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Nov 17, 2017 Perceived definition,
Anthem: Community Does Not Necessitate Camaraderie Essay. It is clear from the conditions in definition the Palace of Corrective Detention that the tyrants who rule the show more content In addition to these censorship measures, the sleep symbols rulers employ a series of tactics that are paradoxically designed to both isolate the individual and to force the individual to consider themselves to be an inseparable member of the perceived community of mankind. The latter set of tactics is hot moms pussy likely the stronger of the two - so strong that Rand chooses to pluralize all personal pronouns until the very end of the novel to perceived, emphasize their importance. A Look? How exactly the rulers go about the initial indoctrination of the definition children of the stars song city is unclear, but its effects make it apparent that A Comparison of definition, The Handmaid's Tale and Anthem Essay. In Anthem the main character does not have the definition of primary word I in his vocabulary so he either refers to himself as Equality-1329, or as we. Perceived? As far as physical appearance goes, in Pyle's Prison Release Essay Anthem the main character is a man who seems to be in definition good heath since he has a job as a street sweeper and he is able to sleep symbols, preform his duties well. Perceived? Later in the book he finds a mirror, and he describes himself as beautiful. He also seems to be of a Look at Evolutionary Psychology Essay, good intelligence because he describes his experience in definition school as easy and counting stars song meaning, boring
there is enough work ahead that all the scholars of the world should work together to definition, make progress with his new invention. Which Is Widely Founder Interactionist Perspective?? After Prometheus escapes from the society he sees his reflection for the first time, and perceived definition, he is shocked. Definition? He sees that he does not look anything like his brothers. Then later Golden One finds Prometheus in the forrest and says she will alway’s stay with him. Then both of them walk up a mountain to find a house. In the house there are lots of technologies that they did not Each man’s individual happiness is perceived definition his own highest purpose in of primary life.
After reading of perceived, Ayn’s opinion of the epitome of bad ways to live, her opinion of perfection comes out in Anthem. When Equality 7-2521 discovers the house in the clearing of the Uncharted Forest and hot moms pussy, begins reading the books in perceived definition the library he discovers a lost way of living that is completely opposite sleep symbols of what he had previously known. He discovers the self. Rand then begins to definition, express her philosophy of objectivism through Equality the Home of the Useless.” Its a bit ironic that they are in a Look at Evolutionary Psychology the Home of the Useless while they know more than the definition average man about things that were deemed unmentionable. Rand did that on song meaning purpose as it is more false information being fed to the community. Perceived? The elderly are not actually useless but if they were not put in regarded as the founder of the interactionist this home, with a label of unimportance, the definition secrets of the past would have leaked long ago. Equality continues with more detail, “They whisper many strange things, of the towers which
How Does Animal Neglect Affect the Community? Essay. Life? This organization was founded about twenty five to thirty years ago with a purpose of stopping shelters killing animals and just putting them in definition piles in examples up processing life a local dumpster. Perceived? They fought for sleep symbols, many years trying to raise enough money to build a center and finally they reached their goal and perceived definition, built the center in sociologist is widely interactionist perspective? the middle of Fremont. Perceived Definition? They believed that shelters needed to examples of bottom life, stop being placed in spots that people would never see them, but instead be out were people with come and definition, adopt the animals they were In the which sociologist is widely regarded as the founder interactionist society of Anthem, the community is perceived definition hard working and Taking at Evolutionary Psychology Essay, takes pride in definition the tasks that is given to them. Definition Of Primary Data? The Fruitlanders are very different, most of the perceived people were lazy and Taking a Look Essay, did not want to work for their food or shelter. Perceived? “Many saw the community as an examples up processing in everyday opportunity to be housed and fed while sitting in apple trees writing poetry or thinking great thoughts (3). Most Fruilanders want to enjoy the perceived aspects of the transcendental living, though it never existed. Many people eventually became unable to Essay on Community Health Assessment of a Community. healthy and definition data, hygienic environment. There are community parks, swimming pools, sports clubs, and many other establishments providing amenities to definition, support the counting song meaning physical and definition, leisure activities of the which is widely regarded residents. Perceived Definition? The community has a big golf clubs.
In addition to this, there are seasonal community fairs and other community events that provide an occasion for sleep symbols, community interaction. Interview with the Community health Nurse Melissa Garfield RN, BSN Essay about Purpose of Anthem for perceived, a Doomed Youth. romantic but truthful poems by poets such as Wordsworth. By Owen using a sonnet as the poem’s form he conveys irony and of primary, conflict as the poem is about aggression and struggle. To conclude, Owen uses Anthem for a Doomed Youth to criticize the perceived war and to expose the true reality of the trenches, he does this by examples of bottom life using many language techniques such as dehumanization, metaphors, oxymoron, onomatopoeia and with substantial detail, of the chain of command that was used in perceived definition the simulation for hot moms pussy, the community health nurse. Perceived Definition? | | C. Resources | The candidate does not provide a logical discussion of the resources available to Release Essay, the community health nurse to perceived, deal with situations outside the nurse’s scope of newly country definition, practice. Definition? | The candidate provides a logical discussion, with no detail, of the sleep symbols resources available to the community health nurse to perceived, deal with situations outside the nurse’s scope of Essay, practice. | The candidate Living in definition today’s society, there is not one thing that does not change. Many things change daily, hourly, or even by the minute. Multiple crimes are committed daily all over the world, along with new crimes.
Law enforcement does not have a choice to which is widely regarded as the founder, try and definition, prevent these same crimes from occurring; however, there are things they have to hot moms pussy, change in order to prevent these crimes, especially new crimes committed. A police officer has many duties he or she has to take on, and sometimes he or she cannot
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Nov 17, 2017 Perceived definition,
titration coursework ACID - ALKALI TITRATIONS. methods and calculations. Doc Brown's Chemistry - GCSE/IGCSE/GCE (basic A level) O Level Online Chemical Calculations. 12. Introducing Volumetric Analysis - titration calculations e.g. Definition. acid-alkali titrations. AND introduction to how to do an acid-alkali titration via an Prison Release Essay antacid indigestion tablet investigation. Quantitative chemistry calculations How to you do acid-alkali titration calculations?
What is the procedure for perceived definition, doing acid-alkali titrations? How do you do a titration? What apparatus do you need to industrialized definition do a titration? Help for problem solving in doing volumetric titration calculations. Practice revision questions on titrations, using experiment data. Perceived Definition. This page describes and in everyday life explains, with fully worked out examples, how to definition do simple titration calculations involving acids and alkalis. These methods of calculation involve a knowledge of the mole concept e.g. the interconversion of mass-moles-formula mass (mol = mass/Mr) and know how to calculate and sleep symbols use molarity (molarity = mol/volume in dm 3 ). Overall the page gives a description and explanation of simple example of volumetric analysis preceded by perceived definition how to do volumetric titrations. Online practice exam chemistry CALCULATIONS and solved problems for KS4 Science GCSE/IGCSE CHEMISTRY and basic starter chemical calculations for A level AS/A2/IB courses. Of Bottom Up Processing In Everyday. These revision notes and practice questions on how to do acid-alkali titration calculations and worked examples should prove useful for the new AQA, Edexcel and OCR GCSE (9–1) chemistry science courses.
Spotted any EMAIL error? query? comment? or request a type of GCSE/IGCSE/A Level titration calculation not covered? APPENDIX 1. Describes a simple titration investigation to evaluate the effectiveness of indigestion tablets. APPENDIX 2 describes the apparatus, choice of perceived indicator and technique of how to carry out a simple acid-alkali titrations. On-line Quantitative Chemistry Calculations. 12. Molarity, moles mass and definition of primary data Volumetric titration calculations e.g. acid-alkali titrations. Titrations can be used to find the definition, concentration of an acid or alkali from the relative volumes used and the concentration of one of the two reactants. The method and apparatus used are briefly described at the end of this page.
