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Nov 17, 2017 Contemporary managers,
How to teach Cambridge First Certificate Writing Part One essays. Summary: Teaching tips and classroom activities for the essay task in the updated FCE exam from January 2015. Essay questions seemed to have almost completely disappeared from managers Cambridge FCE until January 2015, when they suddenly became the only possibility in Writing Part One and therefore half of the writing exam and Press Day its marks. Contemporary Managers? This is presumably to make FCE more of an by John Essay example, academic exam and contemporary standardise it with the other Cambridge tests such as Cambridge Advanced, but it is likely to be a problem for both students and Essay about a Look teachers. One potential issues with having to write an contemporary, essay in FCE Writing Part One is that it replaces the Essay example, increasingly common skill of emailing.
Students are more likely to have experience of emailing than of essay writing but it has now become just one of four options in contemporary managers, Writing Part Two and so not included at all in Sixteen Candles, example, some tests. There are also more EFL teaching and learning materials available for emailing than essays. The second major issue with having to write an essay in the exam is that FCE essay tasks are not really the contemporary managers, same as those which are normally set by teachers in real universities and high schools. They are also quite unlike the about Taking a Look, more genuinely academic IELTS and contemporary TOEFL essays, and Candles, by Hughes example indeed any homework tasks I set in my own EFL classes. This means that the contemporary, tasks, tactics, language and activities used in class and for homework must be quite specific to Cambridge First. What students have to do with FCE Writing Part One essay tasks. All the six official tests released so far for the updated 2015 FCE include these parts: “In your English class you have been talking about Now, your English teacher has asked you to write an essay.
Write an essay using all of the notes and Essay a Look 1919 give reasons for your point of view. (statement) Do you agree?” or “(question asking to choose between two options)?” or “(yes/ no opinion question)?” 3. (your own idea) Write your essay. Contemporary? You must use grammatically correct sentences with accurate spelling and report 1980 punctuation in a style appropriate to the situation.” Topics in contemporary managers, the tasks released by Cambridge so far include the environment (twice), fashion, work and 1492 film money, friends and family, and modern life. Question stems include “Which is more important or ?”, “Is it better to or?”, “We should Do you agree?”, “Some people say that has a bad effect on people’s lives.
Do you agree?”, and “ Do you think these problems can be solved?” The subtopics which students must include in their answers include “the kind/ type of which is/ are”, “the reasons for”, “how much time is spent”, “who you can with”, “who will you when you”, “whether is important”, and “the price of” Many of managers these are not subtopics that I would choose if I had more freedom to write on Press Day the topic and contemporary a few are frankly even a little bizarre, so I think it is necessary to think of this part of the task as a problem that needs tackling rather than something that is likely to help students plan as perhaps was intended. Some of the Culture Essay, subtopics also seem to almost exclude one of the two possible opinions that students have been told that they can express. For example, it is difficult to have a paragraph on “the kinds of animals which are in danger” if you disagree with the statement “We should do everything we can to save animals which are in contemporary, danger of disappearing from our planet”. Answers must be between 140 and 190 words, although students don’t seem to what chain of infection automatically lose marks for going a bit over or under this as long as they fully answer the question and don’t go off topic.
Students will be marked for content, communicative achievement, organisation, and language. Contemporary Managers? Content is 1492 film, basically what used to be called task achievement, meaning properly answering the question. Communicative achievement is successfully communicating ideas at the right level of formality. Organisation means organising and linking together sentences and paragraphs, and language includes both level and accuracy of grammar and contemporary managers vocabulary. To at least pass this part of the exam students must: - Think of and Japanese one more subtopic to include in their answer before they start writing (in addition to the two which are given) - Decide before they start writing whether they are going to give their opinion in managers, the introduction and then support it, or if they are only going to Japan Culture Essay give their opinion at the end. - Organise their essay into at contemporary least two main paragraphs plus an introduction and summary/ conclusion. - Include all three subtopics (the two given plus the one they thought of) in their answer.
- Support all their arguments. - Use a neutral or formal level of and Japanese language. - Leave at least a couple of minutes for final editing of spelling, punctuation, grammar, vocabulary, etc. - Finish in about 40 minutes, and no more than 45 minutes max, to leave enough time for Writing Part Two (which is an contemporary managers, equal length and black report 1980 has equal marks) - Underline important words in the question and its instructions, to make sure that they answer the question properly. - Use different kinds of contemporary managers support (reasons, examples, personal experience, other people’s experiences, things read or heard, logical arguments, generalisations, facts, etc) for each of their arguments. - Make sure that the things that they add to each opinion do actually support their arguments (meaning they aren’t just vaguely on the same topic, don’t actually support the opposite side of the argument, and aren’t just phrases they’ve learnt which don’t really link to what they are trying to prove) - Avoid repeating words, instead rephrasing or using referencing expressions (including in the final summary/ conclusion) - Make sure that the Candles, John Hughes Essay example, essay is neat enough to contemporary be understood without needing to be read again (but see below for limits to how much they need to worry about this) - Start writing as soon as they can think of Culture Essay one reasonably suitable third subtopic (rather than wasting time brainstorming better options) - Be ambitious with the language that they use, showing the examiner that they have a high language level and making up for their inevitable weaknesses in other areas such as accuracy. - Also add more ambitious language at the editing stage. Students should probably: - Choose to express and support whatever opinion seems easier to write about, e.g. Contemporary? because it easily matches the on Black Press Day, subtopics given, rather than automatically deciding to write their real opinion.
- Use as high a level of formality as they can, including things like avoiding contractions (“I am” rather than “I’m” etc), because more formal language will also be higher level language/ more ambitious language. - Show the strength or weakness of their opinions. - Use longer versions of basic phrases, e.g. Managers? using “I strongly believe” rather than “I believe” - Give some background to 1492 film the question by describing how it is important, interesting and/ or topical in the introduction (making sure that what they say is believable, not just a recycled phrase from a model answer) - Use rhetorical questions (unlike in managers, some genuine academic writing) - Make up their own personal experiences etc to support their arguments (as long as they are believable) - Write their opposite of their real opinion (if that is easier to support) - Do Writing Part Two first if they have a mental block with the Writing Part One essay, coming back to the first task later. - Use some slightly more informal but high level language such as phrasal verbs. - Use Latin abbreviations such as “e.g.” and “etc” - Cross things off and use little arrows to black insert missing words (rather than overusing their eraser, if they have an erasable pen) - Add whole missing sentences to the middle of the contemporary, text, by putting the 1492 film, sentence in contemporary, a box at the top or bottom of the black report, page and drawing a long arrow to show where it should go. - Skip Part One and contemporary do two tasks from Part Two instead (they will only be credited for Part Two and so be limited to a failing 50% mark at best) - Use very informal language such as textspeak or Twitter abbreviations (“gr8” for “great”, “lol”, etc), exclamation marks, “”, words all in capitals, underlined words, or slang.
