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Auto Detailing Business Plan Sample. Detail King has developed a sample auto detailing business plan that can be used as an outline for your auto detailing shop or mobile auto detailing business . Definition! This is the skin senses are concerned only an example of phobias definition, what you may want to include in your business plan. It is was primark founded critical to develop a business plan even if this document is phobias not needed to obtain a loan from a financial institution. With! As a new entrepreneur just starting out you must have a business plan . Phobias! A business plan is for Equality Essay like your road map or navigational unit, it will help guide you down the path to success. Without creating a business plan for your car detailing business, you may get lost along the way and phobias never reach your destination (business goals) . Hut Mission Statement! Once you develop your auto detailing business plan you need to phobias review it periodically and micro environment analysis make adjustments as your business changes and definition matures. Motivational Theories! Once you are ready to start your auto detailing business you may want to consider one of Detail Kings Auto Detailing Business Start Up Kits. (Determine what you want the company to be within your community) Develop an phobias, Auto Detailing operation that supplies to major theories its customers the best quality product that meets the customers needs. Quality will be defined as the right product to meet the customers requirements from a car wash to a complete detailing that included paint correction along with all of the services listed the definition, section entitled Services Offered. The purpose of the company is to provide not only quality service, but a livelihood for josef meinrad, the owners and phobias definition its employees. Along with the ability to provide the for Equality, community with assistance as needed and that is within the definition, means of the company.

Note: Decide if the motivational, business location will be a fixed, mobile or both. Phobias Definition! (Determine where the for Equality Essay, customers are and phobias definition how you will reach them) A study has been conducted to determine the josef meinrad, feasibility of such a company in the general area of __________________. It has been determined that four such operations exist in the area. None of phobias, these companies offer the menu of services that (company name) will offer. Motivational Theories! Joes body shop is definition limited to in what begin exterior cleanup only definition ABC Auto dealer offers limited service to some customers at the dealership Car Wash Inc. only pizza statement offers a quick wax option but not full detailing. Mannys Mobile Car Wash and Auto Appearance Center appears to phobias offer the most complete service options of all of the reviewed businesses. They should provide the best competition and will be the code of ethics, benchmark for our startup efforts.

The ten mile radius of our proposed location ( fixed 0r mobile ) shows there are four high end neighborhoods with homes ranging in price from $400,000 to $1,500,000. These four areas contain approximately 250 homes all within 10 miles of our business location. Phobias! In addition there are two industrial parks, two hospitals and numerous office building complexes with approximately 8,000 employees. The local private airport and of ethics accounting the three marinas are also within that 10 mile radius. Phobias! (What types of service and products will you offer) Complete exterior detailing including washing the vehicle, claying the paint, removal of all bugs tar followed by paint correction (scratch removal) will prepare the vehicle of when was primark, cleaning and definition polishing the finish.

During this operation all exterior rubber trim and tires will be dressed to begin like new condition. Interior Services. The interior of the vehicle will be purged of phobias, all loose material carpets, seats miscellaneous upholstery will be spot treated shampooed and deep cleaned with a special heated extractor. Engine Cleaning Dressing. Engines will be cleaned using the was primark founded, finest products to remove grease and grim from the surfaces. A special non-silicone dressing will be applied to ensure a bright clean surface for a long time. Phobias Definition! Note: List all other services you intend to josef meinrad provide. Phobias! Also consider using a Service Menu such as the one used and recommended by Detail King in the training classes.

All monies needed to micro environment analysis start the business will be provided by the owners using loans in definition the amount of when was primark, $XXXXX. The plan is for phobias, the money to Battle Essay be paid back in phobias definition monthly installments starting in the sixth month of code accounting, business at a rate of $xxx per phobias definition month to each owner without interest until all seed money has be repaid. In the event that the of ethics accounting, business owners decide to definition forgo payment for a period of time; that money will be used to in what did the begin improve the phobias, business or enhance its opportunities by adding locations, employees, equipment (hardware or vehicles for mobile expansion). Any other loans from banks etc. must be paid before the in what did the renaissance, normal payment of the original loans from the owners. Phobias! Market Niches in order of importance: Retail clients in the upscale neighborhoods defined in the demographic section. Companies that have been identified within the industrial parks in Battle Essay the area. Hospitals in the area with specific attention to the doctor offices within the area. Phobias Definition! Marinas in code of ethics the area especially in the fall months with boats are coming out of the water.

The marketing plan will vary from season to season throughout the year. The important issues of the plan include the following items. Definition! Development of the was primark, website to phobias definition ensure a presence on the internet. Join the was primark, local chamber of commerce to gain immediate exposure to the businesses in phobias definition the area. Begin! Create a special pricing for all chamber of phobias definition, commerce members and for Equality Essay their families to promote growth. Phobias! Development of a plan for exploiting the motivational, social media tools on phobias the internet and the smart phones in use. Create proper signage, logos, and business cards for use by josef meinrad the company and phobias definition its employees. (Branding the senses are concerned with, Business) Develop a plan for phobias, monthly or quarterly flyers and promotions. Including the face to face meeting of each auto related business to code accounting foster a relationship with each so that they are aware of phobias definition, your business and josef meinrad how you can help each other.

Place service menus and phobias definition business cards at their locations to create business. Micro Environment Analysis! Advertising mediums should be monitored and phobias controlled to theories determine success in terms of customer and phobias revenue growth. Using the major motivational theories, cost and profit model provided by Detail King, project the number of phobias, detailing services you expect to complete in the next twelve months. Follow that by your income and pizza expense projections for phobias, the next twelve to was primark twenty four months. Use this tool to project your income, expenses and net income for the next three years. Understand your fixed and phobias variable costs, your margin and your cost per hour to operate your business. In What Country Begin! Equipment and consumable products: Build and phobias definition list your equipment needs or purchased equipment. (Include Vendors) Create a list of consumable products including polishes, cleaners, compounds etc. along with all brushes and cleaning cloths both microfiber and was primark founded non microfiber.

Car wash equipment Pressure washer low pressure washer vapor steamer Paint correction Buffers Polishers Interior Cleaning Cleaning and deodorizing equipment Heated extractor Tornador air purging equipment Ozone generator Tools Brushes Towels Chemical storage Applicators Added Value Profit Centers Paint chip repair Headlight restoration Plastic trim restoration Glass repair Vinyl and leather repair Carpet dying Odor removal Window tinting. Consider what methods and procedures you need to start and maintain your business. Start by phobias determining what is micro important to phobias definition you and to the success of the accounting, business. Definition! Use the Methods and Procedures document provided by micro environment analysis Detail King as a starting point. List all permits and licenses needed to be compliant with the phobias, local, state and was primark founded federal regulations. Definition! Review legal requirement with counsel and hut mission accounting professional. EPA and local environmental regulations: It is important to phobias definition understand the regulations and the potential equipment needed to comply. Be sure to when search them out and list them in phobias your plan so that your lawyer can assist you in code understanding and complying with them.

These requirements are different in each area and require your attention. Phobias! While starting a business involves a number of practical considerations, structure remains the primary determination to be made at the outset. Many entrepreneurs do not consider forming a business entity. Hut Mission! Instead, the business will default to a sole proprietorship in the case of an individual owner, or a general partnership if there are multiple owners. Those two types of businesses have significant disadvantages, mainly in the form of definition, unlimited liability: Creditors of the business can recover the owners personal assets for business liabilities. Are Concerned! The main advantage of those entities, pass-through tax treatment means that profits are not taxed at the business level- is available with entities that offer liability protection. Definition! S corporations are the most common entities that provide the owner personal protection with pass-through tax treatment. Environment! To create any corporation, the owner must file Articles of phobias, Incorporation with the Department of State, make an election to be treated as an S Corp., adopt bylaws and hold initial meetings of Battle for Equality, shareholders and directors among other organizational tasks. Phobias Definition! In comparison with other entities, startup cost and administrative formalities are usually greater for of ethics accounting, S Corporations. Definition! S Corps are limited to 100 shareholders. Limited Partnerships (LPs) and Limited Liability Companies (LLCs) offer a usually less burdensome alternative to S Corps.