You should be able to stars meaning carry out calculations involving neutralisation reactions in perceived, aqueous solution given the balanced equation or from your own practical results. Newly Industrialized Country. The examples in section 7. moles and mass. and section 11. concentration will help you follow the calculations below. Perceived Definition. Note again: 1dm 3 = 1 litre = 1000ml = 1000 cm 3 , so dividing cm 3 /1000 gives dm 3 . and counting stars song other useful formulae or relationships are: moles = molarity (mol/dm 3 ) x volume (dm 3 = cm 3 /1000), molarity (mol/dm 3 ) = mol / volume (dm 3 = cm 3 /1000), 1 mole = formula mass in grams . In most volumetric calculations of this type, you first calculate the known moles of one reactant from a volume and molarity . Then, f rom the equation, you relate this to the number of moles of the other reactant , and then with the volume of the unknown concentration , you work out its molarity. I haven't quoted separately the atomic masses used in definition, the titration calculations, but they quoted as part of the calculation and its pretty obvious what is what! Need a nitric acid calculation? They are the same as for HCl. Titration calculation Example 12.1 Given the equation: NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) == NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) This is read as 1 mol + 1 mol reactants === 1 mol + 1 mol products 25.0 cm 3 of a sodium hydroxide solution was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with a standard solution of industrialized definition 0.200 mol dm -3 (0.2M) hydrochloric acid (mol dm -3 means mol/dm 3 ). Using phenolphthalein indicator for the titration it was found that 15.0 cm 3 of the perceived, acid was required to neutralise the alkali. In the counting stars meaning, appendix this is titration procedure 3. Calculate the molarity of the perceived, sodium hydroxide and its concentration in g/dm 3 . moles = molarity x volume (in dm 3 = cm 3 /1000) moles HCl = 0.200 x (15.0/1000) = 0.003 mol moles HCl = moles NaOH (1 : 1 in equation) so there is 0.003 mol NaOH in 25.0 cm 3 scaling up to 1000 cm 3 (1 dm 3 ), there are . 0.003 x (1000/25.0) = 0.12 mol NaOH in 1 dm 3 molarity of examples of bottom up processing in everyday life NaOH is 0.120 mol dm -3 (or 0.12M ) since mass = moles x formula mass and definition M r (NaOH) = 23 + 16 + 1 = 40 concentration in g/dm 3 = molarity x formula mass concentration in g/dm 3 is 0.12 x 40 = 4.80 g/dm 3.
Titration calculation Example 12.2 Given the equation: 2KOH (aq) + H 2 SO 4(aq) == K 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O (l) This is sleep symbols read as 2 mol + 1 mol reactants === 1 mol + 2 mol products 20.0 cm 3 of a sulphuric acid solution was titrated with a standardised solution of 0.0500 mol/dm 3 (0.05M) potassium hydroxide. Using phenolphthalein indicator for the titration, the acid required 36.0 cm 3 of the alkali KOH for neutralisation what was the concentration of the acid? In the definition, appendix this is titration procedure 2. moles = molarity x volume (in dm 3 = cm 3 /1000) mol KOH = 0.0500 x (36.0/1000) = 0.0018 mol mol H 2 SO 4 = mol KOH / 2 (because of 2 : 1 ratio in at Evolutionary, equation above) mol H 2 SO 4 = 0.0018/2 = 0.0009 (in 20.0 cm 3 ) scaling up to 1000 cm 3 of solution = 0.0009 x (1000/20.0) = 0.0450 mol mol H 2 SO 4 in perceived, 1 dm 3 = 0.0450 so molarity of H 2 SO 4 = 0.0450 mol dm -3 ( 0.045M ) since mass = moles x formula mass and M r (H 2 SO 4 ) = 2 + 32 + (4x16) = 98 concentration in g/dm 3 is 0.045 x 98 = 4.41 g/dm 3 - Titration Calculation Example 12.3 Given the equation: NaOH (aq) + HCl (aq) == NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) This is read as 1 mol + 1 mol reactants === 1 mol + 1 mol products 25.00 cm 3 portions of a dilute hydrochloric acid solution were titrated with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide of Taking at Evolutionary Psychology Essay concentration 0.250 mol/dm 3 (mol dm -3 ). In the appendix this is definition titration procedure 2. Using phenolphthalein indicator for the titration, it was found that the average titration was 18.50 cm 3 of sodium hydroxide, calculate (i) the molarity of the definition, hydrochloric acid and (ii) its concentration in g/dm 3 . Perceived. moles NaOH = molarity NaOH x volume of Taking a Look NaOH (in dm 3 = cm 3 /1000) moles NaOH = 0.250 x (18.5 / 1000) = 0.004625 In the equation 1 mole of HCl reacts with 1 mole of HCl therefore in the titration reaction: moles HCl = moles NaOH therefore there were 0.004625 moles HCl in 25.00 cm 3 . molarity = moles / volume in dm 3 (1 dm 3 = 1000 cm 3 ) (i) molarity HCl = 0.004625 / (25.00/1000) = 0.004625/0.025 = 0.185 mol/dm 3 (ii) concentration = molarity x formula mass formula mass HCl = 1 + 35.5 = 36.5 = 0.185 x 36.5 = 6.75 g/dm 3 - Titration Calculation Example 12.4 Given the equation: 2NaOH (aq) + H 2 SO 4(aq) == Na 2 SO 4 + 2H 2 O (l) This is read as 2 mol + 1 mol reactants === 1 mol + 2 mol products 25.00 cm 3 portions of a sodium hydroxide were titrated with a standardised solution of 0.75 mol/dm 3 sulphuric acid solution using phenolphthalein indicator. Perceived Definition. In the appendix this is meaning titration procedure 1. If the average titration was 17.70 cm 3 of sulfuric acid, what is the molar concentration of the perceived, sodium hydroxide? moles H 2 SO 4 in titration = molarity H 2 SO 4 x volume in definition of primary, dm 3 moles H 2 SO 4 = 0.75 x (17.70/1000) = 0.013275 mol From the balanced equation, for every mole of H 2 SO 4 , two moles of NaOH react Therefore moles NaOH = 2 x moles H 2 SO 4 moles NaOH = 0.013275 x 2 = 0.02655 mol molarity of NaOH = moles NaOH / volume in dm 3 molarity NaOH = 0.02655 / (25.00/1000) = 1.062 mol/dm 3 - Titration Calculation Example 12.5 Given the equation: NH 3 (aq) + HCl(aq) == NH 4 Cl(aq) This is read as 1 mol + 1 mol reactants === 1 mol products 5.00 cm 3 portions of perceived definition household ammonia were titrated with a standard hydrochloric acid solution of 1.00 mol/dm 3 . In the appendix this is sleep symbols titration procedure 2. If the average titration, using methyl orange indicator, was 22.5 cm 3 of hydrochloric acid, calculate . (i) the perceived, molarity of the of bottom, ammonia solution, and its concentration in (ii) g/dm 3 and perceived (iii) g/cm 3 . Seymour Pyle's Prison. (i) mol HCl in titration = molarity HCl x volume of definition HCl in dm 3 mol HCl = 1.00 x (22.50/1000) = 0.0225 mol HCl From the Seymour Release, equation, 1 mole of NH 3 reacts with 1 mole of HCl Therefore mol HCl = mol NH 3 = 0.0225 molarity of NH 3 = mol NH 3 / volume NH 3 in dm 3 molarity of NH 3 = 0.0225 / (5.00/1000) = 4.50 mol/dm 3 (ii) concentration = formula mass x molarity formula mass NH 3 = 14 + (3x1) = 17 concentration of NH 3 = 17 x 4.50 = 76.5 g/dm 3 (iii) since there are 1000 cm 3 in 1 dm 3 concentration of NH 3 = 76.5/1000 = 0.0765 g/cm 3 - Titration Calculation Example 12.6 Given the equation: CH 3 COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) == CH 3 COONa(aq) + H 2 O(l) This is read as 1 mol + 1 mol reactants === 1 mol + 1 mol products 25.00 cm 3 portions of vinegar (ethanoic acid, CH 3 COOH, 'acetic acid' solution) from a local supermarket were pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with a standardised solution of sodium hydroxide, of concentration 0.2000 mol/dm 3 using phenolphthalein indicator. In APPENDIX 2 this is titration is described in procedure 2. Definition. (i) If the average titration value was 14.70 cm 3 of the sodium hydroxide solution, what is the molarity of the ethanoic acid in the vinegar? moles NaOH in titration = molarity x volume in dm 3 mole NaOH = 0.200 x (14.70/1000) = 0.00294 moles from the equation moles NaOH = moles CH 3 COOH = 0.00294 molarity CH 3 COOH = mol CH 3 COOH/volume CH 3 COOH in dm 3 molarity CH 3 COOH = 0.00294 / (25.00/1000) = 0.1176 mol/dm 3 (ii) What is the concentration of the ethanoic acid in g/dm 3 ? mass = moles x formula mass formula mass of CH 3 COOH = 12 + 3 + 12 + 16 + 16 + 1 = 60 mass CH 3 COOH = 0.1176 x 60 = 7.056g (in 1 dm 3 , 1000 cm 3 ) concentration = 7.06 g/dm 3 (2dp, 3sf) for other mass/volume values . eg if you were asked for the concentration in of primary data, g/100cm 3 , divide the g/dm 3 by 10 giving 0.706g/100cm 3 or if you were asked for the concentration in g/cm 3 , divide the g/dm 3 by 1000 giving 0.00706 g/100cm 3 You can also work out the vinegar concentration from the definition, original moles and volume of the stars, titration eg mass = moles x formula mass mass = 0.00294 x 60 = 0.1764g in the 25 cm 3 sample titrated. Since 25cm 3 = 25/1000 = 0.025 dm 3 concentration = 0.1764 / 0.025 = 7.06g/dm 3 (iii) If a bottle of vinegar from the definition, super-market contained 250 cm 3 of liquid, how many grams of ethanoic acid are in the solution? concentration CH 3 COOH = formula mass CH 3 COOH x molarity of CH 3 COOH formula mass CH 3 COOH = 12 + (3x1) + 12 +(2x32) + 1 = 60 concentration CH 3 COOH = 60 x 0.1176 = 7.056 g/dm 3 Since 1 dm3 = 1000 cm3, there must be proportionately 7.056 x (250/1000) = 1.764 g of CH 3 COOH in the bottle of vinegar - Titration Calculation Example 12. 7 A titration to examples of bottom up processing determine the perceived, solubility of calcium hydroxide in water. Counting Stars. Approximately 250 cm 3 of water was shaken with solid calcium hydroxide (slaked lime) until no more appeared to dissolve and perceived definition the solution filtered to remove any excess undissolved solid.
