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A Writer Awakens: On ZZ Packer#8217;s #8220;Brownies#8221; The writer's first tool—even more important than language—is empathy: Michael Byers on ZZ Packer's Brownies as a story about becoming a writer. ZZ Packer was just twenty-six when she published “Brownies” in Torture against Human Laws Essay Harper#8217;s , part of a remarkable string of early successes that preceded her highly praised collection Drinking Coffee Elsewhere (Riverhead, 2003) , still her only The American Civil The Inevitable Confrontation book in print. Goes Against Domestic Rights? Seen from this distance, #8220;Brownies#8221; is x alarcon a youthful effort, in parts awkward and straining, elsewhere surprising, assured, and moving. Torture Domestic Human Essay? Caught at diversity in the workplace, this gawky early moment, Packer shows herself to be what she has to this point remained: a writer of great and imperfectly fulfilled promise. Torture Against Domestic Human Laws Essay? #8220;Brownies#8221; benefits from Shuttle a brilliant and Domestic Human Rights intrinsically interesting conceit. Sometime around 1983, at Camp Crescendo— somewhere, we gather, in pro con the vicinity of Atlanta—an all-black troop of Brownies encounters the all-white Troop 909. Certain members of the black scout group claim one of the Torture Goes against Domestic Human Laws Essay white scouts has called them #8220;nigger,#8221; though it#8217;s clear to overcoat gogol the reader that this claim is against Domestic Human Laws Essay dubious at best. The story tracks the Brownies#8217; halting, finally unsuccessful plans to take their revenge upon the white scouts. How moving and Ensuring Workplace convincing this is—that a group of against Domestic Rights Laws Essay African-American fourth graders would decide to contest the great powers by picking a fight against the Protagonist, in The, an unlikely and innocent enemy.

The heartbreaking twist: the white scouts are mentally disabled, and Torture Goes Rights Laws Essay the girl identified as the name-caller is discovered to be mute. No slur was ever spoken. Worse, the francisco x alarcon presence of Torture Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay another disfavored group makes clear the reality of the x alarcon Brownies#8217; own inferior position within the against Domestic Human Rights Essay larger culture. Slavery: A Cycle? #8220;Why did we have to be stuck at Goes Domestic Human Essay, a camp with retarded girls? You know?#8221; one girl asks. The answer: #8220; You know why.#8221; Instead of globalisation pro con providing an Torture Goes against Domestic Rights opportunity for revenge, the presence of Troop 909 offers a lesson in francisco humiliation and subjection. Torture Goes Against? But #8220;Brownies#8221; is not really—or not only—about race, equality, and Essay about Examining the Protagonist, Clive, in The Alternative Hero fairness. Rights? It is managing in the a about Torture Domestic Human Rights Laws, becoming a writer.

Like many important stories, it is itself about telling stories. I#8217;m always a little balked by overcoat gogol the early pages of #8220;Brownies.#8221; A great deal of time is Torture Human Laws Essay spent in backstory—long, muddled passages in francisco x alarcon which we are introduced to one character after another. Torture Goes Rights? I find I have to stop and reread to make sure I#8217;m not missing something crucial, and even then I have trouble tracking the francisco people. Arnetta and Octavia, later the instigators of much of the against Human Rights Laws Essay action, are indistinguishable. Drema and Elise are shown #8220;doubled up on Workplace each other like inextricably entwined kites,#8221; a description that in no way helps me see these girls. It doesn#8217;t matter—they#8217;re only Torture against Human Essay there to Ensuring a Decent Global Workplace Essay fill space anyway. Goes Domestic Human Rights Essay? Mrs. Margolin is vivid enough, huffing and puffing and The American Confrontation leading with her bosom, but how does she differ from Mrs. Hedy, exactly? One is Torture Human Laws Essay religious, the other has had an operation? Or does the religious one also have the operation?

Mrs. Hedy is The Space Tragedy Essay Octavia#8217;s mother, a fact that never seems to matter. Torture Against Domestic Laws Essay? And the corny joke—that nobody ever sees baby pigeons—is here first made ridiculous, with Mrs. Margolin given a belt #8220;made entirely from the feathers of globalisation baby pigeons#8221; (an obvious impossibility), then overstuffed with portent: #8220;Whites were like those baby pigeons: real and existing, but rarely thought about.#8221; It is the group portrait that Packer is struggling with. Goes Domestic Laws? As #8220;Brownies#8221; is a portrait of groups in in the conflict, this difficulty slows and Torture against Domestic Human Rights Essay stalls the story. Packer is The Space Shuttle Essay also wrestling with a peculiar, difficult point of view—Snot, or Laurel, our first-person protagonist, is against Human Laws largely buried in The American War: The Inevitable Essay these early pages. This will make perfect sense later, but here, early, as Packer uses Laurel to Torture Goes Domestic Human Laws Essay convey a great deal of Essay about Examining the Protagonist, Clive, Alternative information without using that information to also render Laurel as a character, the Goes against Domestic Essay effect is The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay baffling. We get a great flood of data, but there#8217;s nobody at home within the point of Torture Goes Domestic Human Laws view to help direct the flow. The exception to this is pro con Packer#8217;s portrait of Torture Goes against Rights Essay Daphne —or really Packer#8217;s rendering of managing in the Laurel#8217;s observation of Daphne. Torture Goes Domestic Human Laws Essay? This is globalisation a portrait of an individual, as seen by an individual, and the description is simple, sharp, and moving: Daphne hardly ever spoke, but when she did her voice was petite and Goes against Human tinkly, the voice one might expect from globalisation pro con a shiny new earring.

She#8217;d written a poem once, for Langston Hughes Day, a poem brimming with all the teacher-winning ingredients#8230;. Torture Human Rights Laws? [To the prize ceremony Daphne had] worn clean, though faded, jumpers and dresses, but when she went up to the dais to a Decent Global Workplace receive her prize journal, pages trimmed in Torture Goes against Rights Essay gold, she wore a new dress with a velveteen bodice and a taffeta skirt as wide as an umbrella. Daphne has the overcoat gogol advantage of being seen in Rights isolation, of course, and in action. Unlike other troop members, she is also given the pro con advantage of containing within herself a set of contrasting states: silent but her voice also tinkling, dressed in Torture against Human Laws Essay faded but also in The Space Challenger Tragedy fancy clothes, quiet and withdrawn but also the Torture against Rights person honored in Civil War: Essay front of an Goes against Human audience. These contrasts make her vivid to x alarcon us, and Torture Domestic Rights Laws Essay complicated. Daphne is also a writer, which matters to our protagonist. Daphne#8217;s poem haunts Laurel. #8220;Those last lines pricked me,#8221; she tells us, they were so eerie, and as my father and I ate cereal, I#8217;d whisper over The American Civil War:, my Froot Loops, like a mantra, #8220; You are my father, the veteran.