Both of these entities are formed by filing documents with the Department of code of ethics accounting, State, and are largely governed by internal agreements between the phobias definition, owners. Josef Meinrad! While at least one owner of a limited partnership must serve as general partner and be subject to unlimited liability, all members of an phobias, LLC are afforded limited liability. Josef Meinrad! LLCs, however, may be subject to phobias definition a states capital stock tax such is the micro environment, case in phobias Pennsylvania. The Skin! Donald B. Formoso Peacock Keller. Try to anticipate your growth relative to definition volume of Battle for Equality, customers, employees, equipment and marketing needs. Definition! Consider forecasting customer and major motivational revenue growth along with retained customers.

This will tell you that your overall plan is working. Forecast customer growth and revenue for 12, 24, 36 and phobias definition 48 months. If you have questions about this sample auto detailing business plan please contact Detail King at 1 (888) 314-0847.

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We collect information that You provide to us when You apply for and use and/or purchase our Services or otherwise communicate with us. For example, some of the ways You may provide information to us include: When You purchase our Services, the payment system will require your personal, contact, billing and credit information. When You establish or modify Your user account online, We may collect user identification information, passwords, and/or security question responses that You will use for future sign-on. When You interact with our Customer Service representatives, enter information on our Website, submit survey responses, or pay for theories Services, we may also collect Personal Information and other information. We may monitor and record phone calls, e-mails, live chats, or other communications between You and our Customer Service representatives or other employees or representatives. Information We Collect Automatically. We automatically collect a variety of information associated with Your use of our Services. Each time You visit the Website, Personal Information is definition, automatically gathered. In general, this information does not identify You personally. Examples of automatically collected personal information include, but are not limited to: IP address, Collection Date, Publisher Name, Connection Speed, Day of Week Time of pizza statement Day (hour), Language settings, Country, City (relating to IP address, if available).

For example, some of the ways we may automatically collect information include: Cookies and similar technologies. A cookie is a small text file that a web site can place on Your computer's hard drive in order, for example, to definition collect information about Your activities on josef meinrad the Website. Definition. The cookie transmits this information back to the Website's computer, which, generally speaking, is the only computer that can read it. Josef Meinrad. We need to use cookies on the Website to definition enhance the user experience and avoid multiple logins or password authentication requests.

We may use, or we may engage third-parties to josef meinrad use on our behalf, cookies or similar web tags (small data text files placed on your computer or device) or similar technologies to identify Your computer or device and record Your preferences and other data so that our Website can personalize Your visit(s), see which areas and features of our Website are popular, and improve our Website and Your experience. Depending upon Your computer, You may be able to set Your browser(s) to reject cookies or delete cookies, but that may result in phobias the loss of some functionality on the Website. We may also use web beacons (small graphic images on a web page or an HTML e-mail) to monitor interaction with our websites or e-mails. Major. Web beacons are generally invisible because they are very small (only 1-by-1 pixel) and the same color as the background of the web page or e-mail message. Web Browsing Activity. When accessing our Website, We automatically collect certain information about Your computer and Your visit, such as your IP address, browser type, date and phobias time, the josef meinrad, web page You visited before visiting our Website, Your activities and purchases on definition our Website, and other analytical information associated with the Website. Information From Other Sources. We may also obtain information about You from micro environment, other sources. Phobias Definition. For example, We may receive credit information from third-party sources before initiating Your service.

We may also purchase or obtain Personal Information (for example, e-mail lists, postal mail lists, demographic and marketing data) from others. HOW WE USE INFORMATION WE COLLECT ABOUT YOU. We use the information We collect for a variety of business purposes, such as: To provide and statement bill for Services You purchase; To deliver and confirm Services You obtain from phobias definition, us; To verify Your identity and maintain a record of Your transactions and interactions with us; To provide customer services to You; To create, modify, improve, enhance, remove or fix our Services and environment analysis their performance; To identify and suggest products or services that might interest You; To make internal business decisions about current and phobias definition future Service offerings; To provide You customized user experiences, including personalized Services offerings;

To protect our rights, interests, safety and josef meinrad property and that of our customers, service providers and definition other third parties; and. To comply with law or as required for josef meinrad legal purposes. We may use Personal Information for investigations or prevention of fraud or network abuse. We may use information we collect to contact You about phobias our and/or third-party products, services, and offers that We believe You may find of with interest. We may contact You by telephone, postal mail, e-mail, or other methods.

You may see advertisements when You visit our Website. We may help advertisers better reach our customers by definition providing certain customer information, including geographic information, language preferences or demographic information obtained from micro, other companies. This information is used by advertisers to determine which ads may be more relevant to You. However, we do not share Personal Information outside of our corporate family for advertising purposes without Your consent. WHEN WE SHARE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. We do not sell, license, rent, or otherwise provide Your Personal Information to phobias definition unaffiliated third-parties (parties outside our corporate family) without Your consent. Major Motivational Theories. We may, however, disclose Your information to phobias unaffiliated third-parties as follows:

With Your Consent. We may disclose Personal Information about You to third-parties with Your consent. We may obtain Your consent in writing; online, through click-through agreements; when You accept the pizza hut mission statement, terms of disclosures for definition certain Services; orally, when You interact with our customer service representatives. We encourage You not to share Your password. If You provide Your user account password and/or security question responses to third parties they will have access to Your Personal Information when they access Your user account with Your account password. To Our Service Providers. We may disclose information to third-party vendors and partners who complete transactions or perform services on code of ethics accounting our behalf (for example, credit/debit card processing, billing, customer service, auditing, and marketing). In a Business Transfer. We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to definition third-parties as a business asset in pizza hut mission statement the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of phobias definition such information is josef meinrad, reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for phobias services and products (including to collection agencies in order to obtain payment for our products and services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or.

in an emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of country did the begin physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control. Unfortunately, no data transmission over the internet can be guaranteed to definition be completely secure. As a result, although we will utilize such measures, we do not guarantee You against the loss, misuse, or alteration of Personal Information under our control, and You provide Personal Information to the skin with us at Your own risk. You should always take care with how You handle and phobias definition disclose your Personal Information and should avoid sending Personal Information through insecure e-mail, social networks or other internet channels. Retention and Disposal. We retain information only for as long as we have a business or tax need or as applicable laws, regulations and/or government orders allow.

When we dispose of josef meinrad Personal Information, we use reasonable procedures designed to definition erase or render it unreadable (for example, shredding documents and wiping electronic media). PRIVACY POLICY UPDATES. How We Communicate Changes to This Policy. We may update this Policy at any time to provide updates to or clarification of our practices. If we make changes we may provide You with additional notice (such as adding a statement to the homepage of our Website or sending You a notification). Micro Environment Analysis. You should refer to phobias this Policy often for the latest information and in what did the the effective date of any changes. This web site is owned and operated by Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the referral link given by a Partner. With the first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referrals total order price.

All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on your Referral Balance. A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to transfer the sum to the Partners PayPal account (no less than $20).

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The Impact of phobias Tesco Club Card on major, Customers Marketing Essay. Since 1950s various efforts been put in to gain and increase customers loyalty. Phobias Definition! Customers satisfaction, retention and customer focus are now key ingredient to any marketing strategies of any organisation. Now it does not matter whether an organisation is manufacturing concern or offering services, main focus of marketing strategies is to environment, satisfy customers, retain them and phobias make sure they are loyal to gain competitive advantage (Richeld, 1996). The very purpose of this research is to look into details the impact of Tesco club card on micro environment, customer loyalty behaviour toward Tesco. First step to move forward is to study the literature that will play important roles to achieve objective of research and will also act as guidance while conducting methodology part and phobias expressing recommendation and josef meinrad conclusions.

Study of literature will also help to understand the customers loyalty behaviour to loyalty programs in general and Tesco club card in specific. Tesco was established in 1919 by Jack Cohen in phobias definition East London. It started its journey from a grocery stall and now it has become international grocery retail chain. Tesco has around 2,300 retails stores all over the skin senses, the UK and are named as Tesco Extra, Tesco, Metro, Express, One Stop and phobias definition Home Plus. Major Motivational Theories! Tesco was the only food retail store, who introduced the facility of online shopping till November, 2006. In this section focus will be on the literature to get the answers of research questions and phobias that also relates to objective.

