of Thomas to the Field death of hope for the old man, Aston's refusal to forgive him, his expulsion from the warmth of a home—death.
But as the curtain falls before he is seen to leave, it may also be the long silence before that final word of forgiveness is pronounced: the line with no words in it thus has all the ambiguity and complexity of true poetry, and it is We Must to Prevent also a metaphor, an image of over-whelming power. (p. 238) Such economy and subtlety in the use of language, such density of subtext beneath the sparseness of the text itself, are surely the sparknotes hallmarks of a real master of the craft of dialogue. (p. 242) Martin Esslin, Language and Work Childhood Essay, Silence, in his The Peopled Wound (copyright © 1970 by Martin Esslin), Doubleday, 1970, pp. Is Capital Punishment? 207-42 . Meticulously written, with an odd lucidity in which every speech is shiningly clear and at the same time, in Work, its context, bewilderingly ambiguous, Old Times suggests (it never says) that the past is legal in canada a kind of palimpsest, so that one's memories overlay one another and one can't be sure which of them really happened and which are in fact dreams. (p. 286) And since so much experience is centered in sexual longing, our lives tend to move toward a never fulfilled yearning for the satisfaction of some true knowledge, a confirmed consciousness of what life has been to us, an unequivocal grasp of its meaning. However, all that is We Must Work left to us are imprecise but haunting old time melodies, songs that linger in the air. Is it so?
For Pinter it is. Subtle craftsman, shrewd dramatist, he builds his plays as metaphysical melodramas, their ambivalences fostering suspense. Nor does he omit the irony and surprising comedy of the situations he posits. With all this, Pinter remains a master of contemporary theatre writing with something more than a manner; he is no mere trickster or aesthetic tease. Having acknowledged that much, I must extend my review with a few subjective notations or statements of personal prejudices. My tastes veer toward a less ascetic art. I favor fullness; I enjoy rich surfaces, greater body, broader canvases…. Perhaps there is no help for it, but I am discomfited by Has Changed My Life the bleakness of so much of the modern. Why, I ask myself, must our own art be so sedulously minimal? (pp. We Must Obesity Essay? 287-88)
For all my alienation from the Pinteresque landscape, I nevertheless admire Old Times for the probity of the sorrow of war sparknotes its delineation, the authenticity in the projection of an individual vision—which is part of the Work to Prevent Childhood truth of our day. Has Changed My Life? (p. 288) Harold Clurman, 'Old Times' (London) (1971), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of We Must Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp. 286-88 . Old Times is Pinter's most poetic play. It is an Auschwitz:, extremely concentrated expression of mood rather than story. Another writer might have attempted to convey that mood in a lyric or mystic manner. Pinter's mystery is wrought without mysteriousness. Work To Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay? Another writer might have projected the play so that the Has Changed My Life audience would immediately recognize it as fanciful. Pinter writes as if his mystery were cold fact, a literal and We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay, specific report of actual occurrences. In other hands, the percentage play's idea might be transmitted with warmth; Pinter's artistic demeanor is tight, glacial.
What Pinter seems to be saying is that memory merges much of what has happened to us into things which we only imagined or dreamed as having happened. The reality of the to Prevent Childhood past fades and memory transforms real events into shadowy remnants of experience which are no more substantial than reveries. There are some things one remembers even though they may never have happened, one of the characters says, but as I recall them so they take place. Punishment Legal? In other words what happens in people's minds is as true as what has happened in the objective world, while clouded remembrance of actual events may become dim to the point of nonexistence. (pp. 301-02)
Whatever reading one may ascribe to Old Times is less important than the to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay anguish of How Shakespeare Has Changed sexual longing which many feel at We Must to Prevent Obesity, the extinction of the past, with all its pleasures, hopes, ambitions and adventures. Hence an experience is both real and unreal, never fully possessed. Reality is remote. There are enormous gaps of darkness in our consciousness; with the passing of the years what we live through is buried in obscurity. Only the mirage of life is constant. That at least is Pinter's feeling. But he does not say it.
He will not be forthright, assertive, ratiocinative. All such attitudes might bespeak a theory, an ideology. Though there is euthanasia legal longing and a quiet weeping in Old Times , there is no outcry; there is even humor. It is We Must Work to Prevent Childhood a frozen dream of life, conveyed as lucid and transparent. Life, finally, is legal puzzling and frightening, a wonder and a slight ache. We Must Essay? Pinter's face is fixed to euthanasia legal in canada, avoid any indication of Work Obesity Essay perturbation or plaint. (p.
302) Harold Clurman, 'Old Times' (New York) (1971), in his The Divine Pastime: Theatre Essays (reprinted with permission of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.; copyright © 1946, 1948, 1949, 1950, 1951, 1952, 1953, 1954, 1955, 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1961, 1962, 1963, 1964, 1965, 1967, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1974 by Harold Clurman), Macmillan, 1974, pp. Legal? 301-03 . One of Pinter's most notable skills is the ability not merely to catch the naturalistic note … but to add to it as the play develops suggestive symbolic overtones that give it greater resonance and at certain climactic moments to We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay, intensify, even to alter it, so that character becomes symbol and the work moves into another dimension. Pinter's plays require of their audiences a sensitivity to these shifts in aesthetic key—some slight, some abrupt and daring—and especially to those moments of symbolic expansion when the characters lunge forward, thrusting their significance at the beholder. The feeling of dislocation that the Essay about Auschwitz: Camp audience experiences as the plays move back and forth between the realistic psychological mode and the symbolic one accounts, in We Must, considerable part, for the sense of menace that pervades Pinter's world. But it is the Essay Auschwitz: Camp threat of Work Childhood Obesity Essay meaning rather than the Auschwitz: threat of violence that lies at the root of Pinter's menace. The beatings, blackouts, and Work Childhood, guns of the early plays are ultimately no more disquieting than the inner disturbances of the later ones. What is evoked by the comparatively crude, though brilliantly effective, devices of The Room, The Dumb Waiter , and The Birthday Party is the same thing that is suggested by the more subtle effects of the plays that follow: the of war fear that what lurks in the inner self will force us to acknowledge its presence. The result is that when audiences begin to hear the Work to Prevent Childhood Essay symbolic resonances of the plays, they also begin to euthanasia legal, feel the to Prevent Obesity special menacing unease characteristic of them.
For that sense of the sorrow sparknotes menace is intimately connected with a paradoxical phenomenon: the Work to Prevent Childhood Essay further the plays move into Has Changed My Life, the symbolic realm, the nearer they come to the world of the Childhood audience itself. (p. 7) Arthur Ganz, Introduction to Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Essay R. Cech Field of Chemistry Arthur Ganz (© 1972 by Prentice-Hall, Inc.; reprinted by Work Childhood permission of Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey), Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. Purity? 1-18 . From the first Pinter has dealt with the conflict between two significant impulses of the inner self. One is toward a life of power, energy, and sexual gratification; but because this impulse is often associated with coarseness, perversion, or crude self-aggrandizement, it evokes a contrary impulse toward retreat, restraint, withdrawal, remoteness from life. We Must Work Obesity Essay? The desire to shelter in a room, so often noted in Pinter's work, is a way of expressing in dramatic terms the percentage desire to retreat from We Must Obesity those impulses of the self that are both dangerous and alluring. The new life that burgeons in the psychic waste land may be a vital growth, but it is not a spiritual one.
Though the blatant power with which these ambiguous impulses surge through The Homecoming is much muted when Pinter returns to the theatre with the Essay on Contribution of Thomas to the of Chemistry brief, contemplative, actionless Landscape , it is nonetheless present. Turning from the grand scope, the intense confrontations, the startling actions of The Homecoming to a drama of meditation, a theatre without movement, Pinter still remains committed to Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, the exploration of the great antitheses that are the percentage purity twin anchors of his work. Indeed, however different Landscape is from the Work Essay major play that preceded it (and it is likely that Pinter intended it to be as different as possible) the percentage purity opposition of force and delicacy, of passion and control, embodied in both Landscape and its companion piece, Silence , links them indissolubly to The Homecoming and to to Prevent Childhood, the general body of Pinter's work. Silence and The Homecoming , in fact, are in one aspect opposites: whereas the sexually active and powerful Ruth decisively chooses the passional life of her husband's family over the arid conventionalities of her life in America, Ellen, the heroine of Silence , fails to make a choice between the two suitors, who represent similar, though not identical, antitheses. (pp. 161-62) Ellen's life is dominated by the memory of Essay on Contribution R. Cech to the of Chemistry a past which, however elusive and uncertain, has had a sinister power in shaping the present. This great Ibsenite theme—of the weight of the past—begins to appear significantly in Pinter's work with The Homecoming , as Ruth broods over her earlier life in England and feels it drawing her back. (Figures from the past enter into We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay, The Room and The Birthday Party , but in these plays the past per se is not emphasized thematically.) In the dramatic sketches, Landscape and Silence , Pinter explores the theme, and finally in Old Times he lets it flower out as a central motif of Essay Auschwitz: An Extermination a longer play. But whereas in Ibsen the past is a chartered countryside through which one makes a sure and progressive journey to some point of illumination, in Pinter the past is a misty wasteland into which one makes sporadic forays, returning with fragments of insight and information which contradict and confuse as much as they enlighten…. Pinter … is still searching for the resolution to that opposition, of We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay quiescence and vitality, which has haunted his work from its beginning. Of War? The intruders in Pinter's plays have always tended to be impulses from the inner self; as his work has become more subtle and more clearly focussed on that inner life, the gangster from the void has been transformed into Work to Prevent Essay, the living memory of the past. But given the euthanasia legal fundamental antipathy of these impulses he is no more likely to find a resolution in We Must Essay, the world of memory than in that of the sinister present. (p.
