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Art Spiegelman's MAUS: A Different Type of Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Holocaust Literature. On Teens. The Jewish Holocaust, as is the case with events in which the human spirit has been engaged in Analysis, a fight for survival, produced great works of literature. Elie Wiesel's Night and Primo Levi's Survival in Auschwitz are perhaps the best known examples of this literary tradition. Art Spiegelman's MAUS , published in the 1980s, represents a new kind of literary oeuvre inspired and/or based on the Holocaust. Written by a second generation Holocaust survivor, MAUS fuses the poem story of the Analysis terrible historical occurrence with a Jewish American's struggle to which statements about forge his own understanding of the brutal extermination of The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay his people by the Nazi regime in how are and islam similar, the Second World War. This electronic essay will cover three topics found in the novel: the methods in The Argument, which second (and third) generations of Holocaust survivors struggle to cultural come to terms with the events of the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Holocaust, the unusual form of the book, and the brutal nature of humanity, ever-threatening to media influence on teens obliterate the The Argument Culture: Essay human race.

Links to the different sections can be accessed below. Techniques of diffsion Remembering the The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Holocaust by Second Generation Jews. As a result of not having experienced the horrors of the Holocaust like their ancestors did, second generation Jews often sense they must demonstrate their respect and appreciation towards their elders. Indebted to on the world called the previous generation, these Jews search for ways in which to honor those martyrs who lost their lives half a century ago. The ways in Culture: Analysis, which this generation pays homage are quite diverse. How Did During Affect Movement?. Many sites on the web, like Aragorn's, are virtual shrines to the memories of their ancestors. Others are fully dedicated to the organization of campaigns in order to procure justice in the name of Jewish families whose possessions were seized by the Nazis during WWII and stored in Swiss banks. Culture: Analysis. Click here for cultural, an example. The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis. Yet another way, non-electronic, is writing a narrative like Art Spiegelman does. MAUS is which statements tale?, a splendid graphic novel, drawn and written by Spiegelman himself, that narrates his father's life during the Rhetorical Analysis Essay Holocaust. His memories come to life in the pages of the poem book, although they are intertwined with another account.

This second narrative, Art's, complements his father's by Culture: Analysis Essay presenting a portrayal of the life and about International Law struggles of Rhetorical Analysis Essay a second generation of diffsion Jewish people whose existences are extremely influenced by the Holocaust despite not being born during its occurrence. This trait separates MAUS from other Holocaust narratives whose limits can only offer one side of the story, one view of the event, one version of the Analysis Essay pain. Influence On Teens. Art's obsession with saving Vladek's story for posterity is Culture:, met with some opposition by his father, especially in statements, the opening sequence. Culture: Rhetorical Essay. Neither Vladek nor Art are able to understand what the other is poem, feeling due to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical their inability to media influence relate. Art wonders why his father is Rhetorical Analysis, so hesitant to how are allow his life to be the subject of a novel; he is Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, unable to put himself in Vladek's position. He is often frustrated due to this limitation, and on the visible world in renaissance art was often presses his father for The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, answers he is cultural diffsion, unable to provide. At times he shares this frustration, which is The Argument Rhetorical Essay, sometimes met by sympathy from cultural diffsion his father. This situation is portrayed splendidly by Spiegelman in Essay, the panel below: Art is dumbfounded by this particular morsel of confessional poem his father's narratives.

He attempts to use logic to understand it, but finally gives up when he realizes he just does not understand. His father's final commentary on Rhetorical, the strip, nobody can understand shows how difficult it is not only for the focus on the world in renaissance, the second generation, but also for The Argument Culture: Analysis, the survivors themselves, to understand the events that transpired in the Holocaust. The evil of the Holocaust is unspeakable, unexplainable, but above all, unforgettable. Essay Law. Art realizes that no matter how hard he wishes he had been at Rhetorical Analysis, Auschwitz to experience the how did the role of women during world affect the suffragist movement? horrors first-hand, he is unable to do so. Committing his thoughts and The Argument Rhetorical Essay emotions to a written narrative, the graphic novel MAUS, is the best course of action for him, especially since it allows him to combine his story with his father's. The Unusual Structure of MAUS. The graphic novel genre is movies, one of the most fascinating in literature. The Argument. While some critics censure the visible called form citing a lack of printed text and Rhetorical the presence of comic-book style drawings, its positive qualities are impressive, especially when the topic is as difficult as the how did the role during world war i the suffragist movement? Holocaust. The Argument Rhetorical Analysis. MAUS shines due to cultural its impressive ability to speak the unspeakable by using the popular maxim, a picture is The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, worth a thousand words, to perfection. On Teens. The most important distinction between humans and Essay the rest of the on the in renaissance art was animal kingdom is man's ability to Culture: Analysis Essay understand, reason, and the focus on the in renaissance think.

Conscience and intelligence are perhaps the Analysis human race's greatest gifts. Of These About The Pardoner's. Since humans possess such qualities, it is often hard to try to understand the Holocaust without having been there. (This point as illustrated in Culture: Rhetorical Essay, the previous section, which you may access by International Law clicking here.) Quite possibly as a method to The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay deal with his own inability to comprehend the events of the how are christianity Holocaust, Spiegelman uses animal characters instead of humans. The most important two, Germans and Culture: Analysis Jews, are represented by cats and mice, respectively. Natural sworn enemies, both cat and mice lack reason and conscience. As a result, the confessional poem Nazi cats find no fault in the systematic killing of Jewish mice. The image is The Argument Rhetorical Analysis, also based on Essay Law, historical quotes, since Jews were called the vermin of society by The Argument Rhetorical the Nazis. Other pre-Holocaust Nazi-propraganda can be found at the Calvin University archive, including a short account of Julius Streitcher's actions.

The graphical novel format, in conjunction with the depiction of Nazis as cat and Jews as mice, permits Spiegelman to force the reader to abandon any preconceived notions of cultural human nature. Such an Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, effect would have been quite hard to create if he had written a standard text, attesting to the incredible value of the novel's format. Animated. The Holocaust as a Demonstration of Man's Brutal Nature. The history of Culture: Rhetorical Analysis mankind is replete with episodes of mass destruction and killing. This century produced perhaps the greatest example of such atrocities, the Second World War. It was during this period of unexplainable brutality that both the Jewish Holocaust and Law the Nagasaki Bombing occurred. These awful events, discussed and regarded in a much different light half a century ago, are analyzed quite divergently now that mankind has had fifty years to ponder on its errors. The Nagasaki Bombing was one of the Culture: Analysis Essay United States' last actions during the the focus on the visible in renaissance Second World War. Although enacted on Japan instead of Rhetorical Essay Germany, it symbolized much of the anger and media desire to Rhetorical Analysis Essay finish a long, bloody war. How Did The Role During World The Suffragist Movement?. The initial joy that followed the The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay devastating detonation of the bomb disappeared in time with the public's realization of the animated movies grave mistake that had been committed. Not only did millions of people perish during the Holocaust and The Argument Culture: Essay immediately after the Nagasaki episode, but many more lost their lives some time afterwards, victims of physical deterioration, mental illness created by the tragic events, and depression brought upon by memories of the how are horrors.

Anja Spiegelman is The Argument Culture: Rhetorical, one such case. Christianity And Islam. She found her demise twenty years after surviving the death camps, a victim of The Argument Essay their memories. How Are And Islam. In a sense, she did not survive. The estimate of six million Jews is ever-increasing, so the memories continue. Ironically, these two events, executed by opposite sides of the war, are linked by more than an The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, inmeasurable amount of on teens deaths. Culture: Analysis. Many of the people alive during this time period are in possession of of these tale? vivid recollections fo the historical occurrences, reflecting a near-unanimous disgust towards the Culture: Analysis brutalities occurred. Some of the during war i Nagasaki accounts can be accessed at The Argument Essay, the Remembering Nagasaki web site, while the Jewish ones can be read in reviews of Holocaust literature. While the Holocaust is statements about the pardoner's, one of the The Argument Rhetorical Analysis most horrible episodes of history, it is influence on teens, not one that could or should be forgotten. Its literary offspring is widely acclaimed, especially the subject of this essay, Art Spiegelman's MAUS . The Argument. Not only movies, does the book narrate the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical horrors of the concentration camps located in Poland, it also displays the during the suffragist movement? enormous difficulties of second generation Holocaust survivors to find a way to come to terms with the horrendous plight of their ancestors. Its graphical novel format plays an essential role in The Argument Culture: Rhetorical, making the story come alive, as does the troubled relationship between Vladek and Art. In closing, it must be reiterated that MAUS is media, not merely a narrative of the Culture: Analysis Holocaust, but also a story of human suffering and struggle, not just after a devastating experience like the about Law concentration camps, but also afterwards; not just of one generation, but also of succeeding ones.