- Try to look at by John Hughes example both sides of each of the three subtopics (as there is neither the time nor space within the managers, word limit) - Waste time brainstorming lots of ideas for the best third sub-topic. - Waste time brainstorming lots of support for their arguments before they start writing (unless perhaps they really can’t decide whether to look at both sides or just one side in Japan Essay, their essay) - Use academic conventions which aren’t suitable for managers, a school setting such as avoiding personal pronouns, using “The author”, and giving academic references. - Make up things to support their arguments that are outside their own experience such as imaginary statistics, quotations or page numbers of books. - Use multipurpose phrases like “This is a controversial topic nowadays” in and Japanese, all the essays that they write (as they will often not match the situation in the question and so will negative proof of their real language level) - Start paragraphs with multipurpose phrases like “Secondly” and “On the contemporary managers, other hand” (rather than “The second argument for is” and “Turning to and Japanese Culture Essay the arguments against”) - Leave editing Part One until they have written Part Two too (as they will almost certainly run out of time first) - Assume knowledge that the managers, examiner might not have (such as detailed knowledge of their hometown) - Waste time counting every word. - Include other arguments in their summary/ conclusion which they didn’t mention in Essay about a Look 1919 Series, the body of contemporary managers their essay. - Stick to basic language in an attempt to make sure that they don’t make mistakes (ambitious language being at least as important) - Waste time editing the essay down if they go over Japan Essay 190 words. - Use exactly the same words in their summary/ conclusion as in the body of the essay. - Use paragraph headings (as these will be used in Writing Part Two reports and Cambridge like students to show a distinction between the two writing genres, even if that doesn’t really match real life) Students don’t need to: - Produce incredibly neat work (because Cambridge and the examiners know how unrealistic a handwritten essay is nowadays) - Think of an interesting title (or indeed any title) - Worry about contemporary managers, how clever their ideas are (as it doesn’t affect their marks one way or the Hughes example, other) - Worry too much about British and American English (just not spelling the same word two different ways is contemporary, probably enough at World Series FCE) - Deal with the subtopics in the same order as they are given on the question sheet. - Necessarily look at both sides of the contemporary managers, argument (if they have a strong opinion on one side or the other) The students have free choice whether they want to give their opinion in the introduction and is the then support that argument related to the three sub-topics or give both sides of the argument and then give their own opinion in contemporary, the conclusion.
If students don’t think they can support their position related to all three topics and so want to take the black, latter approach, they could give reasons for their conclusion related to two topics and give the other side related to managers the other one. Alternatively, they could deal with all three topics in just two main paragraphs in the body, one for each side of the argument. I would recommend that in the introduction students rephrase the question, give background to the topic etc, but most of the student answers provided by Cambridge just start by answering the question, so that seems to be acceptable. I also strongly recommend against one-sentence paragraphs, including in the final summary, but again this doesn’t seem to be a big issue with Cambridge so students could stop and move onto the Part Two question if they have reached the word limit and are already over 40 minutes into on Black Day the exam. If they do want another sentence it is fairly easy to add consequences of managers their conclusion such as “Because of this, governments/ families/ companies/ bosses should”
Language that the students are likely to need in FCE essays includes phrases for different ways of supporting their opinions, giving weak and 1492 film strong opinions, weak and strong agreeing and disagreeing, summarising, concluding, giving reasons, and looking at contemporary both sides (advantages and disadvantages, etc). On Black Press Day? A review of linking phrases such as the difference between “In contrast” and “On the other hand” would also be useful. Contemporary? You could also teach language for giving the background behind a topic in the introduction (“Nowadays”, “Recently”, “Many people believe that”, etc). Lesson ideas for FCE Writing Part One essays. First lessons including FCE Writing Part One essay questions. Given the importance of this part of the 1980, exam and how it can be very useful to get some idea of students’ strengths and contemporary managers weaknesses in writing right at by the beginning, I highly recommend bringing this topic into the very first lesson of the course and contemporary giving an essay task for the first homework. Luckily, this is not too difficult given that the questions are basically opinion questions.
First lesson topics that are easily linked to students giving and supporting opinions include good ways of studying English, studying for the exam, improving their skills in particular papers, or using class time. Black? They could also give their opinions on the exam itself such as which the trickiest (looking) parts of the exam are and what they think about the 2015 changes. Contemporary Managers? Opinions on language learning can be made amusing by giving them a mix of Candles, by Hughes Essay sensible and contemporary managers crazier ways of improving their English, including things like “I think it’s a great idea to what is the of infection listen to English radio while you are asleep” and contemporary managers “In my opinion, you should describe everything that you are doing around the house in and Japanese, English as you are doing it”. This is managers, even more fun if students have to choose the ideas at random and then support whatever opinion they are given. Sixteen By John Essay Example? If you give students statements starting with opinions language like “I really think the story task was the easiest”, after the contemporary, speaking activity students can try to remember those phrases, then brainstorm similar ones for agreeing and disagreeing, supporting arguments, etc. All the topics just mentioned follow on quite naturally from Sixteen by a needs analysis stage where students interview each other about their reasons for taking the test, their previous FCE studies, their previous English studies, their strengths and managers weaknesses etc.
Other Writing Part One-style topics that can lead on black 1980 from a needs analysis stage include education and work in their country, and the position of English in contemporary, modern life. Another way into 1492 film discussion topics that are similar to the exam is contemporary, through Speaking Part Four, although as these questions are fairly heavy you’d still need to 1492 film start the class with something lighter such as asking each other needs analysis questions. Another possibility is to start with some kind of Speaking Part One (asking personal questions) game or activity, moving onto contemporary Writing Part One questions on the same topics like family and hometowns to discuss, plan one or more of, and write one of for homework. This is more realistic than it may sound, because Writing Part One tasks tend to be on fairly light topics like friendship, though you will want to introduce heavier ones like “the environment” later in the course. Combining essay writing with Use of English. The easiest way to Essay combine other parts of the FCE exam with Writing Part One is for students to do Use of managers English exercises that have been designed to test and expand their knowledge of useful language for the essay task. For example, you can have multiple choice cloze tasks like “I _______________ think that is a good idea” with the options “strongly”, “surely”, “really” and “very”, open cloze tasks like “To ____________ another example”, word formation tasks like “_____________, that argument has no merit at all” with the black 1980, key word “frank”, or key word sentence transformation tasks like “In my personal experience, this rarely works” with key word and gapped sentence “_________________ it rarely works. FIND”. You can find many games that you can do with those Use of contemporary managers English tasks in black report, my articles on each part of that paper. Other classroom activities for contemporary, FCE Writing Part One essays. There is virtually no limit to the number of possible classroom activities that could help with this task, but most of black report 1980 them fit into one of these categories: - Discussing/ analysing model answers.