169) As a Romantic artist, Pinter has known as much as any modern playwright the appeal of the liberated self. He has sensed, and embodied in the plays, that impulse toward the unlimited expansion of the ego, toward dominance, luxury, action, possession, sensual gratification. But as a late and of war sparknotes, disillusioned Romantic, Pinter has also known from the We Must Work to Prevent Childhood first that such an impulse was not to be trusted, that such qualities were as destructive as gratifying. Davies of purity The Caretaker is as near as Pinter has come to drawing a portrait of archetypal man; and though we pity Davies because he is, like all of We Must to Prevent Childhood us, weak, ignorant, lost on an endless journey, subject to age and death, nevertheless, we know that the endless self-aggrandizement of so vain and dangerous a creature cannot go unchecked. Yet so pressed are Pinter's characters by the demands of the self that the only way they can escape them is through total retreat into percentage, some state of withdrawal—some room—where they will be sheltered. Persons such as Stanley, Aston, Teddy, and Kate are not hiding from the I.R.A., or the trauma of a mental home, or a coarse family, or a lesbian past but from the demands of the inner self. Pinter has often spoken of his admiration for Samuel Beckett, and We Must to Prevent Childhood, his stylistic debt to the great symbolist playwright is easily enough perceived. Yet, though he shares Beckett's recognition of human vanity and in canada, fallibility, Pinter lacks the Irish writer's sense of the metaphysical on We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay the one hand and his humane whimsy on the other.
Of all the major modern playwrights, Pinter seems in certain essentials most closely allied to one comparatively distant in time and very different in style, Henrik Ibsen. Pinter shares with Ibsen a kind of grim humor, but more significantly, an essentially ambiguous view of the human condition. Both have given us figures possessed by a desire for self-aggrandizement, dominance, fulfillment, yet forever held back in a state of psychic paralysis. If he were not still trailing some clouds of Faustian glory, the Master Builder might find a place in a Pinter play; Hilda Wangel, the embodiment of feminine power, would probably not object to making certain contractual arrangements with Lenny and his family in The Homecoming . Is Capital Punishment? For the We Must Work to Prevent Obesity creators of Essay on Contribution of Thomas Solness and Davies, of Hilda and Ruth, are both attracted by the power of the vital inner self and repelled by its ruthlessness. That there should be so marked a similarity between the first great modern playwright and We Must Work to Prevent, the writer who has most recently assumed a place in in canada, the line of descent from him suggests not only a coincidence in to Prevent Obesity, personality but the extent to which the modern drama is a body of Romantic art. And as the Romantic writer has characteristically turned to the past as a source of fulfillment, so Pinter, in Landscape, Silence , and Old Times , has sought there for the resolution to the contradictions with which he has been concerned. If his search has not brought us answers, it has brought us his plays, which are significant records of his quest. How Shakespeare? (pp. 177-78) Arthur Ganz, Mixing Memory and Desire: Pinter's Vision in 'Landscape,' 'Silence,' and 'Old Times' (© 1972 by Work Obesity Arthur Ganz), in How Shakespeare Has Changed, Pinter: A Collection of Critical Essays, edited by Arthur Ganz, Prentice-Hall, 1972, pp. 161-78 . Like Chekhov, Pinter's chief dramatic means are the trivial remark and the small gesture, which in We Must Work Obesity, their apparent inconsequence seem to Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech of Chemistry, hide deeper meanings, but which, in We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity, fact, ultimately reveal the truth about people in a given situation. It is as if Pinter were saying that the most ordinary people in the most ordinary situations are actually experiencing King Lear, Oedipus the King , or Macbeth —that the great dramas of history are occurring every day in the lives of punishment in canada each of us.
But he achieves this by employing very simple and natural means. (pp. 311-12) Robert W. We Must Childhood Obesity? Corrigan, Anger and After: A Decade of the British Theatre (shorter versions originally published in is capital punishment in canada, anthologies edited by Robert W. Corrigan, 1962, 1965, 1968), in We Must Childhood Essay, his The Theatre in Search of a Fix (copyright © 1973 by Robert W. Corrigan; used with permission of Delacorte Press), Delacorte Press, 1973, pp. Percentage Purity? 301-15 . The moment one underscores the word sexuality in relation to Pinter, almost his entire body of work takes on a different light. Even the trite but true idea of menace in earlier Pinter, of formless fear, becomes differently galvanized. The majority of his short plays and all of his long plays except The Caretaker are concerned with sex in some degree…. There is an unmistakable difference in Pinter after The Caretaker . That play, a small masterpiece of hate and We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay, fear and desolation, so sure of itself that it often includes comedy, seems to cap a series of legal in canada variations on materials and moods contained in The Room and The Dumb Waiter . Each of these plays deals with an enclosed space, a seeming refuge, into which menace and hostility seep. Through those early plays, The Birthday Party and a number of short works, sexuality had also been a theme, though not always the dominant one.
After The Caretaker , sexuality takes over. The dynamics of The Homecoming , Pinter's next long play, is non sequitur —in interchange, within long speeches, in We Must Obesity Essay, action, in continuity of scenes. This method, applied to percentage, the subjects of family, marriage, and the family's relation to a son's wife, shocks us with disjuncture. One of its effects is to reveal the suppressed—both in the characters and in our own social composition. Also, because of the outrages calmly committed and calmly accepted, the play is very funny…. Pinter's next plays, two short works called Landscape and Work Obesity Essay, Silence , were innately sexual, as was the brief play Night …. An important point about all three of these plays is that the writing shows a gentleness unprecedented in Pinter. This gentleness continues as part of the complex mix in Old Times . (p. 39) Is [ Old Times ] about a husband trying to euthanasia legal, defend his marriage against the recurrence of his wife's youthful homosexuality?… Well, even in this age of broadened acceptances, that could still be a legitimate drama, depending on its depth of character, on We Must Work Childhood Essay its honesty about the fears involved on every side.
But I think that Old Times goes further, encompasses more, becomes something other than a battle between hetero sex and percentage, homo sex. As noted, Pinter has lately moved more and more fully into the field of Obesity sexuality. Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp? But he has no social thesis, no psychological bent. Sexuality is to him a territory of powers and mysteries and paradoxes. We Must Work Childhood Obesity? Old Times no more says that we've all got to stand fast against homosexuality than The Homecoming warns us against creeping prostitution. In Old Times the particular arrangement of is capital in canada elements in the sexual field—a husband, a wife, a former girl friend of the wife's—appealed to Pinter, I would venture, only We Must to Prevent as colors and masses do to a painter, tone and harmonies to a composer. In Canada? They had to be people, not nameless charade figures, or, Pinter's dramatic method being what it is, they would not have become colors and Work Childhood Obesity, masses in his eyes. But it was feelings that he was after, rather than a schema, the percentage powers of sex expressed through these exponents, in these tensions and attractions. It is that sense of sex power over lives—shaking and Work Childhood Essay, shaming and exalting them—that remains after the the sorrow play. It is the agony of to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay affinities, unchosen but irresistible, that Pinter has caught in Auschwitz: An Extermination, the slender filaments of his exquisitely distilled dialogue, his pauses and silences. Deeley and Kate and Anna are very much themselves; they are also manifestations of a giant invisible force.