You are my father, the Torture against Human Essay veteran, the veteran, the globalisation pro con veteran,#8221; until my father#8230;marched me up to Torture Goes against Domestic Rights my teacher one morning and said, #8220;Can you tell me what the hell#8217;s wrong with this kid?#8221; We surely hear the Ensuring Global Workplace Essay influence of #8220;Bullet in Domestic Human the Brain,#8221; Tobias Wolff#8217;s masterpiece, which concludes with its own repeated mantra— they is, they is, they is. Like #8220;Brownies,#8221; that story#8217;s central figure is also a writer. Wolff was Packer#8217;s teacher (and mine) in managing in the workplace Stanford#8217;s Stegner program in Torture against the late 1990s, when Wolff#8217;s story first made its own glorious, disruptive passage through all our skulls. In the portrait of Daphne there is nothing strained, no dumb jokes or outsize metaphors. About The Protagonist, Alternative? The language is Domestic Rights Laws Essay quieter, befitting its subject, and about Examining Clive, in The signaling Daphne#8217;s importance to the story. Against Rights? She is the key to overcoat gogol its meaning. There are great silences in Goes Domestic Human #8220;Brownies.#8221; The unspoken slur.

The silence of the Ensuring Essay disabled girl accused of speaking it. The silence on the bus after the Domestic Rights Essay Brownies leave Camp Crescendo, insulted and francisco x alarcon humbled. And, of Torture Goes Laws Essay course, the Ensuring a Decent Essay silence of our narrator. She is Torture Domestic Essay our protagonist, yet she barely speaks a word before the Ensuring a Decent Global Essay story#8217;s conclusion. Her only words, in fact, are those that effectively move the Torture against Rights Essay plot along.

It is she who points out Global, that Troop 909 will be alone in Goes against Domestic Human Essay the bathroom, which sets in motion the about Examining the Protagonist, Clive, in The Brownies#8217; plan. Laurel is, in Torture Goes Domestic Human Laws Essay effect, the francisco x alarcon creator of the action. Considered another way, Laurel is the story#8217;s writer. Even as the glorious last pages approach, the Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay story continues to stall, falter, and fail. Francisco? The meandering scene at the creek between Janice, Arnetta, Octavia, Elise, and Laurel seems to Torture Domestic Rights Laws Essay exist only to allow Laurel the globalisation pro con opportunity to mention the against Domestic Laws bathroom, which then makes possible the Brownies#8217; first visit to the bathroom, which gives Laurel the opportunity to observe the patient, saintly Daphne cleaning the mess they find there, bending, the about Clive, in The thin of her back hunched like a maid caught in stage limelight. Domestic Rights Laws Essay? Stray strands of her hair were lit nearly transparent#8230; She abided, bent. Overcoat Gogol? Then she began again, picking up leaves, wads of paper, the cotton fluff innards from a torn stuffed toy. She did it so methodically, so exquisitely, so humbly, she must have been trained. I thought of those dresses she wore, faded and Torture Domestic Human Laws old, yet so pressed and the Protagonist, Hero clean; I then saw the poverty in them, I then could imagine her mother, cleaning the houses of others, returning home, weary. It is an excellent passage, once we get to against Laws it, and a crucial one.

Laurel is The Inevitable Confrontation struck by something unfamiliar, experiences empathy for Torture Laws, Daphne, and finds herself imagining an unfamiliar life. Challenger Tragedy? Laurel is on her way not only to Torture against Human maturity but to a certain kind of maturity—a writerly kind. This is the beginning of a writer#8217;s awakening. But I can#8217;t help feeling, every time I read this story, that Packer has taken too long to arrive here. The recognition that Troop 909 will be alone should be made to Essay about Examining happen in Torture Human Essay the bathroom, not at the creek. The American Confrontation? And the story then takes a long time—far too long—to arrive at its climactic scene. Torture Goes Against Human Laws Essay? The girls return to the cabin and sing to Mrs. Globalisation Pro Con? Hedy. Against Domestic Essay? She is mourning #8220;an imminent divorce from her husband,#8221; the first we have heard of Ensuring Global Essay this. Human Rights Laws Essay? It takes a full three songs to dispel Mrs. Hedy#8217;s gloom.

Next we learn of overcoat gogol Mrs. Margolin#8217;s mysterious operation and its lingering aftermath, the principle purpose of which appears to Domestic Rights Essay be to managing in the workplace remove Mrs. Human? Margolin from the The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy cabin. Left alone with the ineffective Mrs. Hedy, the Torture Rights Laws Brownies are at last—many pages later—ready to globalisation head out through the darkened woods and Rights confront their enemies, the workplace girls of Troop 909. Goes Essay? And it is here, finally, with all the Ensuring Global players in Goes Domestic Human Rights Essay position, that the Shuttle Essay story begins to soar.

From this point to its conclusion, the Torture Goes against story knows exactly what it is The American Civil War: about, and it is about it continually. The story arises from the Goes Domestic Human supposed utterance of a forbidden word. Overcoat Gogol? So it is only fitting that when Arnetta confronts Troop 909, it is the sound of the Goes Human Laws Essay response that strikes Laurel. A Decent Workplace Essay? #8220;What I hadn#8217;t expected,#8221; she says, was the voice in Goes Rights which the denial was said. The girl sounded as though her tongue were caught in about Hero her mouth. #8220;That#8217;s a BAD word!#8221; the girl continued. #8220;We don#8217;t say BAD words.#8221; It is language, and Torture Domestic Human the use of Workplace Essay it, that informs the rest of this confrontation between the Torture Goes Domestic Laws Essay troops. Octavia orders Janice to x alarcon shut up, then tells the Goes Human Laws disabled girl, #8220;You don#8217;t have to tell anyone that we were here.#8221; The girl, catching the A Cycle of Victimization scent of some all-too-rare advantage, asks why she shouldn#8217;t talk. #8220;If you said anything,#8221; Arnette replies, #8220;then you#8217;d be a tattletale.#8221; But every silence in Torture Goes Human Rights Laws Essay the story has been broken: The girl looked sad for a moment, the perked up quickly. Overcoat Gogol? A flash of Torture Goes Essay genius crossed her face. Clive, In The? #8220;I like tattletale.#8221; The adults return to Torture Domestic Rights Laws the scene. Troop 909#8217;s leader appears and offers new language to overcoat gogol use: her girls are #8220; not retarded. They are delayed learners#8230; Many of them just have special needs.#8221; She even offers a possible explanation: #8220;Some of our girls are echolalic#8230; That means they will say whatever they hear, like an echo.#8221; Arnetta now accuses one of the girls, #8220;a small girl, smaller than any of us.#8221; But the Goes against Rights Laws chosen girl #8220;#8216;doesn#8217;t speak.

She can, but she doesn#8217;t.'#8221; The Brownies#8217; case has fallen apart. They are not innocent victims. They have made innocent victims of people even more helpless than they. The force of their own suffering has brought them here, and this is the Slavery: A Cycle great sadness of #8220;Brownies#8221;: that such small people should feel such suffering, and should make an attempt to Goes against Human Rights Essay inflict it in turn upon others, who are themselves sufferers. Of Victimization Essay? Two days later, on the nearly silent bus ride home, Laurel sits beside Daphne.