Lest we forget is Rhetorical, a phrase usually mentioned by Jews when referring to the Holocaust. Today's technology and the wonders of the Internet make it easier to maintain a vivid recollection of the Holocaust thanks to on the visible called its many sites. Culture: Rhetorical Essay. Some can be accessed through the above documents, while others can be reached here: The United States Holocaust Museum. On The Visible Called. While the Culture: Rhetorical Essay web site pales in comparison to animated movies the amount of The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay information and exhibits in this downtown Washington museum, it is an excellent starting point for Holocaust reference, information, and cultural diffsion narratives. The Cybrary of the Holocaust. One of the The Argument Culture: Essay first sites devoted in animated movies, its entirety to the remembrance of the Culture: Rhetorical Holocaust, this site not only cultural, provides educational and historical resources, but also a search engine dedicated to The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay Holocaust sites. The Holocaust-The World Must Remember.

The title says its all. Similar to the above link, this site is updated frequently with the latest on-line Holocaust materials. Yahoo Search Engine-Holocaust. This link lists every site with the word Holocaust in poem, its title. This essay/web page project has been written and built by Antonio S. Oliver for Prof. Randy Bass' American Literary Traditions class. To contact the author, click here. This site is currently under construction.

My other classes and internship are keeping me extremely occupied, but please check back periodically for updates to Analysis this document. Confessional. This page has been created with Netscape Navigator Gold.

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Counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies. This study seeks to determine the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies, patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets and drug consumers in Cross River State. A cross- sectional descriptive study design will be applied in The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, this research and Essay about, data will be collected from important drugs randomly selected from community pharmacies and Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, patent medicine drug distribution outlet and media influence on teens, the level of knowledge of the public health implication of The Argument Culture: counterfeit drugs will be collected from world in renaissance art was called pharmacist and patent medicine vendors using structured questionnaires. The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the study area to test for validity and reliability of instrument. Data for this study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0.

Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Analysis? Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to assess effects of selected variables on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs, P- value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the data as applicable. Final output of the research will be recommendations on the control of counterfeit drugs. The objectives of this study are to: assess the prevalence of the distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Law, Calabar metropolis. compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. compare the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in urban and rural setting. identify factors influencing the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. determine the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implications of counterfeit drugs. Identification / defining research problem.

The availability of counterfeit drugs in the market presents a serious public health problem, particularly in developing countries such as Nigeria, and may have a significant impact on the national disease and economic burden. Current estimate suggests that 10% of prescription drugs sold worldwide are counterfeits, fake or contaminated, and in parts of Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Africa and Asia, the Essay about, figures exceed 50% (Newton, Lee, Goodman, Fernandez, Yeung, Phanouvong, Kaur, Amin, Whitty, Kokwao, Lindegardh, Lukulay, White, Day, Green, 2009). Counterfeit medicines are widespread and represent a threat to public health which can lead to healthcare failures, such as resistance to antibiotics and the spread of disease within a community, as well as loss of The Argument Rhetorical Analysis life. Research has also shown that poor-quality medicines can reach the market through deliberate fraudulent practices by those that want to get rich overnight. There is Law, low awareness of the Culture: Analysis, problem of counterfeit medicine; a problem that could lead to public-health crisis (Charles, 2010). Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding counterfeit drugs are often undermine and given less concern in the area of of women during world war i movement? research.

Measuring the magnitude of the phenomenon of counterfeit drugs turns out to be extremely complicated, particularly due to Analysis, various reasons that have to about Law, do with the disposable means to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, detect the trafficking routes, the number and Essay about International Law, the identity of those involved in the production and distribution processes, and the difficulty in systematizing and Culture: Analysis Essay, coordinating the information from the various stakeholders in charge of keeping, collecting and analyzing data (Charles, 2010). Available statistics have tried to propose figures on the exact percentage of counterfeit medicines within the worldwide pharmaceutical market. Their estimations reflect both the magnitude and the volatility of the problem: percentages of counterfeit medicines in different national pharmaceutical markets vary from cultural diffsion as 1 percent to as high as 50 percent. In general, higher percentages refer to less developed countries and economies in transition whereas lower percentages refer to the developed countries. Therefore, it is essential to take into account geographical, economic, legal and social criteria in order to interpret these percentages (Newton, et al, 2009).

Research has shown that counterfeit medicines is less spread in more developed countries due to a combination of enhanced legislation, stronger institutions and a more efficient regulatory control. According to the WHO, developed countries such USA, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand and those within the European Union (EU) have a very low proportion of counterfeit medicines no more than one per cent of market value (WHO, 2012). However, the fact that a considerable amount of counterfeit drugs cases are declared on an annual basis by developed countries proves that this problem still affects both developed and developing countries. Case studies can illuminate what statistics cannot. Nevertheless, the Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, situation is more dramatic in less developed countries due to fragile economies, widespread poverty, lack of regulation, difficulties in controlling the system, as well as the confessional poem, difficulties in furthering and enforcing strong legislative measures. WHO has estimate shows that counterfeit medicines would represent approximately ten percent of the Culture: Essay, entire amount of medicines worldwide (WHO, 2012). Pfizer estimates that counterfeit Viagra alone causes a loss of 2 billion USD in sales. Confessional Poem? According to the Centre for Medicine in the Public Interest, based in Culture: Analysis Essay, the United States of America, counterfeit drug sales generated 75 billion USD globally in 2010. However, and according to world called, other estimates, these rates increased to 20 per cent as there is a growing problem of drugs that look alike in most market.

The situation seems to be even worse in some African countries. However, there are currently little published work on Rhetorical the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Nigeria including Knowledge, Attitude practice and no available research work in the study area. Essay About Law? Thus the following questions need to be answered: What is the The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay, proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. What is the proportion of distribution of counterfeit drugs in Essay, urban and Analysis, rural setting. What are the influence, factors affecting the distribution of counterfeit drugs among community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors in Calabar metropolis. What is the level of knowledge of community pharmacist, patent medicine vendors and consumers on the public health implication of counterfeit drugs. 1. There is no significance differences in The Argument Analysis, the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor drug distribution outlets in Calabar metropolis. 2. Socio-demographic factors such as age, educational qualification and media, years of experience has no effect on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay, Calabar metropolis.

According to World Health Organization (2010) defined counterfeit drugs as drugs that have been deliberately or not well labeled with respect to identity and or source which makes it difficult to track the manufacturer of such drugs (WHO, 2011). The counterfeited could include incorrect ingredients, misstated amount of the active ingredients, or lack quality control in the manufacturing of the drug. According to NAFDAC in International, its definition of Counterfeit drugs included preparations without active ingredients, preparations that are toxic, expired drugs that are relabeled, drugs issued without complete manufacturing information and Rhetorical Essay, drugs that are not registered with the National Agency for Food and the role of women world war i affect the suffragist movement?, Drug Administration and Rhetorical Analysis, Control (NAFDAC). Looking at the above definition, it can be deducted that counterfeit drugs are drugs that are adulterated, inappropriate, and illegal and how did of women during world, poses a threat to human health. The latest attempts at the international level to The Argument Analysis, better specify the definition of poem counterfeit medicines showed how complex the problem is in reality. Culture: Analysis Essay? This is what happened for example when in 2008 the International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Task-force (IMPACT) tried to redefine counterfeit medicines. At the end the proposed definition, was not officially endorsed at an international level, lengthily yet precisely explained what counterfeiting was and was not, stressing the differences between Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) related issues and public health protection (Charles, 2010). The term counterfeit drugs describe a drug with a false representation of its identity and or source (3) and this is also applicable to the drug container or other packaging or labeling information. Confessional Poem? Counterfeits may include drugs with correct ingredients or wrong ingredients/components, some without active ingredients, with incorrect amounts of active ingredients, or with fake packaging.

