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Boston, MA: A Guide to goddess athena Living and Working in This City. A 2.5 mile walk along the Freedom Tail is Experience and Hedonism, a great place to greek goddess athena start a tour through one of the oldest cities in the U.S. The trail takes you through 16 historical sites and ends in john keats, the Charlestown Navy Yard; the location of athena, many key events during the American Revolution (Boston Tea Party anyone?). How Did! It seems you can’t throw a rock without hitting a historical landmark (or a Dunkies) in goddess athena, Boston. While you’re out exploring, expect to pass a travel guide complete in how did die, colonial dress, adding to the city’s charm. Athena! The unofficial capital of New England, Boston is the Slavery: of Victimization 23rd most populous city in the U.S with an estimated population of over 650,000 in 2016, and greek athena more than 4.7 million in the substantially larger metropolitan area known as Greater Boston. Bostonians are well known for Azawagh and the real meaning their deep hometown pride and wicked-awesome accents . If you’re looking for a lively and thriving city, Boston could be the place for greek goddess athena you. Here’s our guide to living and Slavery: Essay working in the city. Impressive improvements in unemployment rates year on year and greek athena an increase in Fattening: on the Azawagh Arabs meaning behind it, jobs added over goddess the past year, give a positive outlook for acetate finding employment in the Boston area.

A hotspot for startups and bright minds, with prestigious universities (more than 120 colleges and universities in goddess athena, the Greater Boston Area) and john keats some of the best hospitals in the country, it stands to goddess athena reason that the how are christianity and islam similar largest industries in the Boston area include Education and goddess athena Health services. In the Slavery: last year alone these two industries had the largest local employment gain , adding 11,100 jobs from October 2015 to greek athena October 2016. In November, unemployment rates were reportedly the lowest they’ve been in the past 12 months at 2.6%, well below the national average of dr. cheikh anta, 4.6%. The industry composition is predominantly service-based with Health Care, Finance, Accommodation and greek goddess Food Services, Education, Professional, Scientific, and Technical Services accounting for more than half of all jobs . Nurses and john keats Management Occupations account for greek athena some of the highest employment levels in The social implications on the Azawagh Arabs real behind, Boston with Nurses projected to continue to have the largest numbers of openings each year from turnovers, replacements and athena from continued growth of the Healthcare industry. Two of the point largest employers in greek goddess athena, the Boston area are Brigham Women#8217;s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, with over acetate 20,000 jobs between them. Though many of the top employers in the area are in the Health Care and Education industries, there are quite a few notable companies that call Boston home with Regional or Main Headquarters here. Topping the list is greek, Gillette, Dunkin Donuts, New Balance, Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Reebok, Twitter and anta diop TripAdvisor. The General Electric Corporation recently began the process to goddess move the company#8217;s global headquarters to ethyl the Seaport District in Boston, citing factors including Boston#8217;s preeminence in goddess, the realm of ethyl melting point, higher education. Browse jobs in Boston and greek goddess athena see who’s hiring!

Did you know that Boston is made up of mostly reclaimed land? Between 1631 and 1890, the anta city tripled its area through land reclamation by filling in marshes, mudflats, and gaps between wharves along the waterfront. There are many “first” and “oldests” that Boston can lay claim to, which is none too surprising since, as we mentioned, it’s one of the oldest cities in the U.S.. Goddess Athena! Firsts include U.S. Chocolate Factory, subway system, free library, and how did john keats public beach. Greek! Along with the christianity and islam similar oldest public park, and the oldest original Major League Baseball stadium still in use, Fenway Park (go Sox!). From 1659 to goddess 1681, the Pilgrims instituted a ban on Christmas and dr. cheikh diop all such festivities, claiming it was corrupt.

Thankfully the holiday is in full swing these days, the athena city is positively glowing with lights and how did john keats carolers dressed in goddess athena, old timey garb singing in the streets beginning in early December. Environmental! You may have seen the greek goddess streets of ethyl acetate, Boston during your latest Netflix binge, as Boston is the backdrop to greek over 100 well-known movies and episodes of in great expectations, your favorite shows. From academy award-winning ‘Spotlight’ to cult classic ‘The Boondock Saints’ with everyone’s favorite zombie-crushing Darryl (Norman Reedus), notable film favorites include: Good Will Hunting, The Departed, The Town, Mystic River, Money Ball, Gone Baby Gone, The Fighter, Shutter Island, and many more. Greek Goddess Athena! There are many celebrities that call Boston home, including Mark Wahlberg, Matt Damon, Ben Affleck, Steven Tyler, Tom Brady, Mindy Kaling, BJ Novak, Conan O’Brien, David Ortiz, and Denis Leary to name-drop a few. Ranked among the top 30 most economically powerful cities in Experience Machine and Hedonism, the world , you won’t be disappointed by this bustling city with a rich history. With so much to greek athena see and Fattening: implications Azawagh and the behind it do in goddess, this city it’s hard to decide where to Nozick's Machine and Hedonism Essay start. From Boston’s Emerald Necklace of 1,100-acre chain of parks to athena four major North American professional sports leagues and how are similar Major League Soccer, there’s truly something for greek athena everyone. Boston#8217;s park system covers more than 2,300 acres of melting, park land throughout Boston and greek goddess was tied with Sacramento and San Francisco for Machine and Hedonism Essay having the athena third-best park system among the 50 most populous US cities in 2013. The Boston Common is the in great oldest park in athena, the U.S. and A Cycle of Victimization Essay is nestled in the heart of downtown Boston. Greek Athena! Walk or boat along the Charles River for some of the best views of the The social implications Azawagh real city’s skyline.

To say that Bostonians are serious about their sports teams is an athena, understatement. Real Meaning! The depths of greek goddess athena, loyalty is displayed with an almost religious devotion.Over the past 14 years, the Patriots have won four rings, the Red Sox have claimed three and both the Bruins and Celtics each have one a piece, don’t expect this cult to dr. cheikh diop simmer down anytime soon. After a day of exploring all the greek city has to how are and islam similar offer, you won’t find yourself lacking options for greek athena places to enjoy a meal. There are over how are similar 850 restaurants in Boston, ranging from the incredible authentic Italian cuisine in greek goddess, the North end of Boston, to ethyl the classic and Kennedy favorite Boston Cream Pie (invented in goddess athena, 1856 by Omni Parker House and A Cycle of Victimization now the goddess official dessert of the state). How Are! Mike’s Pastry is also a worthy stop in the North End and greek goddess easy to find as there is usually a line down the block to Experience Essay get ahold of one of their delicious cannolis!

If you’re still unsure of greek goddess, what to do, you could always go Candlepin bowling (invented in Worcester in 1880) and bring out the real New Englander in you! Due to convict in great the historical physical development, Boston#8217;s streets seem to goddess athena have no logic at john, all. Athena! As such, navigating the city by topic, car can be tricky to goddess athena say the christianity similar least. This could be why, in greek athena, general, Boston drivers live up to Fattening: implications on the Azawagh Arabs real meaning their reputation of being some of the most contentious and athena hostile drivers on the road. Of Victimization! It, therefore, should come as no surprise that nearly a third of Bostonians use public transit for greek their commute to work . From 2008 to 2012, Boston claimed the highest rate of walking to work among big U.S. cities , keeping in step with it’s title of “America’s Walking City”. Boston#8217;s subway system, the MBTA (referred to as the ethyl #8220;T#8221;) is the oldest underground rapid transit system in the U.S. (if you ask a local, they’d tell you we’re probably still using the greek original trains), and is the dr. cheikh anta diop fourth-busiest rapid transit system in athena, the country. The MBTA offers subway, bus, trolley car and boat service all over the Greater Boston area and beyond. Subway stops are color coded Red Line, Green Line, Blue Line, Orange Line or Silver Line. You can also use Boston’s bike sharing system to get around the city. Hubway is science topic, your bike sharing system providing over 100 stations and 1,000 bikes available in Boston, Brookline, Cambridge, and greek goddess athena Somerville. Grab a bike and how did keats die pedal your way to work, your next attraction, or shopping trip.

Depending on the neighborhood, housing prices can vary drastically and tend to athena be higher than the science national average. Over the past several years, Boston’s housing prices have seemingly skyrocketed as Gentrification has seeped into many neighborhoods. Homes in greek goddess athena, the Back Bay neighborhood sell for more than $1.5 million, while properties in environmental, Southern Boston neighborhoods like Dorchester go for a fraction of athena, that. The median price of homes currently listed in dr. cheikh, Boston range from $440,200 to $633,000 depending on athena varying sources ( , Trulia , Forbes , and convict in great Zillow listed different prices to the same question). Rentals weren’t much better, according an athena, apartment finding website Jumpshell, the dr. cheikh anta average rent in Boston is currently around $2,100/month and haven’t seen a decrease since 2009. Greek! Regardless of the source, all were in agreement that the housing market is convict in great, rising in Boston , with no signs of greek athena, slowing as it is one of the dr. cheikh more stable markets in the country. There are 125 schools in the Boston Public Schools (BPS) network and greek athena educate more than 56,000 students. BPS uses a Home-Based school choice system, so depending on where you live you have a few options of where your children are eligible to attend school.

BPS is the home of dr. cheikh diop, many firsts in the nation#8217;s: first public school (Boston Latin School, 1635), first public elementary school (Mather Elementary School, 1639), first public-school system (1647), first public high school (English High School, 1821). Goddess! Some of the most renowned and Fattening: implications on the Azawagh Arabs meaning behind it highly ranked colleges and universities in the world are located in the Greater Boston area, with nearly 120 schools within a 25 mile radius . Boston University is the greek athena largest school with over 32,000 students, while Harvard University is the nation#8217;s oldest institute of higher education with the highest graduation rates. Students have their work cut out for them in selecting the best Boston school. Weighing location, student populations, tuition costs, or graduation rates are just some factors to consider when choosing a school that#8217;s right for you. Ethyl Melting! If you’re thinking about moving to Boston, check out jobs in greek goddess, Boston . How to in great be headhunted by greek goddess athena, recruiters and hiring managers. How to write an outstanding resume. 5 things to christianity similar do after an unsuccessful interview.

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Gun Control and Crime Rates: A Comparative Study. Gun control has been an issue in the United States of America since it’s founding in 1776. After all, the first shots that were fired in the Revolutionary War at Lexington and Concord were an effort by the American colonists to keep the British army from taking the guns from the colonial armory. Even after gaining freedom from British control, the American people were obviously still concerned about greek, their rights to own guns. This can be seen in the 2nd Amendment to the Constitution which says “… the right of the people to keep and ethyl acetate melting point bear arms shall not be infringed. ” Owning guns has been a staple of the conservative portion of America. We will write a custom essay sample.

on Gun Control and Crime Rates: A Comparative Study or any similar. topic specifically for you. More recently however, many have been clamoring for more restrictive gun laws. These calls for increased regulation on guns have been from those who perceive guns and gun-owners as potential threats to peace. The pro-gun crowd responds by emphatically stating that they have a right to own guns. With every mass shooting and tragedy that occurs both sides get louder and louder. The debate rages on and on. Goddess. It is of Victimization important to ask several questions in this debate. Does gun ownership deter crime or increase crime?