The concept of relationship marketing, significant areas related to micro environment, customer loyalty behaviour and how they relate to Tesco Club card will be discussed. Relationship marketing shifted customers approach from definition, transaction to pizza hut mission, relationship (Rowley, 2006). Customer relationship marketing (CRM) is an definition ongoing process to in what country renaissance, develop and retain relationship with customer by providing value to customers and retain them for life time (Kottler, 2004). Segments are targeted for phobias definition, mass marketing and relationship marketing develops an individual relationship with customers (Gronros, 1996). CRM provides the organisations with the opportunity to interact with customers on country did the renaissance begin, individual basis and develop products and services proffered by customers (Pepper #038; Roger 1995). Where customers desire that their changing needs and demands should be responded in a timely manner, CRM can play a vital role to develop long lasting relationship with the customers ( Murphy, 2007). Traditionally marketing always stressed on attracting new customers but now it is believed that revenue can be enhanced by retaining existing customers instead of striving for definition, new ones (Richard, 1998). Relationship marketing enables organisations to in what country did the renaissance, achieve competitive advantage and retain customers for long term (Kottler, 2004). The reason marketing is becoming more customer oriented could be because it is less expensive to retain existing customers instead of phobias definition attracting new customers and existing customers also refer their friends and family members one they are satisfied with product (Belch, 2003). Tesco offers a variety of services for example Tesco Express to provide convenience to customers, facility to buy online.

Customers, who keep club card Tesco sends them vouchers and coupons. Use of josef meinrad emails to phobias definition, intimate about new offers related to product and services. Nevertheless, importance of new customers can not be ignored. A balance need to be maintained between existing and prospective customers. Figure below shows CRM Customer loyalty ladder: CRM Customer Loyalty Ladder (Source: Payne, 1993) Payne (1993) argued that most of the theories service sector organisations focus on the lower part of phobias ladder that wants to attract new customers. The focus should be on making them a regular customers, then supporters and in the end advocates of organisation and services i.e upper most step of the ladder.

However shifting the loyal ladder is the skin with not an easy task to do. This will require provision of services beyond customers expectations this will change customers satisfaction level as a result shift from customer to advocate. It shows that retention of existing customers will automatically bring new customers. Till late 1970s basis for rivalry among business was product features. Phobias! Now top businesses realised that though features of product are the with basis for doing business but association with customer is phobias core need for business success (Buttle, 1996). It was noted that companies adopted different strategies in different economic condition to attract customers.

For example, in good economic conditions organisations tried to attract customer with high quality products. In economic downturn emphasis was on price and offering rewards to customers. Another relating work is presentation of consumer contact and consumer focus matrix. In the matrix if both the factors (customer contact #038; customer focus) are high organisation will be winner and customers will be satisfied. On the other hand if both the factors are low organisation will be loser and customers will be dissatisfied. In case factors are low the company will lose the pizza customer and will cause the customer to switch to some other brand or company (Almaim, 2003). Source: Nasser Almoaim, Mustafa Zinhi Tunca, Mohamed Zairi, 2003. In current credit current situations companies are using different tactics to cope with economic condition and phobias definition customers buying power. Of Ethics! Tesco, for example, offering high quality product at low prices and using club card to maintain the strong bond with the customer over long run.

Study of this customer-Tesco relationship also relates to researcher objective i.e impact of Tesco club card on customers behaviour and how it supported Tesco to attain a leading position in UK retail sector. Advantages and phobias disadvantage of of ethics accounting relationship marketing. CRM strengthens the relationship among financial, social and technological aspects of an organisation and enhances revenue and definition reduces operational expenses (Murphy, 2007).CRM helps organisation to gain competitive edge and of ethics provide services that are perceived by customers a value for money and helps to retain customers for long term (Marandi, 2003). Little and Marandi (2003) pointed out following disadvantages of relationship marketing: In efforts to build relationship there might be loss of controls on resources, operations and behaviour. As future is unpredictable and people moods and priorities keep on changing which are difficult to predict. Such changes and variation in customers mood may affect the customer-organisation relationship. CRM put greater emphasis on existing customer that could cause the company to ignore the definition other available opportunities. Companys intense efforts to develop relationship with customer may give rise the customers expectation to increase to unrealistic level.

Customer satisfaction and their persuasion to repurchase a product is called customer loyalty. Micro Environment Analysis! According to Reichheld (1996) cost of losing a customer is very high. Definition! Evaluation of customers liability depends upon repurchase, cross purchase, price tolerance, recommendation to others (Saren, 2007). Bandyopadhay (2000) and micro environment analysis Buttle (1996) gave two different views about customer loyalty. Phobias! Bandyopadhay is of view that customers loyalty depends upon their long term attitudes to hut mission, an organisation or brand and specific physical circumstances related to a transaction. Phobias Definition! On the other hand Buttle is of view that it is major not mandatory that a customer will always remain loyal to a company, he may if undertaking a major buying decision might get information from competitors and may switch to another company. Definition! For instance companies like Tesco, Pc World and Curry offering computers and computer equipment at their stores contrary to Dell and IBM who are offering home delivery services at competitive prices. These factors also affect customers loyalty and their behaviour.

Kotler (2004) identified different stages in buying process: Source: Kotler, 2004. Assael (1997) identified different factors that have significant impact on pizza hut mission statement, customers buying behaviour: Source: Assael (1997) Application of this model on Tesco suggested that if customers are buying groceries they will come under habitual buying. On the other hand, if they are buying a computer or LCD this might affect their loyalty because it will come under complex buying behaviour. Depending upon attitude and behaviour customers loyalty can be distinguished in phobias definition six ways (Basu, 1994). Monopolistic Loyalty ( no other options for customers)

Loyalty based on location Convenience loyalty. Customers sensitivity to price Price loyalty. Customers response to rewards offered Incentive loyalty. Brand effect Emotional loyalty. Tesco Express is an the skin senses with example of convenience loyalty. Use of Tesco club card and voucher are an definition example of incentive loyalty.

Sale of Tescos own brand and other brand may give rise to emotional loyalty. While discussing customers loyalty quality of product and service can not be ignored. SERQUAL model (Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1995) can be used for evaluation of quality of customer services. The SERQUAL Model; Source: Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry, 1995. There are five gaps and five key dimensions of SERQUAL model. There were some limitations identified in this model by some researchers.

Researchers raised reservation on five dimensions of model and of view that it might not be applicable to all service sectors hence the results produced might not be reliable. Buttle (1996) stated that SERQUAL model does not take into the skin senses are concerned, account financial, statistical and psychological aspects and application of five dimensions can not be generalised. SERQUAL model does not cover all the definition feature of service quality and as a result is less reliable (Gronros, 2001). Kano Model of Customer Satisfaction. In this model Kano (1996) depicts categorisation of customer perception towards different attributes to products and major motivational how these attributes affect customers satisfaction. The layers of customers satisfaction like basis, performance and excitement are identified. Attributes which form the basis of a specific product need not to be revealed to customers because of their clear nature. Performance attributes are the expectation of a customer from a product or service that can lead to customers satisfaction or dissatisfaction.

Excitement attribute which is at the top of curve does not affect customers satisfaction level but if they are present it will cause customers happiness. Kano Model of Customer Satisfaction Source: Kano Model of phobias Customer Satisfaction (1996) Retail Sector and Customers Loyalty. In British retail sector almost every big chain using customers loyalty cards as a marketing strategy. A large number of sales happened at particular time span like Christmas period and loyalty card helps to understand these changing trends in micro environment sales pattern and phobias definition will also help to measure the customers potential value (Peppers and Rogers, 1995). If customers expectations are higher, company will face difficulty in satisfying them and these expectation vary customer to statement, customer and phobias definition only pertinent to a specific customer. Meeting these expectations will lead to customers loyalty and the skin they will repurchase and revisit the retail store (Little and Marandi, 2003). Tesco #038; Tesco Club Card. In UK Tesco Plc holds 30% share of grocery market, along with ASDA #038; Sainsburys market share (Anon1, 2007). It established its branches in definition 14 countries and 470,000 people in code of ethics employment. Approximately ?1 in every ?8 spent on grocery is spent at Tesco (Nils Pratley and Julia Finch, The Guardian, Thursday 6 January 2005).

Loyalty card is a way to gain customers loyalty, retain them on phobias, long run basis with enhancement in revenue and josef meinrad companys income (Gronroos, 1996). Concept of Tesco club card is fairly simple for each pound you spend you get one point and phobias these can also be gained through many other means like internet purchasing, gas stations, insurance and use of micro environment analysis Tesco credit card (Turner #038; Wilson). Voucher value is rounded to 50pence and it can be used with in phobias 2 years. Tesco also started green club card points which is helpful environmentally and shows Tesco commitment toward social responsibility. Once a card is in what country swiped it transferred points and details of phobias shopping list to central database. Database issues the reward in a way that keeps customer happy.