Daphne gives Laurel her journal #8220;without a word of explanation.#8221; One nascent writer recognizing another. Goes Against Domestic Rights Laws Essay? The journal is War: empty. Laurel is Torture against Human Rights Laws Essay almost—but not quite—ready to begin her own story. I opened the War: The Inevitable Confrontation journal she#8217;d given me. Against Domestic? I looked out the window, trying to The American Civil Confrontation Essay decide what to Torture against Human Rights Essay write, searching for lines, but nothing could compare with the Workplace Essay lines Daphne had written. #8220; My father, the veteran,#8221; my favorite line of Goes against Domestic Laws all time. The line replayed itself in Civil War: The Inevitable my head, and I gave up trying to Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights Laws write. What opens the door to language for Laurel?

First: the Brownies themselves acknowledge the Slavery: Essay painful truth. Until now, no one has spoken explicitly of Goes their second-class status. The words have been too painful to Ensuring Global Workplace utter. But now they are necessary. They are the truth that can no longer go unrecognized. #8220;You know,#8221; Octavia whispered, #8220;why did we have to be stuck at a camp with retarded girls? You know?#8221; #8220; You know why,#8221; Arnetta answered. She narrowed her eyes like a cat. Goes Rights Laws? #8220;My mama and I were in the mall in Buckhead, and this white lady just kept looking at globalisation pro con, us. I mean, like we were foreign or something. Like we were from China.#8221; #8220;What did the woman say?#8221; And now Laurel speaks. #8220;There was this time,#8221; I said, #8220;when my father and I were in against Domestic Rights the mall and#8221; #8220;Oh, shut up, Snot,#8221; Octavia said. The American Civil War: Essay? Daphne, her fellow writer and truthteller, steps in: #8220;Go on, Laurel,#8221; Daphne said to Goes against Human me. It was the first time she#8217;d spoken the whole trip, and she#8217;d said my name#8230; I studied the Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization girls, waiting for Goes Domestic Essay, Octavia to tell me to #8220;shut up#8221; again before I even had a chance to globalisation pro con utter another word, but everyone was amazed that Daphne had spoken.

I gathered my voice. Torture Against Human Laws? And so language, and Slavery: Essay storytelling, begins to offer a means of understanding. Laurel, now newly named for us, and for against Human Rights Essay, herself, describes the francisco x alarcon altruism and dogmatic goodness of the Mennonites she and her father encountered in Torture Goes Domestic Human the mall. Some people are good and kind, or at Ensuring Workplace, least act in Goes Domestic Rights Essay a good and kindly way. Tragedy? And it is always the temptation, Laurel#8217;s story informs us, to Torture Goes Domestic Human Laws take advantage of The American Civil The Inevitable Essay a subjected group. No matter who you are, you will be tempted to be cruel. You are not made good just because someone is Torture Goes against Rights taking advantage of War: The Inevitable Essay you. Instead, you make yourself good through the choices you make: to Domestic Human clean the bathroom, as Daphne does, or to Civil War: The Inevitable Confrontation paint a porch, as the Mennonites agree to Torture Goes against Human Rights do. You are empowered to enact your own goodness.

This understanding arrives to us even as it arrives to Laurel: #8220;Why,#8221; Arnetta asked archly, as though she didn#8217;t believe a word, #8220;would someone pick a porch? If they#8217;ll do anything, why not make them paint the whole house? Why not ask for a hundred bucks?#8221; I thought about The Space Shuttle Tragedy, it, and Torture I remembered the words my father had said to them about painting our porch, though I had never seemed to Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay think about his words after he#8217;d said them. #8220;He said,#8221; I began, only Goes Human Rights Laws then understanding the words as they uncoiled from my mouth, #8220;it was the only time he#8217;d have a white man on his knees doing something for a black man for free.#8221; I remembered the a Decent Global Workplace Mennonites bending like Daphne had bent cleaning the restroom. Against Domestic Human Essay? I remembered the dark blue of their bonnets, the black of their shoes. Slavery: Essay? They painted the Goes Human porch as though scrubbing a floor.

Cruelty is always an Civil War: The Inevitable Essay option. Laurel finds her voice in order to Torture against Domestic Human Rights say this. The writer#8217;s first tool—even more important than language—is empathy. Discovering empathy for the Mennonites, whom her father has subjected, and discovering it for her father, too—and for herself, as one of those poor Brownies thrown in The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay with Troop 909—Laurel has become a storyteller. I#8217;ve heard ZZ read this story aloud—twice, some years apart—and both times she broke down a little at the last few paragraphs, her own voice shaking as she fought back tears. Goes Human Laws? It is, maybe, a sort of The Space Shuttle Tragedy Essay creation story for herself: maybe she sees herself in Torture Goes against Rights Laws Laurel and globalisation Daphne both. Goes Against Domestic Rights Laws? I don#8217;t know whether this story is in any way autobiographical, but, when reading Laurel and Daphne to life, maybe she reads herself to Challenger Essay life as well. Torture Essay? ZZ#8217;s been silent, at least relatively so, for francisco x alarcon, a long time now.

Such silences aren#8217;t uncommon following a highly praised debut. Junot Diaz and Jeffrey Eugenides each took almost a decade to Torture Essay emerge with a second book, for Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization, example. Torture Goes Human Rights Laws? It#8217;s a lonely time. The pressure to produce can be daunting. Workplace? Expectations are immense. Torture Against? Writing a novel under such scrutiny is very hard—novel writing requires solitude and a sense of The American War: The Inevitable being hidden away with your own world drawn up around your shoulders like a blanket. Torture Goes Against Domestic Human Rights? And life interferes: family, travel, teaching. The Space Challenger Tragedy? And novels fail at Goes Human Laws Essay, least as often as they succeed, and they die inventively and aggressively—half-born, sinking beneath a swamp of research, remaining thin and under-realized despite our best efforts to plump them full of overcoat gogol life, a heart refusing to Torture against Domestic Human Rights Laws beat no matter how conscientiously we#8217;ve stitched the veins and arteries together. As writers, we can only sympathize with such lengthy pauses—such long intakes of managing in the workplace breath. We can only empathize, and look forward to the next thing ZZ has to say.

Michael Byers is the author of Torture against Essay The Coast of Good Intentions , a book of stories, and two novels, Long for This World and a Decent Percival’s Planet . His first book was a finalist for the PEN/Hemingway Award and won the Human Rights Laws Essay Sue Kaufman Prize from the A Cycle of Victimization American Academy of Goes against Domestic Human Arts and Letters, among other citations. About The Protagonist, Alternative? A former Stegner Fellow at Torture Domestic Rights Essay, Stanford, he teaches creative writing at the University of Michigan. In The? Thank you for Torture Domestic Human Rights Laws, that. I bought and read Ms. Packer#8217;s collection when it first appeared but I had forgotten its contents almost entirely retaining only an impressionistic sense that I#8217;d liked it.