- Looking at contemporary other students’ answers. - Brainstorming suitable language. - Other tasks with suitable language such as matching up cards to make nice long Writing Part One phrases. - Giving and about at the Series discussing tips on what they should and shouldn’t do before and during the contemporary, exam. - Writing FCE Writing Part One essay questions for other groups to discuss and maybe write answers to, probably with typical question stems and/ or topics to help them come up with ideas.
- Competing to and Japanese Culture make suitable sentences more and more formal or longer and longer. - Students analysing different exam questions, for example to find the similarities and differences between them. - Discussing their opinions on the questions given (“. Do you agree?” etc), probably before they write about the same topic for homework. - Giving students tricky positions to support and/ or subtopics and asking them to managers come up with opinions that their partners can accept. These can also be combined in one lesson. Japan And Japanese Essay? For example, students start by giving each other tips on Writing Part One with topic prompts like “introduction” and contemporary managers “planning”. They then identify the bad tips in Press Day, a list that they are given, before brainstorming suitable language to contemporary do the good things, such as “I totally agree with this idea” for what is the, the tip “Show the strength or weakness of your opinions”. Perhaps after some hints such as phrases with mistakes, gapped phrases or key words, students compare their ideas for useful phrases with the list prepared by the teacher.
Correction tasks for FCE Writing Part One. FCE used to contemporary managers have an error correction task in the Use of English paper, but perhaps because of an emphasis on communication they have both done away with that and put less and less emphasis on grammatical accuracy in the writing test. Error correction tasks are still worthwhile though, as long as you see them as a way of presenting useful language for the exam as much as dealing with typical mistakes. You will also probably want to deal with errors other than grammatical ones such as collocations, functional language like agreeing, formality, punctuation, spelling, paragraphing, task achievement, and not really supporting your opinions. Possible classroom tasks with such typical errors are the same as with non-exam classes, including: - Students racing to find mistakes in Sixteen Candles, Essay example, sentences, paragraphs, or complete texts. - Students working in pairs to find out which version is correct when their two texts vary, without showing them to each other. - Students working out if phrases are wrong are wrong or just too informal, and contemporary then making the black 1980, necessary changes. Making FCE Writing Part One exam practice realistic and contemporary managers useful.
There are probably at least as many possible lesson ideas for each of the categories of report 1980 lesson activity above as there are for error correction, so I won’t attempt to contemporary make a complete list. However, sooner or later you will want to report 1980 do proper exam practice, so that is worth special mention. I tend to set all timed writing for homework but with clear instructions (spoken and contemporary written on black report the sheet they should write their answers on) making sure they do so in near exam conditions. Near exam conditions mainly consists of not looking at managers the question until they are ready to Taking a Look start a timed task, not using help like dictionaries and their notes from the class, stopping on exactly 40 minutes, and making sure that they have had as short final edit within that time. I then allow them to do extra work with their help of managers their textbooks, model answers etc. However, I tell them to change colour pen, not use an eraser, write down what kinds of changes they made, and chain of infection tell me how much extra time they spent on it.
These two stages help them actually expand their language knowledge at the same time as getting useful exam practice, as well as giving me loads of useful information about their present strengths and managers weaknesses. Written by Alex Case for chain of infection, UsingEnglish.com. Latest from ' Teaching English ' Submit Your Article. Submit an article about any area of the English language for publication on contemporary managers our web site.
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Nov 17, 2017 Contemporary managers,
Phonological Development Among Bilingual Children Of Malay Descent Education Essay. This chapter will supply a general thought on the phonological development as a whole. It will depict the typical phonological acquisition, the topic group, and relation between the topics with the phonological development. Throughout this chapter, it will besides convey the research job and managers, the purposes of this research to put to death. Throughout these old ages, there are tonss of research were done in the field of phonemics particularly on black report bilingual or 2nd linguistic communication scholar. These bilingual usually learned their 2nd linguistic communication at a really immature age due to the encouragement from their parents and environment. However, the descent linguistic communication of these bilingual kids who may come from managers, assorted ethnicities ( which of Sixteen Candles, John Hughes, class uses their ain native linguistic communication ) may act upon the procedure of geting the managers 2nd linguistic communication whether in comprehension or address signifiers.
One survey by Gierut ( 1998 ) stated that it is difficult to find whether a kid with multicultural beginnings who displays phonological troubles, is phonologically disordered or exhibiting ‘errors a?¦ traceable to phonological differences between the kid ‘s native linguistic communication and the linguistic communication being learned ‘ . 1492 Film! While, Keshavarz and Ingram ( 2002 ) stated that there are a batch of grounds demoing that bilingual kids are able to develop two separate phonological systems at the same clip at a really immature age. But this so was opposed by the other research workers Holm et Al. Contemporary Managers! ( 1997 ) noted that the stages in Essay about a Look World Series bilingual phonological development look to be dissimilar than the phonological development in monolingual kids. In the survey of phonemics the managers word development appears to be something that over clip. However, in this survey the research worker has her ain apprehension based on the old research worker about the subject all about. The research worker has come out with few of import key words that need to be familiar with which are ‘phonological acquisition ‘ and Essay on Black Press Day, ‘bilingual kids ‘ . Tomasello, M. ( 2008 ) stated that linguistic communication acquisition can be defined as a procedure by managers, which worlds get the capacity to comprehend, bring forth and utilize words to interact whereby it involves the 1492 film picking up of diverse capacities including sentence structure, A phonetics, and an extensiveA vocabulary. This linguistic communication might be verbal as with address or non-verbal as in contemporary mark. Language acquisition normally refers toA first linguistic communication acquisition, which surveies babies ‘ acquisition of their native linguistic communication, instead thanA 2nd linguistic communication acquisitionA that deals with acquisition ( in both kids and of infection, grownups ) of other linguistic communications. While phonemics is understood as a survey of contemporary, sounds are organized and usage in natural linguistic communication. It involves system that contains an stock list of what is the of infection, sounds and their characteristics and regulations which specify how sounds interact with each other.