You now have a saturated solution known as limewater. 25.00 cm 3 of the filtered calcium hydroxide solution (limewater) was pipetted into a conical flask and titrated with standard hydrochloric solution (0.100 mol/dm 3 ) using phenolphthalein indicator until the pink colour just disappeared (the end-point). The experiment was repeated several times giving an Taking a Look Essay average titration of 10.0 cm 3 . Calculate the concentration of the calcium hydroxide in mol/dm 3 and g/dm 3 . The equation for the titration is: Ca(OH) 2 + 2HCl == CaCl 2 + 2H 2 O This is read as 1 mol + 2 mol reactants === 1 mol + 2 mol products moles = molarity x volume (dm 3 ) mol HCl in titration = 0.10 x 10.1/1000 = 0.0010 Therefore from the equation; mol Ca(OH) 2 = mol HCl/2 = 0.0005 Molarity of definition Ca(OH) 2 = moles/volume = 0.0005 / (25.00/1000) = 0.0005 / 0.025 = 0.02 mol/dm 3 concentration g/dm3 = molarity x formula mass Atomic masses: Ca = 40, O = 16, H = 1, M r [CaOH) 2 ] = 74 Concentration of Ca(OH) 2 = 0.02 x 74 = 1.48 g/dm 3 - To all GCSE/IGCSE/O Level/A Level students - Recently added the last four questions (12.3 to 12.7), if you spot any 'typos' let me know, and if you find the Seymour Pyle's Release, descriptions of the perceived definition, titrations helpful or you think something is counting stars song meaning missing in the titration method descriptions, let me know that too! See also acid-alkali titration questions for Advanced Level students. A variety of apparatus you might come across, particularly the pipette ( 1 ) for measuring accurately volumes of perceived solutions to be analysed by sleep symbols titration with a standard solution in definition, a burette ( 3 ) Appendix on Taking a Look at Evolutionary Essay How to make up a standard solution is on a separate page The right diagrams show the definition, typical apparatus (1)-(6) used in manipulating liquids and on the left a brief three stage description of titrating an acid with an alkali: (i) An accurate volume of acid is pipetted into counting stars meaning, the conical flasks using a suction bulb and pipette for health and safety reasons. Definition. Universal indicator is then added, which turns red in the acid. The alkali, of known accurate concentration , is put in the burette and Seymour Pyle's Prison Release Essay you can conveniently level off the reading to zero (the meniscus on the liquid surface should rest on the zero -- graduation mark). Note other possibilities are: (ii) An accurate volume of alkali is measured into a flask and titrated with an acid solution of known concentration. (iii) A small amount of accurately weighed solid acid is dissolved in water and definition titrated with alkali. (iv) A small amount of accurately weighed solid alkali is of bottom up processing dissolved in water and titrated with acid.
This can procedure can be used to compare the effectiveness of ant-acid indigestion tablets , which are designed to neutralise excess acid in the stomach. A known and equal mass of each brand of indigestion tablet is crushed and mixed with some water eg 20 cm 3 (fair test points). Perceived. Make sure the mixture is Seymour Release gently swirled to completely dissolve the crushed tablet powder. The burette is filled with a standard solution of hydrochloric acid and definition zeroed to the top calibration mark of 0.00 cm 3 . Universal indicator is added to Taking the flask and the indigestion powder should turn it blue - alkaline. The acid is carefully and slowly added until the indicator turns green - neutral at the end-point of the titration.
You then read the volume of acid required to neutralise the ant-acid powder. Perceived. The bigger the volume of acid required for neutralisation, the more effective the indigestion powder per stars meaning, mass of powder. Repeat the procedure with another brand of indigestion powder using the same standard acid solution (fair test). After this, the method is essentially the same as described below. The alkali is then carefully added by running it out of the burette in small quantities, controlling the definition, flow with the Taking at Evolutionary Essay, tap , until the indicator seems to perceived be going yellow-pale green. The conical flask should be carefully swirled after each addition of alkali to Pyle's Prison Release ensure all the alkali reacts. Near the end of the titration, the alkali should added drop-wise until the universal indicator goes green . This is called the end-point of the perceived, titration and the green means that all the acid has been neutralised. The volume of alkali needed to industrialized definition titrate-neutralise the perceived, acid is read off from burette scale, again reading the volume value on the underside of the meniscus.
The calculation can then be done to work out the sleep symbols, concentration of the alkali. Universal indicator, and most other acid-base indicators, work for strong acid and alkali titrations , but universal indicator is a somewhat crude indicator for other acid-alkali titrations because it gives such a range of definition colours for different pH's. Examples of up processing in everyday more accurate and 'specialised' indicators are: titrating a strong alkali with a strong acid (or vice versa): e.g. for sodium hydroxide (NaOH) - hydrochloric/sulphuric acid (HCl/H 2 SO 4 ) titrations, use . phenolphthalein indicator (pink in alkali, colourless in acid-neutral solutions), the end-point is the pink == colourless change. Litmus works too, the end point is the definition, red == purple/blue colour change AND with universal indicator you see green at sleep symbols the endpoint, but these two indicators are NOT as accurate as phenolphthalein . They are ok as simple demonstration to perceived illustrate the principles of a titration, BUT, they should not be used for quantitative work. titrating a weak alkali with a strong acid : e.g. for titrating ammonia (NH 3 ) with hydrochloric/sulfuric acid (HCl/H 2 SO 4 ), use . methyl orange indicator (red in acid, yellowish-orange in neutral-acid), the end-point is an 'orange' colour, not easy to see accurately. screened methyl orange indicator is a slightly different dye-indicator mixture that is definition reckoned to be easier to see than methyl orange, the end-point is a sort of 'greyish orange', but still not easy to do accurately. titrating a weak acid with a strong alkali : e.g. for perceived definition, titrating ethanoic acid (CH 3 COOH) with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), use . phenolphthalein indicator (pink in of bottom in everyday life, alkali, colourless in acid-neutral solutions, pink in perceived definition, alkali), the end-point is the first permanent pink. methyl red indicator (red in acid, yellow in neutral-alkaline), the industrialized, end-point is perceived 'orange'. titrating a weak acid with a weak alkali (or vice versa): These are NOT practical titrations because the pH changes at the end-point are not great enough to give a sharp colour change with any indicator. The Acids, Bases, pH page section (2) lists common indicators. The theory, and examples of strong/weak acids/alkalis (soluble bases) are described on the Extra Aqueous Chemistry page section 3, and the Acids, Bases, pH page section (7) explains the changes in pH in examples up processing, the titration.
Advanced level theory of indicators and titrations and perceived definition advanced acid-alkali titration questions (GCE-AS-A2-IB students only!) type in sleep symbols, answer Honly or multiple choice Honly. Three common indicators for titrations and their colours: litmus : red in acid, blue in alkali, doesn't give that sharp a colour change except with moderately concentrated solutions, the neutralisation end-point is a fairly sharp change red=blue. phenolphthalein : colourless in acid, pink in alkali, the neutralisation end-point is the sharp change colourless=pink. methyl orange : red in acid, yellow in alkali, the perceived definition, neutralisation end-point is an orange. In the APPENDIX below various titration procedures are described e.g. A Look Essay. titrating an antacid tablet to compare neutralising effectiveness, why we need to repeat titrations for increased accuracy of results, how to titrate ammonia with hydrochloric acid using methyl orange indicator, titrating ethanoic acid or hydrochloric acid with standard sodium hydroxide solution, titrating calcium hydroxide solution with standard hydrochloric acid using phenolphthalein indicator to definition find out the solubility of calcium hydroxide. APPENDIX 1. An Antacid Indigestion Tablet Investigation. This first titration description also acts as an Seymour Prison Release Essay introduction as how to do a TITRATION with a burette and definition conical flask etc. AND it doesn't involve complex titration calculations, other titrations are described in Appendix 2. which do involve calculations.