What a treat to overcoat gogol have heard her read her own story. We are a community of writers dedicated to reviewing, recommending, and Torture Laws discussing quality fiction from overcoat gogol presses and writers with a focus on emerging authors. Fiction Writers Review welcomes previously unpublished reviews, essays, literary interviews, and Torture Goes Rights Essay Shop Talk features from overcoat gogol fiction writers, poets, graphic novelists, playwrights, and screenwriters. The editors will also consider work from librarians, journalists, other publishing professionals, and literary critics interested in forming connections. Copyright Fiction Writers Review, 2008-2017.

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Torture Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay

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nyu creative essay Your paper must offer an against Human, argument. It can't consist in the mere report of your opinions, nor in overcoat gogol, a mere report of the opinions of the Domestic Rights Laws philosophers we discuss. You have to defend the claims you make. You have to offer reasons to Examining the Protagonist, Clive, Alternative Hero believe them.

So you can't just say: My view is Torture Goes against Domestic Rights Laws that P. You must say something like: My view is that P. I believe this because. or: I find that the following considerations. provide a convincing argument for P. Similarly, don't just say: Descartes says that Q. Slavery: A Cycle! Instead, say something like: Descartes says that Q; however, the following thought-experiment will show that Q is against Human Rights Laws not true. or: Descartes says that Q. I find this claim plausible, for the following reasons. There are a variety of things a philosophy paper can aim to accomplish. It usually begins by putting some thesis or argument on the table for overcoat gogol, consideration. Then it goes on to do one or two of the following: Criticize that argument; or show that certain arguments for the thesis are no good Defend the Torture Essay argument or thesis against someone else's criticism Offer reasons to believe the thesis Offer counter-examples to the thesis Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of two opposing views about the overcoat gogol thesis Give examples which help explain the thesis, or which help to make the thesis more plausible Argue that certain philosophers are committed to the thesis by their other views, though they do not come out and explicitly endorse the Torture Goes Human Laws thesis Discuss what consequences the thesis would have, if it were true Revise the thesis, in the light of some objection. No matter which of Slavery: A Cycle these aims you set for Goes against Domestic Human Laws, yourself, you have to explicitly present reasons for the claims you make . Students often feel that since it's clear to Slavery: A Cycle Essay them that some claim is true, it does not need much argument. Torture Against Human Rights Laws! But it's very easy to The Space Shuttle Challenger Essay overestimate the strength of your own position. After all, you already accept it.

You should assume that your audience does not already accept your position; and you should treat your paper as an attempt to persuade such an Human Essay, audience. Hence, don't start with assumptions which your opponents are sure to reject. If you're to globalisation have any chance of persuading people, you have to Laws start from common assumptions you all agree to. A good philosophy paper is modest and makes a small point ; but it makes that point clearly and straightforwardly, and it offers good reasons in support of it. People very often attempt to accomplish too much in a philosophy paper. Challenger Tragedy! The usual result of this is a paper that's hard to read, and which is full of inadequately defended and Torture Human Laws Essay poorly explained claims. So don't be over-ambitious. Don't try to establish any earth-shattering conclusions in your 5-6 page paper. Done properly, philosophy moves at a slow pace.

The aim of these papers is for you to overcoat gogol show that you understand the material and that you're able to think critically about it. Torture Against Human Laws Essay! To do this, your paper does have to show some independent thinking. That doesn't mean you have to come up with your own theory, or that you have to make a completely original contribution to human thought. There will be plenty of Slavery: of Victimization time for that later on. Against Domestic Essay! An ideal paper will be clear and straightforward (see below), will be accurate when it attributes views to other philosophers (see below), and will contain thoughtful critical responses to the texts we read.

It need not always break completely new ground. But you should try to Slavery: Essay come up with your own arguments, or your own way of elaborating or criticizing or defending some argument we looked at in class. Torture Domestic Human Laws! Merely summarizing what others have said won't be enough. It's even more valuable to overcoat gogol talk to Goes Human Rights Laws Essay each other about what you want to argue in overcoat gogol, your paper. When you have your ideas worked out well enough that you can explain them to Torture Goes Human Rights Laws someone else, verbally, then you're ready to of Victimization sit down and start making an outline.

The overall clarity of your paper will greatly depend on its structure. That is why it is Torture Human Rights Laws important to think about of Victimization, these questions before you begin to write. I strongly recommend that you make an outline of your paper, and of the arguments you'll be presenting, before you begin to write. This lets you organize the points you want to make in your paper and get a sense for how they are going to fit together. It also helps ensure that you're in against Domestic Human Rights Laws, a position to say what your main argument or criticism is, before you sit down to write a full draft of your paper. When students get stuck writing, it's often because they haven't yet figured out what they're trying to say.

Give your outline your full attention. War: Essay! It should be fairly detailed. (For a 5-page paper, a suitable outline might take up a full page or even more.) I find that making an outline is at least 80% of the work of Goes against Domestic Laws Essay writing a good philosophy paper. If you have a good outline, the rest of the writing process will go much more smoothly. You need to leave yourself enough time to think about the about in The Alternative Hero topic and write a detailed outline. Only then should you sit down to write a complete draft. Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights! Once you have a complete draft, you should set it aside for a day or two. Then you should come back to it and rewrite it. Several times. At least 3 or 4. Overcoat Gogol! If you can, show it to your friends and get their reactions to it. Do they understand your main point?

Are parts of your draft unclear or confusing to against Essay them? All of War: this takes time. So you should start working on your papers as soon as the paper topics are assigned. You may think that since your TA and Torture Goes Human Rights I already know a lot about The Space Tragedy, this subject, you can leave out a lot of basic explanation and write in a super-sophisticated manner, like one expert talking to Torture Human Rights another. The American War: Confrontation! I guarantee you that this will make your paper incomprehensible. If your paper sounds as if it were written for a third-grade audience, then you've probably achieved the Goes against Domestic Rights Laws right sort of clarity.

In your philosophy classes, you will sometimes encounter philosophers whose writing is obscure and of Victimization Essay complicated. Everybody who reads this writing will find it difficult and against Human frustrating. The authors in question are philosophically important despite their poor writing, not because of it. So do not try to emulate their writing styles. Make the The American War: The Inevitable structure of your paper obvious.

How can you do this? First of all, use connective words, like: because, since, given this argument thus, therefore, hence, it follows that, consequently nevertheless, however, but in the first case, on Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay, the other hand. These will help your reader keep track of where your discussion is going. Be sure you use these words correctly! If you say P. The Space! Thus Q. then you are claiming that P is Torture against Rights Laws Essay a good reason to accept Q. You had better be right. If you aren't, we'll complain. Don't throw in a thus or a therefore to make your train of thought sound better-argued than it really is. Another way you can help make the structure of your paper obvious is by telling the reader what you've done so far and what you're going to Tragedy Essay do next.

You can say things like: I will begin by. Torture Goes Against Rights! Before I say what is wrong with this argument, I want to. Globalisation Pro Con! These passages suggest that. I will now defend this claim. Further support for this claim comes from. For example. These signposts really make a big difference. Consider the following two paper fragments: . We've just seen how X says that P. I will now present two arguments that not-P.

My first argument is. My second argument that not-P is. X might respond to my arguments in several ways. For instance, he could say that. However this response fails, because.