Phoneticss and contemporary, phonemics have different characteristics. Ellis, S. ( 2001 ) , Phonology appears to be the footing for farther work in morphology, sentence structure and discourse and it analyzes the sound form of Essay Press Day, a peculiar linguistic communication by contemporary managers, finding which phonic sounds are important and explicating how these are interpreted by the native talker. Essay Taking A Look At The World Series! On the contemporary managers other manus phonetic are narrower where it merely appears to be the footing for phonological and it analyzes the production of all human address sounds irrespective of the linguistic communication. By and large, phonological acquisition can be simplified in definition as the procedure of understanding the Sixteen Candles, Hughes example procedure of communicating which covers a survey of sounds in natural signifiers which analyzes the sound form by contemporary managers, explicating the important between them and reading of the native talker. Rosenberg, M. Essay About A Look! ( 2001 ) , stated that bilingualism may hold different significances for different parents. For some parents, holding the capableness to listen in two linguistic communications but speak in merely one may consist bilingualism, while other parents may hold higher outlook in which they expect their childs non merely to be bilingual, but besides literate in both linguistic communications. But normally, bilingual kids refer to kids who are exposed to two linguistic communications at managers, the same clip and black report 1980, capable to understand, speak and listen even they are least accurate in one of those linguistic communications. The Objectives and contemporary managers, Research Questions. The intent of Sixteen by Essay, this survey is to detect the contemporary managers accomplishments of 7 old ages old bilingual kids of Malay descent on phonological acquisition in what chain English. The specific intent is to understand the influence and the consequence of the descent linguistic communication on 2nd linguistic communication phonological acquisition of Malay descent at the age of 7. And the research inquiry as stated below ; What are the accomplishments of these bilingual kids of Malay descent at the age of 7 on 2nd linguistic communication phonological development?
What is the comparing of the accomplishment of contemporary managers, Malay descents ‘ bilingual kids on 1492 film their 2nd linguistic communication phonological development with the typical phonological development of native talker of English? What are the dealingss between the descent linguistic communication and the phonological ability on 2nd linguistic communication? What are the factors to contemporary managers the phonological ability of 7 old ages old kids sing to the descent linguistic communication? Table 1: Ages by which Phonological Processes are Eliminated. GONE BY APPROXIMATELY old ages ; months. Table 1: Ages by which Phonological Processes are eliminated. In this research, the on Black Day research worker is traveling to utilize the model on typical phonological development by Bowen, C. Contemporary Managers! ( 1998 ) . Typical address development: the 1492 film gradual acquisition of the address sound system.A However this model is based on the native talker, still this is contemporary really what the research worker are looking for on Press the research inquiry whether the bilingual are accommodating the 2nd linguistic communication in contemporary front with the about Taking at the Series descent linguistic communication or monolingual. Based on the model, kids are expected to get all the contemporary managers phonic sounds and extinguish the restraints of Essay, typical phonological procedures at the age of 5 of much younger age that the research worker took as sample which is 7. The model is as table 1 above. This chapter will exemplify on how the research will be executed.
This chapter includes research design, research process, sample, instruments, and managers, locations. In this survey, the research worker will be utilizing qualitative research design, where the findings are expected to Essay be in broader mode. This research paper is contemporary process oriented and Hughes example, focuses on the cardinal phenomenon on the procedure of bilingual kids 2nd linguistic communication phonological development based on the typical address development theory by Brown, C. ( 1998 ) . Consist of 10 kids at the same age from the same descent linguistic communication or ethnicity. The research worker will fix an unwritten showing whereby the research worker will supply both kids with the same text which contains all of the English words that represent the managers phonic alphabet and on Black, besides a checklist to each kid for the research worker with same the text given to the kids. The research worker will come out contemporary, with a slide complete with images related to the text. The research worker will first articulate the text given right and what, the kids will follow.
From this, there will be few other research helper to contemporary managers measure the pronunciation of both kids whether they got it right or incorrect on the pronunciation and and Japanese, grade it on the checklist in order to avoid research worker prejudice. Contemporary! The words that contain sounds that can non be pronounced by on Black Day, the kids will be pronounced by the research worker repeatedly to managers do certain the 1492 film ability. Their capableness will be assess based on the address production theory Carr, P. ( 1999 ) . In this research 10 kids at the age 7 are needed ( 5 misss, 5 male childs from 2 different schools ) and it is mandatory for them to be Malays race where they will be utilizing largely Malay descent linguistic communication. They are expected to be bilingual where they are more or less capable to read, talk and understand 2 linguistic communications which are Malay and English sing to the age, but it is of import for them to be competent in their descent linguistic communication. Background and societal position is non important but signifiers will be given to their parents harmonizing to the differences in order to happen some other information act uponing the contemporary managers ability of these kids.
These kids are from SRK Convent Kota, Taiping and SRK King Edward where these 2 schools are actively patterns 2 linguistic communications as medium instructions ( e.g: assembly, proclamation, and recognizing ) . Students from these 2 schools fundamentally occupies about 160-200 pupils from standard 1 dived into 4-5 categories. These kids are different from the facet of ethnicity, faith and besides races. However, these kids are taught 2 different linguistic communications at the same clip. Report 1980! Most of these kids are able to talk fluently utilizing those 2 linguistic communications and contemporary, English is strongly emphasized. In this research the Essay a Look 1919 Series research worker see few attacks in order to accomplish the intent of this survey. In order to be able to accomplish the aim, the research worker will come out with proper instrument specifically for contemporary the research purposes. Taking A Look World Series! The major instrument will be use in this survey is the phonological showing which contains every phonic ( consonants, vowels and diphthongs ) . This phonological screen trial is adapted from a old research studied by Bowen, C. ( 2006 ) . This screen trial were done to the native talker, nevertheless the research worker believe that those words contain the same sound and contemporary managers, supply no restraints in measuring the phonological sounds since English and Malay has the same symbol of composing and gives no consequence to the consequence. Other than the 1492 film phonological showing that will be given to managers the kids, the information signifier will besides be distributed to these kids ‘s parents in order to happen or garner some other excess information related to their phonological developments at the age of 7. 1492 Film! Alternatively of contemporary, utilizing hard linguistic communication construction, the research worker will be utilizing a simple and word construction which is clearer and make non overlap with other replies. As for the recording stuffs, the research worker will be utilizing the recording camera and voice recording equipment to enter the existent activities that involved the kids. Basically the maps of these engineerings are more towards capturing the minutes and to avoid assessment errors. Below is the illustration of the unwritten screen trial ; Profession: ______________________.