There are many brands of data antacid indigestion medications on the market and through the following experimental investigation you can check out their value for perceived, money. There are various ways you can approach the Taking Psychology Essay, investigation e.g. you can compare tablet with tablet in perceived definition, terms of the recommended dose as to which neutralises the most acid. Prison. You can compare the definition, cost of each tablet with the Seymour Essay, amount of acid it neutralises. Experimentally, the investigation involves titrating an indigestion tablet (weighed) with standardised hydrochloric acid (in the burette, to definition represent stomach acid) using methyl orange indicator to observe when the tablet has been completely neutralised, that point is known as the end-point of the sleep symbols, titration . The apparatus, chemicals and indicator colours are illustrated in the diagram on the left and the procedure described in five stages below. Preparing the sample and t itration procedure.
Initially the burette is clamped carefully in a vertical position and filled with standard hydrochloric acid of known concentration. A burette is a long glass tube (open at perceived definition the top), and a Look Psychology Essay accurately calibrated for volume in cm 3 an perceived definition 1 / 10 th cm 3 intervals, with a tap and tip at country the lower end. Using a funnel, the perceived definition, acid is carefully added from the stock bottle down a filter funnel to avoid spillage, until the of primary, level is above the 0.00 cm 3 mark. This burette filling should be done below eye level in case of spillage down into your eyes - goggles, which you should be wearing, do not protect from liquid falling onto your forehead! The acid is run through to expel any air bubbles in the tip or tap until the reading below the meniscus is perceived definition 0.00 cm 3 (the reading in a Look at Evolutionary Psychology, the diagram is 7.00 cm 3 , which could represent a titration value).
The burette is usually calibrated to perceived definition a maximum 50.00 cm 3 (only 10.00 cm 3 in diagram - I couldn't fit rest of scale on!). Now we are ready to take the antacid indigestion tablet! The weighed tablet is definition of primary data crushed up and dissolved in perceived definition, e.g. 25 cm 3 or 50 cm 3 of Seymour Pyle's Prison pure water (for other tablets keep to perceived definition the same volume of water as part of the fair test). Add a few drops of methyl orange indicator to the tablet solution and it should turn yellow for newly definition, an alkali . Carefully place the perceived, conical flask under the tip of the burette so drops don't go astray!
The titration : You carefully add small portions of the hydrochloric acid, swirling after each addition and checking the colour of the indicator (although not shown in up processing in everyday life, the diagram, its good to stand the perceived, flask on newly industrialized white tile to see the colour changes better). Perceived. At the start of the titration the methyl orange indicator is yellow. As you add the acid you get 'splurges' of sleep symbols reddish-orange colour until the mixture is swirled in the conical flask and the yellow is temporarily restored. The swirling of the flask contents is important , it ensures all the added hydrochloric acid reacts with the antacid indigestion tablet solution i.e. everything gets well mixed up and perceived reacted. Try to add dropwise (to avoid overshooting) when you seem to sleep symbols be near the perceived definition, orange colour at the end-point as the yellow indicator colour begins to fade. The indicator colour at country definition the end-point is orange and indicates all the dissolved tablet has been neutralised. Perceived. At the end-point you take the titration reading by carefully reading the burette scale under the meniscus (think of the Prison Release Essay, underside of the meniscus as sitting on your reading). To get the titration value you subtract the1st reading from the 2nd.
The first reading might be zero (0.00 cm 3 ) BUT you can do subsequent titrations without refilling the burette every time, again you just subtract the 1st reading from the perceived, 2nd. You continue to use the burette like this until in counting, needs refilling for further titrations. If you ' overshoot ' the titration with excess acid, the methyl orange indicator turns red and the result is invalid . The first titration you do is likely to perceived definition be the most inaccurate until you 'get your eye in'. Counting Song Meaning. This is definition called the rough titration and you can do the next titration quite rapidly until near the end-point and then proceed slowly and accurately to the end-point itself. Up Processing Life. The titration should be repeated several times with the same brand of and the average (mean) titration value calculated to use in any subsequent calculations. Perceived Definition. This makes the examples of bottom up processing, experimental results more valid and reliable, as will any subsequent calculations and perceived definition conclusions based on the data recorded.
The procedure should then be repeated with different brands of antacid indigestion tablets and the results compared. You should keep to the same volumes of definition data water and the same concentration of hydrochloric acid throughout the whole class/individual investigation. Using a whole class you could amass quite a bit of perceived definition data by dividing the industrialized definition, work up amongst the pupils. Data and analysis of the perceived, results. There are various ways in which you can interpret the results, so here are a few ideas. (a) Initially you can compare the volume of acid needed to neutralise an individual tablet, which is simply X cm 3 of HCl neutralised per tablet . This gives a straightforward comparison, the bigger the titration the more stomach acid would be neutralised. (b) If you have weighed the a Look Psychology Essay, tablet, which I recommend you do, you can compare the definition, effectiveness of the antacid tablets in terms of acid per Taking a Look Psychology, mass of tablet i.e. X cm 3 of HCl neutralised per definition, gram tablet (cm 3 /g) . Sleep Symbols. So this measure the effectiveness of the tablet based on mass ('weight'). (c) If you know the cost of the packet of indigestion tablets, you can work out the perceived, cost of an sleep symbols individual tablet. Then you can calculate the 'cost effectiveness' of the perceived definition, medication by stars dividing the definition, titration value by the cost per tablet e.g. X cm 3 of HCl neutralised per cost of tablet (cm 3 /p)
Errors may arise from . dirty apparatus, grease in the burette can cause traces of liquid to remain, so giving a false larger than actual titration reading, sometimes a result doesn't fit in at stars song meaning all with the other results (referred to as an perceived 'outlier'), may be due to carelessness in sleep symbols, observing the end-point or poor pipetting etc. - human error, apparatus may be faulty, Your first titration is very likely to be a bit inaccurate, and is referred to as the initial rough titration. This gives you an approximate value to perceived definition aim for much more accurately in Seymour Pyle's Prison Release, subsequent titrations.
You titration, at best, is likely to be measured to the nearest 0.05 cm 3 , but you can use the average to perceived two decimal places because statistically , that is the most probable value . e.g. Definition Data. suppose you got burette reading titration values of 21.45, 21.40, 21.45 (which would be impressive!), the average is 21.43 cm 3 , and perceived that goes into the calculation of . However, if a titration reading seems way out, 'posh word', anomalous , it should be ignored and not included in sleep symbols, you calculation e.g. Definition. if a titration value of 21.75 was obtained, its not close enough to definition the other three values to be considered of definition value. APPENDIX 2 - More examples of of primary HOW TO DO TITRATIONS - apparatus and procedures. 1. The titration of perceived a weak base-alkali with a strong acid. e.g titrating ammonia (pipetted) with standardised hydrochloric acid (in burette) using methyl orange indicator. The apparatus, chemicals and indicator colours are illustrated in the diagram on the left. Initially the burette is clamped carefully in position and filled with standard hydrochloric acid (e.g. 0.10 to 1.0 mol/dm 3 , but accurately known, preferably to 4 sig. figs.). Using a funnel, the acid is run through until the reading below the meniscus is 0.00 cm 3 (the reading in the diagram is 7.00 cm 3 , which could represent a titration value). The burette is song meaning usually calibrated to 50.00 cm 3 (only 10.00 cm 3 in definition, diagram - couldn't fit rest of Seymour Pyle's Prison Release Essay scale on!) The ammonia solution is perceived definition accurately measured out into the conical flask with e.g. Data. a 25 cm 3 pipette and suction bulb (see diagram further down).
Add a few drops of methyl orange indicator to the ammonia solution and definition it should turn yellow for an alkali. Taking Psychology. Carefully place the conical flask under the tip of the definition, burette so drops don't go astray! The titration : You carefully add small portions of the acid, swirling after each addition and definition checking the colour of the indicator (not shown in the diagram, but its good to stand the perceived definition, flask on white tile). At the Release, start of the definition, titration the methyl orange indicator is yellow. As you add the acid you get 'splurges' of reddish-orange colour until the mixture is swirled in the conical flask. The swirling of the flask contents is important, it ensures all the added hydrochloric acid reacts with the of bottom in everyday, ammonia solution. Try to definition add dropwise when you seem to be near the examples up processing, orange colour at the endpoint. The end-point is an orange colour indicating when all the perceived, ammonia is neutralised by which ever acid you are using.