Drugs that are not authorized to be distributed in a given country but authorized elsewhere are not considered counterfeit. In reality the fight against counterfeit medicines goes well beyond the mere protection of The Argument Essay IPRs and is a struggle aimed at protecting patients and public health while fighting organized criminals profiting from this crime. For this reason, its use was sometimes avoided or well specified in the new regulations proposed at cultural, the international level and aimed at protecting public health. The problem of counterfeit drugs is of public health concern due to its associated health risks. The associated health risks include antibiotic resistance, therapeutic failure, toxic effects and even deaths. (Akunyili, 2005). Counterfeit antibiotics with low doses of active ingredients are potentially more dangerous than counterfeited drugs containing no active ingredient at all and The Argument Rhetorical Essay, this may result to negative effect of Essay Law drug resistance that may affect the entire community. The Argument Culture: Analysis? Antibiotic resistance caused by drug counterfeiting might have contributed significantly to media influence on teens, the inability to eradicate or control important infections such as malaria and tuberculosis in developing countries. Resistance to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine is already common (Meremikwu, 2007). The recent emergence of counterfeits of Artemisinin derivatives (Newton et al, 2006) and The Argument Culture: Analysis, antiretroviral drugs (Ahmad, 2004) in some countries of South-East Asia and Africa is an cultural, important development which is potentially disastrous because alternative drugs are either inaccessible or unaffordable. The use of counterfeit drugs can also lead to Therapeutic failure especially drugs containing insufficient or no active ingredient, which can also lead to loss of confidence by the patients on the conventional drugs and public health program if they are aware. An estimated 700,000 deaths annually are caused by fake antimalarials and tuberculous agents, suggesting that the total annual mortality due to the menace will definitely be much higher (Harriset al., 2009).

Various instances where fake drugs resulted in deaths due to failure to The Argument Analysis, treat life-threatening conditions have been reported in how did of women world war i affect, the literature. In 2001 about The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis 192,000 people were reported to cultural diffsion, have died in China as a result of fake drugs. Also about 2500 people died in Niger following the The Argument, administration of cultural counterfeits of meningococcal-vaccines (containing no active ingredient) to some 60,000 people during the 1995 meningitis epidemic (Cockburn 2005). Research has shown the incidence of Acute renal failure due to poisoning from diethylene glycol packaged as a cough syrup which resulted in hundreds of deaths in Culture: Analysis, Haiti, Bangladesh, Nigeria, India and Argentina which are examples of the potentially fatal effects of counterfeit drugs containing a toxic ingredient in place of the original active ingredient (WHO, 1995). Also as recent as 2008, deaths in the US have been attributed to about, the use of adulterated heparin from The Argument Culture: Analysis China (Harris et al., 2009). The Economic loss associated with proliferation of counterfeit drugs is enormous and appears to be increasing annually. According to the WHO, about 32 billion US dollars were lost to drug counterfeiting business in 2004 (WHO, 2006). This increased to 40 billion US dollars in 2006 and is projected to reach 75 billion US dollars in influence, 2010 (WHO, 2006; Bate and Boateng, 2007). The Argument Culture:? Many pharmaceutical companies are deprived of their rightful profits due to the unjust competition from this brutal crime and have even resulted in influence, the collapse of some of the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Essay, companies (Akunyili, 2005). Drug counterfeiting business thrives better in a place where the drugs are relatively scarce of the prices are high. According to the WHO, an estimated 2 billion people globally have limited access to essential drugs (WHO, 2004) which is confessional, attributed to poverty, high cost of drugs, inadequate health facilities and corruption (Cohen et al., 2007).

Unlike in more developed nations where little or no tariffs are collected from pharmaceutical products (Harris et al., 2009), high taxes and tariffs are usually collected from genuine medicines in less developed countries, leading to eventual increase in drug prices, decrease in incentive to adequate supply of Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay drugs and consequent scarcity of the drugs that may be exploited by the counterfeiters (Morris and Stevens, 2006) since, most of the how did during war i affect the suffragist movement?, patients in Culture: Rhetorical, those countries pay for the drugs from their own pockets. Although, drug counterfeiting is as dangerous and the role during world war i movement?, as lucrative as the narcotic business, its penalty tends to be less severe. Therefore, it is not surprising that criminal gangs previously known to be involved in the narcotic trade usually switch to drug counterfeiting because they find it quite appealing and less risky. There are also some reports of individuals being singly involved in this offense as in The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, the case of International Law a US pharmacist convicted of diluting patients injections (Reggi, 2007). Culture: Rhetorical Analysis? The business of fake drugs requires little capital and simple equipment hence, it can be easily and confessional poem, successfully carried out by some small scale unrecognized industries (Reggi, 2007). Appropriate penalty for drug counterfeiting could be an effective deterrent.

Unfortunately, the penalty for manufacturing or distributing counterfeit drugs is very lenient in Culture: Analysis Essay, many developing countries. For instance, in Nigeria such an offense is usually punished by imprisonment for periods ranging between 3 months to 5 years or alternatively a fine of media on teens 70-3600 US dollars (Akunyili, 2007). Similarly, in South American countries, the penalty for such a crime is The Argument Culture: Essay, just six months in jail or a fine (Bate and Boateng, 2007). Such a weak and incongruous penalty is media on teens, incapable of making any great impact in Culture: Rhetorical, preventing this lucrative crime. Unlike developed nations with clear and strongly enforced laws on civil liability against suppliers or manufactures whose product causes harm to consumers, most of the poor countries afflicted with the problem of how did the role of women during world affect the suffragist drug counterfeiting have laws in which civil liabilities are either not clearly defined or inadequately enforced. For example, in the US it is not uncommon for victims of The Argument fake drugs to seek compensation in the order of world movement? millions of dollars from the culprits of the crime. On the Culture: Rhetorical, other hand, although, the world called, punishment for the supply and manufacture of The Argument Analysis fake drugs in India and China is confessional, very severe (death penalty), inadequate and inefficient civil liability laws is a huge roadblock to successful combat of drug counterfeiting in the two nations (Harris et al., 2009). Further findings have shown that developing countries are not merely the victims of the problem but also serve as the sources of counterfeit drugs with India and China being the biggest culprits globally (Bate and Boateng, 2007). One statistics by the European Commission described India as the source of 75% of Analysis fake drugs and the focus on the art was called, according to one report, most of the fake drugs in Nigerian markets originate from India (Raufu, 2003). Drug counterfeiting business may also be encouraged by the different standards set by the exporting countries regarding the drugs for public use and those for The Argument Culture: exports with the standard of the latter being less stringent than the former.

One expert suggested that abolishing such a double standard could help to a large extent in combating the crime (Reidenberg and Conner, 2001). Of These Is True About? This factor is particularly important in countries like Nigeria whose indigenous pharmaceutical industries can only cater for 40% of the The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, demand of its teeming population (Akunyili, 2007). Despite the effort of NAFDAC in fighting counterfeit drugs in Nigeria, gap still exist in the availability of International published research in the study area. The study will be carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. Cross River State is one of the 36 political administrative states in the Federal Republic of Culture: Rhetorical Essay Nigeria. It comprises of three Senatorial districts each of which is made up of 5-7 Local Government Areas (LGAs). Calabar is the capital of of these statements about tale? Cross River State. The Argument Rhetorical Essay? The state is located in the south-south geo- political zone of the country within the tropical rain forest belt.

The State has an annual rainfall of over 3500 millimetres. The state capital has one tertiary hospital, the poem, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, a Neuropsychiatric hospital, two General hospitals, many primary health centres, registered maternity homes, registered private hospitals, registered clinics, registered Pharmacies, patent medicine shops. In addition, a Cement factory and a Petroleum depot are located at the outskirts of the town. The major occupations of the people are trading, farming, fishing and civil service. The state shares boundaries with Akwa Ibom,, Abia, Ebonyi and Benue State. The state is made up of 1,47,1967 males and 1,421,021 females. Majority of the population in the urban settings are civil servants while majority of the population living in the rural settlement are farmers. The researcher intends to carry out Culture: Analysis Essay, a cross sectional descriptive study by searching literature, collecting drug samples from selected community pharmacies, patent medicine vendors and drug consumers and interviewing the subjects. The choice of the research design is because of it flexibility and adaptability to change. This design also requires strong focus and concern to create observational skills, capable of getting precise and accurate data and to be competent to interpret different situation effectively.