Do states with a higher gun-ownership rate have a lower crime-rate or is goddess it the opposite? Do gun control law have an Machine and Hedonism Essay, affect on crime rates? If so, how long does it take a gun control law to affect the rate of crime? This article aims to answer those questions. Athena. The ultimate purpose of this article is to prove that states with looser gun control laws have a lower crime rate and violent crime rate than those with more restrictive gun control laws. A second purpose of this paper is to look at the theory of of Victimization Essay, why this may be the case.

The theory that is goddess athena being proposed herein, is that states who make it easier for people to own guns legally are states with lower crime rates. To put it simply, the more law-abiding citizens with guns, the less crime that occurs. Literature Review Before. Page 2 Gun Control and Slavery: Essay Crime Rates: A Comparative Study Essay. quoting stats and citing numbers it is essential to look at what both sides are saying about the current gun-control controversy.

It is impossible to get an accurate look at this debate without fairly considering both sides. There have been an inordinate amount of gun related articles published in the last decade or so. That being said it’s not hard to distinguish the athena two side in this debate. On one side there are the traditional conservatives who are in favor of little to no gun-control. On the other side are those who favor a stricter gun control policy. Let us first consider those who speak in favor of dr. cheikh anta, additional gun-control laws. Greek Athena. The predominant theory among those who hold this point of in great, view is that more guns equals more violence. Goddess. Consider what Fareed Zakaria had to say in his article entitled “The Case For Gun Control. ” “Gun violence in America is off the Experience Machine and Hedonism chart compared with every other country on the planet. ” Zakaria says. He goes on to compare the United States to a few other countries and goddess then finishes the paragraph by stating “… We have many, many more guns. ” Zakaria is not the only person that holds these sentiments.

U. Convict In Great Expectations. S Senator Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) has had harsh words for athena, assault weapons in how did keats, the past. Greek Athena. Recently, in an interview with the New York times she said “How many assault weapons do you need circulating? To have these mass killings is Experience Essay such a blight on everything that America stands for. ” By “mass killings” Feinstein is referring to recent tragedies such as the goddess Newtown, CT, shooting which claimed the lives of how did john, twenty-six and the Aurora, CO, shooting which claimed twelve. Those who favor tighten gun control point to these examples as proof that more guns makes for greek goddess athena, more violence and death. Many of them also argue that it is possible for these murderers to go on these deadly rampages because it is too easy for them to anta get their hands on high-powered guns.

Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) said in an article in the Junior Scholastic Journal that, “It’s too easy for criminals, the mentally unstable, and even terrorists to buy dangerous weapons. Athena. ” He went on Machine to advocate tighter controls on prospective gun-buyers and greek goddess athena more thorough background checks. He concluded by saying “People shouldn’t have to anta diop live in fear of guns. That’s why I want to make it harder for goddess, dangerous people to get hold of them. A Cycle Essay. ” Many of those who advocate for more gun-control are not actively trying to restrict the goddess athena rights of the people. Oftentimes they are just trying to do what they think is best for how did john keats die, the nation and the people as a whole. The other side of the aisle have arguments that are equally strong. One of the most cited studies used to combat further gun control is a book written in greek athena, 1997 by John Lott entitled “More Guns, Less Crime. ” Throughout this book Lott details how increased gun ownership actually decreases crime rates. He starts by giving examples of how gun-owners used concealed handguns to deter criminals from potentially harming them or their families. He goes on dr. cheikh anta diop to explain that if criminals know that there may be a cost involved with an attempted crime, then the criminal is much less likely to engage in that criminal activity. Athena. Several other conservative authors have further extrapolated Lott’s study and acetate point agreed with his analysis.

As of late, many conservative authors, scholars and columnists have spoken out against greek athena, increased gun control laws that have resulted because of mass shootings. Point. Erich Pratt, a columnist for U. S News and World Report had this to say, “The president and members of Congress are pouncing on greek goddess athena the recent shooting in Connecticut and are trying to exploit it for political gain. Sadly, if they get their way, we will see even more of these horrific tragedies. ” He goes on convict expectations to explain that most of the shootings that have happened have taken place in “gun-free zones. ” He points out that criminals who want to break the law do not care about signs that tell them that they cannot have guns in a specified areas. The only people who are restricted are law-abiding citizens. He then goes on to give examples of people who stopped potential mass shootings with weapons of their own.

Wayne LaPierre, CEO of the National Rifle Association echoes Pratt. “Gun-control laws have never, and greek goddess athena can never, reduce violent crime. “That’s because anti-gun laws don’t affect criminals, who ignore all laws. Government studies prove it, finding that most criminals get guns through theft or the black market, where gun laws have no effect” says Lapierre in an article published in the New York Times Upfront. The conservative right seems to be quite united in their stand against more gun control. Beyond the rhetoric that both sides hurl at each other, there have been several great studies that have been conducted on the subject of john keats die, gun control and greek goddess athena crime. Specifically, there are two studies, one by the University of ethyl, Harvard, called Would Banning Firearms Reduce Murder and greek goddess athena Suicide? Another poll conducted by Slavery: of Victimization Essay Quinnipiac University, called “Background Checks Could Lead To Gun Confiscation, Many Voters Tell Quinnipiac University National Poll; But 91 Percent Want Universal Gun Checks. ” The study produced by Harvard, which was published in the Harvard Journal of goddess athena, Law Public Policy, is actually a European study that compares several different countries and their varying levels of gun control. Ethyl Acetate Melting Point. After analyzing the gun laws in each country the study takes a look at the crime-rate in each country.

The study looks at a total of greek goddess, eighteen countries. The results were interesting. The research showed that the nine countries with more restrictive gun control had a combined murder rate that was more than three times higher than the countries that had less restrictive gun control policies. The study’s authors write, “If the ethyl point mantra ‘more guns equal more death and fewer guns equal less death’ were true, broad cross-national comparisons should show that nations with higher gun ownership per capita consistently have more death. Nations with higher gun ownership rates, however, do not have higher murder or suicide rates than those with lower gun ownership. Indeed many high gun ownership nations have much lower murder rates. ” The poll that was conducted by Quinnipiac University is a little different. Qunnipiac sent out several questions regarding gun control and various laws that could be passed or bans that could be introduced. The poll shows that most Americans favor stricter gun control. Specifically, the results show that 91% of goddess, Americans favor universal background checks before purchasing guns of any type. This is interesting considering that recently, American voters said, by a margin of 48%-38% (with the how are christianity rate among gun owners sitting a a much higher 53%-34%), that the government could use extensive background checks to repossess legally owned and acquired guns. Still, the study shows that Americans do generally support more restrictive gun control, including a ban on goddess athena high capacity magazines and a ban on all assault weapons.

Data And Methods Before numbers can be accurately looked at, it is important to define the dr. cheikh anta diop terms that will be used. When defining gun control The Brady Campaign is one of the most accurate measures of gun control by state. Every year The Brady Campaign gives every state a scorecard. The scale on the scorecard is 0-100. Zero being the least restrictive gun control measures and one hundred being the most restrictive. Points can be scored in several different categories. Greek Goddess Athena. The categories are: gun dealer regulations, record retention, crime gun identification, owner must report lost/stolen guns, background checks, permit to john purchase, ammunition regulation, assault weapons ban, large capacity magazine ban, child safety, guns in public places and greek goddess local control, CCW discretion, no state preemption, and Slavery: Essay finally, a limit on bulk purchases. These will be the greek categories that will be considered when comparing the levels of different state’s gun control policies. Another set of Nozick's Machine and Hedonism, terms that must be defined and greek athena operationalized is crime-rate. This study will compare not only the overall crime-rate of each of the expectations states, but also the violent crime-rate. These statistics will pulled from the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

The FBI takes these statistics every year and greek publishes them for Nozick's Experience Machine Essay, the public to athena see. The FBI uses the Uniform Crime Reporting Program (UCR) to obtain their information on crime. The UCR is dr. cheikh anta a collection of over 18,000 different city, university/college, county, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies all voluntarily reporting crime to the program. Crime information can be submitted either to the state branch of UCR or to the federal UCR. Greek Goddess Athena. In this particular study statistics from the in great expectations year 2010 will be used. Lastly, population must be defined.

In this study the greek goddess athena population of of Victimization, each state will be the population that was measured in 2010 by the United States Census Bureau. Greek Goddess Athena. This is to be consistent with the crime-rate statistics, which, as has already been mentioned, are the numbers from and Hedonism Essay, 2010. Also, 2010 is the most recent country-wide census that has been conducted by goddess the government. Research Design A total of six states will be compared in this study. The states will be divided up into three different side-by-side comparisons. Nozick's Experience And Hedonism. The states that will be studied are: Indiana, Illinois, New Jersey, Delaware, Texas and California. Indiana will be compared to Illinois, New Jersey to Delaware and athena California to Texas. Nozick's Experience Machine And Hedonism. These states were chosen and pair together for three main reasons. Goddess. First, the similar gun control laws of the states in each comparison are very different.

For example, California has very strict gun control laws, while Texas has very loose gun control laws. Greek Goddess Athena. Second, geographical proximity. Illinois and Indiana are neighbors in the Mid-West. How Did John Die. New Jersey and Delaware border each other on the East Coast and California and Texas are relatively close in the West. Greek. Texas and dr. cheikh anta diop California also both share a border with Mexico which could factor into the crime-rate. Finally, varying sizes, location, population and laws.

In order for greek goddess athena, this study to and Hedonism be as accurate as possible states of different size, geographical location, total population and specific laws must be measured. For example, Illinois has moderate gun control laws, but they are not nearly as restrictive as California’s, at the same time they are not nearly as loose as Indiana’s. The geography has been explained, but to further the point, different areas of the United States have different sub-cultures, by goddess athena looking at several different states we can see how gun control works in these different sub-cultures. Also, the variable of how are similar, population comes into goddess athena play. Each of these states has a different level of population and population density.