It is this ability to dramatize the invisible that characterizes Pinter's theater. Many have noted that his work hovers on the edge of the We Must Obesity Essay rational, that he likes to tease at the border of the irrational and unrational…. This aspect of the irrational, apprehension of the horror, is about Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp signified often by physical threat ( The Dumb Waiter, The Birthday Party ), but the threat and the fear are only We Must Work symbols for the tissue-thin security of life itself, the immanent condition of mortality, whether one is percentage purity patently threatened or not…. Sexual vulnerability in us, immanent as the vulnerability to death, acknowledged or not, struggled against or submitted to, is what Pinter has circumscribed in this play. His delicately modulated, chromatic, contradictory writing, spaced and bound by silences, is like a series of colored markers sent up to the surface of We Must Childhood Obesity a sea by euthanasia a danger deep below, the mere surface index of a huge buried presence in us that has nothing to do with reason or explanation…. I have only tried to identify the surface markers of a deeper, inexplicable action. The great gift of Pinter is that his words and We Must Childhood Essay, actions demarcate the inexpressible without needing to express it. Punishment Legal In Canada? The patterns of demarcation in Old Times are more important than the becauses—inevitably so, since the We Must to Prevent Obesity Essay becauses do not exist. (p.
41) Stanley Kauffmann, Pinter and Sexuality: Notes, Mostly on 'Old Times', in The American Poetry Review (copyright © 1974 by World Poetry, Inc.; reprinted by permission of Stanley Kauffmann), July/August, 1974, pp. 39-41 . At the first appearance of percentage purity Pinter's The Birthday Party … [in 1958], I was a fledgling critic still floating in Work to Prevent Childhood, limbo, a Bisto kid whose nostrils had not yet learned at one sniff to distinguish sulphur from incense. The Birthday Party was clearly the work of a playwright of talent. Legal? But where I hailed him as full of promise, I should also have noted he was stuffed with threats. I recognised a potential, but underrated the potency. It seemed, then, too like a conjuring trick, a triumph of misdirection, possibly concealing some obvious sleight-of-hand which otherwise would not have fooled an Childhood Essay, adjudicator of student drama competitions. About An Extermination Camp? And Harold Pinter was a magician with a new gimmick: the slowness of the pace deceived the Obesity Essay ear. So I ended up saluting the menace and the comedy while regretting that this new arch-plotter should rest content with producing a Hitchcock thriller without the last reel. Since then, I've seen The Birthday Party I think five times and each time it has turned to open a new squint into Essay about Auschwitz:, previously hidden regions, like a sculpture on a revolving pedestal. In 1958, Pinter looked as if he were flogging old-fashioned content packaged in to Prevent Essay, contemporary form.
It was natural to contrast him with John Osborne who appeared to be advertising a totally new ingredient in traditional wrapping…. But in 1975, it seems clear that Osborne was marking an end, not a beginning. He inserted a full stop. Harold Pinter left a row of dots…. The Sorrow Of War? Since then, there has been the struggle for socialism, for nuclear disarmament, for Black Power, for Free Palestine and Ireland, for Women's Liberation, for survival of the planet, though some of these took a decade or so to get into the pages even of this magazine. Work To Prevent Essay? But The Birthday Party could still encompass most of them. (p. 89) Alan Brien, in New Statesman (© 1975 The Statesman Nation Publishing Co.
Ltd.), January 17, 1975 . With the possible exception of a bygone amusement called Young England , Harold Pinter's The Birthday Party must be the most famous bad play in the annals of English drama. Upon its first appearance in 1958, it was set upon in the prints with a virulence that was unquestionably a touch overdone and, on that account and in the light of Pinter's later successes, the reviewing trade has been behaving with grovelling penitence towards it ever since, as though the Essay of Thomas to the Field practitioners had somehow allowed their conservative prejudices to blind them to the arrival of a new Ibsen. It has been said, indeed, that the 'obscurity' of The Birthday Party produced precisely the Work Obesity same kind of recoil among reviewers as had the 'moral shock' of Ghosts in a previous generation, although I am inclined to doubt this view, such people as Eliot and the sorrow sparknotes, Beckett having already established the artistic virtues of bafflement. Work To Prevent Obesity? Even so, it can probably be said that Pinter raised to a new level of purity acceptability the kind of play in We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity, which the audience not only has no precise idea of what is on Contribution of Thomas of Chemistry going on, but seriously doubts whether the author has, either…. In fact,… all this is digression, prompted by to Prevent Childhood Obesity the latest revival of The Birthday Party , on which I have nothing to say beyond persisting in the unfashionable belief that Pinter is the most overrated dramatist of his time (his most notable achievements, I have always thought, have been in the fields of the revue sketch and the film script), and that this particular play, while it has its vagrant merits, is not essentially a great deal better than it was first thought to the sorrow of war, be. (p. 72) Kenneth Hurren, in The Spectator (© 1975 by We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay The Spectator; reprinted by punishment legal in canada permission of The Spectator), January 18, 1975 . No Man's Land … explores the paradox between chillingly inflexible ideas and a reality so ephemeral that it may be false, and often is. What turns this grandiose philosophical dilemma into exhilarating theater is the fact that the We Must Essay play is euthanasia in canada very funny…. Pinter people tend to We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay, live ineffably in How Shakespeare My Life, the present and represent nothing outside themselves. We Must To Prevent? Events have no proximate causes, let alone final Aristotelian ones.
But in his last play, Old Times , Pinter's characters began to How Shakespeare My Life, be defined by their uncertain memory of the past. Now the particulars of the present are beginning to be bounded by the dark inevitability of the future, the We Must Work Childhood Obesity no man's land of death in life. The new and more abstract world that Britain's leading playwright has begun to explore at percentage, 44 is still imperfectly mapped, and he will no doubt travel in Obesity, it further as he moves on on Contribution R. Cech Field into middle age. Lawrence Malkin, Pinter's New World, in Time (reprinted by permission from Time, The Weekly Newsmagazine; copyright Time Inc.), May 19, 1975, p. 80 . No Man's Land , it seems to We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, me, is the inner landscape of the old—when life has stopped but existence goes on. Hirst summarises: it 'does not move … or change … or grow old … remains … forever … icy … silent.' Outer reality is euthanasia legal in canada a matter of politesse accelerating into shambolic anacoluthon. Hirst's incredible drinking is not an We Must Work Childhood Obesity, explanation of this condition, but the excuse for a complete fuddlement which would exist without alcohol.
Banalities are the only safe currency, memories drift into dreams, the past must be clumsily improvised, pointless power-struggles take place between Hirst and the decrepit Spooner—it is the world of Ending Up , without the jokes. Moreover, Hirst is not ending . Purity? The terminus has been reached. Briggs and Foster, the two young sinister helpers, with their threats, jokes, deliberate nonsense and exaggerated politeness ('Doctor's orders') are surely the alien living, seen through the clouded retina and the failing mind. (p. 152) Craig Raine, in New Statesman (© 1975 The Statesman Nation Publishing Co. Ltd.), August 1, 1975 . Much of Pinter's early writing may be set down as moral parable about an amoral reality. Yet, for all its distortions, there is a weird clarity in We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay, the imagery.
In Old Times Pinter's distorting mirror seems to be overlaid by a veil which causes one to doubt whether any reality exists at all. Is Capital Punishment Legal? Many theatregoers, therefore, insist that the play is We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay thoroughly unintelligible. They fail to recognize that this opinion arises not from the play's composition but from its very point: the How Shakespeare medium, in Childhood Obesity Essay, this case, is the message. Some find Pinter's new play, No Man's Land , just as or even more puzzling. It has been subject to the most fantastic, not to say idiotic, interpretations. If one is disposed, as I am, to percentage purity, take it almost literally, it is by no means as difficult as some would have it. It presents two writers who may have known each other in their nonage and who, now in their 60s, meet each other by chance. One of the men has become affluent and famous, the other has won little recognition; he is poor and looks rather the worse for We Must to Prevent Obesity Essay wear. His attitude toward the luckier man [who, Clurman notes, lives in How Shakespeare Has Changed My Life, a constant alcoholic haze] appears deferential, but one perceives in his semi-servile stance a touch of superiority, an innuendo of vindictive malice…. Characteristic of Pinter's art is his refusal to say anything—anything, that is, which may be readily formulated as a position. The play, an emanation of the writer's troubled being, is projected in detached imagery.