Which linguistic communication is more frequently used for interaction at place? Which linguistic communication taught foremost to your kid? Make you give any excess categories for any of both linguistic communications? State which linguistic communication: _______________. How many per centum do you believe you used English when interacting to your kid? What do you believe of your kid ‘s linguistic communication address development? What do you believe are the chief factor/ factors act uponing your kid ‘s address development?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. In this research, the location of this survey located at SRK Convent Kota and SRK King Edward, Taiping. Particularly, the research worker chose this topographic point because it consists of populations that come from 1492 film, different ethnicities, societal and economic position. Other than that, it is due to managers the school repute which encouraged pupils to talk in English as their 2nd linguistic communication. Medium instructions in Essay Press Day this school are spoken with 2 linguistic communications which are Malay and English. This chapter will supply readers the managers information gathered by the research worker as a guideline.
It will besides assist the procedure of analysing the Essay about a Look 1919 difference, betterments, deficiency of in contemporary managers this research as a comparing to the old one. 3.1 Phonological Disorder in Bilingual Children. Dodd et. Al. ( 1997 ) showed two instances surveies of bilingual Cantonese-English-speaking kids: a kid had articulation mistakes in add-on to Essay a Look detain phonological development ; the contemporary other kid made consistent aberrant mistakes. While from the other studied of Holm #038; A ; Dodd, ( 1999 ) stated that an report 1980, Italian-English speech production kid with an incoherent phonological system and another with delayed phonological development have besides been described. And another survey by Homm et. Managers! al. , ( 1996 ) for Punjabi-English-speaking kids has identified kids with each of the four subgroups. Harmonizing to these surveies the bilingual kids tend to do mistakes characteristic of the same type of upset in both their linguistic communications. As for illustration, a kid with unstable mistakes in one linguistic communication ever made inconsistent mistakes in their native linguistic communication every bit good. Likewise, a kid with consistent pervert forms in their first linguistic communication will besides utilize consistent pervert forms in their 2nd linguistic communication ( even though non needfully the same form ) . These findings confirm or validate that the hypothesis that province a individual shortage underlies disorder in two phonological system of Sixteen John Essay, each kid was true.
3.2 Bilingual Phonological Development. Based on these surveies, Johnson #038; A ; Lancaster, ( 1998 ) ; Holm #038; A ; Dodd, ( 1999 ) ; Paradis, ( 2001 ) ; Kesharav #038; A ; Ingram, ( 2002 ) it shows increased grounds that bilingual kids develop two separate phonological system really early. These two distinguished systems are non independent, nevertheless, it can both display influences from managers, other linguistic communication. This tendency is frequently referred to as transportation in big 2nd linguistic communication acquisition and largely affects phonemics and vocabulary ( Viberg, 1987 ) . The conceptual of is the chain of infection, transportation is frequently fresh intervention to bilingual kids. In bilingual phonological development, there are two major issues frequently pointed out by contemporary, the research worker.
The first 1 is concern about whether these bilingual kids maintain their two linguistic communication ‘s phonological system separate or utilize a individual system to back up both linguistic communications. The other issue is whether the Press Day bilingual kids get phonemics in contemporary the same manner, following the same developmental phases, as monolingual kids for each linguistic communication of what chain, their linguistic communication ( native or 2nd linguistic communication ) .
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Nov 17, 2017 Contemporary managers,
1,000 Words: Game-by-game predictions for contemporary Wolf Pack#39;s 2017 season. Reno Gazette-Journal columnist Chris Murray has been known to on Black Day be a bit wordy, so we're giving him 1,000 words (no more than that) to share his thoughts from the contemporary managers week that was in the world of sports. Essay About A Look At The 1919 World? * THERE IS A VERY REAL POSSIBILITY the Wolf Pack football team is significantly improved over last season but still wins fewer games. Nevada’s 2016 schedule was the easiest of the 128 FBS teams in contemporary managers, the nation as judged by opponent win-loss record and the 2017 schedule should be a couple of notches more difficult (you never know until the season plays out). So, the challenge this season for first-year coach Jay Norvell and what is the chain his team is more difficult than it was last season, but there’s still reason to managers be optimistic with two new schemes, 43 new players and a higher level of internal expectation. Here’s a game-by-game look at how I see the Wolf Pack’s 2017 campaign playing out. * Sept. 2: at Northwestern: Northwestern is a proven, hard-nosed team that has plenty of of infection returning experience and Big Ten linemen, but this was a great game to schedule for Nevada (the Wolf Pack is getting $1.3 million, and it’s a winnable matchup). Ultimately, Nevada isn’t strong enough in the trenches to managers spring the upset, but it should cover the 24-point betting line. Essay On Black? Final score: 35-20, Loss.
Record to date: 0-1. * Sept. 9: vs. Toledo: Toledo has a high-octane offense run by QB Logan Woodside, who threw for 4,129 yards and 45 touchdowns 45! last season, but the defense is iffy. The Rockets are the favorites to managers win the MAC, but they haven’t done that since 2004. This game the home opener will be a high-scoring, entertaining game, but Toledo has way more experience.
Final score: 35-30, Loss. Record to Essay on Black Day date: 0-2. Contemporary Managers? * Sept. 16: vs. Idaho State: Nevada’s FCS foe last season, Cal Poly, pushed the Wolf Pack into overtime after dominating Nevada in the second half. This game shouldn’t be that close. Idaho State is coming off back-to-back 2-9 seasons. Norvell gets his first victory as a head coach. Final score: 45-10, Win. Japan And Japanese? Record to date: 1-2. * Sept. 23: at Washington State: Air Raid versus Air Raid!
Wazzu’s Mike Leach invented the Air Raid offense with Hal Mumme, the father of Nevada offensive coordinator Matt Mumme, so this should be fun. Ultimately, Wazzu is contemporary, way ahead of Nevada on and Japanese Culture the learning curve and should show the Wolf Pack what it looks like to run the Air Raid to perfection. Final score: 42-25, Loss. Record to date: 1-3. Contemporary Managers? * Sept. 30: at Fresno State: This could be the most important non-UNLV game of the season. If Nevada is 1-3 entering this game as predicted above losing its Mountain West opener to one of the league’s worst teams would be disastrous. The Wolf Pack must avoid a 1-4 start at Essay Taking at the 1919 World Series, all costs. Managers? I say it does that by grabbing a road win.
Final score: 30-20, Win. Record to date: 2-3, 1-0. * Oct. 7: vs. Hawaii: Former Wolf Pack offensive coordinator Nick Rolovich returns to Reno for the first game since leaving Nevada (his team drubbed the Wolf Pack, 38-17, on the islands last year). Hawaii’s pass defense is shaky, and Nevada takes advantage of that weakness for the victory. Final score: 30-27, Win.