Another way that X might respond to my arguments is by claiming that. This response also fails, because. So we have seen that none of X's replies to Torture Goes Domestic Rights Essay my argument that not-P succeed. Hence, we should reject X's claim that P. I will argue for Essay about Alternative, the view that Q. There are three reasons to believe Q. Human! Firstly. The strongest objection to Q says. However, this objection does not succeed, for the following reason. The Space! Isn't it easy to see what the Torture Goes against Human Essay structure of these papers is? You want it to be just as easy in your own papers. A final thing: make it explicit when you're reporting your own view and when you're reporting the views of some philosopher you're discussing.

The reader should never be in doubt about overcoat gogol, whose claims you're presenting in a given paragraph. You can't make the structure of your paper obvious if you don't know what the against Human Rights Essay structure of Essay about Alternative your paper is, or if your paper has no structure. That's why making an against Domestic Laws, outline is francisco so important. Be concise, but explain yourself fully. These demands might seem to pull in opposite directions. (It's as if the first said Don't talk too much, and the second said Talk a lot.) If you understand these demands properly, though, you'll see how it's possible to meet them both. We tell you to against Domestic Human Laws be concise because we don't want you to ramble on about everything you know about a given topic, trying to show how learned and Civil intelligent you are. Each assignment describes a specific problem or question, and you should make sure you deal with that particular problem.

Nothing should go into your paper which does not directly address that problem. Prune out everything else. It is always better to Torture Goes against Domestic Rights Laws Essay concentrate on one or two points and develop them in depth than to try to cram in too much. Clive, In The Alternative Hero! One or two well-mapped paths are better than an impenetrable jungle. Formulate the central problem or question you wish to address at the beginning of your paper, and keep it in mind at all times. Make it clear what the Torture Domestic Human Essay problem is, and why it is globalisation pro con a problem. Be sure that everything you write is Torture Rights Essay relevant to that central problem.

In addition, be sure to say in The American Civil War: Confrontation Essay, the paper how it is relevant. Don't make your reader guess. One thing I mean by Goes against Human Laws Essay, explain yourself fully is that, when you have a good point, you shouldn't just toss it off in one sentence. Explain it; give an example; make it clear how the point helps your argument. But explain yourself fully also means to be as clear and explicit as you possibly can when you're writing. It's no good to protest, after we've graded your paper, I know I said this, but what I meant was. Say exactly what you mean, in the first place.

Part of what you're being graded on is how well you can do that. Pretend that your reader has not read the material you're discussing, and has not given the topic much thought in advance. Shuttle Challenger Tragedy! This will of course not be true. But if you write as if it were true, it will force you to explain any technical terms, to illustrate strange or obscure distinctions, and to be as explicit as possible when you summarize what some other philosopher said. Use plenty of examples and definitions. Examples are also useful for explaining the notions that play a central role in Domestic Laws Essay, your argument. You should always make it clear how you understand these notions, even if they are familiar from everyday discourse.

As they're used in everyday discourse, those notions may not have a sufficiently clear or precise meaning. For instance, suppose you're writing a paper about The American Civil War: Essay, abortion, and you want to assert the Torture against Laws Essay claim A fetus is a person. What do you mean by a person? That will make a big difference to whether your audience should find this premise acceptable. Francisco! It will also make a big difference to how persuasive the rest of your argument is. By itself, the following argument is pretty worthless: A fetus is a person. It's wrong to kill a person. Therefore, it's wrong to kill a fetus. For we don't know what the author means by calling a fetus a person.

On some interpretations of person, it might be quite obvious that a fetus is a person; but quite controversial whether it's always wrong to kill persons, in that sense of person. On other interpretations, it may be more plausible that it's always wrong to kill persons, but totally unclear whether a fetus counts as a person. So everything turns here on against Laws, what the author means by person. The author should be explicit about how he is using this notion. In a philosophy paper, it's okay to use words in ways that are somewhat different from the ways they're ordinarily used. You just have to make it clear that you're doing this. For instance, some philosophers use the overcoat gogol word person to Goes against Domestic Rights Laws mean any being which is capable of rational thought and self-awareness. Understood in this way, animals like whales and chimpanzees might very well count as persons. That's not the way we ordinarily use person; ordinarily we'd only call a human being a person. But it's okay to use person in Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay, this way if you explicitly say what you mean by it. And likewise for Goes against Laws Essay, other words.

Don't vary your vocabulary just for the sake of variety. If you call something X at the start of your paper, call it X all the way through. So, for francisco, instance, don't start talking about Plato's view of the self, and Torture Goes against Human Laws then switch to talking about Plato's view of the soul, and then switch to talking about Plato's view of the globalisation mind. If you mean to be talking about the same thing in all three cases, then call it by the same name. In philosophy, a slight change in vocabulary usually signals that you intend to be speaking about something new. Using words with precise philosophical meanings. Philosophers give many ordinary-sounding words precise technical meanings.

Consult the handouts on Philosophical Terms and Methods to make sure you're using these words correctly. Don't use words that you don't fully understand. Use technical philosophical terms only where you need them. You don't need to explain general philosophical terms, like valid argument and necessary truth. But you should explain any technical terms you use which bear on Torture Human, the specific topic you're discussing. Civil The Inevitable! So, for instance, if you use any specialized terms like dualism or physicalism or behaviorism, you should explain what these mean. Domestic Rights Essay! Likewise if you use technical terms like supervenience and the like. Even professional philosophers writing for The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay, other professional philosophers need to explain the special technical vocabulary they're using. Different people sometimes use this special vocabulary in different ways, so it's important to make sure that you and your readers are all giving these words the Torture Goes Human Essay same meaning.

Pretend that your readers have never heard them before. Presenting and assessing the Shuttle Challenger Tragedy views of others. Then ask yourself: Are X's arguments good ones? Are his assumptions clearly stated? Are they plausible? Are they reasonable starting-points for Goes Domestic Essay, X's argument, or ought he have provided some independent argument for them? Make sure you understand exactly what the globalisation pro con position you're criticizing says.

Students waste a lot of time arguing against views that sound like, but are really different from, the views they're supposed to be assessing. Against Human Laws! Remember, philosophy demands a high level of The Inevitable Essay precision. It's not good enough for you merely to get the general idea of somebody else's position or argument. You have to get it exactly right. Torture Against Human Essay! (In this respect, philosophy is Essay more like a science than the Torture against Laws other humanities.) A lot of the x alarcon work in philosophy is making sure that you've got your opponent's position right. You can assume that your reader is stupid (see above). But don't treat the philosopher or the Torture Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay views you're discussing as stupid. If they were stupid, we wouldn't be looking at them. If you can't see anything the view has going for it, maybe that's because you don't have much experience thinking and arguing about the view, and so you haven't yet fully understood why the view's proponents are attracted to it. Try harder to figure out what's motivating them. Philosophers sometimes do say outrageous things, but if the view you're attributing to a philosopher seems to be obviously crazy, then you should think hard about whether he really does say what you think he says.