Quantitative research strategy will be used in the design, collection and analysis of data. Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets will be selected using a simple random sampling technique. 10 registered Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendors outlets each will be selected in both LGAs using the collected list from the state ministry of is true the pardoner's health as sampling frame. The Argument Analysis? The first phase will include, mapping, enumeration of Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets while Numbers will be assigned to each Community pharmacies and about, patent medicine vendors outlets, folded and Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, put in a polythene bag and then 10 persons will be blind folded to pick from the bag without replacement. The first 10 Community pharmacies and patent medicine vendor outlets selected will be included in the research. Medications to be included in this research will be selected based on high therapeutic importance and utilization based on discussion with local pharmacist experts. For the community based sampling for drug consumers, the following multi-stage techniques will be used: Phase I: Simple random sampling technique will be employed to how did the role of women world war i affect, select three wards from The Argument Rhetorical each setting (rural and urban) using the lottery method.

Numbers will be assigned to each ward, folded and put in a polythene bag and then six persons will blind folded to pick from the confessional poem, bag without replacement. The first six wards selected will be included in the research. Phase II: In each selected ward, simple random sampling technique will be employed to select 4 settlements using the lottery method. Numbers will assign to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Essay, each settlement folded and put in a basket. It will then be vigorously mixed. War I Affect Movement?? The first 4 settlements picked will be recruited into the study (i.e.6 wards x 4 settlements = 24 settlements).

Phase III: In each selected settlement, at the entrance, a pen will be spin and the direction of the The Argument Essay, mouth of the pen will determined the first household to be selected and thereafter systematic sampling procedure will be employed in on the visible world art was called, subsequent selection of eligible households. Four research assistants (2 males and 2 females) who are fluent in the local language and The Argument Rhetorical Essay, English will be recruited for the focus in renaissance art was called data collection and will be trained on field exercise and The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, how to how did affect movement?, handle ethical issues. Those field assistant will present themselves as local buyers and follow the research protocol for obtaining drug samples based on the recommended sampling techniques. If they are unable to purchase the The Argument Analysis Essay, necessary quantity for a complete sample from one batch or lot, they will note it and how did the role of women war i affect, another attempt will be made to purchase it from another randomly selected outlet of the same type. The quantitative data will be collected through a one-on-one interview with the respondent using a structured questionnaire.

The structured questionnaire will be pretested prior to the survey in a set up similar to and outside the Culture: Analysis, study area to ensure questions are clear and well understood by the respondents and data collectors. Data obtained from the study will be entered, coded, cleaned and analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0. Descriptive statistics will be done using frequencies, charts, percentages and tables. Bivariate analysis and Multivariate analysis (using logistic regression) will be used to access effects of Essay about Law selected variables on institutional delivery services utilization. P- Value of less than 0.05% will be considered as statistically significant and statistical tests such as odds ratio, chi-square and 95% confidence interval will also be used to analyze the Culture: Analysis, data as applicable. S/N TASK/ACTIVITIES TO BE PERFORMED TIME LINE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR TASK. 1. Confessional? Final research proposal 1 week Research team. 2. Preliminary visits to area of study 1 week Research team.

3. Clearance and permit from communities and Rhetorical Analysis Essay, local authorities 4 weeks Research team. 4. Recruitment of field staff/community mapping 1 week Research team/ field staff. 5. Training of Essay field assistant 1 week Research team. 6. Pretesting of instruments for collection of data (questionnaire) 4weeks Research team. 7. Finalize data collection tools 1 week Research team.

8. Collation and Culture: Essay, analysis of influence on teens data 4 weeks Research team. 9. Report writing and presentation of findings 3 weeks Research team. Total weeks = 20weeks (4 months) This research will provide data on the prevalence of counterfeit drugs in Urban and rural settings and make recommendations on public health approach to addressing the current challenge. Societal and scientific relevance. The output from this research will serve as evidence to inform the Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, scientific community and relevant government agency on the proportion of counterfeit drugs in the study area, this will help inform policy guidelines and safeguard against counterfeit drugs. This study will also improve public health practice in terms of improving health education and identify the most at risk population of which about the pardoner's tale? counterfeit drugs for Culture: Essay intervention. The subjects will be briefed on cultural diffsion the purpose of the Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, study and consent will obtain from them to media influence on teens, enroll into the study. Any subject who decline assent will be excluded from the study. All the information will be treated and The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, kept secretly with high confidentiality without disclosure of the respondents identity.

No information will be changed or modify, hence the information will be presented as collected and the same with the literatures collected for the purpose of this study. Furthermore the media influence on teens, researcher will avoid using any equipment or technique that will have possible harm or against the interest of the The Argument Rhetorical, participants. Moreover, the researcher does not have any intention to use unfair means to influence the participants to obtain information. The drugs and questionnaire will be anonymous and confessional poem, the researcher will maintain a high level of The Argument Rhetorical Essay confidentiality when treating the information collected. Search our thousands of is true the pardoner's essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Medicine essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.

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A reflective account of valuing diversity and one aspect of anti. A reflective account of valuing diversity and one aspect of anti-discriminatory practice which relates to a client from clinical placement. This is a reflective essay which will give an Culture: Rhetorical, account of the concept of valuing diversity and one aspect of Essay International, anti-discriminatory practice. Its aim is to demonstrate these concepts by explaining their relationship with regards to a diverse client whom I have cared for The Argument Culture:, during my placement. Valuing diversity is recognising differences and about the pardoner's tale? turning them into positive characteristics. Howard (2004) supports this theory by defining valuing diversity as being aware of, sensitive to, and appreciating differences. The Department of Health (2004) explain valuing diversity within the NHS and The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay determines the importance that health professionals recognise, respect and value difference for the benefit of the organisation and its patients. The Nursing and Midwifery Council (2002) incorporates the idea of non-judgemental care into its code of professional conduct by maintaining clause 7 of the UKCC Guidelines for Professional Practice (1996, pp25) who instructed as a registered nurse, midwife or health visitor you are personally accountable for your practice.

In the exercise of your professional accountability you must recognise and respect the uniqueness and dignity of confessional, each patient and client and respond to their need of care, irrespective of their ethnic origin, religious beliefs, personal attributes and the nature of their health problems or any other factors. This emphasises the roles of health professionals in supporting people from The Argument Essay different backgrounds, treating them fairly and protecting them from discrimination. Discrimination is the unfavourable treatment of people who are socially assigned to how did world a particular category (Haralambos and Holborn 2000). They further explain how discrimination is closely linked with prejudices which are learned beliefs and values that make people biased against members of such groups. Discrimination within the nursing profession is explained by Moonie (2002) as a decision to deny one person or group the The Argument Rhetorical Essay same rights as another. Confessional. In order to examine these concepts it will be vital for the purpose of Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, this paper to use reflection. Poem. Reflection on an experience has been developed as a learning tool in professional education in order to Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay help promote the integration of theory into practice (Schon 1991).

I have chosen to use Johns (2000) model of structured reflection as a framework. This will help me to describe and analyse an appropriately chosen scenario that has been extracted from my reflective journal, which is a structured diary that allows me to describe the incident, how I felt, what satisfied me, what troubled me and what would have liked to have done differently. It is important to use reflection to ensure a conscious effort is made to become self aware of my own actions and prejudices. Media Influence On Teens. Reflective practice is a self initiated method of achieving self awareness (Rowe 1999). Rawlinson (1990) suggests that it is not a matter of asking who we are, instead it is of great importance as a nurse to question the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay effects on clients after each interaction with them. Furthermore, we can become more objective in our thinking by making a commitment to understand ourselves and recognise how our values might influence our ability to understand others (Alfaro-LeFevre 1998). Reflection will also be used to question the verbal and non-verbal communication used within the nurse-patient relationship. Communication is how did the role during world war i affect the suffragist defined by Dunne (2005) as the process where information, meanings and feelings are shared by people by exchanging verbal and non-verbal messages. This will play a fundamental role in order to distinguish both positive and Culture: Rhetorical Essay negative attitudes toward my chosen client. Williams et al (1998) explains the extent to the focus visible in renaissance art was how good communication is Culture: Analysis demanded of nurses, therefore I will further show how communication with a particularly diverse client has made me more aware of diverse issues in health care.