If you 'overshoot' the titration with excess acid, the methyl orange indicator turns red and the result is Taking Psychology invalid. Perceived. The titration should be repeated several times with other 25 cm 3 portions and the average (mean) titration value calculated to use in any subsequent calculations. How to calculate the concentration of the weak alkali is explained in the top half of the of primary, page. 2. The titration of a weak/strong a strong acid with sodium hydroxide solution. e.g titrating ethanoic acid or hydrochloric acid (pipetted) with standardised sodium hydroxide solution (in burette) using phenolphthalein indicator. The apparatus, chemicals and indicator colours are illustrated in the diagram on the left. Initially the burette is clamped carefully in position and using a funnel, it is filled with standard sodium hydroxide solution (e.g. 0.10 to 1.0 mol/dm 3 , but accurately known, preferably to 4 sig. figs.). Perceived Definition. The sodium hydroxide solution is run through until the reading below the meniscus is 0.00 cm 3 (the reading in the diagram is of bottom up processing in everyday life 7.00 cm 3 , which could represent a titration value).
The burette is usually calibrated to 50.00 cm 3 (only 10.00 cm 3 in diagram - couldn't fit rest of scale on!) The acid solution is accurately measured out into the conical flask with e.g. a 25 cm 3 pipette and suction bulb (see diagram further down). Add a few drops of perceived phenolphthalein indicator to the acid solution and in everyday it should turn colourless for an acid. Carefully place the conical flask under the tip of the burette so drops don't go astray! The titration : You carefully add small portions of the sodium hydroxide, swirling after each addition and checking the perceived, colour of the indicator (not shown in the diagram, but its good to examples up processing in everyday stand the perceived definition, flask on Seymour Pyle's Release white tile). Perceived. At the country definition, start of the titration the phenolphthalein indicator is definition colourless.
As you add the alkali you get 'splurges' of pink colour until the mixture is swirled in the conical flask. The swirling of the flask contents is important, it ensures all the added sodium hydroxide reacts with the of primary data, acid in the flask. Try to add dropwise when you seem to perceived definition be near the faint pink colour of the sleep symbols, endpoint. The end-point is the perceived definition, first faint, but permanent pink colour, that is newly country definition when all the acid is neutralised by the sodium hydroxide. If you 'overshoot' the titration with excess alkali, the phenolphthalein indicator becomes an perceived definition even deeper pinkish-red and the result is invalid. Examples Life. The titration should be repeated several times with other 25 cm 3 portions and the average (mean) titration value calculated to definition use in Seymour Release, any subsequent calculations. How to calculate the perceived, concentration of the weak acid is explained in Seymour Pyle's Prison Release Essay, the top half of the definition, page. 3. At Evolutionary Psychology. The titration of a strong base-alkali with hydrochloric solution. e.g titrating sodium hydroxide solution (pipetted) with standardised hydrochloric solution (in burette) using phenolphthalein indicator.
The apparatus, chemicals and indicator colours are illustrated in the diagram on the left. Initially the burette is definition clamped carefully in position and filled with standard hydrochloric acid (e.g. 0.10 to 1.0 mol/dm 3 , but accurately known, preferably to 4 sig. figs.). Using a funnel, the hydrochloric acid is run through until the reading below the meniscus is 0.00 cm 3 (the reading in the diagram is 7.00 cm 3 , which could represent a titration value). The burette is usually calibrated to sleep symbols 50.00 cm 3 (only 10.00 cm 3 in diagram - couldn't fit rest of scale on!) The alkali solution is accurately measured out into the conical flask with e.g. a 25 cm 3 pipette and suction bulb (see diagram further down).
Add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator to the alkali solution and it should turn deep pink for an alkali. Carefully place the definition, conical flask under the sleep symbols, tip of the burette so drops don't go astray! The titration : You carefully add small portions of the acid, swirling after each addition and checking the colour of the indicator (not shown in perceived, the diagram, but its good to stand the flask on white tile). Sleep Symbols. At the perceived, start of the titration the phenolphthalein indicator is a deep reddish-pink in Seymour Essay, alkaline solution. As you add the acid you get 'splurges' of perceived colourless solution until the mixture is swirled in the conical flask. The swirling of the flask contents is at Evolutionary Essay important, it ensures all the definition, added hydrochloric acid reacts with the sodium hydroxide. Try to add dropwise when you seem to be near the Seymour Essay, faintest pinkness left in the solution near the endpoint.
The end-point is when the last trace of pink colour first disappears from the perceived definition, solution. If you 'overshoot' the titration with excess acid, it still stays colourless and the result is invalid. The titration should be repeated several times with other 25 cm 3 portions and Pyle's Prison the average (mean) titration value calculated to perceived definition use in any subsequent calculations. How to calculate the concentration of the examples of bottom up processing life, alkali is definition explained in the top half of the page. 4. Determination of the concentration of Pyle's Essay calcium hydroxide in limewater. A practical exercise for Advanced A level students. Calcium hydroxide is slightly soluble in water and the resulting solution is commonly known as 'limewater. It is a relatively strong alkali and readily titrated with standardised hydrochloric acid using phenolphthalein indicator. A bottle of water shaken well with excess solid calcium hydroxide and left to stand.
50 cm 3 burette (with 0.1 cm 3 graduations) 25.0 cm 3 pipette (you can use a 10 cm 3 pipette, but smaller and less accurate titration) 250 cm 3 conical flask and white tile. Squeezy wash bottle of deionised/distilled water. Standardised 0.1 or 0.05 mol dm -3 (M for short) hydrochloric acid.
Phenolphthalein acid-base indicator solution (pink pH 9, colourless pH 9. Fill the perceived definition, burette with the standard acid solution and level off so that the bottom of the meniscus rests on the 0.00 calibration mark. Pipette 25.0 cm3 of the clear liquid above the excess solid in the bottle of limewater into the conical flask. Add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator solution (it should turn pink - alkaline) Place the conical flask on the white tile under the burette tip. Carefully titrate the limewater until ONE drop of the hydrochloric acid removes the Seymour Pyle's Prison Release Essay, last of the pink colour (the end-point is pink to perceived definition colourless). Repeat the Essay, procedure at least twice to obtain good concordance of perceived titration results.
Your results should be over a maximum of 0.2 cm 3 and +/- 0.1 cm 3 range would be very good. In doing subsequent titrations you do not have to of bottom up processing in everyday life keep on. The solubility of calcium hydroxide in water can be measured reasonably accurately to 3sf by titrating the saturated solution with standard hydrochloric acid. In the calculation below assume the molarity of the standardised hydrochloric acid is 0.1005 mol dm -3 . At 25 o C, a few grams of solid calcium hydroxide was shaken with about 400 cm 3 of deionised water, and then filtered. 50.0 cm 3 samples of the 'limewater' gave an perceived definition average titration of counting song meaning 15.22 cm 3 of 0.1005 mol dm -3 hydrochloric acid using phenolphthalein indicator. (a) The equation for calcium hydroxide reacting with hydrochloric acid. (b) The reacting mole ratio of Ca(OH) 2 : HCl and perceived definition hence calculate the moles of Seymour Pyle's Prison Release them involved in the titration. and since moles solute = molarity x volume in dm 3 (dm 3 = cm 3 /1000) mol HCl used in perceived definition, titration = 0.1005 x 15.22/1000 = 0.001530 mol HCl. (c) Calculate the molarity of the solution in terms of mol Ca(OH) 2 dm -3 . Scaling up from Psychology Essay, mol Ca(OH) 2 in 50 cm 3 to 1 dm 3 (1000 cm 3 ) molarity Ca(OH) 2 = 0.00765 x 1000/50 = 0.1558 = 0.153 mol dm -3 (to 3sf) (d) What is the approximate solubility of perceived definition calcium hydroxide in g Ca(OH) 2 per 100g water?
Mr[Ca(OH) 2 ] =74, mass = moles x formula mass. so solubility in g dm -3 = 0.153 x 74 = 1.13 g dm -3 (3 sf) Since density of water is. Above is typical periodic table used in GCSE science-chemistry specifications in at Evolutionary Psychology, doing quantitative titration calculations, and I've 'usually' used these values in my exemplar calculations to cover most syllabuses. Self-assessment Quiz on titrations. OTHER CALCULATION PAGES.
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Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of perceived your company. This chapter is essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is examples of bottom in everyday life worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and perceived, Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of song your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. If you are forming a corporation, be sure to include your Articles of Incorporation here. Definition? Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them.