Use your imagination. Try to figure out what reasonable position the philosopher could have had in mind, and direct your arguments against that. In your paper, you always have to explain what a position says before you criticize it. Overcoat Gogol! If you don't explain what you take Philosopher X's view to Torture Goes Domestic Laws be, your reader cannot judge whether the pro con criticism you offer of Torture Goes Domestic Rights Laws X is a good criticism, or whether it is simply based on a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of The Space Shuttle Challenger X's views. So tell the Domestic Human reader what it is Slavery: of Victimization you think X is saying.

Don't try to tell the reader everything you know about X's views, though. You have to go on Torture Domestic Human Laws, to offer your own philosophical contribution, too. Only summarize those parts of X's views that are directly relevant to what you're going to go on to do. Sometimes you'll need to argue for your interpretation of X's view, by of Victimization, citing passages which support your interpretation. It is permissible for you to discuss a view you think a philosopher might have held, or should have held, though you can't find any direct evidence of Torture Domestic Laws that view in the text. When you do this, though, you should explicitly say so. Shuttle Challenger Tragedy! Say something like: Philosopher X doesn't explicitly say that P, but it seems to me that he's assuming it anyway, because.

When a passage from a text is particularly useful in Goes Human Rights Laws Essay, supporting your interpretation of some philosopher's views, it may be helpful to overcoat gogol quote the passage directly. (Be sure to specify where the Domestic Human Rights Essay passage can be found.) However, direct quotations should be used sparingly. It is about Examining Clive, Alternative Hero seldom necessary to quote more than a few sentences. Goes Against Domestic Human Rights! Often it will be more appropriate to paraphrase what X says, rather than to quote him directly. When you are paraphrasing what somebody else said, be sure to say so. (And here too, cite the pages you're referring to.) Quotations should never be used as a substitute for Essay Examining Clive, Alternative, your own explanation. Goes Against Human Rights Essay! And when you do quote an author, you still have to x alarcon explain what the quotation says in Torture against Domestic Human Rights, your own words. If the quoted passage contains an argument, reconstruct the argument in overcoat gogol, more explicit, straightforward terms. If the quoted passage contains a central claim or assumption, then indicate what that claim is. You may want to give some examples to illustrate the author's point. If necessary, you may want to Torture against Human distinguish the author's claim from other claims with which it might be confused. Sometimes when students are trying to explain a philosopher's view, they'll do it by giving very close paraphrases of the philosopher's own words.

They'll change some words, omit others, but generally stay very close to the original text. Globalisation Pro Con! For instance, Hume begins his Treatise of Human Nature as follows: All the perceptions of the human mind resolve themselves into two distinct kinds, which I shall call impressions and ideas. The difference betwixt these consists in the degrees of force and liveliness, with which they strike upon the mind, and make their way into Torture Goes Human Rights Essay, our thought or consciousness. Overcoat Gogol! Those perceptions, which enter with most force and violence, we may name impressions; and under this name I comprehend all our sensations, passions, and emotions, as they make their first appearance in Torture Human Rights Laws Essay, the soul. By ideas I mean the The American Confrontation Essay faint images of Torture Goes Human Laws these in thinking and reasoning. Here's an example of how you don't want to paraphrase: Hume says all perceptions of the mind are resolved into two kinds, impressions and The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay ideas. The difference is in how much force and Goes against Domestic liveliness they have in our thoughts and consciousness. The perceptions with the most force and violence are impressions.

These are sensations, passions, and emotions. Ideas are the faint images of The Space Challenger our thinking and reasoning. There are two main problems with paraphrases of this sort. In the first place, it's done rather mechanically, so it doesn't show that the author understands the text. In the Torture against Essay second place, since the author hasn't figured out what the text means well enough to express it in his own words, there's a danger that his paraphrase may inadvertently change the meaning of the text. In the example above, Hume says that impressions strike upon the mind with more force and liveliness than ideas do. My paraphrase says that impressions have more force and x alarcon liveliness in our thoughts.

It's not clear whether these are the Torture Goes against Human Laws same thing. In addition, Hume says that ideas are faint images of impressions ; whereas my paraphrase says that ideas are faint images of our thinking . These are not the same. So the author of the paraphrase appears not to the Protagonist, Clive, in The have understood what Hume was saying in the original passage. A much better way of explaining what Hume says here would be the Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights Essay following: Hume says that there are two kinds of overcoat gogol 'perceptions,' or mental states. He calls these impressions and ideas. An impression is Goes against Domestic Human a very 'forceful' mental state, like the sensory impression one has when looking at globalisation pro con a red apple. An idea is a less 'forceful' mental state, like the idea one has of an apple while just thinking about it, rather than looking at it. It is not so clear what Hume means here by 'forceful.' He might mean. Don't be afraid of mentioning objections to your own thesis.

It is better to against Domestic Human Rights Essay bring up an objection yourself than to The American Civil War: Essay hope your reader won't think of it. Explain how you think these objections can be countered or overcome. Of course, there's often no way to Torture Goes Laws Essay deal with all the objections someone might raise; so concentrate on pro con, the ones that seem strongest or most pressing. So it's OK to ask questions and raise problems in your paper even if you cannot provide satisfying answers to Torture Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay them all. Overcoat Gogol! You can leave some questions unanswered at Goes Rights Laws Essay the end of the paper. But make it clear to the reader that you're leaving such questions unanswered on purpose . And you should say something about how the francisco question might be answered, and about what makes the Torture Goes against Domestic Human question interesting and relevant to the issue at hand. If something in a view you're examining is unclear to you, don't gloss it over. Call attention to of Victimization Essay the unclarity.

Suggest several different ways of understanding the view. Explain why it's not clear which of these interpretations is correct. If you're assessing two positions and you find, after careful examination, that you can't decide between them, that's okay. It's perfectly okay to say that their strengths and Domestic Rights Laws weaknesses seem to be roughly equally balanced. But note that this too is a claim that requires explanation and reasoned defense, just like any other.

You should try to provide reasons for this claim that might be found convincing by someone who didn't already think that the two views were equally balanced. Sometimes as you're writing, you'll find that your arguments aren't as good as you initially thought them to overcoat gogol be. You may come up with some objection to your view to which you have no good answer. Torture Goes Domestic! Don't panic. If there's some problem with your argument which you can't fix, try to figure out why you can't fix it. It's okay to change your thesis to one you can defend. For example, instead of writing a paper which provides a totally solid defense of view P, you can instead change tactics and write a paper which goes like this: One philosophical view says that P. This is a plausible view, for the following reasons. However, there are some reasons to overcoat gogol be doubtful whether P. One of Torture Rights Laws these reasons is The American War: The Inevitable X. X poses a problem for the view that P because. It is not clear how the defender of P can overcome this objection. Or you can write a paper which goes: One argument for Torture Human Essay, P is the 'Conjunction Argument,' which goes as follows.

At first glance, this is Essay a very appealing argument. However, this argument is faulty, for the following reasons. One might try to repair the argument, by. But these repairs will not work, because. I conclude that the Conjunction Argument does not in fact succeed in establishing P. Writing a paper of these sorts doesn't mean you've given in to the opposition. After all, neither of Goes Domestic Rights Laws these papers commits you to the view that not-P.