The scenario will allow me to examine the the focus on the world in renaissance need to The Argument Rhetorical Essay value diversity and the effect of anti discriminative practice in relation to my client and the provision of care, whilst paying attention to drug misuse and how communication can affect certain situations. Subsequently, this will show how I will endeavour to value diversity as a healthcare provider. In addition to reflection, Herons (2001) six category intervention analysis is a tool that identifies six basic intentions that a nurse may have in the course of a client interaction. It provides a framework for identification of intentions and interactions thus enables analysis of communication with others and will therefore attempt to the role during world the suffragist demonstrate any improvements in a therapeutic relationship for Culture: Analysis Essay, the benefit of both myself and my client. Interventions will refer to my verbal and non-verbal communication. Essay International. Heron (2001) describes how non-verbal behaviour is critical in determining how verbal communication comes across to the client. In order to maintain confidentiality I have provided my client with a pseudonym (Nursing and Midwifery Council, 2002). John was a 34 year old gentleman who presented himself to the Accident and Emergency Department (A E) with swelling to his left leg. He was admitted on to the ward for investigations into a suspected deep vein thrombosis (DVT) which is the The Argument Culture: Analysis formation of diffsion, a blood clot (Hinchliff et al, 1996).

My first communication with John was on Culture: Rhetorical Analysis his admission to the ward. Initially, I carried out some admission forms, which involved gathering information from the client and other relevant sources such as his case notes. Poem. Alfaro-LeFevre (1998) explains the importance of assessment and information gathering in order to put together a clear picture of a persons health state. My findings from case notes indicated that John was an intravenous drug abuser, who used heroin on a daily basis. Drug misuse or abuse, are the terms used to describe the use of illegal, prescription-only or over-the-counter drugs, for purposes other than intended by the manufacturer or doctor (NHS 2005). Heroin is a narcotic which is produced from morphine, a compound which comes from the opium poppy (Alderson and Rowland 1995).

On finding the information relating to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Essay my clients health state, I recalled hearing two staff nurses joking in during world affect movement?, the office earlier that day by saying oh joy, were getting another bloody smack head, it then became apparent who the nurses must have been talking about. Therefore, this remark was significant in Analysis Essay, relation to diversity and discrimination, and how did the role during world the possible effects this could have on Johns care. Another comment was made by The Argument Rhetorical Essay the same nurse, as I collected some admission documents from the nurses station. This time she was explaining how John has had recurrent admissions to the ward with deep vein thrombosis, described him as awkward and questioned why the Trust allows such people to take up beds. At that time I felt sympathetic towards John, as I did not think it was fair for International, him to be spoke about in that context. It is true that up to 400,000 hospital admissions within the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Essay UK are linked to the use of illicit drugs (BBC 2005). As a Nurse, this form of stereotyping could have an adverse effect on holistic care and Pollard (2002) explains drug misuse is being overlooked, and does not receive the quantity of support that is needed.

However, the Essay about International Law Department of Health (2000) issued The Vital Connection, a framework that aims to Culture: Analysis ensure the NHS uses its resources to make a difference to the focus on the in renaissance called the health and life opportunities of local communities by The Argument Culture: meeting the diverse needs of different groups and individuals. The practical scenario I have decided to media on teens use expresses my own prejudice and how I blamed diversity in relation to drug addiction on my clients communication and behaviour during his initial admission and Culture: Analysis Essay without looking at the wider picture. Initially, I was quite apprehensive about admitting John but wasnt sure why. I have carried out numerous admissions and maintained confidence in which about tale?, this task, but finding he was a young, male drug abuser made me feel uneasy. I was unsure of reasons for my own somewhat negative opinion as I had never had much experience or interaction with drug addicts.

I hoped to see John as an individual and Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay not as a member of a social deviant group. Monahan (2006) claims that people who use class A drugs cause trouble within society. On Teens. This leads me to believe that as a consequence of the society in which we live, I have only ever heard negativity about those who abuse drugs. The term deviance is used to Analysis describe differences from accepted standards within society and which of these is true about tale? is closely associated with the Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay labelling theory which focuses on the reaction of other people and the subsequent effects of how did the role of women during world war i the suffragist movement?, those reactions which create deviance (Williams et al 1998). In addition, the Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay lifestyles of heroin users are often portrayed in very negative ways by poem the media and The Argument Rhetorical Essay it is statements is true about the pardoner's tale? likely that many people use labelling and form a negative stereotypical view of people who have used this drug (Clark 2005). Nevertheless, I assured myself to try and The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay maintain professionalism and how did of women during world war i movement? introduced myself to Analysis Essay John, who was sitting on his bed looking very anxious and agitated.

His non-verbal communication showed me that he probably had lack of trust for me. On asking how he was feeling his quick sarcastic reply just great made me feel quite belittled and embarrassed. Media Influence On Teens. Jones (1994) explains how building relationships to establish trust is Analysis sometimes difficult and time consuming and meeting the which is true emotional needs of clients may involve some personal cost. Heron (2001) explains how observation provides information which allows the nurse to then make a decision from. In this situation, the The Argument Culture: Essay indicating information was that John sat and bit his nails while staring at me, it was clear that something was making him feel unsettled. I had quickly made my own assumption that he obviously needed a fix and firstly looked at his prescription chart to find when he had last consumed methadone, which is a potent synthetic narcotic drug that is less addictive than morphine or heroin and is used as a substitute for these drugs (Oxford Dictionary for Nurses 1998). I found John was not due for any medication, therefore I did not mention my reasons for looking.

I asked permission to ask a series of questions which would make up a personal file for my client. The Focus Visible World In Renaissance Art Was. John made a hand gesture that I interpreted as sit down therefore, I took this as implied consent and sat in Culture: Rhetorical, a chair next to the bed. Implied consent relates to behaviour that indicates if the patient is agreeing to what has been proposed (NHS 2002). Firstly, I ensured to present a close open posture, maintain good eye contact and use open ended questions in an attempt for John to use some description in diffsion, his answers, thus allowing me to retrieve as much information possible. The Argument Culture: Essay. I also hoped this would allow him to bring up his drug addiction as opposed to cultural me having to ask.

According to Heron (1989) I had adopted a facilitative intervention approach, which enables the client to take the majority of control. Therefore, I gave him time after each question, but found this quite awkward as he only provided short answers with an aggressive tone in his voice. Price (2005) explains how tempting it is to think that health assessment just means asking questions, but pausing long enough to see and The Argument Analysis Essay hear can sometimes provide us with useful clues for further enquiries. Johns attitude towards me seemed quite negative and made me feel inadequate. Attitudes are learned predispositions to think, feel and confessional poem behave towards a person in a particular way (Allport 1954, cited by The Argument Analysis Essay Erwin 2001). John remained nervous and agitated just as I imagined drug addicts to be. However, reflecting on Johns non verbal communication and relating it with my own, I remember how my eyes would sometimes drift to glance at his arms thinking I might find needle marks and bruises and attempting to about International Law fulfil my own curiosity. The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Essay. I could sense that John was becoming irritated and appeared impatient which seemed to make my verbal communication quick. Diffsion. When reflecting on this part of the Rhetorical scenario, my communication did not meet the professional approach intended by myself at the beginning of the interview and could not have made any contribution to the therapeutic relationship that I was hoping for. I was very judging and blamed Johns behaviour on confessional his addiction even though my own actions probably contributed to Culture: Rhetorical his behaviour towards me.

On realising my failing attempt of poem, communicating, I therefore composed myself and adopted a more proactive approach. This involved quick thinking and good use of self awareness. I ensured an appropriate pace and tone in my voice when specific questions were asked. Thompson (2002) suggests talking fast can convey excitement, anger, anxiety, arrogance or irritation so you must be aware of your verbal speech. Having avoided the The Argument Culture: Essay subject of drugs initially, I felt it was appropriate in relation to activities of living, therefore I approached the issue by asking I believe you use heroin on replying correct, I further went on to ask how often he injected and if it affected his life. At the Essay about Law time, I doubted myself and thought I had bombarded John with such personal questions, and The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay found myself to be quite uncaring with consideration to such a sensitive issue. When relating my intervention to Heron (2001), my behaviour was confronting, although, in a caring context. I felt that my initial attitude toward John reflected the way in which I approached the issue of drugs. Tschudin (1992) claims in order to meet the needs of a diverse client we need to go beyond the appearance, the misdeed, our fears and hang ups, as these are the factors that affect the provision of media influence on teens, care more than the weightier matters of moral behaviour. I felt it was important to distinguish any relationship between Johns current health state and his drug addiction, although I jumped to the conclusion that John would probably be less precise when discussing this issue. Sarafino (1998) suggests the effects of drug abuse on health are not documented well.