It also offers a comparison of song meaning your company and your direct and indirect competitors. Perceived? Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for them , and the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and Sales: The marketing and sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service. Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and sleep symbols, distribution. Chapter 6: Strategy and perceived, Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to sleep symbols, set the key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Definition? Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the sleep symbols final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the definition financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an country, existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to definition, reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write.
Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the of primary data types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and definition, why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to definition data, your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and perceived definition, ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Song? Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company. If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the definition limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for counting stars the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors.
Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the perceived definition executive summary is your first opportunity to industrialized country, grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors. Your company will lack the definition historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to stars song, mitigate these factors.
First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of perceived definition your management team, and sleep symbols, your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in definition, a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the Taking at Evolutionary Essay following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and definition, Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional)
Describe the purpose of the newly industrialized country plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to perceived, achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to the point. Summarize the members of the sleep symbols management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into perceived definition, more detail in the Products and Services section.
Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into Seymour Essay, more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and perceived definition, Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional)
Summarize the amount of of primary data equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the definition entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to sleep symbols, identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to perceived definition, Write the Company and Financing Chapter. The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the stars song meaning management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the perceived future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional)
There are many variations and Pyle's Prison Essay, approaches on how to lay out the various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the reader with the perceived definition company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Industrialized Definition? Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in definition, more detail, you will want to country definition, keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to perceived, set up and the most common, there is industrialized definition a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for perceived example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business.
Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and stars, losses of the company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to perceived definition, file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from Prison Essay traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Perceived? Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders.
A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. Counting Song Meaning? The downside to a corporation is the perceived definition problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at of primary the corporate level, and then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at perceived the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at definition of primary data the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Perceived Definition? Some of the drawbacks include not being able to have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to sleep symbols, have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to perceived, open, along with the Seymour Pyle's registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of perceived VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.
For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of industrialized country definition history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader.
Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an definition, established business the information you want to present is the counting same. Perceived? Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the of bottom capability to manage growth of the company. As a company grows from start-up to perceived definition, established business, the management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and Seymour Pyle's Release Essay, ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the perceived definition highest authority in the management of the definition of primary company.
For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and perceived definition, independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to definition, set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in perceived, your industry and are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and Seymour Pyle's Prison Release Essay, well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board.
This will help you to recruit other members of the Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and definition, relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of Seymour Prison Essay your Advisory Board. Feel free to perceived, shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount.
Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is at Evolutionary highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Perceived Definition? Only then will you be able to identify the definition of primary data amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is perceived definition essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for a specific sum of sleep symbols money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to perceived, raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth?
If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by Seymour Essay, break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when?
The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first). Definition? To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to determine the in everyday life cumulative cash flow. The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to definition, answer, especially for a new company.
At the end of the day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for sleep symbols some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for definition many companies the value of its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the value of its assets.
The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by of primary, analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the theory that valuations of perceived definition similar companies can serve as a good proxy. Counting Song Meaning? This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to determine a company’s value by perceived, using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on examples of bottom up processing that future stream of income in today’s terms . Definition? Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the Taking a Look Psychology amount of money you need by definition, looking at cumulative cash flow.
You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to counting stars song meaning, offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Perceived? Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in Seymour Prison Release Essay, order to perceived definition, further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments.
In addition to examples of bottom life, the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the definition funds. Stars? The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon perceived definition, it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in counting song meaning, that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the perceived definition line of credit with assets, you may be able to up processing in everyday life, get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. It’s recommended you review the definition Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including:
Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to data, take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market.
Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. Perceived Definition? These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an sleep symbols, attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement:
Keep it short. Perceived Definition? 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the examples in everyday statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the perceived company does (what it sells) as well as the data culture/vision/purpose. Examples of definition Fortune 500 firms that really get it right:
A. Industrialized Country Definition? BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the definition company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. Data? By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace. Perceived Definition? It is a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to industrialized, improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners.
Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to perceived, maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is definition certainly not a bad thing, only definition stating that as the Seymour Pyle's Release company’s mission statement is ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of perceived definition having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to definition of primary, highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to perceived definition, date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to of bottom up processing life, include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to perceived definition, the level of detail you want to include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for at Evolutionary Essay your company. Every company is made of milestones.
Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on perceived the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. Taking A Look Essay? For example, achieving a working prototype of perceived your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the definition table, the better valuation you can get for perceived your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include:
Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility. Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of Pyle's Prison consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Perceived? Describe the lease terms you are able to examples of bottom in everyday life, secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to definition, look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on definition data the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the perceived facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of your business even if you are not in counting stars song, retail or manufacturing.
For example, you might want to open your software company in definition, Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and Taking a Look, fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the perceived bread and butter of a Look your business.
Your products and services section should include the following sections. Products and definition, Services Chapter Sections. Products and of primary data, Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and perceived, services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. Prison? It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in definition, terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product.
Think about industrialized what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the definition features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and definition of primary, other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the definition business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is examples of bottom up processing life true is the perceived potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. Sleep Symbols? This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to perceived, set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and examples up processing life, we also have a section for definition you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is Taking a Look at Evolutionary Psychology advisable to start thinking about perceived definition how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the Seymour Essay competitive landscape changes over time.
It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perceived, perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in stars song meaning, days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on perceived definition LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to Taking a Look Psychology, be vigilant and be on the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is perceived definition competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long.
Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from newly country definition suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Perceived Definition? Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the definition of primary data lower the perceived definition price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to in everyday, meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the perceived product is designed and counting stars song, built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is definition based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the Prison Essay product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to definition, be selling physical products and expect to hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of sleep symbols inventory you need to meet your projected sales.
Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on perceived definition excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for of primary data seasonality. Perceived Definition? Have accurate inventory tracking. Of Bottom In Everyday? Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in definition, today’s business environment is sleep symbols becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of perceived definition companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services.
Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to examples up processing in everyday life, ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to definition, practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in sleep symbols, your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about perceived your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. Sleep Symbols? What would happen if you lost access to the technology?
Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is perceived there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an sleep symbols, exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and perceived definition, movies). If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the sleep symbols professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and definition, industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for Taking at Evolutionary a patent to protect your invention.
You should apply for perceived definition a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from Seymour Pyle's Prison Release Essay a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in perceived definition, practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and Taking a Look Essay, downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is perceived just as important to secure your intellectual property in definition of primary, relation to your employees and contractors.
Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by perceived, the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to sleep symbols, describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . Perceived Definition? A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the definition product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on definition expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations).
During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of stars song meaning your product are in steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and perceived, market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to Seymour Essay, calculate the total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the perceived segment of that market your business can capture.
Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. Pyle's Prison Essay? So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for definition your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to newly country, open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant.
Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to the next level and determine what percentage of the market you can realistically capture. Perceived Definition? You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in Essay, the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for the customer.
And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to definition, switch to Taking a Look at Evolutionary Essay, your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on definition how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of definition of primary data switching from perceived one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.
For example, there is virtually no cost to counting, switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to perceived definition, overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of of primary data taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is perceived critical for various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in song meaning, more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the perceived definition other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on examples of bottom non-essential purchases.
Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Perceived Definition? For example, the definition Jobs Act of perceived 2012 allowed for Taking at Evolutionary Psychology Essay the first time non-accredited investors to participate in private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of perceived definition investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an newly country definition, impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Dept. of perceived definition Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in up processing life, the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on definition top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and song, easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in perceived, a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology.
Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on of bottom in everyday this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the definition change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in examples up processing in everyday, years). So if the definition market in the first year was $100 million and counting meaning, $150 million the definition second year, then the examples life market can be said to have grown by perceived definition, 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and counting stars meaning, government agencies to definition, find much of counting this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is perceived definition growing is obviously important – for example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Prison Release? Most investors and perceived definition, lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the market for Seymour Pyle's Prison Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to perceived, grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to you in terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry.
Ford and definition data, Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an perceived definition, industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in the way for new entrants to industrialized country definition, enter the perceived definition market and compete. If your industry is of bottom in everyday life supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from definition those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins.
If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in of primary data, your industry and definition, the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the only way to sleep symbols, grow is to perceived, take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in examples of bottom in everyday life, a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to perceived, name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately.
If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and newly industrialized, customer analysis is a complicated and definition, time consuming task. Time to move on sleep symbols to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to definition, describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales.
Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include: Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section.
Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at at Evolutionary Psychology the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in definition, a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from industrialized definition your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for definition your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if:
Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and data, marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the perceived definition strength of their branding and Taking at Evolutionary, not through the taste of definition their coffee. Determining the Taking a Look at Evolutionary Psychology optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is often times a proxy for quality.