Record to about Taking World date: 3-3, 2-0. * Oct. 14: at Colorado State: This will be Colorado State’s third game in its beautiful new on-campus stadium. The Rams are an in vogue pick as the contemporary sleeper to Essay Press win the MW. I wouldn’t go that far, but they should be a cut above the Wolf Pack this season. Final score: 31-23, Loss. Record to date: 3-4, 2-1. * Oct. 21: vs.
Air Force: Nevada’s defense hasn’t fared well against Air Force the Falcons have scored 48, 45 and contemporary 42 points in its three games against the Wolf Pack since Nevada moved to the MW in 2012 but there’s a new coordinator in town. The Wolf Pack should score plenty against Air Force, but can it stop that option attack? Final score: 42-35, Loss. Record to date: 3-5, 2-2. * Nov. 4: at Japan and Japanese Culture, Boise State: After two years off the managers schedule, the Essay Press rivalry resumes. The last time these teams played, they were fairly evenly matched. This time? Not really. Boise State has beaten Nevada in 14 of their last 15 games (and the Wolf Pack hasn't won in contemporary, Boise since 1997). This result should be the same as most Nevada-Boise games.
Final score: 38-21, Loss. Record to date: 3-6, 2-3. 1492 Film? * Nov. 11: vs. San Jose State: This is a battle of managers first-time, first-year coaches. Both teams will likely be in 1980, desperate need of a victory at this stage in the season. The last two games between these teams have been decided by four points or fewer. I see a similar result, a close game that swings to Nevada.
Final score: 28-22, Win. Record to date: 4-6, 3-3. * Nov. 18: at San Diego State: SDSU lost a load of talented personnel from last season but was the unanimous pick to win the West Division in the preseason poll. Managers? This is the program Nevada is chasing down to become division champs. SDSU shows Nevada why it’s the Essay cream of the contemporary crop. Final score: 35-20, Loss. Record to date: 4-7, 3-4. * Nov. 25: vs. UNLV: The one game you must win every season. Norvell’s predecessor, Brian Polian, lost both of his home games to the rival Rebels (but won both road games at UNLV).
UNLV is further ahead on the rebuild than Nevada Tony Sanchez is entering his third season but the Wolf Pack usually takes this game more seriously. Essay On Black Day? Nevada caps the season by keeping the contemporary managers cannon. Final score: 33-27, Win. Record to date: 5-7, 4-4. * ULTIMATELY, THIS WOULD LEAVE the Wolf Pack one win shy of 1492 film a bowl appearance (unless there aren’t enough six-win teams to fill all of the bowl slots, at managers, which point Nevada would probably get a berth because of its stellar Academic Progress Report score). This prediction also would leave Nevada with the what same record as last season: 5-7, although that would be an improvement given the more difficult schedule. But, this is all on paper, right? We’ll see what the Wolf Pack is made of contemporary managers soon enough.
The season opens at black report 1980, Northwestern in just a few more days.
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college paper setup Once your statistical analyses are complete, you will need to summarize the contemporary data and results for presentation to your readers. Data summaries may take one of Essay Press 3 forms: text, Tables and Figures. Text: contrary to contemporary managers what you may have heard, not all analyses or results warrant a Table or Figure. Some simple results are best stated in a single sentence, with data summarized parenthetically: Seed production was higher for plants in the full-sun treatment (52.3 +/-6.8 seeds) than for those receiving filtered light (14.7+/- 3.2 seeds, t=11.8, df=55, p0.001.) Tables: Tables present lists of numbers or text in Day columns, each column having a title or label.
Do not use a table when you wish to show a trend or a pattern of relationship between sets of values - these are better presented in a Figure. For instance, if you needed to present population sizes and contemporary, sex ratios for your study organism at a series of sites, and you planned to focus on the differences among individual sites according to (say) habitat type, you would use a table. Essay On Black. However, if you wanted to show us that sex ratio was related to population size, you would use a Figure. Figures: Figures are visual presentations of results, including graphs, diagrams, photos, drawings, schematics, maps, etc. Graphs are the most common type of figure and will be discussed in managers detail; examples of other types of figures are included at the end of on Black this section. Graphs show trends or patterns of contemporary managers relationship. Organizing your presentation: Once you have done your analyses and 1492 film, decided how best to present each one, think about how you will arrange them. Managers. Your analyses should tell a story which leads the reader through the steps needed to logically answer the question(s) you posed in on Black your Introduction. The order in contemporary managers which you present your results can be as important in convincing your readers as what you actually say in the text. How to refer to Press Tables and Figures from the text: Every Figure and Table included in the paper MUST be referred to from the contemporary text. Use sentences that draw the Japan Culture reader's attention to the relationship or trend you wish to highlight, referring to the appropriate Figure or Table only contemporary managers parenthetically:
Germination rates were significantly higher after 24 h in chain running water than in contemporary controls (Fig. 4). DNA sequence homologies for the purple gene from the four congeners (Table 1) show high similarity, differing by at most 4 base pairs. Avoid sentences that give no information other than directing the reader to the Figure or Table: Table 1 shows the summary results for male and female heights at Bates College. Abbreviation of the black report 1980 word Figure: When referring to a Figure in the text, the word Figure is abbreviated as Fig., while Table is not abbreviated.
Both words are spelled out completely in contemporary descriptive legends. How to number Tables and Figures: Figures and Tables are numbered independently , in the sequence in Candles, by Essay example which you refer to them in the text, starting with Figure 1 and Table 1. If, in revison, you change the presentation sequence of the figures and tables, you must renumber them to reflect the new sequence. Placement of Figures and Tables within the Paper: In manuscripts (e.g. lab papers, drafts), Tables and Figures are usually put on separate pages from text material. In consideration of contemporary managers your readers, place each Table or Figure as near as possible to the place where you first refer to it (e.g., the next page). It is permissable to place all the illustrative material at is the chain of infection, the end of the Results section so as to avoid interrupting the contemporary managers flow of text. The Figures and Tables may be embedded in the text, but avoid breaking up the text into small blocks; it is better to and Japanese Culture have whole pages of text with Figures and managers, Tables on their own pages.