They're just honest accounts of globalisation how difficult it is to against Domestic Human Rights Essay find a conclusive argument for P. P might still be true, for all that. Then come back to the draft and re-read it. As you read each sentence, say things like this to Slavery: Essay yourself: Does this really make sense? That's totally unclear! That sounds pretentious. Domestic Laws! What does that mean? What's the connection between these two sentences? Am I just repeating myself here? and so on. Make sure every sentence in your draft does useful work. Get rid of The American Civil War: any which don't. If you can't figure out what some sentence contributes to your central discussion, then get rid of it.

Even if it sounds nice. You should never introduce any points in your paper unless they're important to your main argument, and you have the Torture Goes against Human Laws room to really explain them. If you're not happy with some sentence in your draft, ask yourself why it bothers you. Globalisation Pro Con! It could be you don't really understand what you're trying to say, or you don't really believe it. Make sure your sentences say exactly what you want them to say. Torture Goes Human Rights Laws! For example, suppose you write Abortion is the same thing as murder. Is that what you really mean? So when Oswald murdered Kennedy, was that the same thing as aborting Kennedy? Or do you mean something different? Perhaps you mean that abortion is a form of murder.

In conversation, you can expect that people will figure out what you mean. But you shouldn't write this way. Even if your TA is able to figure out what you mean, it's bad writing. In philosophical prose, you have to be sure to say exactly what you mean. Also pay attention to the structure of Civil War: The Inevitable Confrontation your draft. When you're revising a draft, it's much more important to work on Torture against Domestic Human Laws Essay, the draft's structure and overall clarity, than it is to clean up a word or a phrase here or there. Make sure your reader knows what your main claim is, and what your arguments for that claim are. The Space Tragedy! Make sure that your reader can tell what the against Rights Essay point of every paragraph is.

It's not enough that you know what their point is. It has to The Space Challenger be obvious to your reader, even to a lazy, stupid, and mean reader. If you can, show your draft to Torture Goes against Domestic Laws Essay your friends or to other students in the class, and get their comments and advice. I encourage you to do this. Do your friends understand your main point?

Are parts of overcoat gogol your draft unclear or confusing to them? If your friends can't understand something you've written, then neither will your grader be able to against Domestic Human understand it. Your paragraphs and Clive, Alternative your argument may be perfectly clear to you but not make any sense at Torture Goes Domestic Rights Laws Essay all to someone else. Another good way to francisco x alarcon check your draft is to read it out Torture against Domestic Laws, loud. This will help you tell whether it all makes sense.

You may know what you want to say, but that might not be what you've really written. Essay Examining The Protagonist,! Reading the paper out loud can help you notice holes in your reasoning, digressions, and unclear prose. You should count on writing many drafts of your paper. At least 3 or 4!! Check out the against Domestic Human Laws following web site, which illustrates how to revise a short philosophy paper through several drafts. Notice how much the paper improves with each revision: Writing tutor for Introductory Philosophy Courses http://web.williams.edu/wp-etc/philosophy/jcruz/jcruz/writingtutor/. Also, don't begin with a sentence like Webster's Dictionary defines a soul as.

Dictionaries aren't good philosophical authorities. They record the way words are used in everyday discourse. Civil War: The Inevitable Confrontation! Many of the same words have different, specialized meanings in Goes Domestic Human Rights, philosophy. It's OK to about Clive, Hero end a sentence with a preposition. It's also OK to split an infinitive, if you need to. (Sometimes the easiest way to say what you mean is by splitting an infinitive. Torture Against Domestic Rights! For example, They sought to overcoat gogol better equip job candidates who enrolled in Human Laws Essay, their program.) Efforts to avoid these often end up just confusing your prose. Do avoid other sorts of grammatical mistakes, like dangling participles (e.g., Hurt by her fall, the overcoat gogol tree fell right on Mary 's leg before she could get out of the way), and the like. You may use the word I freely, especially to tell the reader what you're up to (e.g., I've just explained why. Now I'm going to consider an Torture Goes against Domestic, argument that. ). Don't worry about using the verb is or to be too much.

In a philosophy paper, it's OK to globalisation pro con use this verb as much as you need to. You shouldn't need to use these secondary readings when writing your papers. The point of the papers is to Goes against Laws Essay teach you how to analyze a philosophical argument, and present your own arguments for Slavery: of Victimization, or against Domestic, some conclusion. The arguments we'll be considering in The American War: Essay, class are plenty hard enough to deserve your full attention, all by themselves. Can you write your paper as a dialogue or story? But neither should your papers be too short! Don't cut off an argument abruptly.

If a paper topic you've chosen asks certain questions, be sure you answer or address each of those questions. Please double-space your papers, number the pages, and include wide margins. Laws Essay! We prefer to get the papers simply stapled: no plastic binders or anything like that. Include your name on the paper. And don't turn in your only about Hero copy! (These things should be obvious, but apparently they're not.) You'll be graded on three basic criteria: How well do you understand the issues you're writing about?

How good are the arguments you offer? Is your writing clear and well-organized? We do not judge your paper by whether we agree with its conclusion. Torture Goes Human Rights Laws! In fact, we may not agree amongst ourselves about what the Slavery: Essay correct conclusion is. But we will have no trouble agreeing about whether you do a good job arguing for your conclusion. More specifically, we'll be asking questions like these: Do you clearly state what you're trying to accomplish in Torture Domestic Human, your paper? Is it obvious to the reader what your main thesis is?

Do you offer supporting arguments for the claims you make? Is it obvious to x alarcon the reader what these arguments are? Is the structure of your paper clear? For instance, is Torture Human Rights Essay it clear what parts of your paper are expository, and francisco x alarcon what parts are your own positive contribution? Is your prose simple, easy to read, and easy to understand? Do you illustrate your claims with good examples? Do you explain your central notions? Do you say exactly what you mean?

Do you present other philosophers' views accurately and charitably? Explain this claim or What do you mean by this? or I don't understand what you're saying here This passage is unclear (or awkward, or otherwise hard to read) Too complicated Too hard to follow Simplify Why do you think this? This needs more support Why should we believe this? Explain why this is a reason to believe P Explain why this follows from Goes against Laws Essay, what you said before Not really relevant Give an example? Try to anticipate these comments and francisco avoid the need for them! Your paper should do some philosophical work. Here are some more interesting things our student could have done in his paper.

He could have argued that B doesn't really follow from A, after all. Or he could have presented reasons for thinking that A is false. Or he could have argued that assuming A is an Torture against Essay, illegitimate move to globalisation make in a debate about whether B is true. Or something else of that sort. These would be more interesting and satisfying ways of engaging with Philosopher X's view. Responding to comments from me or your TA. Your rewrites should try to go beyond the specific errors and problems we've indicated. If you got below an A-, then your draft was generally difficult to read, it was difficult to see what your argument was and what the structure of your paper was supposed to be, and so on. You can only correct these sorts of Torture against Human Rights Laws Essay failings by rewriting your paper from scratch. (Start with a new, empty window in your word processor.) Use your draft and about Clive, Hero the comments you received on it to Torture Goes against Human Rights Essay construct a new outline, and write from globalisation, that. Keep in Torture Goes Domestic Human Essay, mind that when I or your TA grade a rewrite, we may sometimes notice weaknesses in francisco x alarcon, unchanged parts of Domestic Rights Laws Essay your paper that we missed the first time around. Or perhaps those weaknesses will have affected our overall impression of the paper, and we just didn't offer any specific recommendation about fixing them.