How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on perceived definition price, then you will want to be sensitive to definition of primary data, this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to perceived, achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on of primary how much you can charge. Definition? For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to sleep symbols, pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95.
In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto perceived definition, how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. Taking A Look Psychology Essay? What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of perceived your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of sleep symbols options available. Perceived? Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is at Evolutionary Psychology Essay a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the perceived definition destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include:
Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of counting stars song meaning mouth marketing is by perceived definition, far the counting song meaning most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. Perceived? There are ways to sleep symbols, boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the perceived advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of examples up processing mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for every business.
Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. Perceived Definition? You can start by sleep symbols, participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the perceived spectrum is stars song meaning direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers. Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in perceived, turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.
Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is Seymour Pyle's Prison Release Essay only sold through an exclusive channel. Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an definition, unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to sleep symbols, reach and sell to customers.
Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to define the perceived definition key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. Seymour Release Essay? These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in definition, effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an industrialized country, extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases.
It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to definition, create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is definition data a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and perceived, facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors.
Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in meaning, order to perceived definition, achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a Look at Evolutionary Essay a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in perceived, order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is up processing in everyday life a powerful business strategy.
Do you provide superior time to perceived definition, market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Data? Nordstrom’s is an perceived definition, example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is definition a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of definition influence and power of your business. Data? Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and perceived, provide a competitive advantage over examples of bottom in everyday your competitors. You might have a large portion of perceived your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow.
It is newly industrialized definition not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for perceived the industry or to counting stars, help further adoption of perceived a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the a Look at Evolutionary Psychology Essay adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. Perceived Definition? For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the a Look at Evolutionary Psychology Essay Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services.
These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of perceived definition units you will sell. Definition Of Primary? Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for perceived definition defining the Pyle's Prison sales forecast.
Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to perceived definition, define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of Taking Essay your target market and what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. Perceived? For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to of bottom, offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to definition, encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of examples producing your product/service (at the perceived unit level).
Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to in everyday, forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the perceived cost as a % of sales on definition of primary data a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in definition, price over time for several reasons: Economy of Taking a Look at Evolutionary Essay scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from perceived your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Seymour Pyle's Prison? Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by products/services sold. In the definition United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on sleep symbols particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from perceived your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year.
If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to Essay, explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Perceived? Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and newly definition, you’ll run the perceived definition risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about counting song meaning your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there.
You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in perceived, your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in Seymour Pyle's Essay, order to generate large revenues. Perceived Definition? Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to sleep symbols, operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations.
Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for definition example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in Seymour Release Essay, certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and definition, travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. Sleep Symbols? This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and not contractors. If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate.
Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to perceived, coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications.
Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in Taking a Look at Evolutionary Essay, the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and definition, Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and stars song, Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of perceived definition two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for of primary data more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime.
This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over its life by perceived definition, gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for of primary data less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and definition, securities that are likely to turned into cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the newly definition total lease amount of $12,000 being paid upfront.
Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the perceived PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and examples in everyday, can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is perceived expensed over industrialized country time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the perceived $12,000 payment on month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the sleep symbols amount of definition Prepaid Lease that is remaining at the end of the accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an sleep symbols, estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to enter here, use 20%). Dividends and perceived, distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to definition, the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.
Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to perceived, owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and Seymour Pyle's Prison Release, running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs.
For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is definition defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the counting meaning money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on perceived credit. These types of Essay sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs. You want your accounts receivable to be as low as possible to increase your cash flow.
Defining what percentage of your sales will be on perceived definition credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the counting customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to perceived definition, pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like.
It is definition data typical to provide net-30, which is definition 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. It is to your advantage to a Look Psychology Essay, negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at definition accounts receivable (what is owed to counting stars song meaning, you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the key thing to remember is that you want to be paid as soon as possible, and you want to perceived definition, pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is newly king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to definition, be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow.
However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on sleep symbols the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and perceived definition, when the payment arrives. Seymour Release? Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow.
If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to perceived definition, industry, and Taking Psychology, business to business.
A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. Perceived Definition? In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to definition of primary, start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of perceived inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on sleep symbols hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business.
The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry. Perceived? Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. Of Bottom Life? How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of definition money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). You will typically pay interest on the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. If you have an of bottom up processing in everyday life, existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of perceived definition factors.
Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section.
A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is sleep symbols not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and perceived, the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in sleep symbols, exchange for equity (ownership).
In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of definition funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of Seymour Pyle's Prison funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only.
The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history. Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section.
For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. For example, a restaurant might use the number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per definition, dinner. Think about sleep symbols what levers make the definition most impact to your business. You will want to stars meaning, continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is perceived working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and newly industrialized definition, Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into perceived, the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the sleep symbols information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections.
If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by definition, going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at industrialized country definition a given point in perceived definition, time, usually the last day of definition of primary a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the perceived definition sum of your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is Prison Essay put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is definition a read-only display. If you wish to change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to in everyday life, the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section.
The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in perceived, cash during a period. Sleep Symbols? In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. Definition? You can go back to edit the a Look at Evolutionary Psychology sections in the Financial Plan section in definition, order to Taking at Evolutionary Psychology, change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of definition your business.
The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to examples of bottom life, change any of the perceived definition information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. A Look Essay? The ratios here will update automatically. Perceived Definition? The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to examples in everyday, cash is the company in case. This is perceived definition important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt.
The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the examples up processing company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of perceived definition sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and newly industrialized country, how much of the business’s assets are financed by perceived definition, stockholders’ equity. Country Definition? The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the perceived business divided by definition data, the cost of the investment. The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to definition, generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to of primary, realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to definition, write an appendix and a glossary of song meaning terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an perceived definition, investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete.
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Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to perceived, have to do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. Sleep Symbols? Creating these sections requires years of training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them. Keep in perceived definition, mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to a seasoned investor.
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Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC. Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and perceived, does not engage in definition data, the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. Perceived? All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to be a substitute for a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of counting stars meaning this site is subject to our Terms of perceived definition Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.
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Custom Military Integrity essay paper writing service. There are seven values that are core to the existence and optimum for everyone. Perceived! It would be vital to treat them the way they should be treated. A soldier lives and fights on behalf of the nation. He sacrifices his welfare and life in every situation that would require sacrifice.
The leadership in the army is hierarchical and is guided by a code. A dutiful soldier has to live up to this code as well as the code of the army soldier. There are many situations when the soldier has to face the enemy. These situations expose the soldier to sleep symbols, risk of perceived death or fatal injuries. He therefore, needs to have steadfast bravery and Seymour Release Essay, face the danger and all adversities. Definition! A soldier has to fulfill all the work assigned to him. In addition, an army soldier must do what is right, legal and moral at all time. These seven values are respect, selflessness, personal courage, honor, loyalty, duty and integrity. A person who would like to join the military should understand these core values. According to my opinion, integrity is of considerable importance to the success of the army.
This essay discuses the relevance of song integrity in perceived definition, the military. Integrity is one of the ethical values that the military talks about sleep symbols, time after time. Before we look at the importance of integrity, let us first look different definitions of integrity. The true meaning of integrity is sometimes exceedingly puzzling. Perceived! Acting morally sometimes confuses with acting with integrity. Integrity is a virtue to live by. Definition Of Primary Data! It is a quality that defines a person’s character. Integrity could be defined as the quality of truthfulness, honesty, being moral and upright.
It is the soundness of definition moral character. It may also defined as the state of being one, entire, undivided or undiminished. Counting Song! It is a concept of being consistent in definition, moral values, principles and actions. Hypocrisy is the appropriate opposite word for integrity. A person of integrity does right things regardless of situations surrounding, in the presence or absence of people. It is a leadership quality that is highly prized in the world.
Its significance spans through political, social and military leadership. Many prominent leaders of the world have received much honor from counting this quality. Various aspects of a person’s life can, at the same time, be attributed to integrity. It is common to use certain words in a speech or hear attributes such as “intellectual integrity” moral integrity” or even “professional integrity”. This shows that there are different types of integrity. In my opinion a person may act at perceived, a certain situation with a lot of integrity and song meaning, may be regarded as a manifestation of definition his overall integrity. Integrity can be seen in four different perspectives; integrity as a character; integrity as an identity and definition, finally integrity as a moral virtue. For the definition, purposes of this essay, I will discuss integrity as a virtue and a character. In my opinion, a person either has integrity or does not have integrity. A person who does not have integrity is not honest. Sleep Symbols! He keeps lying to his colleagues and seniors.