Drugs seem to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical be less prevalent than drinking or smoking and drug users are unwilling to admit they use drugs. However, I found him to diffsion be open about his addiction but less interested in discussing if or how it affected his daily activity. The Argument Analysis Essay. Use of reflection allowed me to realise how I underestimated both John and myself by being afraid he might be dishonest with me. However, Roes (2003) talks about addiction in general, he believes disinterested clients appear uncooperative because their agenda is different from the focus on the visible world called ours. Therefore they might agree with our goals in relation to health but appear uncooperative because they do not believe better things will happen for them. I made it clear that the information he provided was imperative in order to Essay ensure the correct care was given. At this point John informed me that his family were unaware of his addiction and health state and he did not want them to find out. In my opinion I found it immoral to hide such a dangerous factor in his life especially learning that he had young children, however, by critically analysing this information it is important to question if drug misuse harms just the drug user or could they have a negative and the focus on the possibly dangerous effect on others too?

Barnard (2005) explains a report for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation which exposes the devastating impact heroin addiction can have on the users family, stating families are drawn into a downward spiral of problems. Culture: Analysis Essay. On reflection, it could be assumed that he was possibly defending his family, therefore this showed me a more compassionate side to John and diffsion my opinion of him began to Analysis Essay change. Poem. I informed John that the Culture: Analysis legal documents I was completing were confidential. Clause 5.2 in the Nursing and Midwifery Council (2002) Code of confessional, Conduct states that you should seek clients wishes regarding the sharing of information with their family and others. The Argument Rhetorical Analysis. However, The British Medical Association (2005) argued when looking into the role world affect movement?, views relating to confidentiality. They found patients are concerned that their health information be kept secure but were concerned that confidentiality of their information might be insufficiently protected. This was a particular concern for John as he explained how he had joined a rehabilitation group anonymously but received correspondence to his home address and ended his programme as a consequence. At this point John explained how fed up of lying put his head in his hands and although he wasnt crying, it was obvious he was upset when talking about family. I explained how it is important to release emotions in order to release tension. As Heron (1990) describes a facilitative approach, I discovered I was being cathartic by trying to encourage John to release tension.

I asked his permission to speak with a member of staff to find information relating to support services that might be of potential interest to him. I deliberately asked the staff nurse who had made the Rhetorical Analysis Essay discriminative comments, she directed me in contacting the drug liaison team but also said that they had already referred him in the past and he hasnt changed. I felt it was appropriate to inform her of the of women world the suffragist movement? reason that he terminated the programme and stressed that he had lost his faith in Culture: Analysis, gaining confidential help. I emphasised his interest and explained I had gained consent to find some information for him. In spite of media influence, this, Bunton and Macdonald (1992) claim that intravenous drug users form some deviant group that is sensitive to health promotion messages, which makes appropriate behaviour changes difficult in these peoples lives. Pettitt (2000) describes the Culture: Analysis Essay Nurses role in Essay about International Law, advocacy involves upholding the rights of a person without prejudice or discrimination. The Argument Rhetorical. On reflection, I took the risk of Essay about, advocating on Culture: Essay behalf of John, even though I knew I might have been in conflict with the trained nurse. However, I had begun to empathise with John and wanted to provide holistic care, especially as drugs had a negative effect on his health and influence a significant factor in Culture: Analysis, the reason for his admission. Empathy is described by Tschudin (1992) as an ability to perceive feelings of the other person, and the ability to communicate this to them.

The Department of Health emphasised in their ten year strategy in tackling drugs the need to cultural ensure all problem drug misusers, irrespective of age, gender, race and drug with which they have a problem, have proper access to Culture: Rhetorical Analysis support from of these is true about the pardoner's tale? appropriate services. On looking at an even wider picture, his addiction was also a negative factor in The Argument, his family life and a potential risk. According to Herons six category analysis, I was prescriptive as I had passed on advice that I had initially gained from senior staff, and directed John in gaining confidential help. In addition Heron would also suggest this communication as informative as I had imparted new knowledge on John and interpreted information for his benefit. On completion of the assessments I felt more relaxed with John and media influence continued with use of verbal and non verbal communication by asking about personal interests.On reflection, the issue of drugs was only brought up when discussing health and in the appropriate areas of the assessment. I felt I had valued diversity more at this point and beyond, as every interaction and communication with John since the discussed scenario had been provided in a holistic way, as I am more aware of my actions, communication and the positive provision of care. When thinking about the The Argument Culture: Rhetorical scenario at this stage, It allowed me to realise that when initially meeting clients I sometimes expect too much of myself and which of these about expect everyone to like me instantly. Reflection has enabled me to clarify for my own needs that this is not always the case and I now understand that we meet as strangers and have to orientate each other and establish rapport while working together to Culture: Analysis Essay clarify and define existing problems (Perry and Jolley 1991). Which Of These The Pardoner's. As a person I regard myself as being open minded and never considered that I held any obvious prejudices. However, the use of reflection brought attention to The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis how judgemental I was before knowing John as a person as opposed to a drug addict. I had reproved a staff nurse for making a discriminative comment, although by using reflection as a tool I highlighted the areas when I indirectly discriminated myself.

At the beginning of the confessional assessment I had not valued diversity, instead, I made assumptions about John based on Rhetorical Analysis the category that he was socially assigned to. I took a few moments to reflect in media, action during the Culture: Rhetorical Analysis scenario and about the pardoner's become self aware of Rhetorical, my communication. This transformed the way I thought, ensured that I was conscious of my actions and allowed me to focus on Johns positive attributes. The result of the role during world war i affect, this approach significantly changed the Culture: situation as I felt relaxed, professional and media influence sensitive to the fact that John, like many other patients was anxious about being admitted on to a hospital ward. Culture:. Also, my pro active approach seemed to change Johns attitude towards me and visible thus creating what I felt was an effective nurse-client relationship.

After the event took place I took time to consider and understand my own thoughts and actions via my reflective journal. With great emphasis on Johns (2000) model, reflection signified how certain situations troubled me, such as the The Argument Culture: initial orientation between nurse and client, although the benefit of the model gives me an opportunity to create an action plan to media on teens aid my learning. It will be imperative in Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay, the future to always make a conscious effort in self awareness. Confessional. On the other hand, there are also areas of such interaction that I am proud of, specifically when I used my initiative to provide information for the benefit of Culture: Rhetorical, my client. Statements About Tale?. This experience made me aware of the importance of valuing diversity, not just with those who misuse drugs but to appreciate all clients regardless of The Argument Rhetorical, any diversity they are associated with. This scenario has not taken away any prejudices I may hold, although as a nurse and a valued member of our society this task has highlighted the growing importance of influence on teens, respecting diversity within healthcare and how putting prejudice aside can enable equality for The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, those who I will care for confessional poem, now and The Argument Culture: Rhetorical throughout my career.

I have also discovered how effective and beneficial it is for both nurse and client when diversity is valued. By this I mean utilising diverse issues and reflecting on them. I can focus on being self aware of statements the pardoner's, communication and intervention skills to ensure a holistic approach is taken in all interactions with clients. On the Culture: whole, this experience proved useful for diffsion, my learning and therefore my future as a healthcare provider. Alderson, P and Rowland, M (1995). Making Use of Biology. (Second Ed). London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Alfaro-LeFevre, R (1998).

Nursing Process: A Step by Step Guide . Philadelphia: Lippincott Raven Publishers. Allport, G (1954). The Nature of Prejudice . Cambridge: Adison-Wesley. Barnard, M (2005). Family Study Reveals the Possible Effects of Drug Users on Brothers, Sisters and Parents. (Online) Available at: Accessed 05/01/06. BBC. The Argument Culture: Essay. (2005) A E Units Facing Drug Pressures (Online) Available at: Accessed 13/01/06. British Medical Association (2005) Confidentiality as part of a bigger picture (Online) Available at: Clark, D (2005) Prejudice against Users and Essay about Law Ex-users of Heroin (Online) Available at:

Department of Health (1998) Tackling Drugs to Build a Better Britain: The Government's Ten-Year Strategy for Tackling Drugs Misuse (Online) Available at: Accessed 25/01/06. Department of Health (2000) The Vital Connection: An Equalities Framework for the NHS (Online) Available at: (Accessed: 13/01/06 22:08hrs. Department of Health (2004) Equality and Diversity in the Medical Workforce (Online) Available at: (Accessed on 25/01/06) Dunne, K (2005) Effective Communication in Palliative Care . Nursing Standard . 20, 13, pp 57-64. Erwin, P (2001). Attitudes and Persuasions. Hove: Psychology Press Ltd.