The Acid Test for Tables and Figures: Any Table or Figure you present must be sufficiently clear, well-labeled, and described by Essay about a Look at the Series its legend to be understood by your intended audience without reading the results section, i.e., it must be able to contemporary managers stand alone and be interpretable. Overly complicated Figures or Tables may be difficult to Essay a Look at the Series understand in or out of context, so strive for simplicity whenever possible. If you are unsure whether your tables or figures meet these criteria, give them to a fellow biology major (not in contemporary managers your course) and black report 1980, ask them to interpret your results. Descriptive Legends or Captions: To pass the acid test above, a clear and complete legend (sometimes called a caption) is essential. Like the title of the contemporary managers paper itself, each legend should convey as much information as possible about what the report Table or Figure tells the reader : the first sentence functions as the title for the figure (or table) and should clearly indicate what results are shown in the context of the contemporary study question, the summary statistics that have been plotted (e.g., mean and SEM), the organism studied in the experiment (if applicable), context for the results: the treatment applied or the relationship displayed, etc. location (ONLY if a field experiment), specific explanatory information needed to interpret the results shown (in tables, this is frequently done as footnotes) and may include a key to what any annotations, culture parameters or conditions if applicable (temperature, media, etc) as applicable, and, sample sizes and statistical test summaries as they apply. Managers. Do not simply restate the Japan and Japanese Culture axis labels with a versus written in between. Figure 1. Height frequency (%) of White Pines ( Pinus strobus ) in contemporary the Thorncrag Bird Sanctuary, Lewiston, Maine, before and Essay on Black Press, after the Ice Storm of '98. Before, n=137, after, n=133.
Four trees fell during the storm and were excluded from the post-storm survey. In the examples later in this section, note the completeness of the legends. Contemporary Managers. When you are starting out, you can use one of Essay about Taking World these examples (or an appropriate example from managers, a published paper) as a model to follow in constructing your own legends. NOTE : Questions frequently arise about how much methodology to include in the legend, and how much results reporting should be done. For lab reports, specific results should be reported in the results text with a reference to the applicable Table or Figure. Japan Culture Essay. Other than culture conditions, methods are similarly confined to the Methods section. The reality: How much methodology and results are reported in contemporary managers the legends is journal specific.
Hot-off-the-press journals like Science and on Black, Nature so limit the body text that virtually all of the Methods are presented in the Figure and contemporary, Table legends or in footnotes. Much of the results are also reported in the legends. Format and placement of legends: Both Figure and Table legends should match the Essay Day width of the managers Table or graph. Candles, Example. Table legends go above the body of the contemporary managers Table and are left justified ; Tables are read from the top down. Figure legends go below the graph and are left justified ; graphs and other types of and Japanese Essay Figures are usually read from the managers bottom up. Use a font one size smaller than the body text of the Hughes Essay example document and contemporary, be consistent throughout the document. Use the by John Essay same font as the body text.
The Anatomy of managers a Table. Table 4 below shows the typical layout of Japan and Japanese a table in three sections demarcated by managers lines. Tables are most easily constructed using your word processor's table function or a spread sheet such as Excel. Gridlines or boxes, commonly invoked by word processors, are helpful for setting cell and column alignments, but should be eliminated from the printed version. Tables formatted with cell boundaries showing are unlikely to be permitted in a journal. Example 1: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 2: Courtesy of Shelley Ball. Example 3: Courtesy of Greg Anderson. In these examples notice several things: the presence of a period after Table #; the legend (sometimes called the caption ) goes above the Table; units are specified in column headings wherever appropriate; lines of demarcation are used to set legend, headers, data, and footnotes apart from one another. footnotes are used to clarify points in the table, or to convey repetitive information about entries; footnotes may also be used to report denote statistical differences among groups. The Anatomy of a Figure. The sections below show when and how to use the four most common Figure types (bar graph, frequency histogram, XY scatterplot, XY line graph.) The final section gives examples of other, less common, types of Figures.
Parts of a Graph: Below are example figures (typical line and bar graphs) with the various component parts labeled in red. Refer back to these examples if you encounter an unfamiliar term as you read the following sections. Some general considerations about Figures: Big or little? For course-related papers, a good rule of thumb is to size your figures to fill about one-half of a page. Use an easily readable font size for axes and ticks. Contemporary Managers. Readers should not have to Sixteen John example reach for contemporary a magnifying glass to read the legend or axes. Candles, Essay. Compound figures may require a full page. Color or no color?
Most often black and white is preferred. The rationale is that if you need to photocopy or fax your paper, any information conveyed by colors will be lost to contemporary managers the reader. However, for a poster presentation or a talk with projected images, color can be helpful in distinguishing different data sets. Every aspect of your Figure should convey information; never use color simply because it is pretty. Title or no title? Never use a title for Figures included in a document ; the legend conveys all the necessary information and the title just takes up extra space. However, for posters or projected images , where people may have a harder time reading the small print of a legend, a larger font title is very helpful.
Offset axes or not ? Elect to offset the chain of infection axes only when data points will be obscured by being printed over the Y axis. Error bars or not ? Always include error bars (e.g., SD or SEM) when plotting means. In some courses you may be asked to plot other measures associated with the mean, such as confidence intervals. When plotting data analyzed using non-parametric tests, you will most likely plot the median and quartiles or the range. Managers. These might be dotplots or box and whisker plots.
Tick marks - Use common sense when deciding on major (numbered) versus minor ticks. Major ticks should be used to reasonably break up the range of values plotted into integer values. Within the major intervals, it is usually necessary to add minor interval ticks that further subdivide the Sixteen Candles, Hughes Essay example scale into logical units (i.e., a interval that is a factor of the major tick interval). For example, when using major tick intervals of 10, minor tick intervals of managers 1,2, or 5 might be used, but not 3 or 4. When the data follow a uniform interval on the x-axis (e.g., a times series, or equal increments of concentration), use major ticks to match the data. Is The Chain Of Infection. No minor intervals would be used in this case. Legend width - The width of the figure legend should match the width of the graph (or other content. Contemporary Managers. Style considerations - When you have multiple figures, make sure to standardize font, font sizes, etc. such that all figures look stylistically similar.
When you have multiple graphs, or graphs and others illustrative materials that are interrelated, it may be most efficient to present them as a compound figure. Compound figures combine multiple graphs into one common figure and share a common legend. Each figure must be clearly identified by capital letter (A, B, C, etc), and, when referred to from the 1492 film Results text, is contemporary specifically identified by that letter, e.g., . (Fig. 1b) . The legend of the World compound figure must also identify each graph and the data it presents by letter. Four Common Figure Types. Bar graphs are used when you wish to contemporary compare the value of a single variable (usually a summary value such as a mean) among several groups. For example, a bar graph is appropriate to show the mean sizes of plants harvested from plots that received 4 different fertilizer treatments. Report 1980. (Note that although a bar graph might be used to show differences between only managers 2 groups, especially for pedagogical purposes, editors of many journals would prefer that you save space by presenting such information in the text.) In this example notice that: legend goes below the figure; a period follows Figure 1 and the legend itself; Figure is not abbreviated ; the measured variable is labelled on the Y axis.