At the same time, he does not fulfill his duty in time. In other words, he does not meet deadlines or does not complete his work. On the other side, a person of integrity is truthful. He has sound moral values. He accomplishes his tasks in time and does not give excuses for his failures. From a military point of view, integrity is a quality that is developed by perceived definition, sticking to moral principles. Taking At Evolutionary Psychology Essay! It demands that a soldier does or says nothing deceitfully. This explains the first importance of this highly prized quality. A person with no integrity is not trusted by anyone. Perceived! People do not place faith in them to get things accomplished. Integrity builds trust in industrialized definition, a person and perceived definition, a team.
If a person is not trusted, the team’s core values break since the team is built on values and examples in everyday, teamwork. In the process, the team will not achieve its goals. The army works in a team work format like a machine. Trust is the fluid that lubricates the team. If the fluidity of the team is not maintained, the team would not have enough force to definition, drive the adversities beyond their limits. Ones integrity determines the trust that one can obtain from others. When a team fails to accomplish one mission, it is an unfortunate omen for the team.
A mistake of one individual can fail the whole team. A leader does not see an individual’s failure, but he sees that it is the failure of the team. There is a likelihood that a leader will not choose an individual who will make the examples of bottom up processing, team fail. If soldiers lie to each other, they fail to trust each other. People need to trust the military in all the duties accorded to it. Perceived Definition! Integrity in the army impacts confidence in the team. Integrity is key to proper communications within the of primary data, military. A soldier can lie to his senior about something but the outcome of it can be catastrophic. For instance, one soldier was not honest about what happened to his military ID card. He said that the gate guard held it while the truth was that he had lost it somewhere in the parking lot.
Later on my senior found it in the parking area. He was summoned but still maintained that the guard had it. He failed to live up to integrity. What he needed to perceived definition, do was to report exactly what happened so that the senior could address the country definition, situation and probably order for the search. Definition! Supposing the badge had fallen into wrong hands, the badge could be used for malicious reasons. Dishonesty inhibits taking of an appropriate action or measure. It supports healthy relationships within the army. We have seen that, integrity builds trust. Stars Song! Consequently trust is vital in any relationship. Once a person loses trust in another, the two end up having poor relationship. Good relationship is vital for the success of an army.
Once trust is lost in perceived, a person, it may be hard to work with the newly industrialized country, person. He is seen as a betrayal to the team. People tend to keep themselves away from those who lie to them. Definition! Anything the person may say be it true or a lie will not be believed. They will automatically consider that he is Taking a Look at Evolutionary lying until he proves to them that he is definition not lying. The fourth reason why integrity is paramount in stars song meaning, the army is perceived that integrity ensures responsibility. The army expects high integrity even in small things such as the whereabouts of the army badge. If a soldier lies over a small thing, it is hard for his master to assign him duty. If one cannot be trusted with small things, he cannot be trusted with heavy work such as working on an aircraft. Counting Song Meaning! Dishonesty in the military therefore, disables the army’s work force.
One will agree that integrity fosters duty and responsibility. Dishonesty is punishable in the military. Perceived Definition! If one lies to his senior, he can lead to severe penalty. Honesty and truthfulness keeps one from newly industrialized country punishment. Perceived Definition! The time when one is under punishment renders him unavailable for duty. Such punishments include demotion, cutting down of one’s pay, hard work or even suspension from duty.
This can be seriously detrimental to the life of a soldier. The army member may live feeling guilty and disrespected. Seymour Pyle's Prison! One day in the recruits training camp, I woke up late after others had woken up early in perceived, the morning. I rushed to the parade and missed to polish my shoes well. Country Definition! My supervisor noticed that, in addition to that, I had tied my shoe laces wrongly. Perceived! He asked me what happened. I lied to him that my shoes were missing in the morning.
I did not know that he had come to inspect the beds. He told me the truth that he had left me sleeping in the morning. Newly! I was subjected to a one week punishment of polishing all the shoes of my colleagues in the hostels for one week alongside the daily duties assigned to me. In the perceived definition, long run, I regretted why I lied to him instead telling the truth. I was behind schedule in many duties due to the punishment. It was not easy. Integrity is a sign of maturity. When an army member does not say the truth, he sounds childish. Sleep Symbols! Other members may think that the soldier cannot stand up by the set principles or cannot do anything on his own.
The seniors may end up believing that the soldier cannot do a job the correct way. Integrity and trust is critical to the provision of an ambient work environment. Definition! One’s seniors and colleagues must believe that the soldier is fit for the job assigned or that may come up. A person of integrity eliminates doubts about song, him. Dishonesty on definition, the other hand, builds up doubt in one’s work, ability or what he might say before people. Examples Up Processing! One’s speech maybe looked down at.
Integrity in the military builds confidence in a soldier’s life. It boosts his self esteem. High self esteem is essential for a soldier who needs a lot of perceived definition brevity. An army member cannot face the enemy courageously when he knows that his colleagues or seniors do not trust him. A Look At Evolutionary! Integrity enforces other military values. The military produces world known leaders even presidents. These leaders were soldiers of immense integrity. A leader must not be corrupt. In the US and many parts of the world, leaders who showed dishonesty in their payment of taxes or the handling of the national resources were automatically disqualified from running for the presidency or other senior positions in the government. Dishonest leaders are poor leaders.
They are ever corrupt. Apart from the perceived, fact that integrity is a vital characteristic of a military soldier, it is also a significant lifetime virtue to have. It should be integrated into the daily life of sleep symbols a soldier. One instance of lying can spoil a history of one’s life of definition integrity. One should do or say what is right all the time even when there is no one seeing or hearing. One who lies even when the people cannot differentiate the counting meaning, truth from the lies is also dishonest. A person of high integrity receives a lot of honor, respect and commendations.
The society recognizes him and hails his work. Another way a person may fail to have integrity is when one does not do a task in the proper way. Integrity is definition accomplishing the duty assigned to completeness. Doing work in a half hazard manner is a lack of integrity. Doing a perfect work is the sleep symbols, responsibility of a soldier. Definition! For instance, a soldier assigned with the definition data, task of maintaining of an aircraft must ensure the work is complete. Otherwise, the imperfect work can risk the perceived, life of fellow soldiers. Counting Stars Song! Soldiers who have integrity do not need a lot of supervision to do a task at definition, the right time. They complete the task in the right time and the correct way without someone watching them. Integrity is completing a job without cutting corners. Meeting deadlines is essential for any soldier of integrity.
Excuses and unworthy explanations for failing are also lack of integrity. Most excuses are lies. Integrity is taking responsibility for one’s mistakes and failures. A soldier should say the truth why he failed, take his own cross and carry it. Blaming others or circumstances are not integrity. He should not fear to tell the truth even if it may be hurting. The definition of integrity according to me personifies the main virtue of a leader whether in politics or the military. No leader can claim to have leadership qualities if he does not mention integrity in his list. It is common to find wrong people in leadership positions. This frustrates the subjects especially when the people have no ability to air their grievances.
However, they can revolutionize their own lives to be people of integrity. According to sleep symbols, my opinion, integrity separates leaders from people who are not. A leader is perceived definition sound in morals free from corrupt influences. A person can decide to practice integrity through commitment to newly country definition, assigned obligations, honesty in all endeavors, and perceived, fairness and equality when treating all people. A soldier who makes this decisions takes control of his “own ship” and Taking a Look at Evolutionary Essay, commandeers his own destiny. One will finally find true happiness inside himself. One can agree that the best life of a person begins when he conducts himself with integrity. He further confirms that the greatest leaders have a common character contained in the definition of integrity. Dwight D. Eisenhower, one of the soldiers and army leaders of the definition, World War II, once said that the supreme quality of a leader is undoubtedly integrity and no success can be achieved without it whether it is in the army or the office. Integrity unleashes the warrior within a person.
One can realize and fulfill his goals when he defines integrity in his life. Definition! At the same time, integrity enables a soldier to remain comfortable with himself and perceived definition, achieve happiness in his career. A soldier who lives as per the definition of integrity will conduct himself in a manner that will earn him respect of the peers. In conclusion, integrity is a quality of both an individual soldier as well as the whole team. It is a quality that cements the team together for the purposes of achieving goals.
It is the main ingredient of examples of bottom in everyday trust for not only one soldier but also for the whole team. This leadership quality if cultivated in an individual’s life, it will build confidence, courage and high self esteem. Integrity is the quality that is highly prized, and many leaders in perceived, the world posse it. In summary, integrity builds trust in the military. It fosters proper communication in definition of primary, the army; limits the number of punishments that a soldier may receive and maintains good relationship between soldiers.
Integrity is not just a one instance thing, but a lifetime virtue that should be developed. Buy Military Integrity essay paper online. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.