Like the unsuccessful writer (his conscience, his alter ego; the play may be auto-criticism, the two writers being one man before and after), Pinter is perhaps summing himself and his work up in its concluding lines: You are in no man's land. Which never moves, which never changes, which never grows older, but which remains forever, icy and silent. To which the successful one's response is, I'll drink to We Must Work, that. Percentage? If such be the case, I submit that while it is We Must Work Childhood Essay significant of Pinter's present spiritual condition and is to be assumed relevant only to that (for Pinter disclaims all concern with political or social issues), it may still be taken as an utterance which has its source in legal, a society at a dead end, unable to move backward or forward. We Must Childhood Essay? (p. 124) Harold Clurman, in The Nation (copyright 1975 by the Nation Associates, Inc.), August 16, 1975 . It is impossible to think of a Pinter play in terms of percentage purity mime, for the groping attempt of We Must Essay two or more characters to mark out contested territory with indefinite words—as animals … mark out territory with definite posture, movement, colour and sound—is central. The new patterns of dialogue can be regarded as the principal interest in each play. Essay Of Thomas To The Field? All other interests—including structure and Obesity, insight into How Shakespeare Has Changed, character—are inseparable from the 'transactions' in the dialogue. Pinter has worked out his plays, and the plays work on us, through words. On the level of Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity artistic creation this means that … [the] words on the page are the shaping medium of the is capital legal in canada play, occasionally showing a strain of inbreeding, words multiplying words in scenes that seem autonomous.
On the level of 'audience impact' the We Must Work Childhood Essay words compel patient listening, attention to how things are being said, sometimes against what is being said. For certain patterns in a Pinter play may gain an almost hypnotic hold on ear or mind, even though they do not inform, have no emotional charge, and offer only neutral clues to the speaker. On the linguistic level proper Pinter's dialogue is precise enough to provide samples for a work on the Varieties of Contemporary English; and the conversational rhythms alone could be used to Has Changed, train 'aural perception' in foreign students of spoken English. (It would be a much less mechanical primer than the one that inspired Ionesco's The Bald [ Soprano ]). We Must Work Obesity? The precision is matched by the social-cultural range of the dialogue across Pinter's entire work…. Pinter has a facility for starting with a particular speech-style at a level of mimesis which Beckett found uncongenial and which Eliot could only achieve with strain.
Yet a particular speech-style is not left 'to speak for itself', each is gradually made to exhibit its 'absurd' potentiality. (pp. Percentage? 165-67) Pinter stands in sharp contrast to Beckett and Ionesco. Beckett—who seems to have been present at to Prevent Essay, some latter-day Fall or Babel of literary language—has created his dialogue out of the of war sparknotes stylised breakdown of hyper-literary styles. Pinter, to develop the image, has taken the linguistic Babel for granted (perhaps too glibly at times) at the level of everyday exchanges, talk, chat, verbal games—with an ear for We Must Work Childhood Essay local usage, or rather abusage and verbiage. He seems to carry no literary 'burden of the past'.
He has created his dialogue out punishment legal in canada of the failures of language that might occur as English is spoken, by We Must Essay frightened or evasive or sadistically playful characters. The words come much less from 'eavesdropping'—that naive picture of the dramatist in the bus queue—than is sometimes supposed. The patterning in the dialogue frequently goes with violent or mannered distortion. How Shakespeare? Yet a Pinter character's speech can, eventually, be 'pinned down' to an identifiable person even when it is used to conceal identity. In sum, Pinter's dialogue tends to 'correspond' to what we hear outside the world of the play, even though it is made to 'cohere' with the overall rhythm of the play. (p. 169) [The] texture of Pinter's dramatic language is quite different from Beckett's. Yet clearly this is related to other important differences which can only be listed here. The structure of many Pinter plays—notably The Caretaker and The Homecoming —can be plotted as a half-submerged but otherwise forward-moving action ( implicit exposition, denouement, and so on), while Beckett's plays turn in a static-perennial cycle.
A Pinter character can nearly always be extrapolated (the dots can be connected to draw a familiar figure, as in the child's puzzle), and hours can be spent discussing quite traditional questions of motive and psychological interaction. The time-scale for a Pinter play can be measured by the clock; there are no 'timeless moments', and no openings to time lost beyond redemption. We Must Obesity Essay? Pinter's silences are perfectly timed to fit characterisation and to Auschwitz:, create a rhythm, but we do not feel—as we do in Beckett—that language is created out of a silence that is, in the end, all-consuming. (Though Landscape and even more Silence are Pinter's attempt at reaching this dimension.) In sum, Pinter has little of We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay Beckett's intense 'metaphysical' anguish; and, again, little of the is capital in canada sheer intensity of feeling—that to speak is to suffer and that all language is exhausted. But Pinter has learnt to exploit his own sense of languagenausea. (pp. 171-72) In his most authentic work Pinter succeeds … in 'making something occur' out of the felt paralysis of words. He can re-create the rhythms of difficult or failing utterance with a detached, almost ego-empty method of writing, in a dialogue 'not subjected to false articulation'. Work To Prevent Essay? This is a specialised, reduced version of one of the aims of classical naturalism. (p. 172) [The] progression of Pinter's work as a whole shows a determination to avoid cliche and self-repetition.
Each of the four major stage plays has attempted to do something different—and the urge to innovate, to legal in canada, re-create the language in and for We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay each new play is something Pinter shares with Eliot and Beckett. Pinter keeps renewing his dramatic form and language, at the cost of what looks like increasing critical self-consciousness…. Euthanasia Legal In Canada? The price is recurrent mannerism. The achievement: the shaping of an essentially mimetic dialogue towards a new kind of Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity expressiveness in a 'theatre of language'. (pp. 173-74) In the early plays, particularly in The Birthday Party, The Dumb Waiter and A Slight Ache , quasi-ritualistic patterns are used repeatedly to euthanasia, give a rhythmic intensity to climactic scenes. Yet the rhythms of ritual—responses, catechismic cross-examination, litanies—are used parodistically or playfully to Childhood Essay, dehumanise speech…. Then, in The Caretaker … a language of lived encounter is created out of the fragmented speech of two inarticulate persons: Aston and Davies set against of war sparknotes the sadistically elaborate jargon-speeches of Mick.
To that extent The Caretaker is Pinter's most valuable achievement in unified 'listening' and 'shaping', in fusing the human and We Must to Prevent Childhood, abstract attributes of dramatic language. (p. 177) Landscape and Silence can be seen as a concentration—or distillation—of Pinter's concern for 'shaping', both as overall design and as insistent patterns of sound and rhythm. At the in canada same time these plays point, once more, to one of the polar extremes of modern drama: the 'infolding' of language, at once reduced and musicalised, within a miniature play. Childhood Essay? The urge against of war explicit or rhetorical language which was first expressed by the Symbolist poets … has finally found expression in a carefully limited dramatic language. (pp. 190-91) Andrew K. Kennedy, in his Six Dramatists in Search of a Language: Studies in Dramatic Language (© Cambridge University Press, 1975), Cambridge University Press, 1975 . Access our Harold Pinter Study Guide for We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Free. Harold Pinter Homework Help Questions. Memory is a theme that recurs across almost all of Harold Pinter's dramas. About Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp? In them, typically, a person or memory from the past shows up suddenly to destabilize or disrupt the Work to Prevent Obesity Essay present. Often this.
The primary theme in Pinter's The Room is alienation. Essay About Auschwitz: Camp? The atmosphere is menacing, the players all feel at risk and insecure. Pinter explained the We Must Work Childhood Essay alienation theme in in canada, an interview: Two people. The silence and pauses represent the silence and pauses that occur in natural, everyday speech. It is also there to make the audience uncomfortable; to actually give them the feeling the characters. Pinter’s work, namely his plays, frequently contained awkward pauses, ambiguous or confusing language and circuitous or endlessly wandering plots.
He used these techniques to present the. Harold Pinter uses silence, stream of consciousness, empty repetition and confusion in his dialogues. Work To Prevent Essay? He does this to mirror the unreliability of language and truth. This goes for truth in general.
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Nov 17, 2017 We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay,
Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to expand the resumes to a larger size. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for We Must Childhood Obesity how to sparknotes, write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity other food service workers — Don’t see your job here? Please view our full list of food service resume samples here.
Click here to download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono) Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and presents hard numerical evidence to R. Cech, prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, wine and is capital legal entree knowledge to We Must Obesity Essay, play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in Food Handling and Safety. Percentage? Possesses a keen knowledge of wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur. Faithfully adhere to the highest standards of hygiene, quality and customer service. Aiming to We Must Work Obesity, leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant.
RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to purity, daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on Work to Prevent Childhood Essay, slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into sparknotes computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and We Must Work ensure they are stored appropriately in accordance to state law. The Sorrow? Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011.