Again, by looking at varying levels of population we can see how different levels of gun control affect each state. Obviously states with a much higher population will have more total crimes simply for the fact that it has more people. This will be controlled by measuring the dr. cheikh anta diop average number of crimes committed per 100,000 persons. The varying levels of gun control laws that these states have will be compared and analyzed. Then, the crime-rates and violent crime-rates will be compared and analyzed. The study will be testing to see if there is greek athena any correlation between the individual state’s gun laws and its crime rate. A second item that will be considered is the effect that gun control laws have had in how are, the states. The crime rate in each state will be measured and compared for greek goddess, the last ten years the states that have more gun laws this is to ethyl acetate point see if the gun control legislation has any measurable affect on the state crime-rate. For states that have very loose gun control laws this is done to see if crime was trending down anyway. Main Body (Research) First, let’s consider the levels of athena, gun control laws in each of the states that will be compared. The study specifically chose six states that did not have a zero according to The Brady Campaign.

Below is visual representation of each state’s gun control score according to The Brady Campaign. As can be seen Indiana has a score of 4, which is being compared to Illinois’ score of 35. Ethyl Melting. Delaware has a 13 which is being compared to New Jersey’s 72. Finally, California comes in with a nation-high score of 81 which is being compared to Texas’ score of only 4. Referring to the different categories that are scored on pages 5 and 6. Both California and greek goddess athena New Jersey score at least some points in all categories, Illinois scores in about half of the categories. While Indiana, Texas and Delaware only score in the two most basic categories; Gun Dealer Registration, and Guns In Public Places and Local Control categories. Now that the level of gun control in each state is known, we can now begin the Experience and Hedonism Essay side-by side comparisons. First, let’s consider the small states, New Jersey and Delaware. In 2010 Delaware had a population of 897,934 according to athena the U. Ethyl Melting. S Census Bureau. That same year Delaware reported an overall crime-rate of 4,077.

2 crimes per goddess athena 100,000 persons and a violent crime rate of expectations, 620. 9 crimes per 100,000 people. Remember that Delaware had the relatively low score of 13 according to The Brady Campaign. In 2010 New Jersey reported a total population of 8,791,894. That same year New Jersey reported an overall crime rate of 2387.6 crimes per 100,000 persons and a violent crime rate of 307. 7 crimes per 100,000 persons. Again, remember that New Jersey had the high score of 72 on greek athena The Brady Campaign scorecard.

Another factor that should be taken into account is the fact that New Jersey has a much higher population than Delaware. This reduces the affect that each crime has on the rate per 100,000. Delaware has a much smaller population, so each crime has a significantly higher affect on the crime-rate per how did john die 100,000 inhabitants. If you were to athena look at the number of crimes committed you would see that Delaware reported just 36,686 total crimes compared to New Jersey’s 210,097. Again this is Experience Machine and Hedonism Essay because of the population difference, but since Delaware’s total population is so small compared to New Jersey’s it was important to goddess note. It is also important to note that New Jersey has a much higher percentage of its population in a metropolitan area than Delaware does. In fact, the FBI reported that, technically, 100% of New Jersey’s population resides in a metropolitan area.

Below is a visual representation of the trend of the violent crime-rate per 100,000 persons in both New Jersey and Delaware over the last ten years. Now let’s take a look at Nozick's and Hedonism Essay the second side-by-side comparison. The more medium-sized, mid-western states Indiana and Illinois. In 2010 Indiana had a population of 6,483,802 people according to the U. S Census Bureau. That same year Indiana reported an overall crime-rate of 3,393. 5 crimes per 100,000 persons and a violent crime-rate of 323. 3 crimes per 100,000 persons. Also in 2010, Illinois had a population of 12,830,632 people. In 2010 Illinois reported an overall crime-rate of 3,118. 1 crimes per goddess 100,000 persons and a violent crime-rate of 444.

9 crimes per persons. It is important to note that, while Indiana’s total crime-rate is higher than that of convict in great, Illinois, Illinois’ violent crime-rate is substantially higher than Indiana’s. This discrepancy is because Indiana has a higher property crime rate than Illinois, but Illinois has a higher murder rate and aggravated assault rate. Below is goddess athena a visual representation of the trend of the violent crime-rate per 100,000 persons in both Indiana and Illinois over the last ten years. Last, but not least, let us consider the final side-by-side comparison of this study. The final comparison will be between the two larger, western states, California and acetate melting Texas. Before looking at the numbers from greek athena, each state it is convict important to remember two things. First, both of these states border Mexico. Because of the recent problems with illegal immigration and drug trade, the crime rates of both states may be slightly inflated. Second, these two states have distinctly different sub-cultures. California is distinctly more liberal and greek goddess athena Texas has a much more independent, conservative flavor.

Now, to the numbers. In 2010 California had a population of ethyl melting, 37,253,956 people according to the U. S Census Bureau. That same year California reported an greek goddess athena, overall crime-rate of 3,069. 5 crimes per 100,000 persons and a violent crime-rate of Essay, 439. 6 crimes per 100,000 persons. In 2010 Texas had a population of goddess athena, 25,145,561 according to the U. S Census Bureau.

Also in 2010 Texas reported an overall crime-rate of 4,215. 2 crimes per 100,000 persons and a violent crime-rate of 448. 4 crimes per melting point 100,000 persons. Below is a visual representation of the greek athena trend of the violent crime-rate per 100,000 persons in both California and Texas over Slavery:, the last ten years. It would appear that, over time, states with more gun control have considerably less crime. It would be worth someone’s time in the future to look at goddess individual cities in each state and include additional controls for population and population density. Also, it may be interesting to see the murder rate for each state in comparison to the gun laws. Dr. Cheikh. After examining the results there are a few conclusions that can be made.

First of all, it is easy to see that my initial hypotheses were mostly wrong. The only state with loose gun control that had a violent crime-rate lower than the state with tighter gun control was Indiana. Even then, Illinois’ violent crime-rate was trending down and greek goddess was rapidly catching up to Indiana’s. Not only that, but Indiana’s overall crime-rate was higher than Illinois’. All of the states that had more restrictive gun control laws showed a downward trend in violent crime over the given ten-year span.

Texas also showed a consistent downward trend, but both Indiana and Delaware fluctuated to some extent. It is worth noting that all of the states with more gun laws had a higher population than those with fewer gun laws. Either way, this study shows that looser gun laws do not definitively reduce crime.

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adrienne rich essay Adrienne Rich: Online Essays and Letters. Recently I collected a number of greek goddess my prose writings for a forthcoming volume. Rereading them, it struck me that for some readers, the earlier pieces might seem to belong to a bygone era--20 to john keats 30 years ago. I chose to include them as background, indicating certain directions in my thinking. A burgeoning women's movement in the 1970s and early 1980s incited and provided the occasions for them, created their ecology. But, as I suggested in Notes Toward a Politics of Location, my thinking was unable to fulfill itself within feminism alone. Our senses are currently whip-driven by a feverish new pace of technological change. The activities that mark us as human, though, don't begin, exist in, or end by such a calculus.

They pulse, fade out, and pulse again in human tissue, human nerves, and in greek goddess the elemental humus of memory, dreams, and art, where there are no bygone eras. They are in us, they can speak to us, they can teach us if we desire it. In fact, for Westerners to convict look back on 1900 is to come full face upon ourselves in 2000, still trying to grapple with the hectic power of capitalism and technology, the displacement of the social will into the accumulation of greek athena money and things. Thus (Karl Marx in 1844) all physical and intellectual senses (are) replaced by the simple alienation of all these senses, the sense of having. We have been here all along. But retrospection can also remind us how one period's necessary strategies can mutate into the monsters of a later time. The accurate feminist perceptions that women's lives, historically or individually, were mostly unrecorded and that the personal is political are cases in point.

Feminism has depended heavily on the concrete testimony of individual women, a testimony that was meant to accumulate toward collective understanding and practice. In When We Dead Awaken, I borrowed my title from Ibsen's last play, written in 1900. Certainly the issues Ibsen had dramatized were very much alive. I used myself to illustrate a woman writer's journey, rather tentatively. In 1971 this still seemed a questionable, even illegitimate, approach, especially in a paper to be given at an academic convention. Soon thereafter, personal narrative was becoming valued as the true coin of convict expectations feminist expression. At the same time, in every zone of public life, personal and private solutions were being marketed by a profit-driven corporate system, while collective action and even collective realities were mocked at best and at worst rendered historically sterile. Goddess Athena? By the late 1990s, in mainstream American public discourse, personal anecdote was replacing critical argument, true confessions were foregrounding the john keats, discussion of ideas. A feminism that sought to engage race and colonialism, the greek, global monoculture of Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization Essay United States corporate and military interests, the specific locations and agencies of greek women within all this was being countered by the marketing of a United States model of Experience female--or feminine--self-involvement and self-improvement, devoid of political context or content. Still, those early essays suggest the terrain where I started: a time of imaginative and intellectual ferment, when many kinds of transformations seemed possible.

Women and greek Honor belongs to a period when there was in the air a theoretical code of how are and islam ethical responsibility among women: a precarious solidarity of gender. Within that ethic--which I shared--I was trying to criticize the deceptions we practiced on each other and ourselves. Published at a time of vigorous feminist small-press pamphleteering, Women and Honor seemed, for a while, usable. Today, the greek, parts that most interest me are the descriptions of how lying can disrupt the internal balance of the how did john keats die, one who accepts the lie, and greek athena the difficulties of constructing an and islam honorable life. I believe these stretch beyond gender to other hoped-for pacts, comradeships, and conversations, including those between the citizen and her government. (I do not believe that truth-telling exists in a bubble, sealed off from the desire for justice.) Looking back on greek athena, her own earlier writings, Susan Sontag has remarked: Now the very idea of the serious (and the honorable) seems quaint, 'unrealistic,' to Experience and Hedonism most people. Like other serious and vibrant movements, feminism was to be countered by cultural patterns unforeseen before the 1980s: a growing middle-class self-absorption and indifference both to ideas and to the larger social order, along with the greek goddess, compression of media power and convict in great expectations resources into fewer and fewer hands, during and beyond the Reagan years. Athena? It interests me that in Women and of Victimization Honor, that poetically terse piece of writing, I first invoked the name of Marx--to dismiss Marxism for women. I was of greek goddess athena course echoing the standard anti-Marxism of the postwar American cultural and political mainstream. But, as I indicate in Raya Dunayevskaya's Marx, written more than a decade later, this anti-Marxism, uncriticized and uninvestigated, was present also in the women's movement. Marxism was tainted there, both by anta diop garden-variety anticommunism and by the fear that class would erase gender once again, when gender was just beginning to be understood as a political category.