Frequency with which customers are buying a specific product is also considered while issuing the statement vouchers. There are about eight million distinctive vouchers with every club card to assure that customers get suitable rewards (BBC, 2007). Mainly use of club card was just to increase sales volume but it also benefited Tesco to understand their customers their changing preferences that helped Tesco to gain customers loyalty and develop a long term relationship with them. Success of one thing can not be judged without comparison. Phobias Definition! ASDA also introduced ASDA club card but that couldnt really take off and Safeway introduced ABC card that they discarded later on. Its not just the reward but there are other factors are also involved in success of Tesco club card. Those factors are like store location and opening and closing times. The most significant example is pizza hut mission Tesco express and Tesco metro in residential and high street areas. Beside this their international expansion according to phobias definition, customers demand is very precise that gives them competitive advantage upon pizza, competitors (BBC, 2008).

It wont be wrong to say that Tesco club card revolutionised the technique to for customer retention. It also helped to attract new customer beside this enabled the company to gain competitive advantage. Definition! Use of club card helped Tesco to understand customers behaviour and facilitate customers in making buying decisions. Tesco is offering a wide portfolio of micro environment analysis products. In making decision which product to phobias, introduce, retain or remove from the shelves club card data base can be very helpful. Still there is a lot of space for improvement and opportunities that will be discussed in coming sections of this report. This report will present a professional evaluation of Tesco and Sainsbury's in direct comparison of one another, both of major theories which a rivals within the retail market. Phobias Definition! In addition, issues that influence. Part 1 Introduction/Scene Setting A general introduction to the environment and major motivational setting the scene for your case study based analysis of chosen business. Avoid copy/paste of information.

Introduction In this essay, I will analyse Tesco's entry into the US grocery market in 2007, under the phobias definition moniker Fresh Easy Neighbourhood Markets, or Fresh Easy for josef meinrad, short. Firstly, I will. TESCO is the largest retail chain in Britain founded by Jack Cohen in 1919. Phobias Definition! Its headquarters is in Cheshunt, London. It is the largest retailer in terms of sales and domestic shares in Britain with. Introduction:- Tesco is supermarket chain based in UK and is also known as the largest British retailer both:- global sale and, domestic market share. Tesco is also known for being fourth. Tesco was founded about 1919 by a person call Jack Cohen inA London'sA East End. In this year as well he Jack Cohren started was selling groceries in the markets of the East End.A After about 5. In 1919 Jack Cohen founded Tesco, when he began to sell surplus groceries from pizza statement, a stall in the East End of London. His first day's profit was ?1 and sales ?4 1924 The first own-brand product sold.

UK's retail industry is one of the most organised industries in the world where retailers like Tesco, Mark Spencer's and Sainsbury are holding the phobias definition good position in the market. The purpose of my. Didn't find the essay? Our experts are here to of ethics accounting, write everything you need.

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Airport Apron Management and Control Programs (2012) Looking for other ways to read this? MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. Phobias Definition! Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to did the renaissance start saving and receiving special member only phobias perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of code this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the phobias, following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for josef meinrad, the authoritative book pages. Phobias! 2A literature review and review of accident/incident data systems was performed to identify documents and environment data sys- tems that would provide insight into apron management sys- tems and data related to accident and phobias incident occurrences in in what renaissance begin the airport terminal apron areas. Phobias Definition! The documents identified were useful in understanding the challenges of apron man- agement and micro environment the diversity of data collection among aviation regulatory and industry organizations.

Key documents and definition data systems reviewed are summarized in major this section. 2.1 ICAO Annex 14a??Section 9.5 on phobias definition, Apron Management Service The ICAO standards and recommended practices for air- ports are specified in Annex 14, Volume I, Aerodrome Design and Operations. Section 9.5.1 provides the ICAO recommen- dation with regard to apron management services: 9.5.1 Recommendationa??When warranted by the volume of traffic and operating conditions, an appropriate apron manage- ment service should be provided on micro environment, an apron by an aerodrome ATS unit, by another aerodrome operating authority, or by a cooperative combination of these, in order to: a) Regulate movement with the objective of preventing colli- sions between aircraft, and definition between aircraft and did the obstacles; b) Regulate entry of aircraft into, and coordinate exit of aircraft from, the apron with the aerodrome control tower; and c) Ensure safe and expeditious movement of vehicles and appropriate regulation of other activities. ICAO conducts a??regular, mandatory, systematic, and har- monized safety auditsa?? of phobias its contracted (member) nations as part of its Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme. The most recent ICAO audit of the United States took place in November 2007. Included in its findings was an ICAO rec- ommendation that the United States establish federal require- ments for an a??apron management servicea?? as described in statement ICAO Annex 14, Paragraph 9.5.1. Phobias Definition! 2.2 ICAO Airport Services Manual, Part 8, Airport Operational Services Further details on apron management units are provided in ICAOa??s Airport Services Manual, Part 8, Airport Opera- tional Services. The Skin Senses With! Chapter 10 distinguishes between the aircraft movement area, control over which is the responsibility of the air traffic control service, and the apron, where it is recom- mended that an apron control unit regulate the definition, movement of aircraft and micro environment analysis vehicles. The need for highly coordinated com- munications between the apron control unit and the air traf- fic control service is emphasized. This chapter also identifies typical responsibilities of apron management units as: a?? Allocation of aircraft stands (gates) on the aprons, a?? Maintenance of gate allocation documentation for phobias, landing and parking charges to the airlines, a?? Providing marshallers for arriving aircraft to gates without docking guidance systems, and josef meinrad a?? Apron services such as baggage and definition aircraft handling at environment analysis, some airports.

2.3 ICAO Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and phobias Control Systems (A-SMGCS) Manual ICAOa??s Advanced Surface Movement Guidance and senses are concerned with Control Systems (A-SMGCS) Manual describes the system for phobias definition, aircraft and vehicle control in low-visibility operating conditions. Theories! In general this is an definition, integrated system of surveillance, control and of ethics guidance, and communication with emphasis on the use of technology applications in these areas. Definition! The manual specifies that A-SMGCS applies to apron areas where aircraft may come into conflict with vehicles or other aircraft and recommends that apron management units require designated areas for code of ethics accounting, vehicles defined by painted lines S e c t i o n 2 Literature Review and Review of Accident/Incident Data Systems. 3 on the apron designating clear areas. The manual also identi- fies several areas in definition which apron management and major theories control is phobias definition integrated within the system. Apron management and con- trol units should receive aircraft identification and position information, vehicle identification and position information, information on potential obstacles or hazards, and other information necessary in the apron area. 2.4 NTSB Definition of Aircraft Accidents and Incidents Aircraft accidents and code of ethics accounting incidents, as used by phobias, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), are defined in 49 CFR Part 830, Notification and Reporting of Aircraft Accidents or Incidents and Overdue Aircraft, and Preservation of Aircraft Wreckage, Mail, Cargo, and Records. The NTSB definition of an accident is a??an occurrence associated with the opera- tion of an aircraft . . . in which any person suffers death or serious injury, or in which the aircraft receives substantial damage.a?? Serious injury is further defined as one of the fol- lowing instances: 1. Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, com- mencing within 7 days of the date of the senses, injury; 2. Results in a fracture of any bone (except simple fractures of fingers, toes, or nose); 3. Causes severe hemorrhages; nerve, muscle, or tendon damage; 4. Involves any internal organ; or 5. Phobias Definition! Involves second- or third-degree burns or any burns affecting more than 5% of the body surface. NTSB defines an incident (as differentiated from an acci- dent) as an a??occurrence other than an with, accident, associated with the operation of an aircraft, which affects or could affect the safety of operations.a?? Additionally, substantial damage is defined by the NTSB as a??damage or failure which adversely affects the definition, structural strength, performance, or flight charac- teristics of the motivational, aircraft. . Phobias Definition! . Environment! .a?? Title 49 CFR 830 also sets the standard for reporting acci- dents and phobias incidents to the NTSB. All accidents as defined previously must be reported. There are a category of hut mission statement incident cases that must also be reported.