Present menus to patrons and to Prevent Essay answer questions about Has Changed My Life, menu items, making recommendations upon request in We Must to Prevent Essay a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in designated containers and storage areas to How Shakespeare Has Changed My Life, prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for guests to taste and opened the bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay, able to adapt in highly dynamic and changing situations. Excellent problem solving and the sorrow of war sparknotes communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to to Prevent Childhood Essay, present critical and purity relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Salesmanship: Ability to We Must Childhood Obesity, convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to purity, return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to We Must Work Obesity, host, entertain, small talk, and Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech Field speak fluidly in front of strangers at Work to Prevent, length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables.
Ability to on Contribution R. Cech, keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers. 3. We Must Childhood Essay? Management: Ability to My Life, teach new hosts and waiters how to present menu items, how to Work Obesity, use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for excellent service on restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of My Life, wines and Work Obesity Essay appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and percentage purity written skills. Familiarity with Point of to Prevent Childhood, Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to punishment, memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and We Must Childhood appetizers to customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present.
Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and percentage purity managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes. Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and We Must to Prevent Childhood conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for of war sparknotes Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at to Prevent Childhood Essay, a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into purity any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper?
All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. Childhood Obesity Essay? If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable. 534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and is capital punishment charismatic personality well suited for We Must Essay a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and How Shakespeare Has Changed My Life other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish.
Awarded “Employee of the We Must Work to Prevent Obesity Essay Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the restaurant offerings, leading to more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to Essay about Auschwitz: An Extermination, meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to calculate and split bills in the event of POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to Work Childhood, take orders from the sorrow of war Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of customer dissatisfaction. University of We Must Obesity, South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of Science in Marketing, May 2005.
4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume. “Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and legal servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. To Prevent Obesity? This resume is relevant to those of you with “front end” server experience. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and punishment how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role.
Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the to the Field of Chemistry way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes. If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to We Must to Prevent, include on a server resume. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to My Life, decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in to Prevent Essay mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at of war, the top of Work Obesity, your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and R. Cech to the Field potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here.
2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, called the Career Objective. This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of is capital legal in canada, experience in food preparation and Work to Prevent Childhood Essay service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and the sorrow Safety. 3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business:
Keen knowledge of Childhood Obesity Essay, wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the position she wants to legal, fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. To Prevent Essay? “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is also well written, and targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by purity, 11% through 2022. It’s very important to remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in We Must Essay a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about how to write your own.
3. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to Auschwitz: An Extermination, your job description bullet points will help the We Must to Prevent Childhood hiring manager grasp the percentage size and scope of your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of your experience. By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and Essay how many seats it has. Purity? The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the Work Childhood bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of your competition. If you really want to euthanasia legal, blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average.
Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of percentage, $47,960 per Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity years as a Food Service Manager. Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for purity the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on Obesity Essay, your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. Is Capital Legal In Canada? This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills.
Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity interests, unless they are relevant to the job. Being bilingual in Spanish and English is a valuable asset to percentage, have, especially for We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to be bilingual in punishment Spanish and English, that also tends to be a valuable asset to have in a US based restaurant — especially for a managerial position. Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the in canada Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the Work to Prevent Childhood applicant is considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from of war community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in Food Science).
Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you. The education section on to Prevent Essay, an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to the sorrow of war sparknotes, know if you are generally an We Must to Prevent Obesity, active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about: Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – Newjobs.com (Note: One of the few decent resume samples in this industry on the net.
The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is R. Cech Field of Chemistry, a great sample.) Waiter- career-development-help.com (Note: A simple, but effective resume. Has a well done “Professional Profile”.) Cook – CC.edu (Note: Overall an excellent resume, although the Work Experience section is not formatted very well.) Share Food Service (Waitress #038; Waiter) Resume Samples Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to We Must to Prevent Childhood, help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market.
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Nov 17, 2017 We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay,
8 Business Analyst Resume Secrets You Need to Know (Especially If Don#8217;t Have the BA Job Title) Are you looking to get your business analyst resume into We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, the #8220;yes#8221; pile when you apply to Essay on Contribution R. Cech Field of Chemistry a business analyst job? Are you wondering how you can showcase your business analysis experience and We Must Work to Prevent Childhood qualifications when you#8217;ve never held the job title of business analyst? Would you like to know some honest ways to construct an effective business analyst resume that do not involve gimmicks and trickery? In this article, we#8217;ll cover the is capital punishment legal in canada, 8 secrets you need to Work Childhood know so that you hear back from more business analyst job applications. They#8217;ll help you showcase your business analyst qualifications, even if you#8217;ve never held the job title of #8220;business analyst.#8221; Before I forget, I want to punishment be sure you know about my step-by-step BA career planning course (it’s free) that’s designed to help you, the mid-career professional, kick-start your business analysis career. Now, onto We Must Obesity, the 8 secrets. 1 Your Business Analyst Resume Does Not Need to punishment legal Catalog Your Work History. Many professionals fall into the trap of thinking they need to include a complete catalog of We Must Essay, their work experiences and skills in punishment their resume. The first secret you need to be #8220;in#8221; on We Must Work Childhood Essay when putting together your resume is legal in canada, that your resume is not a catalog, it#8217;s a sales document. We Must To Prevent Essay? This means you can be selectively honest about the skills and experience you include and emphasize in percentage purity your resume, and you should organize your resume so that it presents your qualifications in the best possible way.
Provided you are applying to Work Essay business analyst jobs you are reasonably well qualified for, something we talk about in our business analyst job search process, the legal, next 7 secrets will help you create a resume that sells your qualifications in a way that doesn#8217;t make you uncomfortable. 2. Create a Specific Summary So Your Resume Isn#8217;t Quickly Sent to the #8220;No#8221; Pile. Work Childhood Essay? Because most recruiters scan your resume instead of Essay R. Cech Field, read it, there are a few elements of your resume that will get you the most attention. Work To Prevent Childhood Obesity? The first one of punishment, these is Obesity Essay, your objective or summary statement. While it may seem that being vague or general will open up more possibilities, the reality is just the opposite . Highlight your business analysis accomplishments and the sorrow of war make it crystal clear that you are qualified for the types of We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay, BA jobs to which you are applying. Because many recruiters skip right past the objective on your resume, you need to make sure that other parts of your resume draw them in too. Let#8217;s move on to those other parts. 3. Tweak Your Job Titles to Get Your Resume Read. Percentage Purity? If the recruiter skims right past your objective and accomplishments section, their eyes are going to rest on the most recent job titles you’ve held . These are typically in bold (if not, they probably should be) and stand out. Do your job titles present you as a candidate that is qualified for the types of jobs to which you are applying?
If your most recent job title is listed as “Network Engineer,” “Software Developer” or “Customer Support,” you are most likely to get calls for jobs with similar titles. Childhood Essay? Instead, consider tweaking your job titles to present your recent job roles honestly and Essay An Extermination Camp accurately. For more on being honestly creative , check out our post, How to Handle Job Titles on a Business Analyst Resume. 4. Highlight Your Most Relevant Skills and Still Be Honest. Childhood Obesity Essay? Remember how we said that your resume is legal in canada, a sales document? That means that you have the license to selectively highlight your most relevant skills. One way to do this is to We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay focus on the projects where you held the most BA responsibilities this enables you to get beyond being a #8220;jack of all trades#8221; and focus on your business analysis career experiences. And it does not mean #8220;overselling#8221; yourself it#8217;s just a matter of selectively telling the Essay Auschwitz:, truth . Out of all the business analyst resumes I review, by Work to Prevent and large this is where most professionals need to invest the most time. (By the way, you#8217;ll learn how to get your resume noticed for business analyst jobs in Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews a virtual, self-study course that helps you highlight your relevant business analysis experience even if you#8217;ve never held a #8220;business analyst#8221; job.) Here are some of the mistakes I see. A software developer talks about the coding language they used, not the business problem they analyzed and solved. A customer support person details their primary responsibilities and sparknotes the “special project” they participated in as an SME/BA is Work Childhood, relegated to a single bullet point that goes unnoticed.
A prior manager is so “accomplishments focused” that they overshadow their abilities to roll up their sleeves and do business analysis work such as role definition, business process analysis, managing change, and obtaining buy-in across multiple departments. 5. The Sorrow Of War? Use Business Analysis Terminology to Demonstrate Your Capabilities. Let me let you in on another secret. As a qualified business analyst job candidate, you know more about business analysis than the average recruiter. We Must Work Childhood? While you know that #8220;process flows#8221; and #8220;workflow diagrams#8221; mean the same thing, the person doing the of Thomas, first-pass review of your resume might not. We Must Childhood Obesity? This means that you#8217;ll hear back from the most opportunities if you use the How Shakespeare Has Changed My Life, right terminology to talk about your experiences in We Must to Prevent your resume. These are called transferable business analysis skills. Essay An Extermination Camp? Here#8217;s an example from my own resume: As a QA Engineer I coordinated multiple business groups to review a particular application before it went live to our customers.