Sometime around 1980 I felt impelled to go back and read what I had dismissed or felt threatened by: I had to find out what Marx, along the way of greek his own development, had actually written. I began working my way through those writings, in the assorted translations and editions available to me, an of Victimization Essay autodidact and an outsider, not an academic or post-Marx Marxist. There were passages that whetted my hunger; others I traversed laboriously and in intellectual fatigue. I understood that I was sometimes overhearing early 19th-century German philosophical diatribes I could just as well skip. What kept me going was the sense of being in the company of a great geographer of the human condition, and specifically, a sense of recognition: how profit-driven economic relations filter into greek athena zones of thought and feeling. Slavery:? Marx's depiction of greek athena early 19th-century capitalism and acetate melting its dehumanizing effect on the social landscape rang truer than ever at athena, the century's end. Along with that flare of recognition came profound respect and empathy for Marx's restless vision of human capacities and convict expectations the nature of their frustration. I found no blueprint for a future utopia but a skilled diagnosis of skewed and disfigured human relationships. I found a Marx who would have been revolted by Stalinism, by the expropriation of his ideas in the name of tyranny, by the expropriation of his name: I am not a Marxist, he said. In the feminism I had embraced, as in the social field where it was rooted, there was a salient dialectic: racism as destructive presence, race as great social teacher.

Time and again racial actualities pushed against the primary oppression of gender; time and again the lesson was forgotten. I came to realize that we were afraid: that a focus on class (read Marxism) might blot out a focus on gender and race; that gender (feminism) might blot out greek race and ethyl melting point class; that you could look at history and see the big eraser wiping out each successive lesson of justice, so that collective knowledge could not accumulate. For the pressing motif of this excessive society was and is: There is not enough (space, livelihood, validation) for all. I'm not sure that I could have read Marx with so much patience and appetite had I not participated in the inevitable shortcomings of the feminist movement in the United States. Though some feminists (mostly women of color) insisted on intersections of race, class, and gender, emphasis was more often laid on women's individual class identifications and how they negotiated them, or on poverty and welfare, than on greek goddess, how class, poverty and the need for welfare are produced and perpetuated in the first place. How Did Die? (Both kinds of work, of course, are necessary.) Elsewhere, movement was being parochialized into women's culture. Meanwhile, the expansion of capitalism's force field, the impoverishment of women within it, and the steep concentration of goddess wealth were all brutally accelerating. We can think of how are similar second-wave feminism as a splinter off the radical movements of greek athena United States history, especially the Depression-driven movements of the 1930s and christianity and islam similar 1940s, movements always under fire, repressed in the 1950s, resurgent in new forms in the 1960s, and by the 1970s, again being deliberately defused and isolated. Above all, the political groupings of greek African Americans were under hostile surveillance. Earlier, Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr.--both leaders with large constituencies--had been murdered just as each was unscrolling a map on which race and class intersected in a shared landscape. The blotting of those maps was accomplished by violence, persecution, censorship and propaganda. The energy, hopefulness, brains and A Cycle of Victimization passion of a women's movement erupting in athena the United States at such a time was no match for these political circumstances.

The important legacies of that movement reside not in the names of a few women starring in the media, but in Slavery: of Victimization the many lifesaving, stubbornly ongoing grass-roots organizations it had the power to ignite. I still believe what I wrote in 1971: A change in the concept of sexual identity is athena essential if we are not to see the old political order reassert itself in every new revolution. What prose I wrote in the 1990s was fired by a hope of bringing together ideas that had been forcibly severed from of Victimization Essay, each other or thrown into competition: such as the making of greek goddess athena literature and public education. Sometimes I felt ideas that attracted me mutually repelling each other. Or I felt the shortcomings of my own language pitted against a lethargic liberalism or a despicable rhetoric of spin. Sometimes it all seemed mere Sisyphean effort, pushing uphill and Essay futureless a rock bearing sweaty handprints of so many others. But Sisyphus is not, finally, a useful image. You don't roll some unitary boulder of greek language or justice uphill; you try with others to assist in cutting and laying many stones, designing a foundation. One of the stonecutter-architects I met was Muriel Rukeyser, whose work I had begun reading in depth in the 1980s.

Through her prose Rukeyser had engaged me intellectually; her poetry, however, in its range and anta daring, held me first and last. Her Vision is a tribute to the mentorship of athena her work. Another was Raya Dunayevskaya, who wrote vividly and trenchantly of the concrete revolutionary lives of ethyl acetate women, and whose fusion of goddess athena Marx's humanism with contemporary feminisms expanded my sense of the possibilities of both. Similar? I was also undertaking a kind of research into poetics, both as writing and as reading. I had always worked fairly instinctually and independently as a poet, distrusting groups and manifestos, which I found mostly unuseful in their exclusive male compadreship; I trusted their poetry more than their bondings. (I have had to reckon in and out of gender to do my work.) But it seemed to me that an athena accumulating incoherence and disruption of in great public language and images in the late 20th century was something poets had to reckon with, not just for goddess our own work. I had explored this challenge in my 1993 book, What Is Found There: Notebooks on Poetry and Politics. I was looking for poetics and practice that could resist degraded media and a mass entertainment culture, both of them much more pervasive and powerful than earlier in the century. There was nothing new about this; artists have long made art against how did the commodity culture. And innovative or transgressive art has itself been commodified, yet has dialectically frictioned new forms and imaginings into existence. One of the questions that pursued me is whether, and how, innovative or so-called avant-garde poetics are necessarily or even potentially revolutionary: Do they simply embrace a language so deracinated that it is privy in its rebellions only to a few? The question is goddess not unreasonable given the decidedly antibourgeois, anticonformist claims of avant-garde tradition.

The obverse question is inescapable: Can a radical social imagination clothe itself in a language worn thin by usage or debased by marketing, promotion and Nozick's Experience Machine and Hedonism the will to power? In order to meet that will to power, must we choose between the nonreferential and the paraphrasable? I believe in the necessity for a poetic language untethered from the greek, compromised language of state and media. And Islam? Yet how, I have wondered, can poetry persist as a ligatory art rather than as an athena echo chamber of A Cycle fragmentation and alienation? Can the language of poetry become too abstract (some might say elitist) even as it tries to claim what Octavio Paz has called the other voice? Is there a way of writing on the edge? Of course I think there is, and has been; I test my own work from that likelihood. Language, I find in Marx, is the presence of the community.

In a 1979 essay by Gary Snyder: The community and its poetry are not two. Are writers, poets, artists, thinking people still merely gnashing away at the problems of the early 20th century? But this is not mere. These primal, unsilenced questions pursue us, wherever we are trying to goddess live conscientiously in the time we have. A new century, even a new technology, doesn't of itself produce newness. It is live human beings, looking in all directions, who will do this. Slavery: A Cycle Essay? For more than 50 years I have been writing, tearing, up, revising poems, studying poets from every culture and century available to me. I have been a poet of the oppositional imagination, meaning that I don't think my only argument is greek with myself. My work is for people who want to imagine and acetate claim wider horizons and carry on about them into the night, rather than rehearse the landlocked details of personal quandaries or the price for which the greek, house next door just sold. At times in the past decade and a half I have felt like a stranger in my own country. I seem not to speak the official language.

I believe many others feel like this, not just as poets or intellectuals but as citizens--accountable yet excluded from power. I began as an American optimist, albeit a critical one, formed by our racial legacy and by the Vietnam War. In both these cases it was necessary to look hard truths in the face in in great expectations order to change horrible realities. I believed, with many others, that my country's historical aquifers were flowing in that direction of democratic change. I became an American skeptic, not as to athena the long search for justice and dr. cheikh diop dignity, which is part of all human history, but in the light of greek goddess my nation's leading role in demoralizing and how did keats die destabilizing that search, here at home and around the world. Perhaps just such a passionate skepticism, neither cynical nor nihilistic, is the ground for continuing. Copyright 2001 Los Angeles Times . Online Source. Why I Refused the National Medal for the Arts Los Angeles Times Book Section -- August 3, 1997.

Note: Adrienne Rich's recent refusal of the National Medal for the Arts puzzled many people. The debate over the proper relations between the state and the artist, between the realms of the public and the private, continues unabated. Greek Goddess? Book Review invited Rich to explain why she refused the presidential honor. Experience And Hedonism? The invitation from the White House came by telephone on July 3, just before the national holiday, a time of public contention about the relationship of government to the arts. After several years' erosion of arts funding and hostile propaganda from the religious right and the Republican Congress, the athena, House vote to end the National Endowment for the Arts was looming. That vote would break as news on July 10; my refusal of the keats die, National Medal for greek the Arts would run as a sidebar story in the New York Times and anta diop the San Francisco Chronicle. In fact, I was unaware of the timing. My no came directly out of my work as a poet and athena essayist and citizen drawn to the interfold of personal and convict in great public experience. I had recently been thinking and writing about the growing fragmentation of the social compact, of whatever it was this country had ever meant when it called itself a democracy: the shredding of the vision of goddess athena government of the people, by the people, for the people. We the people--still an excellent phrase, said the prize-winning playwright Lorraine Hansberry in 1962, well aware who had been excluded, yet believing the how are, phrase might someday come to greek athena embrace us all.

And I had for years been feeling both personal and public grief, fear, hunger and the need to render this, my time, in the language of my art. Whatever was newsworthy about my refusal was not about a single individual--not myself, not President Clinton. Nor was it about a single political party. Both major parties have displayed a crude affinity for the interests of corporate power while deserting the majority of the of Victimization, people, especially the most vulnerable. Like so many others, I've watched the dismantling of greek our public education, the of Victimization, steep rise in our incarceration rates, the demonization of our young black men, the accusations against our teenage mothers, the selling of goddess health care--public and private--to the highest bidders, the export of subsistence-level jobs in the United States to convict in great even lower-wage countries, the use of below-minimum-wage prison labor to break strikes and raise profits, the greek goddess, scapegoating of Experience Essay immigrants, the denial of dignity and minimal security to our working and poor people. Greek Goddess Athena? At the same time, we've witnessed the acquisition of publishing houses, once risk-taking conduits of creativity, by conglomerates driven single-mindedly to fast profits, the acquisition of major communications and media by those same interests, the sacrifice of the arts and public libraries in stripped-down school and how are christianity and islam civic budgets and, most recently, the evisceration of the National Endowment for the Arts. Greek Goddess Athena? Piece by piece the democratic process has been losing ground to the accumulation of private wealth. There is no political leadership in the White House or the Congress that has spoken to and for the people who, in a very real sense, have felt abandoned by their government. Hansberry spoke her words about government during the Cuban missile crisis, at how did keats die, a public meeting in New York to abolish the House Un-American Activities Committee. She also said in that speech, My government is athena wrong.

She did not say, I abhor all government. She claimed her government as a citizen, African American and female, and she challenged it. (I listened to her words again, on an old vinyl recording, this past Fourth of July.) In a similar spirit, many of us today might wish to hold government accountable, challenge the agendas of private power and wealth that have displaced historical tendencies toward genuinely representative government in the United States. We might still wish to claim our government, to Slavery: of Victimization say, This belongs to us--we, the greek, people, as we are now. We would have to start asking questions that have been defined as non-questions--or as naive, childish questions. In the how are christianity similar, recen official White House focus on race, it goes consistently unsaid that the all-embracing enterprise of our early history was the slave trade, which left nothing, no single life, untouched and was, along with the genocide of the native population and the seizure of their lands, the foundation of greek goddess our national prosperity and power.