The key threshold related to reportable apron incidents is a??damage to property, other than aircraft, estimated to exceed $25,000 for repair or fair market value in phobias the event of a total loss.a?? 2.5 GAO Report on Runway and Ramp Safety In November 2007 the Government Accountability Office (GAO) released a report entitled Aviation Runway and Ramp Safety: Sustained Efforts to Address Leadership, Technology, and Other Challenges Needed to the skin Reduce Accidents and phobias Inci- dents (GAO-08-29). The GAO found that there is a lack of accident data related to ground handling operations, par- ticularly for analysis, nonfatal accidents, hindering efforts to improve apron safety. Furthermore, since the federal government has had an indirect role in apron safety issues, there are no federal or industry-recognized standards on policies and phobias procedures for apron operations. Country Renaissance! 2.6 ACI Survey on Apron Incidents and Accidents Airports Council International (ACI) has historically sur- veyed member airports to gather information on the occur- rences of apron incidents and accidents. The most recent report available was published in May 2009 and covers the years 2006 and 2007.

Table 2-1 summarizes the number of airports responding to the ACI survey and the overall rate of phobias definition accident/incident damage per pizza hut mission statement, 1,000 aircraft movements. The data collected by ACI are self-reported by airport opera- tors and reflect only that information the airport operator has 2006 2007 Region Airports Responding Damage Rate (Overall, per 1,000 Aircraft Movements) Airports Responding Damage Rate (Overall, per 1,000 Aircraft Movements) Africa 12 0.259 12 0.182 Asia-Pacific 12 0.084 13 0.102 Europe 69 0.341 70 0.381 Latin America/Caribbean 53 0.125 53 0.107 North America 10 0.099 10 0.094 Total 156 0.230 158 0.245 Source: ACI Survey of Apron Incidents and Accidents 2006a??2007, ACI World, May 2009 Prepared by Ricondo Associates, Inc. Table 2-1. Summary of phobias ACI survey of apron incidents and accidents. 4collected or that has been provided to the reporting airport by airlines and service providers.

Due to a perceived reluctance by airlines and service providers to report all accidents and incidents and differences in reporting systems used across the world, the data collected are not considered to be complete or to accurately represent the major motivational theories, true extent of these occurrences. 2.7 ISAGO Standards Manual The International Air Transport Association (IATA) pub- lished the ISAGO Standards Manual in May 2008. ISAGO (IATA Safety Audit for Ground Operations) is a centralized audit system based on internationally recognized practices. The ISAGO Standards Manual provides standards and rec- ommended practices to improve operational safety in the airport ground operations environment and to reduce dam- age to aircraft and equipment. It prepares airlines and other ground service providers for the ISAGO. 2.8 ICAO Common Taxonomy Team As part of the development of an international standard for reporting aircraft-related accidents and incidents, ICAO chartered the Common Taxonomy Team in conjunction with the Commercial Aviation Safety Team. Since 2002, the definition, Common Taxonomy Team has developed sets of naming conventions and definitions covering broad categories such as phase of flight, occurrence, aircraft make/model, and engine make/model. The most applicable definitions for the skin senses are concerned, apron-area accidents and incidents are within the occurrence category and were published in October 2008a??specifically, ground han- dling and ground collision. Ground handling includes a??occur- rences during or as a result of ground handling operations,a?? such as collisions with servicing or boarding equipment, colli- sions during pushback or power back, and injuries from pro- peller or fan blade strikes. Ground collision includes aircraft collisions while taxing to or from the runway (but not on the runway), including taxiing on the apron.

This category defini- tion notes that accidents/incidents categorized under ground handling are excluded from the phobias, ground collision category. Are Concerned With! 2.9 Occupational Safety and Health Administration Data The purpose of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is to reduce workplace fatalities, injuries, and illnesses by promoting workplace safety and phobias definition health. Senses With! The airline industry is required to comply with all OSHA general industry standards. Recognizing the issue of personnel safety in the apron environment, OSHA and phobias definition the National Air Transportation Associationa??s (NATA) Airline Services Council established an alliance to provide NATA members and pizza others with information, guidance, and phobias access to training resources to protect employeesa?? health and safety. OSHA also performs inspections of facilities to enforce the Occupational Safety and Health Act standards. Inspections may be planned, referral based, complaint driven, as a response to an accident, or as a follow-up to a previous inspection. Moreover, OSHA enforcement programs such as Site Specific Targeting and the Enhanced Enforcement Program target employers who repeatedly and/or seriously violate standards. OHSA maintains the code of ethics accounting, Integrated Management Information System (IMIS), which contains records of definition OSHA investiga- tions. According to the OSHA website, the IMIS was designed for internal use by OSHA and state agencies that carry out federally approved OSHA programs. IMIS information is entered into the database as events occur and major motivational is subject to change until cases are closed. The database contains 1,825 inspections for the transportation-by-air industry from definition 2004 through 2008.

Unfortunately, the country begin, inspection reports do not include whether the inspection or violations cited during the inspection were in the apron area. However, the database does include accident investigation reports. These contain descriptions of the accidents, from which it can be determined whether the accident occurred in the apron area. It should be noted that this data set also has limitations in its applicability to the research project. Some accidents investigated by OSHA may not be included in phobias the database, particularly where state health and safety agencies share investigation reporting with OSHA. The Skin Senses! Additionally, the phobias, database does not include data after July 2006. For this review, a 3-year period from July 2003 through July 2006 was used.

The accident investigation reports include Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes, and statement the database contained 52 acci- dent reports identified by the major SIC category a??Trans- portation by Aira?? for definition, the time period examined. Of these 52 accidents, 21 were concluded to have most likely occurred in the apron area based on the accident description. Because these are OSHA investigations, all involved injury to employ- ees, with nine of the 21 investigations related to a fatal injury. Code! Of the 21 apron area accident investigations by OSHA, 13 were related to vehicle or equipment collisions with person- nel. Six concerned people falling from equipment or stairs. The two remaining investigations were for an employee medical emergency (stroke) and a fatality related to an apron worker experiencing contact with a jet engine. 2.10 FAA Daily Regional Alert Bulletin An FAA Daily Regional Alert Bulletin query for tow- vehiclea??related occurrences was provided by FAA representa- tives on phobias definition, the ACRP 04-07 Project Panel. This dataset covered the period from micro October 1, 2007, through September 30, 2008. 5 Using the air carrier records of occurrences in the apron area, these data reported 23 ground-collision types of accidents, primarily in the form of towed aircraft collision with parked aircraft, ground equipment, vehicles, and in one instance, with a ramp worker, resulting in an injury. 2.11 NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System NASAa??s Aviation Safety Reporting System is a voluntary reporting system of aviation incidents that protects the iden- tity of individuals making the report.

The reports are not cor- roborated with other agency investigations, and in most cases the airport at which the incident occurred is not identified in the report narratives. A query of this database was made covering the period of 2000 through November 2009. Of the 153,257 reports in the database during that timeframe, 139 were tow/tug incidents. Phobias! Of those incidents, 31 were runway or taxiway incursions by tug vehicles with or without an air- craft in in what country tow. The remaining 108 reports covered all other types of tow/tug incidents. Phobias Definition! As with the FAA Daily Regional Alert Bulletin, these covered towed aircraft collisions with other aircraft, ground equipment, or vehicles. Other cases included issues during pushback such as tow-bar failure or nose-gear damage resulting from operator error during the pushback. As these data are voluntarily reported and the airport is not discernible, the data are of limited use for statistical analysis related to this project.

2.12 Other Accident and Incident Databases Other accident and incident databases were identified during the review for which access to the data sources was not avail- able. In the United States, the Air Transport Association and the Regional Airline Association each collect data from their member airlines. Citing the sensitivity of the skin are concerned with releasing accident and incident data reported by the airlines, access to the data by the research team was not made available by definition, either organization. Josef Meinrad! IATA has established the Safety Trend Evaluation, Analy- sis, and Data Exchange System consisting of a de-identified database of airline incident reports. According to IATAa??s website, these data can be analyzed for comparison and phobias benchmarking purposes. Micro Environment! Participation by the IATA member airlines is voluntary, and access to the data is limited to definition those airlines participating in the program. 2.13 Factors Relevant to Apron Management and Control Through the literature and environment analysis database review, factors were identified that are relevant to the application of an apron management and control program. These factors influence the applicability of such programs at U.S. and non-U.S. airports: a?? Regulatory environment a?? Civil aviation authorities a?? Occupational safety agencies a?? Air traffic service provider a?? Operational environment a?? Dominant hub versus non-hub a?? Aircraft operations levels and peaking characteristics a?? Responsibilities of apron control units or ramp towers a?? Start-up clearances a?? Movement area/non-movement area coordination a?? Personnel training a?? Notification of definition work-in-progress and of ethics accounting non-available facilities a?? Current business practices a?? Allocation or leasing of gatesa??common use or exclusive/ preferential use a?? Ground handlers/service providers a?? Insurance and liability considerations a?? Apron safety training for definition, employees a?? Drivera??s licensing and recurrent training a?? Accident/incident reporting a?? Reporting required by analysis, civil aviation authorities a?? Reporting required by airports a?? Internal reporting by airlines and service providers a?? Threshold for phobias definition, reporting accidents/incidents a?? Accessibility of accident/incident data or reports.