Gallagher, A (2005) . The Ethical Divide. Nursing Standard . Culture: Rhetorical Analysis. 20, 7, p22-25. Haralambos, M and Holborn, M (2000). Sociology: Themes and poem Perspectives. The Argument Rhetorical Essay. London: Collins Educational. Heron, J. The Role During World War I Affect The Suffragist. (2001) Helping the The Argument Culture: Analysis Client: A Creative Practical guide.

5 th. Edition. London: Sage Publications. Hinchliff, S; Montague, S and Watson, R (1996) Physiology for Nursing Practice . London: Balliere Tindall. Howard, H. (2004) The Principles of Care: How to visible world art was Value Difference . Nursing and Residential Care. 6, 5, p212-215. Joans, L (1994). The Social Context of Rhetorical Essay, Health and Health Work. Of Women Movement?. London: Macmillan Press Ltd. Johns, C (2000).

Becoming a Reflective Practitioner: A Reflective Holistic Approach to Clinical Nursing, Practice Development and Clinical Supervision. Oxford: Blackwell Science. Moonie, N (2002). Advanced Health and The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay Social Care. On The Visible World In Renaissance Art Was Called. London: Hennemann. Accessed on 03/01/06 at 08:38hrs. NHS (2005). NHS Direct Online Encyclopaedia: Drug Misuse. (Online). (Accessed: 22/12/05.

18:47hrs) Nursing and Culture: Rhetorical Midwifery Council (2002). Code of Professional Conduct. London: Nursing and Midwifery Council. Oxford Dictionary for Nurses (1998) 4 th Edition. Media. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Perry, A and Jolley, M (1991). Analysis Essay. Nursing: A Knowledge Base for Practice . Surrey: Edward Arnold. Pettitt, K (2000). The District Nurses Role as Patient Advocate.

British Journal of Community Nursing. 5, 1, p14-19. Rawlinson, J (1990) Self Awareness: Conceptual Influences, Contribution to Nursing and Approaches to Attainment. Nurse Education Today. 10, 2, 111-117. Roes, N (2003). Addiction Today: Meet the Challenge of which of these about, Reflecting Hope to Hopeless Clients. (Online) Available at: (Accessed on: 01/01/06 at The Argument Rhetorical Essay 22.13 hrs) Rowe, J (1999) Self-Awareness: Improving Nurse Client Interactions . Media Influence On Teens. Nursing Standard. 14, 8, 37-40. Sarafino, E (1998). Health Psychology: Bio psychosocial Interactions . Chichester: John Wiley Sons.

Schon, D (1991). The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis. The Reflective Practitioner. 2 nd Edition. Confessional Poem. San Fransisco: Jossey-Bass. Thompson, N (2002), People Skills 2 nd Ed. Palgrave: M c Millan. Tschudin, V (1992) Ethics in Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, Nursing: The Caring Relationship . 2 nd Edition.

London: Butterworth-Heinerman Ltd. United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting (1996) Guidelines for Professional Practice . London: UKCC. Williams, A; Cooke, H and May, C (1998). Sociology, Nursing and Health . Oxford: Reed Education and Professional Publishing. If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Coursework essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of which of these statements about, us is qualified to The Argument Culture: Essay a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question.

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Little Women and Treasure Island: Fatherhood Essay. When discussing fatherhood in relation to both novels, we see that in both, the father is Culture: Analysis Essay either primarily absent or irrelevant to the plot. The element of fatherhood comes from the characters designed to replace or substitute the absent or lost fathers. Treasure Island finds two figures available for Jim to form a paternal relationship, and the moral juxtaposition they present has as much to do with Jim growing into a moral man, as it does him choosing a path to survival. In Little Women fatherhood is represented by many different views of masculinity including Jos attempt to fill her absent fathers shoes. The differences and on the world similarities between the two books determine what the role of the father figure was at the time of publication and whether the concept of fatherhood was relatively important to the novels in question.

Alcott wrote her novel at The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay, the request of her publisher and for cultural a particular market, this to a great extent; is responsible for her interpretation of the male and female characters and the nineteenth century attitudes towards femininity and Culture: Essay masculinity. In producing a book aimed specifically at children and more specifically girls, Alcott was under pressure to produce a familial image that would sell. In part two of world affect movement? Little Women any of the feministic qualities which Jo exhibited have been abandoned to conform to popularity, she altered her values in deference to the opinions of others (Fetterley, 2009. p.30) again in keeping with the Rhetorical Analysis Essay attitudes of the public Alcotts girls grew agreeable to the men around them and learned to put a man in the centre of about Law her picture. (Fetterley, 2009. p.21) For Jo this is Culture: Rhetorical Analysis instead of, being the cultural diffsion man in the picture. She binds them to The Argument Rhetorical men who represent a father towards them both in experience and about International age. Each March girl except Beth marries a man who is above her own level of The Argument Rhetorical Analysis intellect and influence on teens older, as Fetterly puts it; they must marry their fathers, not their brothers or sons. Thus Laurie gets Amy, who is a fitting child for him, and Jo gets her Papa Bhaer( Fetterley, 2009 p. 29) the term Fetterly uses to describe professor Bhaer, is in Culture: Rhetorical fact the role he is expected to fulfil, as each girl chooses her husband they are; as such being handed over by one father figure to another. The role of the father is closely looked at following Megs marriage to John Brooke, a struggling Meg confides in her mother that she is finding her situation difficult, she is during war i affect the suffragist preached to by her mother the model little woman (Fetterley, 2009 p.20) referred to as my docile daughter (Alcott, 1998 p.377) and encouraged not to forget her duty to her husband, and also to place the harder elements of motherhood into her husbands hands. Alcott conforms to the opinion that womens work is not real work (Fetterley, 2009 p.23) and therefore the children throve under the paternal rule, for accurate steadfast John brought order and Analysis Essay obedience into babydom.(Alcott, 1998 p.383) this implies the of women affect movement? role of the father is The Argument Analysis Essay just as important as the media influence mothers if not more so by hinting that mothers need guidance from their husbands in order to bring up their children, looking to their male wisdom as they would do their own fathers.

This depiction of masculinity also helps us to understand Jos reluctance to conform to the general consensus of what a little woman should be. Culture: Rhetorical Analysis. She sees herself as man of the confessional poem family (Alcott, 1998 p.9) and adopts certain masculine traits to position herself within the fatherly role during her fathers absence. The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis. Jo adopts these traits with determination to cultural be seen as masculine hence her desire to go to war I cant get over my disappointment in not being a boy, and The Argument Rhetorical Analysis its worse then ever now, for Im dying to confessional poem go to and fight with papa (Alcott, 1998 p.7) and to The Argument Culture: Essay be judged an active and breadwinning individual. Jo in cultural this way shows us the desired qualities a father should possess and by portraying her absent father in a proactive way, that he is an accurate representative of the masculinity and moral conduct valued by society at The Argument Culture: Rhetorical, this period. Alcotts decision to produce the sequel to Little Women greatly establishes the role fatherhood plays in her story, whilst Mr March is away, Jo is fulfilling her own prophecy of being the man of the family(Alcott, 1998 p.9) and upon his return is free to live her life as a little woman, the significance of Beths death means Jos desire to which of these about the pardoner's be a man is also over, and she strives to imitate her departed sister by neglecting the proactive and Culture: Rhetorical Analysis masculine personality she assumed in order to cope with being head of a household. In contrast to Alcotts desire to be successful financially, Stevensons own efforts concerning Treasure Island were of a more innovative intent, to the focus on the visible called create a novel which not only Culture: Rhetorical Essay, featured a romantic story but served merely to entertain and inspire without an element of educating. Cultural Diffsion. Stevenson aspires to a more unconventional style of appealing to Culture: Analysis Essay young boys, without moral preaching or the inclusion of religious implication; which Alcott endeavours to do with her inclusion of Bunyans Pilgrims Progress and her references to how did the role war i movement? God, the Culture: Rhetorical Essay most fatherly figure of all. If you learn to feel the strength and tenderness of your Heavenly Father as you do that of your earthly one. Which Of These Is True About The Pardoner's Tale?. The more you love and trust Him, the nearer you will feel to Rhetorical Analysis Him (Alcott, 1998 p.80) The fatherly characters are produced by two authors who had interesting relationships with their own fathers and who subsequently introduce their own opinions to the role of a father figure during this period. Mr March is diffsion portrayed as being central to the families success despite him being absent for the majority of the plot, to outsiders, the five energetic women seemed to The Argument Rhetorical Essay rule the house, and so they did in many things but the quiet man sitting among his books was still head of the family.(Alcott, 1998 p.229) She goes on to say of Mr March that in troublesome times the girls always turned to him, finding him, in the truest sense of those sacred words, husband and father. (Alcott, 1998 p.230) This lengthy eulogy Alcott lavishes upon Mr March (Alcott, 1998 p. 229-230) could be seen as a focalisation from the March daughters point of view, however it is more likely Alcotts own father is the focus here, given the books highly autobiographical status.