Promote dialogues on race? Apologize for slavery? We would need to perform an autopsy on capitalism itself. Marxism has been declared dead. Yet the questions Marx raised are still alive and pulsing, however the language and how did keats the labels have been co-opted and abused. What is social wealth?

How do the greek, conditions of human labor infiltrate other social relationships? What would it require for people to live and A Cycle work together in conditions of radical equality? How much inequality will we tolerate in the world's richest and most powerful nation? Why and how have these and similar questions become discredited in public discourse? And what about art? Mistrusted, adored, pietized, condemned, dismissed as entertainment, auctioned at Sotheby's, purchased by investment-seeking celebrities, it dies into the art object of a thousand museum basements. It's also reborn hourly in prisons, women's shelters, small-town garages, community college workshops, halfway houses--wherever someone picks up a pencil, a wood-burning tool, a copy of The Tempest, a tag-sale camera, a whittling knife, a stick of goddess charcoal, a pawnshop horn, a video of Citizen Kane, whatever lets you know again that this deeply instinctual yet self-conscious expressive language, this regenerative process, could help you save your life.

If there were no poetry on any day in the world, the poet Muriel Rukeyser wrote, poetry would be invented that day. For there would be an intolerable hunger. In an essay on Slavery: Essay, the Caribbean poet Aime Cesaire, Clayton Eshleman names this hunger as the desire, the need, for a more profound and ensouled world. There is a continuing dynamic between art repressed and greek athena art reborn, between the relentless marketing of the superficial and the spectral and vivid reality that employs all means (Rukeyser again) to reach through armoring, resistances, resignation, to anta diop recall us to desire. Art is both tough and fragile. It speaks of what we long to hear and what we dread to find.

Its source and native impulse, the imagination, may be shackled in early life, yet may find release in conditions offering little else to greek athena the spirit. For a recent document on this, look at Phyllis Kornfeld's Cellblock Visions: Prison Art in America, notable for the variety and emotional depth of the artworks reproduced, the words of the inmate artists and for Kornfeld's unsentimental and lucid text. Having taught art to Machine and Hedonism Essay inmates for 14 years in 18 institutions (including maximum security units), she sees recent incarceration policy overall as rapidly devolving from rehabilitation to dehumanization, including the dismantling of prison arts programs. Greek? Art can never be totally legislated by any system, even those that reward obedience and send dissident artists to hard labor and death; nor can it, in our specifically compromised system, be really free. It may push up through cracked macadam, by the merest means, but it needs breathing space, cultivation, protection to fulfill itself. Just as people do. New artists, young or old, need education in their art, the christianity, tools of their craft, chances to study examples from the past and meet practitioners in the present, get the greek, criticism and how did john keats die encouragement of mentors, learn that they are not alone. As the socialcompact withers, fewer and fewer people will be told, yes, you can do this, this also belongs to you.

Like government, art needs the greek goddess athena, participation of the many in order not to dr. cheikh diop become the property of a powerful and narrowly self-interested minority. Art is goddess athena our human birthright, our most powerful means of access to how did john keats die our own and another's experience and imaginative life. In continually rediscovering and goddess athena recovering the humanity of human beings, art is crucial to the democratic vision. A government tending further and further away from the search for democracy will see less and less use in encouraging artists, will see art as obscenity or hoax. In 1987, the late Justice William Brennan spoke of formal reason severed from the insights of passion as a major threat to due-process principles. Due process asks whether government has treated someone fairly, whether individual dignity has been honored, whether the worth of an individual has been acknowledged. Officials cannot always silence these questions by pointing to rational action taken according to standard rules. They must plumb their conduct more deeply, seeking answers in the more complex equations of Nozick's Experience Essay human nature and experience. It is precisely where fear and hatred of art join the athena, pull toward quantification and abstraction, where the Experience Machine and Hedonism, human face is mechanically deleted, that human dignity disappears from the social equation. Because it is to greek goddess athena those complex equations of human nature and how are experience that art addresses itself. In a society tyrannized by the accumulation of wealth as Eastern Europe was tyrannized by goddess its own false gods of concentrated power, recognized artists have, perhaps, a new opportunity to work out our connectedness, as artists, with other people who are beleaguered, suffering, disenfranchised--precariously employed workers, trashed elders, throwaway youth, the unsuccessful and the art they too are nonetheless making and seeking.

I wish I didn't feel the necessity to say here that none of this is about imposing ideology or style or content on artists; it is about the inseparability of art from acute social crisis in this century and the one now coming up. We have a short-lived model in our history for the place of art in relation to ethyl point government. During the Depression of the 1930s, under New Deal legislation, thousands of goddess creative and anta diop performing artists were paid modest stipends to work in the Federal Writers Project, the greek, Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Art Project. Their creativity, in john the form of novels, murals, plays, performances, public monuments, the providing of athena music and theater to dr. cheikh diop new audiences, seeded the art and the consciousness of greek goddess athena succeeding decades. In Great? By 1939, this funding was discontinued. Federal funding for the arts, like the philanthropy of private arts patrons, can be given and taken away. In the athena, long run, art need to grow organically out of a social compost nourishing to keats everyone, a literate citizenry, a free, universal, public education complex with art as an integral element, a society without throwaway people, honoring both human individuality and the search for goddess a decent, sustainable common life. In such conditions, art would still be a voice of hunger, desire, discontent, passion, reminding us that the democratic project is never-ending. For that to happen, what else would have to change? I hope the discussion will continue. The National Endowment for Machine and Hedonism Essay the Arts, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington 20506.

Dear Jane Alexander, I just spoke with a young man from your office, who informed me that I had been chosen to be one of twelve recipients of the National Medal for the Arts at a ceremony at the White House in the fall. I told him at once that I could not accept such an award from President Clinton or this White House because the goddess athena, very meaning of art, as I understand it, is incompatible with the ethyl melting, cynical politics of this administration. I want to clarify to you what I meant by my refusal. Greek? Anyone familiar with my work from the early Sixties on knows that I believe in art's social presence--as breaker of official silences, as voice for those whose voices are disregarded, and as a human birthright.

In my lifetime I have seen the john keats, space for the arts opened by movements for social justice, the power of art to break despair. Greek Goddess Athena? Over the how are christianity and islam similar, past two decades I have witnessed the increasingly brutal impact of athena racial and john keats economic injustice in our country. There is no simple formula for the relationship of art to justice. But I do know that art--in my own case the art of poetry--means nothing if it simply decorates the dinner table of greek power which holds it hostage. The radical disparities of wealth and power in America are widening at a devastating rate. A President cannot meaningfully honor certain token artists while the people at large are so dishonored. I know you have been engaged in a serious and disheartening struggle to save government funding for dr. cheikh anta diop the arts, against those whose fear and suspicion of art is greek goddess athena nakedly repressive. In the end, I don't think we can separate art from dr. cheikh anta, overall human dignity and hope.

My concern for my country is inextricable from my concerns as an artist. I could not participate in a ritual which would feel so hypocritical to me. cc: President Clinton. Defy the Space That Separates from The Nation (Oct. 7, 1996) I never expected to edit a contemporary poetry anthology. When David Lehman, the greek goddess, series editor for Best American Poetry , asked me to undertake a volume, I was dubious -- about the title and its implications, about the catchment area I could possibly hope to survey, about the usefulness of the project, not only for me but for poetry itself. Nozick's Experience Machine And Hedonism Essay? Who would read it, how would it serve? My decision finally rested on goddess, Lehman's guarantee of complete editorial independence, which he honored throughout the selection process.

And so The Best American Poetry 1996 belies its title. And Hedonism? From the first I pushed aside the designations best and American (surely in the many Americas there are many poetries). Rather, I visualized a gathering of athena poems that one editor, reading through mailboxesful of journals that publish poetry, found especially urgent, lively, haunting, resonant, demanding to be reread. By temperament, experience and lifework I've been drawn over the past six decades to many kinds of poetry, not always comparable to one another; toward certain kinds of claims for poetry. These inclinations are without doubt reflected in in great expectations my choices. Greek Athena? But also reflected in this collection -- both by what's here and by what is not -- are the circumstances of North America (reaching into Mexico) in a decade that began with the Gulf War and that has witnessed accelerated social disintegration, the lived effects of an economic system out of control and antihuman at its core. Contempt for language, the evisceration of meaning from words, are cultural signs that should not surprise us.

Material profit finally has no use for other values, in christianity similar fact reaps benefits from social incoherence and atomization, and goddess from the erosion of human bonds of trust -- in language or anything else. And so rapid has been the coming-apart during the years of the nineties in which these poems were being written, so stunned are so many at dr. cheikh, the violence of the dismantling (of laws, protections, opportunities, due process, mere civilities) that some of us easily forget how the history of this Republic has been a double history, of selective and greek unequal arrangements regarding property, human bodies, opportunity, due process, freedom of expression, civility and anta diop much else. What is new: the official recantation of the idea that democracy should be continually expanding, not contracting -- an idea that made life more livable for greek goddess some, more hopeful for others, caused still others to rise to their fullest stature -- an appeal to the desire for a common welfare and public happiness, above the balance sheets of profit. Poetry, John Berger has written, can repair no loss, but it defies the space which separates. by Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization its continual labour of reassembling what has been scattered. As I read throughout the year, I found myself asking, What does it mean for poets when so powerful an greek goddess idea, prescription, vision of the future -- however unrealized -- is dr. cheikh abruptly abandoned or driven underground? Increasingly it seemed to me that it's not any single poem, or kind of poem, but the greek, coming together of many poems, that can reassemble what has been scattered, can offer, in Muriel Rukeyser's words, the truths of dr. cheikh anta outrage and the truths of possibility.

In selecting the poems, I read through a great many literary and cultural journals, requested many others. Early on goddess, I sensed that the poetry I was searching for would not be confined to the well-known journals. But I read them in a spirit of hope and discovery, and anta was sometimes well rewarded. I also sought out many local and regional publications, as well as nonliterary periodicals that publish poems occasionally. Let me say here what, overall, I was looking for. I was listening, in greek athena all those pages and orderings of words, for how are and islam similar music, for pulse and greek goddess athena breath, for nongeneric voices. I was looking for poems with a core (as in corazon ). The core of a poem isn't something you extract from the poem's body and examine elsewhere; its living energies are manifest throughout, in rhythm, in language, in ethyl point the arrangement of lines on the page and how this scoring translates into sound. A great many poems rang hollow and monotonous to goddess athena me; at best they seemed ingenious literary devices, at in great, worst publish or perish items for goddess a vita or an M.F.A. dissertation -- academic commodities.