500 Fifth St., NW | Washington, DC 20001. TRBs Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 62: Airport Apron Management and Control Programs explores the effectiveness of apron management programs around the world. The report compares and contrasts apron management programs around the world to U.S. airports, while considering the common operational and ownership differences between U.S. and non-U.S. airports. In What Renaissance! Front Matter ivii Section 1 - Introduction 1 Section 2 - Literature Review and Review of Accident/Incident Data Systems 25 Section 3 - Apron Management Characteristics Survey for U.S. Airports 69 Section 4 - Apron Control Characteristics for Airports Outside the phobias definition, United States 1017 Section 5 - Research Plan for josef meinrad, Selected Airports 1821 Section 6 - Limitations on Data Availability from the Site Visits 2223 Section 7 - U.S. Phobias! Airport Site Visits 2436 Section 8 - Site Visits at Airports Outside the senses with, United States 3743 Section 9 - Comparison of Apron Management and phobias Control 4447 Section 10 - Applicability of Apron Management Programs to U.S. Airports 4850 Appendix A - Online Screening Survey 5154 Appendix B - Sample Questions to Guide On-Site Visit Discussions 5557. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on the skin are concerned with, feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

Show this book's table of contents , where you can jump to any chapter by name. Phobias Definition! . or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter . Share a link to this book page on major theories, your preferred social network or via email. Phobias! View our suggested citation for this chapter.

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EMail Privacy Rights In Business Essay Research. Papparizzi Rights Essay Research Paper Does the 4 . Phobias! Rights Of Privacy In The Private Sector 16 . Computer Privacy Essay Research Paper Computer Privacy 8 . Technology Vs Privacy Essay Research Paper 5 . Privacy Essay Essay Research Paper Privacy 4 . Privacy Essay Research Paper Privacy is motivational something 12 . Phobias! The Right To Privacy Essay Research Paper 2 . E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business Essay, Research Paper. E-Mail Privacy Rights In Business. E-Mail Privacy Rights in Business. How far we have come in such a small time. When you think that the personal computer was invented in the early 1980s and by the end of the pizza statement millennium, several households have two PCs, it is an astonishing growth rate. And, when you consider business, I can look around the office and see that a lot of the phobias definition cubicles contain more than one PC. It is astonishing to me that such an item has taken control over the information technology arena like personal computers. Consider, however, the code accounting items that go along with personal computers: printers; modems; telephone lines for your modem; scanners; the software; online access; and lets not forget, e-mail addresses. E-mail, or electronic messaging, has taken over the communications world as the phobias preferred method of exchanging information. From the the skin are concerned simple, lets do lunch messages, to the ability to send a business associate anywhere in the world an e-mail with an attached document that contains 150 megabytes of information, e-mail is quickly replacing the definition telephone, the U.S. post-office, and even overnight delivery services as primary method of exchanging important data.

With the ability to create and send this instant information, the technology has far outpaced the education of how to use this phenomena, the in what affects of this technology on society, and how to prevent this method of definition communication from growing itself out of existence. Consider the with following numbers: ? There were about phobias definition 23 million e-mail users in 1994. ? There will be approximately 74 millions e-mail users in the year 2000. ? Employees sent approximately 263 billion e-mail messages in 1994. ? Employees will send approximately 4 trillion e-mail message in the year 2000. ? A 1993 study by MacWorld magazine found that 22% of employers have engaged in searches of employer computer files, voice mail, electronic mail, or other network communications. ? The number of people subject to josef meinrad electronic surveillance at work has increased from approximately 8 million in 1990 to more than 20 million in 1996. ? Nearly 60% of companies that monitor e-mail or other employee communications conceal doing so. ? Less than 20% of companies have a written policy on electronic monitoring. One of the major areas affected by this new technology is corporate America.

Not only is it struggling with how to keep pace with the growing need for fast and efficient e-mail, but also the dangers associated with it. Among these dangers is privacy, in phobias particular, what legal rights corporations and employees have in keeping their communications private. This paper will introduce the current legislation in this area, the expectation of privacy an employee should have, any court decisions that provide additional ruling, and what a corporation can do to prevent litigation in these matters. II. Employees Expectation of in what country renaissance Privacy in definition e-mail. As an e-mail systems manager, I was under the impression that since the company owns the electronic messaging system, the josef meinrad company could view the phobias contents of any employees e-mail account at any time.

I was only partially right. The explanation of the code accounting current law will describe this in detail, but, the employee does have a certain right to privacy where e-mail is definition concerned. Arguably, a companys most valuable asset is of ethics accounting its data. Definition! In the age of technological marvels, it is easier to create more valuable data and, on the other hand, that data is in what begin more easily retrievable, especially by definition, persons not authorized to obtain the data. Employees of companies can expect a certain right of privacy granted by three main sources: (1) The United States Constitution; (2) Federal Statutes (The Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986); and environment (3) State Statutes (many of which have not addressed the issue). The United States Constitution provides a limited group of employees with privacy safeguards. The safeguards are based on guarantees in the United States Constitutions Fourth amendment and similar state constitutions. Phobias! Courts have upheld that the accounting Fourth Amendments protection against unreasonable search and seizures applies to workplace invasions of privacy. However, this Constitutional protection is limited to governmental intrusions.

Hence, it does not apply to private employers, unless an employee successfully shows state action. In Schowengerdt v. General Dynamics Corporation [823 F.2d 1328, 1332 n.3 (9th Cir. 1987).] Schowengerdt held that the employee had a reasonable expectation to phobias privacy in josef meinrad work areas of exclusive use to definition the employee, such as the employees office, unless the employer had previously notified the motivational employee that the employees office was subject to a work-related search on phobias, a regular basis. The court concluded that despite the employees reasonable expectation to privacy in his office that a warrantless search of the office was permissible when it was work-related and reasonable under the circumstances. As the are concerned wording of the 4th amendment suggests. it does not protect against all searches, only unreasonable searches. Courts have defined unreasonable searches as those against a person who has an expectation of privacy which must be protected. Definition! This can be shown in hut mission United States v. Perkins. [383 F. Supp. 922, 927 (N.D. Ohio 1974)] Employees who lack this reasonable expectation of privacy such as through awareness of publicized monitoring policies, will generally be denied any constitutional protection.

The policy, to be effective, should warn employees that e-mail messages may be audited despite certain system features that give the appearance of privacy, such as personal passwords and the employees ability to phobias definition delete messages. III. Current Law Pertaining to E-mail Communication. The technology revolution of the e-mail address enabled businesses and micro environment analysis private individuals to communicate in phobias definition ways never before imagined. Josef Meinrad! As with anything, the definition easier it is, the easier it becomes to do something wrong. With e-mail, this is very evident. In order to prevent wrongdoing and to protect the e-mail user, Congress enacted the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (EPCA). Josef Meinrad! [Pub. L. No. 99-508, 100 Stat. 1848 (1986)(codified at 18 U.S.C. Definition! ?? 2510-2521, 2701-2710, 3117, 3121-3126 (1988)).] The ECPA amended Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, [18 U.S.C. ?? 2510-2520 (1994).]. The ECPA was passed in response to Congress perception that the privacy protection of the 1968 Act was limited to narrowly defined wire and oral communications.

This bill indicated the realization that advancing technology posed potential threats to analysis citizens civil liberties and phobias definition that changes were needed to update the older wiretapping laws. The amendment expanded the scope of pizza hut mission statement Title III to include the definition interception of electronic communication and unauthorized access of stored electronic communications. Analysis! [18 U.S.C. Definition! ? 2510(1), (4), (12), (17) (1994).] E-mail was not specifically mentioned in the ECPAs definition of electronic communication, but, was originally intended to be included. Hut Mission! Electronic communication is defined as in the ECPA as the transfer of signs, signals, writing, images, sounds, data, or intelligence of any nature transmitted in whole or in phobias definition part by a wire, radio, electromagnetic, photoelectronic or photooptical system that affects interstate or foreign commerce. [18 U.S.C. Senses With! ? 2510(12)(1994). While this does not directly mention e-mail, the history of legislative statutes indicates the term includes electronic mail, digitized transmissions, and video conferences. [S. Rep. Definition! No. 99-541, at 14 (1986)]. The ECPA also outlaws the interception of electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ?? 2511(1)(a), 2520 (1994).] The ECPA amended the Federal Wiretap Acts definition of intercept as the aural or other aquisition of the contents of any wire, electronic, or oral communication. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(4) (1994).] The key to this is including or other in the definition, since electronic communications cannot be acquired aurally.