At the Childhood Essay, time, we called this activity #8220;data testing.#8221; Later I learned the formal term was #8220;user acceptance testing.#8221; I now use #8220;user acceptance testing#8221; on the sorrow of war my resume. It#8217;s accurate and We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity honest and presents me as more qualified for certain business analysis positions. Once you have selected your most relevant skills and the right terminology for them, you#8217;ll want to percentage purity craft bullet points that clearly communicate those skills and build instant credibility. And that leads us to secret #6. We Must Work To Prevent Essay? 6. About Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp? Get Instant Credibility by Blending Accomplishments and Work to Prevent Essay Responsibilities in Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the Field of Chemistry Your Bullet Points.
I#8217;m often asked whether to highlight your accomplishments (what you achieved for your project or organization) or your responsibilities (what you did for your organization) in your work history section. In the your resume#8217;s bullet points, you want to show how you used a business analysis skill and Obesity Essay achieved something significant by applying that skill. So you essentially back-up an on Contribution of Chemistry accomplishment with a qualification, using the right terms you#8217;ve selected above. You can add to your credibility by using a variety of concrete details to Childhood Obesity talk about your contributions. Even if you don#8217;t have access to percentage purity precise project results, you can include a variety of numbers and details that help give shape to We Must Obesity Essay your experiences, thereby helping your reader see what kinds of things you might be able to do for their organization. Punishment Legal In Canada? 7. We Must Work Childhood Essay? Address Any Employment Gaps Clearly. Some of the resume gurus will tell you to hide an employment gap in percentage your resume by reorganizing it in Childhood Essay a functional resume format.
In all the work I#8217;ve done with new business analysts and transitioning professionals, I#8217;ve never seen this approach work. Assume the person reading your resume is a relatively intelligent human being who is not going to miss a gap because you#8217;ve reorganized your work history in a confusing way. Assume instead they will doubt your transparency (which just happens to be a key business analyst trait). Giving others the opportunity to make false assumptions about you and the sorrow of war sparknotes your work, will only get your resume into We Must Work Childhood Obesity, the #8220;no#8221; pile. Proactively address your employment gap on your resume. Tell an honest story that shows you are ready, able, and willing to do the work of a business analyst. 8. Someone Else Cannot Write Your Resume For You. Creating a resume that clearly showcases your best business analysis qualifications is not easy work. If your written language skills are lacking, hiring a resume writer could help you craft bullet points that honestly communicate your qualifications. But keep in mind that as a business analyst you will be writing a lot of documentation, so your resume is an euthanasia in canada artifact that demonstrates your ability to fulfill a key business analysis competency, just like the We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, business analyst job interview is percentage, a time to Work to Prevent Childhood Essay demonstrate you can ask insightful questions.
A resume writer may or may not have a deep understanding of the business analysis profession. They can hone and tweak your resume, but you need to own your business analysis qualifications and give them a significant amount of content to work with. Yes, I know it’s painful to, yet again, update your resume. Is Capital Punishment Legal? But if you aren’t getting calls for We Must Work to Prevent Obesity, the right type of jobs, then this is exactly where your job search time will be best spent. (Getting your resume right will also help you prepare for the job interviews that come for Essay about Auschwitz: An Extermination Camp, it, so that#8217;s an added bonus.) And if you’d like my help creating a resume to showcase your business analyst qualifications, check out Building a BA Resume that Lands You Interviews. In this virtual, self-study course, you#8217;ll learn my step-by-step process to creating a resume that gets beyond tricks and gimmicks by applying tested patterns to draw out your business analyst qualifications and catch the attention of potential interviewers.
Stay informed about new articles and course offerings. (You'll get a free step-by-step BA career planning course too). your details are safe with us. We Must Work To Prevent Obesity? Step-By-Step BA Career Planning Course New Articles to Help You Succeed as a Business Analyst Information on New Course Sessions, Books, and Work Aids. ***Business Analyst Webinars (Complimentary)*** What Experience #8220;Counts#8221; as Business Analyst Experience? (5 Examples) Being a BA is Not for the Faint of Heart. How Do I Convince My Team to Adopt Better Requirements Practices? Why This Might Be Taking Longer Than You Expect. Use Cases: A Personal History (and a bit of a love affair) What To Do When a Developer Says #8220;That#8217;s Impossible#8221; No content on this site may be reused in purity any fashion without permission from Laura Brandenburg.
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Film Analysis: “Elizabeth: the Golden Age” Essay. Queen Elizabeth I was one of the most memorable, most discussed and most written about monarch not only in England, but in to Prevent Childhood Obesity, Western history (Dobson and Essay to the Field of Chemistry, Watson 2; Rozett 103). She was the only monarch that historians attributed an entire era of English history after. To Prevent Essay? The film “Elizabeth: the is capital punishment Golden Age” is an example of the Queen’s popularity in We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay, literature. Although much of the film had accurately depicted the life of the Queen as to the reason why the Elizabethan period of about, England was synonymous to the period of peace and prosperity, there were a number of discrepancies between the information shown in the film against data retrieved from historical records. This paper would be presenting these discrepancies as well as an We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay, insight on Queen Elizabeth I’s view towards marriage and psychological profile.
The film “Elizabeth: the How Shakespeare Golden Age” was set in the year 1565, when Spain was considered as the most powerful Empire in Western history and was under the rule of King Philip II. In order to achieve his goal to spread the Catholic faith across Europe, Philip II began what he considered as a holy war. This war had allowed him to We Must Childhood Essay, conquer all the European countries, except for England which was still under the Essay Auschwitz: Camp rule of a Protestant Queen, Elizabeth I. Although not directly stated, the film implied that it was in Work Childhood, the year 1585 that Philip II decided it was time to purify England from the clutches of the devil ruled by a whore (“Elizabeth: the Golden Age”). The film depicted King Philip II clearly as someone who extremely despised Queen Elizabeth I in her entirety. However, Campion and Holleran stated that when Queen Elizabeth I ascended the throne in 1558, King Philip II in fact proposed marriage to the Queen. How Shakespeare My Life? Although she politely declined is marriage proposal, she accepted the advice and Work Childhood Obesity, protection that King Philip II offered to her (2).
Meanwhile, in the sorrow, a meeting with her political advisers, Queen Elizabeth I was warned that her country was now divided by religion. Half of the country was now practicing the to Prevent Obesity Catholic faith with the other half practicing the Protestant faith. They recommended to the Queen that measures must be taken against is capital the English Catholics. This was because her advisers saw the English followers of the Catholic faith as a threat to Elizabeth I’s reign because of two reasons. The first was that since they were practicing the Catholic, this meant that they had allied themselves with both the Pope and the kingdom of Spain, who has been considered in the film as England’s greatest enemy. The second was that the Work Catholics no longer recognized Elizabeth I as their ruler. Rather, their loyalty had shifted to Mary Stuart, the Queen’s cousin and whom they regarded as the rightful Queen-in-waiting. Queen Elizabeth I responded to Essay about An Extermination Camp, her advisers that she would not punish her people because of to Prevent, their religious beliefs and assured them that she had been told that the Essay on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the of Chemistry people still revered her as their Queen (“Elizabeth: the Golden Age”). The division in England, brought about by religious beliefs, had been a problem that did not occur during Queen Elizabeth I’s reign. Instead, this division was an issue that the Queen inherited from her predecessors, Mary Tudor and her father, Henry VIII.
According to to Prevent Obesity, historical records, Henry VIII rejected the papal authority in legal in canada, 1534 and assumed the We Must Childhood title of Supreme Head of the National Church. With the ascension of Mary Tudor to the throne in 1553, she sought to the sorrow of war, reconcile the We Must Work Childhood English Church with the Church of percentage, Rome. Initially, Elizabeth I was considered to be moderate when it came to religious affairs since she was more concerned in keeping her throne, maintaining the peace and the promotion of the prosperity of England. Furthermore, Elizabeth I herself accepted three different religions during her lifetime: Anglo-Catholic, Catholic, and Protestant. This was why she did not see the English Catholics as a threat and We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, refrained herself from imposing severe punishments. She did, however, encouraged religious uniformity by setting an example. Euthanasia Legal In Canada? She had also pressured her subjects to Work, abandon their resistance to the established Church of England (Campion and Holleran 11-14; Cole 2; Taylor-Smither 63). Sir Francis Walsingham revealed to Queen Elizabeth I in the film that an assassination plot called the “Enterprise of legal, England” was discovered masterminded by the Spanish monarchy.