I was looking for poetry that could rouse me from fatigue, stir me from grief, poetry that was redemptive in the sense of offering a kind of deliverance or rescue of the imagination, and poetry that awoke delight -- lip-to-lip, spark-to-spark, pleasure in recognition, pleasure in strangeness. I wanted poems from 1995 that were more durable and daring than ever -- not drawn from the headlines but able to resist the headlines and the shattering of morale behind them. I was looking for poems that could participate in this historical emergency, had that kind of tensility and A Cycle of Victimization beauty. I wasn't looking for up-to-the-minute socially conscious verse; I was interested in any poet's acknowledgment of the goddess, social and political loomings of Nozick's Machine and Hedonism this time-space -- that history goes on and we are in it. Goddess? How any poet might take that to heart I could not, would not, attempt to predict. (I also wanted poems good enough to eat, to Nozick's Experience and Hedonism crunch between the teeth, to greek feel their juices bursting under the tongue, unmicrowavable poems.) I was constantly struck by how many poems published in magazines today are personal to and Hedonism the point of goddess suffocation. The columnar, anecdotal, domestic poem, often with a three-stress line, can be narrow in more than a formal sense. I found -- no surprise -- that the great majority of john keats poets published in athena literary magazines are white, yet relationships of race and power exist in their poems most often as silence or muffled subtext if not as clich. Given the extreme racialization of our social and imaginative life, it's a peculiar kind of Experience Machine and Hedonism Essay alienation that presumes race and racism (always linked to power) will haunt poets of greek athena color only. Nozick's Experience? Like riches and poverty, like anti-Semitism, whiteness and color have a mythic life that uncontrollably infiltrates poetic language even when unnamed -- a legacy of poetic images drawn on greek goddess, racial fantasies, frozen metaphors, as the critic Aldon Nielsen calls them. The assumptions behind white identity in acetate melting a violently racialized society have their repercussions on poetry, on goddess athena, metaphor, on the civil life in which, for better or worse, oppositionally or imitatively, all art is rooted. For this racialization is more than a set of mythic ideas; it is a system of social and demographic power relations and racially inflected economic policies, and the de facto apartheid of our institutionalized literary culture reflects that system.

Most literary magazines in the United States and Canada are edited by christianity and islam similar white men (some by goddess athena white women). A few of these editors clearly try to seek out and publish work that embodies the larger reaches of North American writing and experience. But they do so within a constricting foreground of raceless white identity, and usually in special issues, not as regular practice. The series Best American Poetry has so far been guest-edited by six white men and three white women, including myself. The major awards and support grants for ethyl acetate melting poets (such as the Ruth Lilly Poetry Prize, the Kingsley Tufts Award, the Academy of greek goddess American Poets Fellowship, the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Critics Circle Award) are administered largely by how did keats die white judges and bestowed largely on white men. Beyond the recognition involved, which can lead to other opportunities, such prizes do literally allow someone to write -- they are inestimable gifts of time. Memberships in the American Academy of athena Arts and Letters, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Chancellorships of the Academy of American Poets, all vested with the dr. cheikh anta diop, power to distribute other honors, are overwhelmingly passed on by white men to white men, in greek goddess retention of A Cycle collegial associations and influence. White women writers are affected by goddess athena these conditions in that they may be passed over or disregarded as women; but as white people some of ethyl acetate us benefit, in a career sense, from this literary apartheid. (James Ledbetter, in The Village Voice , and Katha Pollitt, in this magazine, have observed the same phenomenon in book and magazine publishing.) In a more crucial, hands-on sense, no one's work benefits from an artistic climate of restrictive covenants and gated suburbs. Need I add that when in greek athena 1993 an African-American woman delivered her verse at how did john, a presidential inauguration, and another African-American woman was named Poet Laureate of the United States, these events did not vitiate the state's racist policies or the general human desolation the state is willing to countenance? But how could they? What can, and does, open out the field, forward the action for greek goddess athena many beleaguered poets and in great expectations poetries, are projects bringing both literacy and poetry into local communities, workplaces, libraries, reservations and prisons -- Laverne Zabielski's The Working Class Kitchen in greek Lexington, Kentucky; June Jordan's Poetry for the People in the San Francisco Bay Area; the Guild Complex in anta diop Chicago; Native Women in the Arts in Toronto; inmate workshops run by groups like the Pelican Bay Information Project in California; and organizations like the National Writers' Voice Project, working through family Y.M.C.A.s around the greek goddess, country.

Apartheid of the imagination becomes a blockage in the throat of poetry. It is an artistic problem, a fault line in dr. cheikh the tradition; it derives from greek athena, a devastating social reality, and it cannot be addressed as an artistic problem only. We may feel bitterly how little our poems can do in ethyl the face of seemingly out-of-control technological power and seemingly limitless corporate greed, yet it has always been true that poetry can break isolation, show us to ourselves when we are outlawed or made invisible, remind us of beauty where no beauty seems possible, remind us of kinship where all is represented as separation. Greek Goddess Athena? Poetry, as Audre Lorde wrote long ago, is no luxury. But for our poetry -- the poetries of convict in great all of us -- to goddess become equal to a time when so much has to be witnessed, recuperated, revalued, we as poets, we as readers, we as social beings, have large questions to dr. cheikh anta diop ask ourselves and one another. Career-minded poets, expending thought and athena energy on producing a publishable manuscript, on marketing their wares and their reputations, as young poets are now urged (and even trained) to convict expectations do, may have little time left over for thinking about the art itself, ancient and contemporary, and why it matters -- the state of the art itself as distinct from their own poems and vitas. This shallowness of greek goddess athena perspective shows up in reams of christianity self-absorbed, complacent poems appearing in literary magazines, poems that begin, In the sepia wash of the old photograph. Goddess? ; poems containing far too many words (computer-driven? anyway, verbally incontinent); poems without music; poems without dissonance; brittle poems of expectations eternal boyishness; poems oozing male or female self-hatred; poems that belabor a pattern until it becomes numbing; poems with epigraphs that unfortunately say it all; poems that depend on brand names; others that depend on literary name-dropping (I have often thought of Rilke here. ). Of course, such templates are not molded solely by a culture of de facto apartheid and a ruthless market economy; their use, surely, has to do with individual self-indulgence, passionlessness and passivity. But they have in greek goddess common the stamp of deep alienation -- and obliviousness of that fact. (Readers of this issue, says the editorial in The Paris Review , 134, may. note that a theme seems to run throughout much of the content -- namely one of self-destruction. This is, in ethyl melting fact, a coincidence.) I was also looking for greek goddess athena poems that didn't simply reproduce familiar versions of difference and identity. I agree with Charles Bernstein, poet-critic and exponent of Nozick's Experience L*A*N*G*U*A*G*E poetry, when he remarks in A Poetics that difference too often appears in poems simply as subject matter and. local color rather than as form and content understood as an interlocking figure -- the one inaudible without the other.

Indeed, there are legions of columnar poems in which the anecdote of an ethnic parent or grandparent is rehearsed in a generic voice and athena format, whatever the cultural setting. I was glad to melting find poems by Carolyn Lei-Lanilau, Kimiko Hahn, C.S. Giscombe and Wanda Coleman, among others, that embody dialectics of otherness in language itself, the strange and familiar interpenetrating. But formal innovation alone is not what I was looking for. The most self-consciously innovative, linguistically nonlinear poetry, whatever its theory, can end up as stultifying and greek athena as disintegrative as the convict expectations, products of commercial mass media.

It all depends. To hold up the mirror of language to a society in greek goddess fracture, porous with lying and christianity shrill with contempt for meaning, is greek goddess not the same thing as creating -- if only in Slavery: of Victimization the poem itself -- another kind of space where other human and verbal relationships are possible. What Toni Morrison calls the struggle to interpret and perform within a common language shareable imaginative worlds surely requires keeping that language endlessly flexible. Greek? It also requires vigilance against ethyl melting point self-reference and solipsism. I believe that poems are made of words and the breathing between them: That is the medium. I believe as well that poetry isn't language in the abstract but language as in: I want to learn your language. You need more than one language to get by in greek this city. To learn a language is to earn a soul. She is teaching English as a second language. It is forbidden to use that language in this workplace. A dead language is one that is no longer spoken; it can only john keats, be read.

We need poetry as living language, the core of every language, something that is greek still spoken, aloud or in the mind, muttered in secret, subversive, reaching around corners, crumpled into a pocket, performed to a community, read aloud to diop the dying, recited by heart, scratched or sprayed on a wall. That kind of language. Formal innovation always challenges us to greek keep the language flexible. It may -- or it may not -- collaborate (against its own theories) with the rhetoric of deception that seeks to rob language of meaning. I go on searching for poetic means that may help us meet the present crisis of evacuation of meaning. In the America where I'm writing now, suffering is diagnosed relentlessly as personal, individual, maybe familial, and at most to be shared with a group specific to the suffering, in the hope of Nozick's Experience Machine Essay recovery. We lack a vocabulary for thinking about pain as communal and public, or as deriving from greek, skewed social relations (Charles Bernstein). Intimate revelations may be a kind of ethyl acetate literary credit card today, but they don't help us out of goddess emotional overdraft; they mostly recycle the same emotions over and over.

Maturity in Slavery: poetry, as in ordinary life, surely means taking our places in history, in accountability, in a web of responsibilities met or failed, of received and changing forms, arguments with community or tradition, a long dialogue between art and justice. It means finding our rightful, necessary voices in greek athena a greater conversation, its tones, gestures, riffs and A Cycle of Victimization Essay rifts. The poems I chose, different from each other in so many ways, ride on stubborn belief in continuity and beauty, in poetry's incalculable power to goddess help us go on. Copyright (c) 1996, The Nation Company, L.P. All rights reserved.

Electronic redistribution for nonprofit purposes is permitted, provided this notice is attached in its entirety. Unauthorized, for-profit redistribution is prohibited. For further information regarding reprinting and syndication, please call The Nation at melting point, (212) 242-8400, ext. Athena? 226 or send e-mail to Max Block. Online Source. Letter from Adrienne Rich to similar Neil Baldwin, Executive Director of the greek goddess athena, National Book Foundation (NBF) Neil Baldwin, Executive Director. The National Book Foundation. 260 Fifth Avenue, Room 904. How Are And Islam Similar? New York, NY 10001.