Even though electronic communications are now included within the ECPAs interception clause, the range of protection afforded by josef meinrad, the prohibition against interception has been narrowly interpreted by one of the few courts to phobias address the issue. An example of this lies in the decision of the major 5th Circuit Court in definition the case of micro environment Steve Jackson Games, Inc. v. United States Secret Service, [36 F.3d 457 (5th Cir. 1994).] In this case, the court decided whether or not the Secret Services seizure of a computer that was used to operate an phobias, electronic bulletin board system, constituted an intercept of the stored but unread e-mail contained on motivational theories, the system. Even though the court decided that e-mail can be intercepted, the court decided that the Secret Services seizure of the definition unread e-mail did not constitute an interception. The main reason for this was a distinction between e-mail in transfer and e-mail in electronic storage. Josef Meinrad! The use of the word transfer in the definition of electronic communication, and its omission in that definition of the phrase any electronic storage of such communication says that Congress did not intend for intercept to apply to electronic communications when those communications are in electronic storage. This means that there is only a very narrow window of time during which an e-mail interception may occur. This would be the time between the time an e-mail message is sent and the time it is saved to any location designated as storage. So, for all intents-and-purposes, interception of e-mail within the prohibition of the ECPA is virtually impossible. The next condition of the ECPA which concerns most employers is definition its protection against the unauthorized access of electronic communications is electronic storage. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701 (1994).] E-mail in electronic storage includes e-mail which has been temporarily stored following transmission, as well as e-mail which has been stored for backup protection. Motivational Theories! [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(17) (1994).] This definition would include most e-mail as existing in electronic storage.

So, any protection of employee privacy found in the ECPA will be based upon the unauthorized access provision. The ECPA has built-in exemptions that will protect most employers and protect them against suit. These exemptions are: prior consent, business use, and system provider. 1. Prior Consent. The best protection against liability under the phobias ECPA is when prior consent has been given for any interception or access of e-mail in electronic storage. Environment! Interception of electronic communication is expressly allowed by the ECPA when one of the phobias definition parties to the communication has given prior consent. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(d) (1994).] Also, access to stored electronic communication is allowed without liability when authorization has been given by a user of that service with respect to a communication of or intended for that user. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(2) (1994).] An easy case to understand here is American Computer Trust Leasing v. In What Country Did The Renaissance! Jack Farrell Implement Co. Phobias! [763 F. Supp. 1473, 1495 (D. Minn.

1991)]. Summary judgement was granted in senses are concerned with this case stating that when the definition party consented to the access of micro environment analysis its computer system, it cannot now claim that such access was unauthorized. The key to prior consent is setting policies for corporate e-mail use and notifying employees that they will be monitored. This policy should be corporate-wide and employees that use the system will be judged as giving implied consent upon reviewing the policies and agreeing to the fact that they have read and phobias definition reviewed the policies. Employers should also be aware that a provision in an e-mail policy which only suggests that monitoring will be done, such as one which reads, ABC, Inc. reserves the senses are concerned with right to monitor all e-mail communication, may not operate to create implied consent. 2. Business Use Exemption. Employers may use the business use exemption for interceptions made within the ordinary course of business. Phobias Definition! The business use exemption is more commonly applied in analysis telephone monitoring cases where improper use of a business telephone is in question.

Therefore, the provision upon which it is based is unlikely to apply in the e-mail arena. The definition of intercept in the ECPA excludes interceptions captured by telephone or telegraph instrument, equipment, or facility, or any component thereof, (i) furnished to the subscriber or user by a provider of wire or electronic communication servicesbeing used by the subscriber or user in the ordinary course of business. [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(5)(a)(i) (1994).] Based on this definition, it indicates that telephone or telegraph equipment is necessary for the exclusion to apply. It is even doubtful that the courts will consider a modem to be telephone equipment. There is another clause within the ECPA that allows employers to apply the phobias definition business use exemption. Section 2511(2)(a)(i) states: It shall not be unlawful under this chapter for theories an operator of a switchboard, or an phobias, officer, employee, or agent of a provider of with wire of electronic communication service, whose facilities are used in definition the transmission of a wire of electronic communication, to intercept, disclose, or use that communication in the normal course of employment while engaged in any activity which is a necessary incident to the rendition of his service or to the protection of the rights or property of the josef meinrad provider of that service. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).]

For this exemption to definition apply, the employer would have to be classified as a system provider or an agent of a system provider. Several commentators on the subject have speculated that employers do qualify as system providers. The term provider would likely include public email networks, such as Prodigy and Compuserve, and the term agent may or may not be defined to include employers who subscribe to or use their e-mail service. Companies with their own e-mail systems on their own networks could also fall under this exception as electronic communication service providers. Assuming that an employer does qualify as a system provider, any interception would still need to be made within the ordinary course of major theories business. [18 U.S.C. ? 2511(2)(a)(i) (1994).] Previous case law in phobias telephone call monitoring provides some stare decisis for monitoring of employee e-mail in the ordinary course of business. In both Watkins v. L.M. Berry #038; Co. [704 F.2d 577 (11th Cir. 1983).] and micro environment Briggs v. American Filter Co. Definition! [630 F.2d 414 (5th Cir.

1980).], the courts decided that if the employer had difficulty controlling personal use of business equipment, then a personal call could be intercepted in the ordinary course of business to determine its nature, but not its contents. The employer should be cautious with the business use exception, as the definition of within the ordinary course of business is still undefined. 3. System Providers. Where employers provide their own company e-mail system there are two additional thoughts to support the josef meinrad non-relevance of the ECPA to them. The first theory is only available for employers with a system whose messages remain entirely intrastate, and is based on the ECPAs applicability being limited to definition interstate communications. Under this theory, an major, intracompany e-mail system, whose messages do not cross state lines and which is phobias not connected to motivational an interstate network, fails to fall under the phobias definition definition of electronic communications service, [18 U.S.C. ? 2510(15) (1994).] and falls outside the protection of the ECPA.

The definition of electronic communications under the law only pertains to in what country renaissance begin such communication that affects interstate or foreign commerce. However, the action could fall under the Interstate Commerce Clause if it is determined that the activity affects interstate commerce. Phobias! In Perez v. United States [402 U.S. 146, 152 (1971)] the court stated that a class of activities can be properly regulated by Congress without proof that the theories particular intrastate activity against which a sanction was laid had an effect on commerce. Also, in Wickard v. Filburn [317 U.S. 111, 125 (1942)], the observation was made that local activity may be reached by Congress if it exerts a substantial economic effect on interstate commerce, irrespective of whether such effect is indirect. Because the definition Interstate Commerce Clause could pre-empt this theory, the theory appears to have no basis and would be a shaky defense in a court of law. The second theory for exclusion rests upon the ECPAs clear exemption of system providers from its prohibition against access and disclosure of stored electronic communications. [18 U.S.C. ? 2701(c)(1) (1994)] The exception states Subsection (a) of this section does not apply with respect to conduct authorized (1) by analysis, the person or entity providing a wire or electronic communications service. Although speculation provides that employers should qualify as system providers, there is little legislative history that provides clarity on whether or not Congress intended to phobias definition exempt private companies who provided their own e-mail system as system providers from the ECPA. Senate Reports on the ECPA acknowledged the existence of micro environment internal e-mail, but did not address the laws affect on those systems. In addition, testimony during the Senate hearings reflected an overriding concern for a companys rather than an individuals privacy. Some testimony during the Senate hearings even argued that the phobias proposed legislation should cover all electronic communications. Micro! Philip Walker, Vice-Chair of the Electronic Mail Association (EMA), stated that, electronic mail users deserve privacy regardless of what type of entity runs their system. [S.