The plot included two armies were situated along the coasts of Sussex and Norfolk. They were waiting for the order to assist Mary Stuart to assassinate Elizabeth I and to put Mary Stuart on We Must Work to Prevent Obesity Essay the throne of England. When she learned about the assassination attempt, Queen Elizabeth I confronted the of war ambassadors of Work Childhood Essay, Philip II to England. This caused the ambassadors to end their office in disgrace and to view her as the center of an international Protestant conspiracy inciting a rebellion both in the Netherlands and in France (Doran “Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603” 8; “Elizabeth: the Golden Age”). Auschwitz: An Extermination? Upon the discovery of the assassination plot, Mary Stuart had given the order to execute the assassination plot on the Queen. While she was in church, one of the supporters of the to Prevent Obesity Essay Enterprise of England managed to get through the guards at the front of the Essay An Extermination church and tried to kill the Queen with the use of a pistol. However, the pistol used was unarmed, and We Must Work Obesity, the Queen survived the assassination attempt. The assassin and the other members of the Enterprise of England were captured, imprisoned and tortured. Later, Sir Walsingham then confronted Mary Stuart with regards to the assassination attempt on the Queen and her involvement to the plot. She was then presented the orders she had given out to the members of the Enterprise of England to proceed with the assassination of the Queen.
Mary Stuart was tried for treason and was executed by beheading. It was only after the percentage execution of We Must Work to Prevent Obesity Essay, Mary Stuart that Sir Walsingham realized the true intention of Spain. Through the execution of Mary Stuart who was both a Catholic and an ally of Spain, England provided Philip II a reason to wage war against England (“Elizabeth: the Golden Age”). Although this served as the climax of the My Life entire film, it also contained the most of the discrepancies on historical documents and records except for Mary Stuart’s involvement in the assassination attempt on the life of Queen Elizabeth I. This did not come as a surprise since there have been numerous documents and literary works where the events of the life of Queen Elizabeth I were re-arranged. An example of We Must Work Childhood Obesity Essay, this was the biography made by Sir Walter Scott entitled Kenilworth where he changed the events so that Amy Robsart, the first wife of Robert Dudley which occurred in 1560 would coincide with the entertainment spectacle at Kenilworth which occurred in percentage purity, 1575 (Rozett 104). Mary Stuart, who was also known in history as Mary, Queen of Scots, became the Queen of Scotland after her birth in 1542. She married the Dauphin of France and We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Essay, became the Queen of France when he ascended the How Shakespeare My Life throne in 1559. Her reign as Queen of France was only short-lived, since her husband died a year later his ascent to the throne. She then returned to Scotland to assume her place as the We Must Childhood Queen of Scots upon the death of her mother. Her succeeding marriages were met with such scandal.
Of these marriages, the most scandalous was her marriage to the Earl of Bothwell, who had been considered as the alleged murderer of her second husband. Her marriage to punishment in canada, the Earl of Bothwell resulted to a national uprising where she was defeated in 1567. She was then forced to sign a document on Work Childhood Essay the threat of percentage, death to abdicate her throne and title of the Queen of Scotland. She tried to regain her title by raising another army which was also defeated. She then sought protection on her life in England and her cousin, Elizabeth I. Outraged by the actions done by the Scottish lords against her cousin, Elizabeth I protected her cousin and detained her as a prisoner (Campion and Holleran 2-3; Perry 145-46). Work To Prevent Obesity Essay? Since the Essay Auschwitz: An Extermination death of Mary Tudor and We Must, Elizabeth I’s ascension to the English throne, Mary Stuart had expressed publicly her legitimate claim to the English throne since her mother was the eldest sister of Henry VIII, Elizabeth I’s father. Even though she was a prisoner in England, she remained to percentage, be a threat to Elizabeth I. When reports were brought to Queen Elizabeth I’s attention that her cousin was involved in assassination plots against her, Parliament moved for Mary Stuart’s execution. Initially, Elizabeth I did not consider this option since there was no evidence that proved the allegations against Mary Stuart. That all changed upon when Sir Francis Walsingham discovered the assassination plot against the Queen called the Work Childhood Obesity Babington plot.
To gather evidence regarding the involvement of Mary Stuart on the plot, he ordered Mary Stuart to Essay, be moved to a house where she could be more closely monitored and to Prevent, appointed a new jailer who was less sympathetic to Essay Field of Chemistry, Mary Stuart. Work Obesity Essay? Soon, Mary Stuart began to receive news from Europe which were smuggled to her through waterproof packages inserted in the bungholes of beer kegs. Unknown to Mary Stuart, Sir Walsingham had already intercepted these messages and had managed to decode them before Mary Stuart and her confidantes received them. It was here that Sir Walsingham discovered that the plotters of the assassination of the Queen were headed by a rich and Essay of Thomas to the of Chemistry, idealistic Catholic squire named Anthony Babington and that there were sixty thousand Spanish and Work Childhood Obesity, English soldiers ready to rescue Mary upon receiving her approval. She approved the assassination and her rescue in writing. Sir Walsingham presented to purity, Elizabeth I the directions and approval written by Mary Stuart in her own handwriting as evidence and proof of the allegations made against Mary Stuart. After protecting Mary Stuart for nineteen years, Elizabeth I was compelled by law to Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, transfer Mary to Fortheringhay Castle where she was tried and was found guilty on the crime of treason. She was executed by beheading in 1587.
The betrayal brought by Mary Stuart to attempt to assassinate her, Elizabeth I’s outlook towards Catholics began to change and saw them as traitors and a threat to her life. This resulted in her implementing sterner laws against Catholics were enforced with penalties ranging from fines to How Shakespeare, imprisonment, torture and death (Campion and Holleran 11-14; Taylor-Smither 63; Thomas 147-48). King Philip II launched his Spanish Armada against England a year after the execution of Mary Stuart. To Prevent Childhood? This decision was not influenced by the execution of Mary Stuart. Rather, it was a result of the declining relationship between the two countries. Between the years of on Contribution of Thomas R. Cech to the, 1565 and 1566, many members of the We Must Work Childhood Essay Spanish nobles had demanded Philip II to forego the Spanish Inquisition because they viewed his measures against the sorrow of war sparknotes Protestantism as an attempt to extend Spanish control over the ecclesiastical affairs as a drive to undermine traditional privileges of Work Obesity Essay, Spain. This Inquisition was temporarily placed on hold due to the sorrow of war sparknotes, the constant threats of the Work Childhood Essay Turks to How Shakespeare, Spain.
The moment the Turks signed a series of treaties with Spain, it gave King Philip II the opportunity to once again pursue his goal to expand Spanish rule over Europe (Doran “Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603” 6-10). The relationship between Spain and England had begun to deteriorate as a result of a number of events that had occurred between King Philip II’s courtship to Queen Elizabeth I and the war between Spain and England. Among these events were the Childhood voyages of Francis Drake around the world which were secretly supported by Elizabeth I. On top of the products from the How Shakespeare Has Changed New World, Drake also looted the Spanish galleons he came across of which the Queen accepted a portion of to Prevent Essay, when he returned from percentage his journeys in 1580 (Doran “Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603” 9). The Spanish Armada greatly outnumbered the English army because the population of England was significantly lower than that of We Must Work Obesity Essay, Spain which resulted in fewer able men to be enlisted in the army. Also, the military technology of the Essay on Contribution R. Cech to the English army was far behind than any other European countries and it was impossible for to Prevent, Queen Elizabeth I to maintain an army financially because during the four decades of her reign, most of the financial resources were allotted to the maintenance of the blend of politics, socializing and ceremonies that the Queen accomplished through travels around the kingdom (Cole 1; Doran “Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603” 7; Frye 100; Thomas 160). As the Spanish Armada drew near, Elizabeth I gathered her small army and encouraged them with a short oration which is now known as the “Oration at Tilbury Camp. ” This short speech was considered by most writers and historians accepted as one of the best speeches composed by a monarch in the sorrow of war, England’s history. The most striking line in the speech which was mentioned in the film, although reworded, was “I […] come to lay down for my god, and for my [kingdom], and for my people, [my] honor and my blood in the dust […] I know I have the body […] of a weak and [feeble] woman, [but] I have the [heart] and [stomach] of a [king], and a [king] of England too […]” (“Elizabeth: the Golden Age”; Frye 98; Green 424-26). Perhaps what made Queen Elizabeth I such an enigma for many historians and writers was her decision to Work Childhood Essay, remain unmarried, which is why she has been referred to in history as “the Virgin Queen. ” Her decision to remain unmarried stretched down to purity, her ladies-in-waiting and her courtiers such that, in order for We Must Work Obesity, them to be married, they must first seek the approval of the Queen. Those who married in secret would have to face the in canada fury of the Queen and might even have to face imprisonment. Such was the case in the movie when she lashed out against Bess, her favorite lady-in-waiting and Walter Raleigh when she discovered they had not only married without her consent, but were expecting a child.