It has also been said that through Alcotts portrayal she manages to the focus in renaissance called draw a veil over her brilliant fathers many incompetencies (Watson, 2009 p.14) Stevensons complex (Hunt, P (in) Stevenson 2011 p.xi) relationship with his own father is also brought into account. The fact there are two very different father figures presented within Treasure Island interprets the fluctuating relationship he had with his father several critics have seen Treasure Island and Jim Hawkins torturous relationship with Long John Silver as an extended mediation of Culture: Rhetorical Essay this (Hunt, P (in) Stevenson 2011 p.xi) yet Stevensons own essay My First Book, goes into detailed account of his fathers involvement in the creation of the book in Treasure Island he recognised something kindred to his own imagination; it was his kind of picturesque; and he not only heard with delight the daily chapter, but set himself acting to collaborate.(Stevenson. R.L. Cultural. p.56) If the The Argument Essay complex relationship between Stevenson and his father is present in Stevensons portrayal of of these statements Silver and Jim; this shows us he regarded his father with a certain ambiguity and admiration in the same way Jim is The Argument Rhetorical drawn to Silver through the how did of women affect desire for Culture: Rhetorical Essay acknowledgement and approval. Whilst throughout Little Women numerous focalisations take place, Treasure Islands narration is media influence completed by just two individuals. The relationship Livesy has with Jim is highlighted by his continued narration of the story when Jim is incapacitated in retrieving the Hispaniola. This not only allows us to hear the story from Livesys own focalised viewpoint, but it combines Jim and Dr Livesy as a duo. It also points to the future relationship of the two men as we note that the narrative is written after the event with the witness of retrospectivity (Loxley. D. p.60) hinting at a relationship continued once the The Argument Rhetorical Analysis adventure has ended. If Livesy is intended to represent the which of these is true ideal father then Silver represents the opposite, being selfish and morally inept. Jim however, seeks the approval of Silver despite his suspicion and fear.

When Silver addresses a fellow mutineer with the line youre young, you are, but youre as smart as paint. I see that when I set my eyes on you, and Ill talk to you like a man. (Stevenson, 2011 p. 61) A similar phrase is used to sway Jims affections earlier in the story and Jim is The Argument Rhetorical Analysis quickly struck with jealousy. Diffsion. You may imagine how I felt when I heard this abominable old rogue addressing another in the very same words of The Argument Culture: flattery as he had used to myself. I think, if I had been able, that I would have killed him through the barrel (Stevenson, 2011 p. 62) Jims alliances are swayed and subjected to overthrows of power by the two feuding groups, he has the lure of the danger and adventure should he decide to side with Silver yet the doctor is the ideal representative of moral decorum which Jim has aimed to exhibit so far. With this struggle taking place the power shifts between who has possession of the media influence on teens Hispaniola and Rhetorical Analysis Essay who has possession of Jim. Power itself is involved in a thematic of circuitry and exchange, continually passing from one group or individual to another, never resting in or reaching a central position and dramatised in the motif of the how did of women world war i affect the suffragist movement? ship which acts as a symbol of this continuous process. (Loxley, 2009. p.62) He and Silver share an The Argument, ability to infiltrate both sides of the arguing men and become united to confessional poem an extent that their duplicitous actions set them apart from the groups.(Loxley, 2009. p. The Argument Essay. 63) In Livesy, Jim has the imperial hero who represents the ideal nineteenth century father figure, Livesy has the expertise and respectability of the settle world in combination with the bravery and derring-do of the pirated.(Parkes, 2009 p.74) Yet an unknown intrigue presents itself through Silvers manipulation of confessional Jims emotions, comments implying Jim is the picter of my own self when I was young affect Jims judgement of the pirate and an affiliation is clear. (Stevenson, 2011. p.146) Stevensons main mode of connecting with his target audience was the exclusion of women from the The Argument Culture: Analysis majority of the story, Jims mother signifies his slightly naive nature at the start of the novel yet her absence allows him to grow and progress towards being considered a man. How Did The Role Of Women During World War I Movement?. In the same way Alcotts Little Women are mainly alone with their mother for the first chapters, allowing the reader an Culture: Rhetorical Analysis, insight into the world of the girls, without an of women world war i affect the suffragist movement?, overbearing masculine character to interrupt this process. Through this exclusion of opposite The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay sexes, both authors lay out the foundations to appeal to gender specific demographics.

Treasure Island is primarily a fantasy peppered with elements of realism, these aspects of the focus in renaissance realism are what keep the story engaging to young boys, only through our comparison between Jim and his father figures can we ascertain any sense of Culture: Rhetorical Essay progress in Jims story. Through contrasting Jim to Silver or Livesy we find they are in place to aid and guide his transition through adolescence and this rite of passage adventure. In comparison Little Women is a novel steeped in realism and the relevance of the father figures highlights nineteenth century societys attitudes to women more so than their attitudes to men, the secret of Alcotts success is through Jos unfeminine qualities, by noticing the diffsion market of tomboyish girls striving to overcome their natural indiscipline to find a place in Culture: Rhetorical Analysis Essay society and a husband without compromising their own personalities.(Watson, 2009 p.15) Alcott recognised the Law difficulties children faced when approaching adolescence and the reluctance to Rhetorical conform to a desired demeanour. Though Mr March isnt present throughout most of the novel, his presence in the girls minds is much like that of a deity, in keeping faith that they shall please their father they seek his approval by performing moral acts of kindness and behaving like little women. Cultural Diffsion. When they are rewarded by his return, the masculine focus of the story is shifted to the prospective husbands and their search for approval begins once more.

The theme of The Argument Rhetorical Analysis Essay both novels is one of growing up, without the inclusion of a father figure to guide or to offer approval the element of childhood is lost along with the target audience. The depictions of fatherhood within the two novels are relevant because the media on teens novels are aimed at children. Regardless of the The Argument Culture: Analysis Essay moral conduct or characterisation of these representations they are included to highlight a childs need for adult authoritarianism; without this a child has no model for their behaviours or guardian to guide them to the next chapter of adulthood, and becoming parents themselves. Alcott, L.M. Which Statements About. (1998) Little women, Oxford:, Oxford Paperbacks. Fetterley, J. (2009) Little Women: Alcotts Civil War Childrens Literature: classic texts and contemporary trends, Milton Keynes:, In association with the Open University. Hunt, P. (in) Stevenson, R.L. (2011) Introduction Treasure Island, Oxford:, Oxford University Press. Loxley, D. (2009) Slaves to Adventure: The Pure Story of The Argument Essay Treasure Island Childrens Literature: classic texts and contemporary trends, Milton Keynes:, In association with the Open University. Parkes, C. (2009) Treasure Island and the Romance of the British Civil Service Childrens literature: classic texts and contemporary trends, Milton Keynes:, In association with the Open University. Stevenson, R.L. (2009) My First Book: Treasure Island Childrens. Literature: classic texts and contemporary trends, Milton Keynes:, In association with the Open University.

Stevenson, R.L. Confessional Poem. (2011) Treasure Island, Oxford:, Oxford University Press. Watson, N.J. The Argument Culture: Rhetorical Analysis. (2009) Introduction Childrens Literature: classic texts and contemporary trends [Online], Milton Keynes:, In association with the Open University. University/College: University of affect the suffragist movement? Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 28 November 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Little Women and Treasure Island: Fatherhood.

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