Rep. No. 99-541 (1986) Hearing on phobias definition, S. 1667 Before the environment analysis Subcommittee on Patents, Copyrights and Trademarks of the Senate Committee on the Judiciary, 99th Congress 42 (1986)(statement of Senator Patrick Leahy (D-Vermont)).] This uncertainty of definition Congress has left the door open has left the door open for micro analysis courts to create a narrow definition of system providers, which could only include public, commercial providers such as America On-line, Prodigy, and Compuserve. Employers should again not depend on the system provider exception, but rather use the business-use or consent exceptions. IV. Case Discussion. In examining case law concerning e-mail privacy, there are a few standard benchmark cases. Most of these cases come from California and it is no coincidence that this law should develop in what is considered a technological center of the United States. In California, which has some of the strongest laws protecting individual privacy rights, the courts have been unwilling to enforce promises made by employers to employees that their e-mail messages would be kept confidential. In fact, the California Supreme Court refused to review the phobias case of Alana Shoars v. Epson America Incorporated. In What Country Renaissance Begin! In that case Ms.

Shoars, who was the e-mail administrator, told Epsons employees that their e-mail was confidential. A supervisor subsequently set up a gateway that allowed him to monitor all the employees e-mail. When Ms. Phobias! Shoars learned of this practice she immediately complained to her supervisors, and then was fired for gross insubordination. The judges in Ms. Shoars case concluded that California privacy laws did not encompass the workplace or e-mail and basically left it in the hands of the legislature. The same result was found in Flanagan v. Of Ethics! Epson. Phobias! [Sup. Ct.

Cal., Jan. 4, 1991] In this case, an employee brought a class action lawsuit alleging that Epson invaded the employees privacy by circumventing their passwords and the skin reading their e-mail messages while advertising a feeling which led the employees to believe their messages were private. The final case interpreting Californias Constitutional right to privacy was Bourke v. Nissan Motor Company. [California Superior Court, Los Angeles County (1991)] In determining whether the phobias right to privacy has been violated, the court said you must first determine whether the individual had a personal and objectively reasonable expectation of privacy. Nissan argued that there was no reasonable expectation because the employees had signed a Computer User Registration Form, which stated, it is company policy that employees and contractors restrict their use of company-owned computer hardware and software to company business. Bourke and Hall countered that they had a privacy expectation because they were given passwords to access the computer system and code accounting were told to safeguard these passwords. The court realized that a subjective expectation of privacy existed, however this was not objectively reasonable. Definition! As a result, since there was no reasonable expectation of code of ethics privacy, there was no violation of the phobias right to privacy. The federal courts seem to have taken the same position. In Smyth v. Pillsbury Corporation, [914 F. Supp. 97 (E.D. Pa.

1996).] a federal court in Pennsylvania ruled this year that Pillsbury Corporation was entitled to fire a manager who had sent e-mail critical of of ethics a supervisor, even though the company had explicitly promised it would not monitor e-mail messages. The court reasoned that an employer may not be prevented from firing an definition, employee based upon a promise, even when reliance is demonstrated. Pizza Hut Mission! The court also quickly dismissed plaintiffs claims of a tortious invasion of phobias definition privacy under common and statutory law. On the major theories other hand, cases involving intrusion are found to not be an invasion of privacy when a legitimate business reason exists for an intrusion. In Vernars v. Young [539 F.2d 966 (3d Cir.

1976).] an employees e-mail was opened and read by a fellow employee. A cause of action for invasion of privacy was found in this case. This was because there was no legitimate business reason for the intrusion. V. Preventive Policy Measures. The ECPA signals that the most favorable method for employers to protect against liability is to gain prior consent from employees before monitoring or accessing their business e-mail accounts. Definition! What this does is provides a reasonable expectation of privacy (or lack thereof) for employees regarding e-mail. Renaissance! The following issues should be considered when creating policies concerning e-mail practices: ? Consult a lawyer or other employment specialist with expertise in employment and privacy issues in your state. ? Prepare a written policy.

? Include a clear description of the permissible uses of e-mail. ? Receive verification that the employees have reviewed and definition agree to josef meinrad the policies. ? Update the policies to change with technology. ? Emphasize and impermissible content for e-mails. ? Clearly state that the e-mail administrators may unintentionally view e-mail during troubleshooting practices. ? Inform employees and phobias independent contractors of the skin are concerned with any intent to monitor e-mails. ? State the consequences of misuse of the e-mail system. ? Show flexibility by allowing limited personal use of the e-mail system but clearly define acceptable personal uses. ? Be clear if different standards apply to different classifications of phobias definition employees/managers.

? Remind employees of any confidential nature of your projects that should not be disclosed in e-mails. ? Clearly describe the times that the monitoring of e-mail will take place. ? Create policies regarding the retention time of e-mails and backups of e-mail systems. ? Do not bury the policy in josef meinrad pages and pages of policies in a company handbook. ? Distribute and re-distribute the policy from time-to-time so employees remember it. ? Be consistent and non-discriminatory in your enforcement of the policies. Most companies are flexible and phobias allow for employees limited personal use of the e-mail system. They simply trust their employees to use good judgement and get their jobs done.

Others either have written policies in place or are planning them. Whether or not you decide to have a policy for josef meinrad your company, let the employees and independent contractors know if you do or do not have a policy. Clear communication is the best way to avoid disputes. It also provides for a more positive working environment. VI. Future Privacy Legislation. Several attempts have been made to make the current laws regarding privacy in e-mail more clear and more in line with the technological advances of the late 20th century. Phobias! In 1993, a bill was introduced by Senator Paul Simon (D-Ill.) to pizza statement restrict employer monitoring of e-mail. The bill never came up for definition a vote.

The Privacy for Consumers and Workers Act has not been voted on either. Josef Meinrad! This legislation was introduced by Representative Pat Williams (D-Mont.). The PCWA addresses from two perspectives the issue of employer monitoring of employees: electronic monitoring and telephone call accounting. In addressing the issue of electronic monitoring, PCWA can be analyzed in five parts: permitted monitoring, notice of monitoring, prohibited monitoring, data obtained from monitoring, and penalties. Thought has been given to allow technological organizations, such as the Electronic Messaging Association, to phobias definition govern the use of e-mail and the privacy that users can expect. The organization has already adopted rules for the use of country begin e-mail as well as assisted in creating the ten commandments for e-mail. Those commandments (there are actually only definition 7) are: ? Dont use anonymous remailers. ? Dont look at others messages. ? Dont misrepresent or lie. ? Follow EMA guidelines.

? Consider presentation of a message. In todays technologically advanced world, new ideas and inventions are around us on a daily basis. A lot of these advances create opportunities for play or even danger. To prevent this action in the workplace, employers are using technology to monitor and keep track of employees and their actions. The level of surveillance being practiced by employers is unprecedented. On both sides, employer and employee, their must be efforts made to prevent over-abuse by either side. There are both ethical and social responsibilities that need to be shared to keep the technology from overwhelming us. I hope that I have shown that the current law in this area is inadequate and needs to josef meinrad be reviewed.

The current law in this area, the Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986, does not satisfactorily address the many problems in phobias definition connection with abuse of e-mail systems by pizza hut mission, employees or abuse of privacy issues by employers. Phobias! The Federal Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit has commented that the ECPA is simply not clear and is too broad to be effective. One of the main reasons for senses with this is that the phobias definition ECPA is simply an the skin are concerned with, amended version of the 1968 federal wiretap law which was originally adopted to deal with telephone eavesdropping. Phobias Definition! Those laws do not significantly address the changes in technology that provide the statement wonder of e-mail. With the current legislation being ambiguous, and no new legislation yet passed, the next best solution is encouraging employers to implement a clear e-mail policy. All employees should receive a copy and definition be required to sign a form which acknowledges the fact they have read the details of the companys policy. This should not be considered a permanent solution to major theories the problem of phobias definition e-mail privacy. It is only a temporary solution that will keep employees and employers on the same page regarding the expectation of corporate behavior as far as e-mail is involved.

ACLU. (September, 1996). SURVEILLANCE INCORPORATED: American Workers Forfeit Privacy for micro a Paycheck. [On-Line]. Available: http://aclu.org/library/wrrpt96.html. AFTAB. Definition! Monitoring Employees Electronic Communications: Big Brother or Responsible Business? [On-Line].

Available: http://aftab.com/privacy.htm. Angell, D. and Heslop, B. (1994). The Elements of E-Mail Style. Addison Wesley, Reading , MA. Bacard, A. E-Mail Privacy FAQ. [On-Line]. Available: http://www.andrebacard.com/ema. Casser, K. (1996). Employers, Employees, E-mail and josef meinrad The Internet. [On-Line].

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