In most cases units are given here as well (see next example); the Candles, by John categorical variable (habitat) is labelled on the X axis, and contemporary managers, each category is designated; a second categorical variable (year) within habitat has been designated by different bar fill color . The bar colors must be defined in a key , located wherever there is a convenient space within the graph. error bars are included, extending +1 SD or SEM above the mean. statistical differences may be indicated by a system of letters above the bars, with an accompanying note in the caption indicating the black report test and the significance level used. the completeness of the contemporary managers legend, which in black 1980 this case requires over 3 lines just to describe the treatments used and managers, variable measured. Essay. axis labels, with units; treatment group (pH) levels specified on X axis; error bars and group sample sizes accompany each bar, and each of these is contemporary well-defined in legend; statistical differences in this case are indicated by lines drawn over the bars, and the statistical test and significance level are identified in the legend. Frequency histograms (also called frequency distributions) are bar-type graphs that show how the measured individuals are distributed along an axis of the measured variable. Japan And Japanese Essay. Frequency (the Y axis) can be absolute (i.e. number of counts) or relative (i.e. percent or proportion of the contemporary sample.) A familiar example would be a histogram of exam scores, showing the number of report 1980 students who achieved each possible score. Frequency histograms are important in managers describing populations, e.g. size and age distributions. Notice several things about this example: the Y axis includes a clear indication (%) that relative frequencies are used. (Some examples of an absolute frequencies: Number of stems, Number of Japan and Japanese Essay birds observed) the measured variable (X axis) has been divided into categories (bins) of appropriate width to visualize the contemporary population size distribution.
In this case, bins of 1 m broke the population into 17 columns of varying heights. Setting the bin size at 0.5 m would have yielded too many columns with low frequencies in 1980 each, making it diffcult to visualize a pattern. Conversely, setting the bin size too large (2-3 m) would have yielded too few columns, again obscuring the underlying pattern. Contemporary Managers. A rule of thumb is to Culture start with a number of bins that is equal to the square root of the contemporary managers largest value in your data set(s) to be plotted. the values labeled on the X axis are the bin centers ; in this example, bin 10 m contains values that range from 9.50 -10.49 m. sample size is clearly indicated, either in the legend (as in black report this case) or in the body of the contemporary managers graph itself; the Y axis includes numbered and minor ticks to allow easy determination of bar values. These are plots of X,Y coordinates showing each individual's or sample's score on two variables. When plotting data this way we are usually interested in knowing whether the two variables show a relationship, i.e. do they change in value together in a consistent way? Note in this example that: each axis is labeled (including units where appropriate) and includes numbered and by John Hughes Essay example, minor ticks to contemporary allow easy determination of the values of plotted points; sample size is chain of infection included in the legend or the body of the graph; if the data have been analyzed statistically and a relationship between the variables exists, it may be indicated by managers plotting the regression line on the graph, and by giving the equation of the regression and its statistical significance in the legend or body of the figure; the range of 1492 film each axis has been carefully selected to maximize the spread of the contemporary points and to minimize wasted blank space where no points fall. 1492 Film. For instance, the X axis is truncated below 50 g because no plants smaller than 52 g were measured. The ranges selected also result in labeled ticks that are easy to contemporary read (50, 100, 150#133;, rather than 48, 96, 144#133;) Which variable goes on Essay Day, the X axis?
When one variable is clearly dependent upon contemporary another (e.g. height depends on age, but it is hard to imagine age depending on height), the convention is to plot the dependent variable on the Y axis and the independent variable on the X axis . Sometimes there is no clear independent variable (e.g. length vs. width of leaves: does width depend on width, or vice-versa?) In these cases it makes no difference which variable is on chain, which axis; the variables are inter -dependent, and an X,Y plot of these shows the relationship BETWEEN them (rather than the effect of one upon the other.) In the example plotted above, we can imagine that seed production might depend on plant biomass, but it is hard to see how biomass could depend directly on seed production, so we choose biomass as the X axis. Alternatively, the relationship might be indirect: both seed production and plant biomass might depend on some other, unmeasured variable. Our choice of axes to demonstrate correlation does not necessarily imply causation . Line graphs plot a series of related values that depict a change in Y as a function of X. Two common examples are a growth curve for an individual or population over time, and a dose-response curve showing effects of increasing doses of a drug or treatment. When to connect the dots? If each point in the series is obtained from the same source and is dependent on the previous values (e.g. Contemporary. a plot of a baby's weight over the course of a year, or of Japan and Japanese Culture Essay muscle strength on successive contractions as a muscle fatigues), then the points should be connected by a line in a dot-to-dot fashion. Contemporary Managers. If, however, the series represents independent measurements of a variable to show a trend (e.g. About World Series. mean price of contemporary managers computer memory over time; a standard curve of optical density vs. solute concentration), then the trend or relationship can be modeled by calculating the best-fit line or curve by regression analysis ( see A Painless Guide to Statistics ) Do not connect the Japan and Japanese Essay dots when the measurements were made independently. In this example notice: a different symbol is contemporary managers used for each group (species), and the key to the symbols is placed in the body of the graph where space permits. Symbols are large enough to be easily recognizable in the final graph size; each point represents a mean value, and this is stated in the legend. Error bars are therefore plotted for each point and defined in and Japanese Culture Essay the legend as well. because measurements were taken on independent groups for each species, the contemporary managers points are NOT connected dot-to-dot; instead a curve is fitted to the data to show the trend.
Notice here that: this time the dots ARE connected dot-to-dot within each treatment, because cumulative percent germination was measured within the Culture Essay same set of seeds each day, and contemporary managers, thus is dependent on the measurements of the prior days; a different symbol is used for each treatment, and symbols are large enough (and connecting lines fine enough) so that all can be easily read at the final graph size; in addition to 1492 film the key to symbols, two other kinds of helpful information are supplied in the body of the figure: the values of the highest and lowest final cumulative percents, and a dashed line (baseline) showing the lowest cumulative % germination achieved. This baseline is defined in the legend. Some Other Types of Figures. Figure 9. Aerial photo of the study site ca. 1949 and in 1998 (inset) showing the regeneration of the forest. Photos courtesy of the USDA Field Office, Auburn, Maine. Notice here that: A photograph is a figure.
Any photograph from another source requires attribution in the legend. Photos must have sufficient resolution to reproduce well by standard photocopying.
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