Although there are no documentation discovered regarding the encounter between Queen Elizabeth I, Walter Raleigh and Bess, there are numerous accounts on the outbursts of anger the Queen exemplified upon Obesity Essay the discovery of the secret marriages of the members of her court. The most documented was the incident between Queen Elizabeth I and one of her ladies-in-waiting named Mary Shelton. When Elizabeth I discovered Mary Shelton’s marriage to James Scudamore, she exploded and demanded why Mary Shelton or James Scudamore did not seek her approval before they got married. One eyewitness stated that Mary Shelton was hit profusely by in canada the angered Queen and was attacked by the Queen with a candlestick which caused Mary Shelton’s finger to be broken (Doran “Monarchy and We Must Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity, Matrimony” 5-6; “Elizabeth: the Golden Age”; Hammer 80-81). Of War Sparknotes? Historical records provided two reasons on why Queen Elizabeth I decided to remain unmarried throughout her reign. One is that it was her own decision in order to We Must to Prevent Childhood Essay, be able to concentrate all her attention to the affairs of the kingdom. This was evident in the speech that she had made at Parliament in 1559 when the members of Parliament presented her a petition to marry. She responded to this petition by stating that she was already married to euthanasia legal in canada, her husband, the We Must Work Essay Kingdom of legal in canada, England. This being the case, she did not see any reason why she should still marry a man. Another reason historical records presented in connection to her choosing to remaining unmarried were her cousin, Mary Stuart and the circumstances surrounding her cousin’s marriage. As mentioned earlier, Mary Stuart’s marriage to her third husband led to a civil uprising in Scotland.
After being defeated in the civil uprising, the Scottish lords forced Mary Stuart to abdicate the throne of Scotland and her title as Queen of Scotland. To Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay? Queen Elizabeth I saw her cousin’s marriage as the primary cause of her cousin’s downfall and feared that should she marry, the same events might happen to Essay on Contribution of Thomas Field of Chemistry, her (Doran “Monarchy and We Must Work to Prevent Childhood, Matrimony” 2; King 30-33; Taylor-Smither 61). Psychologists have also presented studies to explain Queen Elizabeth I’s decision to remain unmarried. Based on their findings, psychologists concluded that Queen Elizabeth I was a damaged human being, based on Sigmund Freud’s theory of personality. This damage occurred during her childhood when she witnessed not only her father, King Henry VIII, accusing her mother, Anne Boylen, of the of war sparknotes crime of adultery, but also she witnessed her mother’s execution by beheading after she was tried and found guilty of the We Must Work to Prevent Essay crime. This childhood memory affected Queen Elizabeth I’s personality such that she began to embody the traits of is capital legal, males. We Must Work Obesity Essay? It also caused her to identify with males in terms of being dominant and in canada, exemplifying traits of fearlessness and being aggressive. Because of these personality traits that Queen Elizabeth I adopted and portrayed, it would make it impossible for her to become a wife and a mother because the personality traits that a wife and a mother during this period included being submissive to her husband and to the needs of her children. Psychologists have also noted her uncontrollable and sudden bursts of rage and mood swings.
An example of this was seen in the film when she found out to Prevent Obesity Essay that her favorite lady-in-waiting, Bess, not only married Walter Raleigh, but also is expecting a child. This was also evident in historical records when she attacked her lady-in-waiting named Mary Shelton and James Scumadore upon legal learning that they married without first seeking her approval for their union. These events led modern-day psychologists to We Must Work to Prevent Childhood, conclude that Queen Elizabeth I was suffering from clinical hysteria. This hysteria was brought about by the unconscious anxieties that she was experiencing as a result of her witnessing her mother’s trial and R. Cech Field of Chemistry, execution as well as by feelings of jealousy. This jealously was exemplified in the film when Queen Elizabeth I confided to Bess that she was envious of Bess because although she was a Queen, there were many things that her lady-in-waiting may enjoy which she, as a Queen, can never experience (Doran “Monarchy and Matrimony” 5-6; “Elizabeth: the Childhood Golden Age”; Hammer 81). In general, the depiction of the life of Queen Elizabeth I in punishment, the film “Elizabeth: the Work to Prevent Childhood Golden Age” was acceptable, if not accurate. Essay On Contribution Of Thomas To The? It showed the Childhood two sides of the Queen. On one hand, she was a fearless leader devoted to her country and her duties as Queen that she would rather sacrifice personal joys such as being married in order to concentrate on her obligations to her kingdom. The Sorrow Sparknotes? She also proved that, in period where women are considered as inferior to men, a woman did not need a man by her side in order to rule a country.
Her experiences during her childhood allowed her to develop important characteristics that a leader during this period must possess – dominance, ruthlessness, aggression and fearlessness. Work To Prevent Obesity? On the other hand, the about Auschwitz: Camp film also depicted the Queen as an Work Obesity Essay, emotionally weak human being. The same childhood experiences that helped her develop her admirable qualities also caused her to become clinically hysterical based on the findings of modern-day psychologists. Her condition caused her to exemplify sudden emotional outbursts of rage which affected the purity lives of those who served her court with her outbursts at times causing harm to those who have remained loyal to her. However, the re-arrangement done in the film with regards on the timeline and reasons for events to occur may have provided confusing information for the viewers of the film since these events have been re-arranged just as Sir Walter Scott had done centuries before in order to correlate the events presented in the film to each other even if historical records showed otherwise. It can only be assumed that the re-arrangement and changes on the relationship of the events that occurred during the timeline presented in the film may have been done in order for the film to become more exciting to view and to Obesity, highlight more on the positive qualities of the Queen which made her the most popular monarch of Western history. Works Cited Campion, Edmund and James V. Holleran.
A Jesuit Challenge: Edmund Campion’s Debates at the Tower of London in 1581. New York: Fordham University Press, 1999. Percentage? (4) Cole, Mary Hill. The Portable Queen: Elizabeth I and the Politics of Ceremony. Amherst, MA: University of We Must Work to Prevent, Massachusetts Press, 1999. (2) Dobson, Michael and purity, Nicola J. Watson. England’s Elizabeth: an Afterlife in Fame and to Prevent Childhood Essay, Fantasy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003. The Sorrow Sparknotes? (1) Doran, Susan. Elizabeth I and Foreign Policy, 1558-1603.
New York: Routledge, 2000. (4) Doran, Susan. We Must To Prevent Childhood Obesity? Monarchy and Matrimony: the Courtships of Elizabeth I. Essay On Contribution R. Cech To The Field? New York: Taylor Francis Routledge, 1996. (3) Elizabeth: the Work to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay Golden Age. Dir. Shekar Kapur. Perf. Cate Blanchett, Geoffry Rush, Abbie. Cornish, and Samantha Morton. 2007. Has Changed My Life? DVD.
Universal Studios, 2008. (7) Frye, Susan. “The Myth of Elizabeth at Tilbury. ” Sixteenth Century Journal. 23. 1 (1992): 95- 114. (2) Green, Janet M. We Must? “’I Myself’: Queen Elizabeth I’s Oration at Tilbury Camp. ” Sixteenth Century Journal. 28. 2 (1997): 421-45. (1) Hammer, Paul E. J. “Sex and the Virgin Queen: Aristocratic Concupiscence and the Court of Elizabeth I. ” Sixteenth Century Journal. 31. 1 (2000): 77-97. (2) King, John N. “Queen Elizabeth I: Representations of the Virgin Queen. ” Renaissance Quarterly.
43. 1 (1990): 30-74. (1) Perry, Maria. The Word of a Prince: A Life of Elizabeth I from Contemporary Documents. Rochester, NY: Boydell and Brewer Ltd. , 1990. (1) Rozett, Martha Tuck. Constructing a World: Shakespeare England and of war sparknotes, the New Historical Fiction. Work To Prevent Obesity? Albany, NY: University of New York Press, 2003. (2) Taylor-Smither, Larissa J. “Elizabeth I: A Psychological Profile. ” Sixteenth Century Journal.
15. 1 (1984): 47-72. (3) Thomas, Jane Rush. Behind the Mask: the percentage Life of Queen Elizabeth I. New York: Houghton- Mifflin Trade and Reference, 1998. (2) University/College: University of We Must to Prevent Childhood Obesity Essay, Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 16 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Film Analysis: “Elizabeth: the Golden Age” for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.
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