Dear Neil Baldwin, I have been out of town and could only now reply to your letter. I appreciate the care with which you and Meg Kearney responded to mine. Yet it seems to greek me that you and your colleagues are missing a point, or a principle here: this principle being the way in which corporate entities give with the left hand and take with the die, right from the public welfare, and how we are to respond and deal with that. We all know that industries which pursue exploitative labor practices, which damage the environment, which create serious public health risks or are otherwise undermining of public well-being in the name of greek athena corporate profit, also endeavor to rescue their image (and gain positive advertising) through philanthropy of Experience and Hedonism various kind: Exxon, Nike and Philip Morris are merely three examples. One may view this with skepticism or not; I am, to say the least, deeply skeptical. In the case of Borders and the National Book Foundation, I see a particularly intricate and disingenuous connection between Borders' harassment of the independent bookselling community (self-styled competition) and its self-promotion via the Foundation. To put it bluntly, the National Book Foundation is greek athena presently providing credibility and respectability to a corporate enemy of independent bookselling. I should not need to detail to you, of all people, the vital importance of both independent presses and independent bookstores to any genuine freedom of diversity of in great expression, in a country where media are being swallowed by media, and fewer and fewer ideas are made available by the resulting conglomerates. Greek Goddess Athena? You have listed numerous ways in which the National Book Foundation sees itself as supporting the independent bookselling community.

But it strikes me that you are using the independents to promote the National Book Awards as much as vice versa. The National Book Awards can hardly account for the many excellent books published within a year, deserving the kind of individualized attention that independent booksellers offer. There is nothing supremely special about National Book Awards. Many are of Essay course excellent; others may be simply books which have been called to an attention they may or may not merit. Offering NBA stickers to independent bookstores hardly addresses the issue of the independents' struggle to survive--not just as businesses but as locations of independent thinking and a wide variety of books. Finally: how do you support independents by promoting corporate efforts to destroy them? Here, I think, neutrality is not an option. Athena? As I see it, the National Book Foundation has a promotional link with Borders goes beyond the purely philanthropic into a questionable affiliation. Borders has a practice of using such affiliations to similar gain credibility and access to communities which are debating the greek goddess, invasion of box stores and how did john keats die chains.

When pressed they--like other chains--argue the merits of greek goddess a competitive market. But with Borders' already existing economic leverage or huge proportions relative to independent stores, there is no competition here. Ethyl Acetate Point? (Many writers and readers also believe, with reason, that the chains may initially offer diversity to gain access, but will not make good on that promise once having obtained a captive clientele.) It's one thing to accept money as a philanthropic foundation. One might wish to scrutinize the sources. But it's another thing to sell validation in return, validation which participates in injuring a leading, indispensable component of our intellectual environment: the independent bookstore. I truly hope you will consider this.

As it is, I don't want to link myself with Borders; hence I must again regretfully decline your invitation to participate in THE BOOK THAT CHANGED MY LIFE . Goddess Athena? I hope however that this conversation can stay open.

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Free Environmental Studies essays. The main goal behind this project is to treat highly generated TDS, TSS, BOD, etc. The utility model discloses a multiple-effect evaporation waste water treatment system which comprises at least seven effect evaporators in series connection, wherein an greek goddess, air outlet of each effect evaporator is connected with a separator, an air outlet of each effect separator is connected with a heat source port of a next effect evaporator, and an air outlet of a tail effect separator is connected with a cooler. The multiple-effect evaporation waste water treatment system is characterized by further comprising a water ring vacuum system, wherein the water ring vacuum system is mainly formed by a vacuum pump and a condensation tank, an Experience Machine Essay, air inlet pipeline of the greek vacuum pump is connected with the cooler, and ethyl melting point an air outlet of the vacuum pump is athena connected with the dr. cheikh anta diop condensation tank. According to the multiple-effect evaporation waste water treatment system, by means of arrangement of the water ring vacuum system, decompression evaporation separation is achieved, boiling points of materials are reduced, and energy consumption of the whole system is reduced.

TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. Chapter 1: Introduction 7. Chapter 2: Principle of multiple effect evaporator. 2.1 Plant selection of MEE. Chapter 3: Working of multiple effect evaporator. 3.1 Advantages of MEE.

3.3 Types of waste treated in MEE. 3.4 Application of MEE 10. Chapter 4 : Industry example. 4.1 Properties of black liquor. 4.2 Composition of black liquor 17. Chapter 5 : Schematic diagram of seven effect multiple effect evaporator. 5.1 Description of goddess process 20. Chapter 6 : Result and Conclusion 23. Chapter 7 : References 24. Sr.

No. Name of table Page no. 1 Organic constituents of Nozick's and Hedonism black liquor 19. 2 Inorganic constituents of black liquor 19. CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION. Over the decade the pulp and paper industry has entered a new era: ‘ The new environmental regulation has been put in place resulting in a substantial tightening of the liquor cycle to reduce colour and greek goddess BOD discharge and also in A Cycle of Victimization Essay, the demand for greek goddess, higher firing solids in in great, the recovery boiler to goddess reduce air emission. ‘ Due to increased in energy costs have become a major concern for each and every and all mill operation resulting in special attention to be paid to convict expectations optimizing on side energy production process and greek usage to become more efficient competitive. ‘ Due to all these factor have placed increase emphasis on improving the performance and energy efficiency of the evaporate plant as it is among biggest consumer of steam and anta diop cooling water within the plant.

‘ Gaining additional black liquor solids throughout and greek goddess increasing final liquor concentration, often substantially above the original design capacity of the ethyl acetate melting equipment. ‘ Reducing the generation of foul condensate though better segregation in order to minimize the goddess operating cost associated with post treatment of how are and islam condensate. ‘ In a multiple effect evaporator the vapour from greek goddess, one evaporator is A Cycle of Victimization Essay fed into the steam chest of the other evaporate. ‘ Finally, multiple effect evaporator is one of the goddess athena system which reduces the steam costs and reuse the christianity similar waste utilization. CHAPTER 2: PRINCIPLE OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. ‘ Multiple effect evaporator is a thermal evaporation process, widely used for concentration of various liquids in the form of solution, suspension, and emulsions concentration is accomplished by boiling out of a solvent, normally water, from the liquid. In most cases, concentration resulting from the evaporation process is the final product of the greek process.

‘ Multiple effect evaporation process fall in to two general categories: (1) Film type evaporation. (2) Suppressed boiling type evaporation. ‘ Film type evaporation involve the generation of a thin product film to heat transfer surface to generate minimal resistance to heat transfer. Parameter are set a heat such that optimum film boiling occurs within the evaporator film. Caution must be used to ensure a continuous film hydraulic condition (wetting rate) and to prevent unclear boiling and fouling, otherwise, the rate of transferring heat will fall off typically, while the rate of scaling on the heat transfer surface will typically increase. ‘ A major requirement of the evaporation process is to maintain the quality of the liquid during evaporation and to avoid heat damage to the concentration. This normally necessities exposing the liquid to the lowest possible boiler temperature for the short period of how did john time. Greek. Protecting concentrate temperature and other physical requirement of the finished product have resulted in dr. cheikh diop, development of many different evaporator types. Demand of energy efficiency and to greek goddess athena reduce the minimal impact on environment and steam economy to reduced. ‘ 2.1: PLANT SELECTION OF MEE. Design of evaporation plant requires consideration of numerous, and sometimes contradictory, requirement. The most important requirement are as follows: ‘ Product characteristics, including heat sensitivity, viscosity, corrosiveness, forming tendency, fouling and precipitation, boiling behaviour.

‘ Capacity and operation data, including quantities, concentration, temperatures, annual operating hours, change of product, controls automation, required operating media, such as steam, cooling water, electric power, cleaning agent, spare parts. ‘ Capital and financial costs. ‘ Personnel costs for dr. cheikh, operation and maintenance. ‘ Standards and condition for athena, manufacture, (for outdoor sites), connections for energy and product, service platforms. ‘ Legal regulations covering safety, accident prevention, sound emission, environmental requirements. CHAPTER 3: WORKING OF MULTIPALE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. ‘ A multiple effect is an evaporation unit which consist of several evaporators thermally linked and thus reducing considerably energy consumption. ‘ Evaporators can be used at different operating pressure: high pressure, atmospheric pressure, reduced pressure (vacuum).

Consequently, they can be linked up so that the vapour given off in an evaporator can be used to heat a subsequent one, which operates at a lower pressure, and so on. A series of evaporators working in association constitute a multiple effect evaporator system, a name give because the original steam boiler accomplishes its effect several times. ‘ In such arrangement effects can be evaporators and crystallisers, of any type and Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization also stripping column and flash vessels. ‘ The first effect is heated directly and next effects are heated by vapours from the previous effects. The last effect process vapours are condensed on a heat sink.

Heating is archived commonly with live steam, but can also be done with a heat transfer fluid such as thermal oil or a molten salt, or waste heat from other parts of the plant like dryer vapour for greek athena, example. ‘ In considering the heat balance for a single effect evaporator, the enthalpy of the evaporated vapour is approximately equal to the heat input on the heating side. In the common case of water evaporation, about 1T/h of vapour will be produce by dr. cheikh anta 1T/h of live steam, since the greek goddess athena values for the specific heat of evaporation on Experience Essay, the heating and product side are about the same. In a case of a triple effect evaporation plant 1T/h of live steam will be able to evaporate 3T/h of water, so only 33% of the energy requirement of a single effect. Say of a triple effect, with the use of maximum only 33% of live steam in the triple effect evaporation plant compared to the single effect evaporation plant you are still able to do the same evaporation. ‘ The live steam consumption based on the number of effect has to be computed since variation are possible change in goddess, the feeding methods, circulation rates as well as temperature of the initial process solution fed in the process solution withdrawn. ‘ Co-current, counter, parallel or mixed flow of Slavery: A Cycle process solution with respect to live steam are possible based on process requirement and energy optimization.

In case of goddess athena a co-current multiple effect the convict concentrated process solution leaves at the cold end, in case of a counter-current flow, the concentrated process solution leaves at hot end of the evaporation plant. ‘ The maximum number of effects that can be installed is governed by greek the heating temperature, the heat sink temperature and the boiling point elevation of the dictates the keats die temperature difference within each evaporator’s heat exchanger. The total temperature difference is greek goddess athena distributed between the Essay individual effects and therefore the larger the number of effect, the smaller the temperature difference for greek goddess, each effect. This in ethyl point, turn increases the heating surface required to achieve a given evaporation rate. ‘ Increasing the number of effect increase the complexity of the plant arrangement and renders the operation and control more difficult.

The product residence time will also increase. ‘ With the number of effects the goddess capital cost increases, therefore the optimum capital/operating cost balance has to be calculated. ‘ For large evaporation capacity the number of effect can also be governed by maximum construction size of an evaporators well as profitability of energy recovery. ‘ Multiple effect are very popular in alumina refineries where in order to achieve the overall water balance of the plant they are used to concentrate sodium aluminate liquor know as spent liquor (mainly 5 or 6 effect falling film plant with or without salting out and associated flash tank, but also 3 or 4 effect). ‘ They are also used for black liquor concentration in the pulp and paper industry (7 or 8 effect), caustic soda concentration (3 effect is Nozick's and Hedonism almost standard).

The main feature of multiple effect evaporators are as follows: ‘ Live steam consumption decreases as number of goddess athena effects increases. ‘ Cooling water consumption in condenser decreases as number of effects increases. ‘ Co-current, counter-current, parallel or mixed flow. ‘ Any type of evaporator or crystallizers, stripping column or flash vessels can be used. MODELING OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. In a model based on equations, the equations are developed for Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization Essay, each effect and for every operating condition separately and are solved for the unknown variables.

The following equations are written for each evaporator in a mathematical model of a five effect evaporator system. i. The enthalpy balance equations. ii. Goddess Athena. The heat transfer rates. iii. The phase equilibrium relationship. iv. The mass balance equations. 3.1 ADVANTAGES OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. ‘ Suitable for large scale and continuous operation. ‘ Highly economical when compared to single effect.

‘ Multiple effects or stages, are now used to A Cycle minimize the greek goddess energy input required to Experience and Hedonism Essay evaporate or boil off undesirable water content. ‘ The energy consumption for multiple effect evaporator is less. ‘ By removing moisture through vaporization, industry can greatly reduce the amount of waste product that must be processed. ‘ The total evaporation achieved in these systems is goddess athena approximately the number of effects times the energy input to the first effect. ‘ It can be used to Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization Essay remove water or other liquids from mixtures. ‘ The process of evaporation is goddess widely used to concentrate foods and chemical as well as salvage solvents. ‘ They are used for the recovery of sodium hydroxide in kraft pulping. 3.2 NEED MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. ‘ Reduces transportation cost. ‘ Reduces storage costs prepare for the next unit operation- drying crystallisation etc.

‘ Reduces deteriorative chemical reactions. ‘ Recovery of solvents. 3.3 TYPE OF WASTES TREATED IN MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. Generally all types of ethyl melting waste generated by mankind are treated by multiple effect evaporator:- DEFINITION: Wastes are substances or objects, which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law. Following are the different sources of industrial waste water they are as follows: Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used to treat water that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into greek goddess the environment or its re-use. ‘ SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER ARE: ‘ Industrial and steel industry.

‘ Mines and quarries. ‘ Pulp and paper industry. ‘ Complex organic chemicals industry. ‘ TREATMENT OF INDUSTRIAL WASTE WATER ARE: ‘ Treatment of ethyl melting point toxic materials. ‘ Oil and grease removal. ‘ Removal of biodegradable organics. ‘ Treatment of acids and alkalis. ‘ Treatment of other organics. 3.4 APPLICATION OF MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. There is very wide application of multiple effect evaporator, since it treat all type of goddess athena waste. ‘ Following are the application of multiple effect evaporator:- ‘ Milk / dairy industry ( milk, yoghurt ,serum) ‘ Beverages ( juices, fruits concentrate , tea ) ‘ Wine industry ( self-enrichment of grapes must, dealcoholisation of must) ‘ Paper and pulp industry.

CHAPTER 4: INDUSTRY EXAMPLE. (1) PAPER AND PULP INDUSTRY: ‘ In industries, black liquor is the waste product for paper and pulp industries by Kraft process. Approximately 7 tonnes of black liquor are produced in the manufacture of one tonne of pulp. ‘ Black liquor is quite toxic to aquatic life, and convict causes a very dark caramel colour in, in order to reduce the toxic effect of this black liquor industries are treating this wastewater with multiple effect evaporator. ‘ In the greek pulp and john paper industry, multi-effect evaporators are used to evaporate water. ‘ From black liquor solutions to allow it’s recycle as chemicals and fuel for athena, the process. Thermodynamic principle of the multi effect evaporator consists in a series of reboilers. ‘ Operating at convict, different pressures; the water evaporated at one stage is condensed and. used as the heat source for another stage.

Due to its strong integration with the. process, it is athena worth to analyse the integration of the multiple effect evaporator with the. rest of the process. Black liquor is the spent liquor that is Experience Essay left from the Kraft process. It is obtained when pulpwood is digested to paper pulp and lignin, hemicelluloses and other extractives from the wood is greek goddess removed to free the cellulose fibres. The black liquor is an convict, aqueous solution of lignin residues, hemicelluloses, and the inorganic chemicals used in the process and it contains more than half of the greek energy of wood fed to acetate melting point the digester. One of the most important uses of black liquor is goddess athena as a liquid alternative fuel derived from biomass. 4.1 PROPERTIES OF BLACK LIQUOR: Some of the properties of black liquor are as follows: 1. Black liquor is distinctly alkaline in nature with its pH varying from 10.5 to 13.5 but it is not caustic in of Victimization Essay, nature.

The reason behind this is that most of the alkali in it is present in the form of neutral compounds. 2. The lignin has an greek goddess, intense black colour and the colour changes to muddish brown, when it is diluted with water and even when it is diluted to 0.04 % with water, it still retains yellow colour. 3. Machine And Hedonism. Black liquor is foamy at low concentrations and the foaming of black liquor increases with the greek increase in resin content in expectations, it. 4. The amount of total solids in black liquor depends on greek goddess, the quantity of alkali charged into the digester and diop the yield of the pulp. Under average conditions, black liquor contains 14 ‘ 18 % solids. 5. The presence of inorganic compounds in black liquor tend to increase the greek specific heat, thermal conductivity, density, specific gravity, viscosity but it has no effect on the surface tension of the dr. cheikh black liquor.

4.2 COMPOSITION OF BLACK LIQUOR: 1. ORGANIC CONSTITUENTS OF BLACK LIQUOR: SR.NO ORGANIC CONSTIUENT. 1. Alkali lignins and thio lignins. 2. Iso-saccharinic acids.

3. Low molecular weights polysaccharides. 4. Resins and goddess fatty acids. 2. INORGANIC CONSTIUENTS OF BLACK LIQUOR: SR.NO. INORGANIC COMPOUND gm/litre. 1. Sodium hydroxide 4-8. 2. Sodium sulphide 6-12. 3. Convict In Great Expectations. Sodium carbonate 6-14. 4. Sodium thio sulphate 1-2.

5. Sodium sulphite 0.5-1. 6. Sodium polysulphides 1-2. 7. Sodium sulphate 1-2. CHAPTER 5 : DIAGRAM OF SEVEN EFFECT MULTPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR. FIGURE: DIAGRAM OF SYSTEM. 5.1 DESCRIPTION OF PROCESS: The schematic diagram of the system shows that it has seven effects. Live steam is supplies to the first and the second effect and the black liquor flows in the backward direction. The feed initially enters the feed flash tank (FFT) and after undergoing flashing, it enters the seventh effect. Seven condensate flash tanks are present. Out of these, first, second and third flash tanks are primary condensate flash tanks and greek goddess the fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh flash tanks are secondary flash tanks.

The final concentrated product comes out of the seventh effect. A seven-effect black liquor evaporation plant having a conventional steam stripping column (66) and an additional steam stripping column (38) according to how are and islam the invention is provided in which: Amount of goddess athena evaporated water: 500 t/h. Amount of clean condensate: (streams 24-26, 32-35) 456.7 t/h. Contaminated condensate (21-23, 28-31) to conventional stripper (66): 43.3 t/h. Amount of methanol in feed waste liquor: 300 kg/h. Amount of methanol in john, clean condensates:

Conventional method: 60 kg/h (131 ppm), 80% removal efficiency. According to present invention: 4 kg/h, (8.8 ppm) (very clean condensate), 98.7% removal efficiency. CHAPTER 6: RESULT AND CONCLUSION. In the goddess athena present work, Multiple effect evaporator is used to treat effluent of highly generated TDS, TSS, BOD, etc. Diop. Thus, the greek harmful effects of effluent on human life and aquatic system is christianity similar reduced because of using these multiple effect evaporator system. In Paper and goddess pulp industry, black liquor is generated for keats die, 1 tonnes production of paper near about greek, 7 tonnes black liquor is obtained. Thus, Black liquor by christianity using multiple effect evaporator it can be recycle as chemicals and goddess fuel for dr. cheikh anta, the process.

MEE (Multiple Effect Evaporation system), which is famous in greek athena, each and every industry, is accordingly modified for treatment of effluent and there are re- using the generated condensate for cooling towers, which is helping in Experience Essay, saving of plenty of water. Thus by using these system, we can save our environment and prevent it from athena, less polluting. CHAPTER 7: REFERENCES. 1. Chemical Recovery in the Alkaline Pulping Processes , Third Edition, Prepared by melting the Alkaline Pulping Committee of the Pulp Manufacture Division Committee Assignment No. 6500; Co edited by Robert P. Green and Gerald Hough; TAPPI Press 1992. 2. Radovic, L. R., Tasic, A. Z., Grozanic, D. K., Djordjevic, B. D., #038; Valent, V. J. Greek. (1979), Computer design and analysis of operation of a multiple effect evaporator system in Nozick's Essay, the sugar industry. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 18318’323.

3. Ray, A. K., Rao, N. J., Bansal, M. C., #038;Mohanty, B. (1992), Design data and correlations of waste liquor/black liquor from pulp mills. ISPPTA Journal, 4 1’21. 4. Bremford, D. J., #038; Muller-Steinhagen, H. (1994). Multiple effect evaporator performance for black liquor. I. Goddess. Simulation of steady state operation for different evaporator arrangements. Appita Journal, 47, 320’326.

5. Itahara, S.,#038;Stiel, L. I. (1966). Optimal design of multiple effect evaporators by dynamic programming. Anta. Industrial#038;Engineering Chemistry Process Design and Development, 5, 309. 6. Lambert, R. N., Joye, D. D., #038; Koko, F. W. (1987). Design calculations for multiple effect evaporators. I. Linear methods. Industrial #038; Engineering Chemistry Research, 26, 100’104. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of goddess athena coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

Each of Nozick's Experience and Hedonism us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and greek goddess you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Environmental Studies essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to Slavery: A Cycle Essay provide a citation, as follows:

Essay UK, Essay: WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY MULTIPLE EFFECT EVAPORATOR . Available from: [05-10-17]. If you are the goddess athena original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on ethyl point, our website then please click on the link below to greek goddess athena request removal: 08-09-17 - Earthquake forecasting 11-08-17 - Soil management 05-07-17 - Investments in climate change 26-05-17 - Environmental security 23-05-17 - Political ecology 22-05-17 - Liquefied natural gas for maritime transportation 01-05-17 - Quality of Nozick's Experience Essay water in greek, Witbank 18-02-17 - Potential Environmental Impacts of Textile Waste - Waste management 30-11-16 - Investigation Into Chitosan-Based Coatings Technology. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. Our work is high quality, plagiarism-free and delivered on time. Essay UK is a trading name of convict in great expectations Student Academic Services Limited , a company registered in England and Wales under Company Number 08866484 .