So this is another reason you should try to improve the whole paper , not just the passages we comment on. It is possible to improve a paper without improving it enough to The American Civil War: Confrontation raise it to the next grade level. Sometimes that happens. But I hope you'll all do better than that. Most often, you won't have the opportunity to rewrite your papers after they've been graded. So you need to teach yourself to write a draft, scrutinize the draft, and Torture Domestic Human Laws Essay revise and rewrite your paper before turning it in to be graded. Naturally, I owe a huge debt to the friends and Tragedy professors who helped me learn how to write philosophy. Torture Laws Essay! I'm sure they had a hard time of it. If you're a teacher and you think your own students would find this web site useful, you are free to of Victimization point them here (or to distribute printed copies).

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I#8217;ll update that information =) Are you still looking for overcoat gogol writers? I would like to Torture Domestic Laws Essay help you, first you read and then decided to how much pay. Of Victimization Essay. I#8217;m an enthusiast guy and currently looking for writing jobs. Torture Against Domestic Rights Laws Essay. I#8217;m available at pro con, all times and would really appreciate for Torture Human Laws Essay working with you Tara.regards. If there is any alert me please. Overcoat Gogol. Okay no problem with that. So going to Torture Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay check all this out. This is very helpful.

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I don#8217;t see any place for me to Torture Goes against Human Rights Laws submit a freelance poem here though. Onward makes one. Learning of the. Overcoat Gogol. Yearly traffic gag. Try submitting to greeting card companies, magazines, and contests. There#8217;s an app you could download for writers and although its free to use and doesn#8217;t necessarily pay you for each poem u post theirs perhaps some leads on paying opportunities and contests#8230;.

Mirakee. The Intense Blog link leads to the Dollar Stretcher page. (It isn#8217;t hard to Google the write for Torture against Domestic Human Rights us link, just thought you should know anyways!) Thanks for letting me know, Kali. The link has been corrected =) Leiann Lynn Rose Spontaneo says. Thanks Ms. Hanna! I love doing recipes and this article will really be a blessing! You#8217;re welcome, Leiann!

Glad you found the Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization recipe section helpful. I#8217;ll keep you posted if I find some more sites. Hi I have just written a short story about an old pit bull telling his life story. It#8217;s approx 20,000 words. Any suggestions as to where I go next with this. Top Tenz is no longer excepting submissions until further notice. Domestic Human Laws Essay. They are now using their inside staff writers.

This information was on the website. Thanks for letting me know, Tangela. I#8217;ll have to find a replacement =) Julie Fellhauer says. Accepting is the appropriate word, not excepting. Parents, teachers and homeschoolers Get paid to globalisation share your expertise and ideas with thousands of readers!! -Opportunities for paid blog posts on the Educents blog (blog.educents.com) -Receive a quarterly newsletter with blog topic ideas. -Receive invitations to submit pitches for blog posts. -Get your name out there! Every blog post published on Educents has an author bio. Would anyone happen to know a good place to write opinion articles? Maybe 300 to 500 words for $10 a pop? Whenever I find these lists of blogs and publications that pay, they are almost never looking for opinion. Maybe the niche is not profitable.

Try looking at magazines #8212; many publications will pay a small stipend for short stories, jokes, recipes, and poems. Good luck and keep us posted! I#8217;m a yoga teacher an a Nutritionist. What do you think the best place to start would be for my knowledge? Thanks. Have you tried LIVESTRONG?

They hire writers for fitness and wellness articles. Torture Goes Human Rights Laws. Also try looking at francisco x alarcon, Upwork and Problogger.net for fitness gigs. Good luck! This is by far the most complete list I have come across of the Goes Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay highest paying writing jobs. Essay Examining The Protagonist, Clive, In The Alternative. I have been seriously considering working as a freelance writer, however many of the jobs that I have seem are not as generous in compensation as the Torture against Domestic Rights Laws Essay ones listed here in your article. I look forward to francisco x alarcon checking out Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay these opportunities! Thank you! You#8217;re welcome, Clara! Good luck on your freelance writing journey and francisco keep us posted =) I#8217;m a Social Work student, who cares about against Domestic Laws special needs and social needs in overcoat gogol public.IS there any sites to Goes Domestic Human Rights become a writer in this field? :) Try looking at LiveStrong. Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay. If I come across any others #8212; I#8217;ll drop the Torture Domestic links here.

Good luck! Holly, I just wanted to pro con thank you for this incredible post. It#8217;s full of SO much good information and resources to find freelance writing work online. Goes Rights Laws Essay. I can tell you spent a lot of time on it, so thank you, thank you, thank you! And I had NO idea about Nora Roberts only having a high-school education! That is a great cocktail party fact, too! Hope you#8217;re well. You#8217;re welcome, Lisa! I love to do research #8212; so it was a fun post to write! i want a writing job.

This looks interesting. I like to type and I would like to make some extra money. Please send me some info. Great tips Holly! always enjoy your posts :) So glad you enjoyed it, Mandi. Thanks for francisco stopping by =) Once I get started writing a blog how would I get paid for it? Hi Amber, Most of these opportunities pay via PayPal.

However, you#8217;ll need read each companies terms to Torture Goes Human Rights Laws verify the about the Protagonist, Clive, in The Hero exact payment method. Good luck! Thanks for sharing this huge list. very nice list for against Domestic Laws writers. Glad you enjoyed it, Ranjeet! So many interesting information, thanks. The American Civil The Inevitable Confrontation Essay. I also would like to recommend another source paperwritingonline.com. I often write to this site. If it#8217;s interesting for somebody, you can visit a site or write me for more information. Thanks for the lead, Selena!

They do not have current openings for writers. Contacted them through their site chat.. Goes Laws Essay. I would like to recommend my site 20four7va. We currently need lots of writers and VA#8217;s for different kind of business. Thanks for Essay Examining Clive, Alternative sharing, Catherine. How much does 20four7va pay per article? i live in india#8230; i m a home maker#8230; i love writing#8230;. creative work like designing cards, dresses#8230; plz let me know how can i work from home#8230;. Hi Sana, The Work at Torture Goes Domestic Essay, Home Woman is predominately geared for U.S. Slavery:. residents, but as our International audience grows we are including more global opportunities and listings.

Take a look at this article for worldwide gigs: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/global-telecommuting-jobs/ Denita Johnson says. Goes. Thanks for all the information. I am a homemaker and enjoy writing picture book stories, I have been looking for some freelance work and your article has been a blessing. I will be checking at the sites you recommend, thanks again and take care. Good luck, Denita! We pay $100 per post if you want to add our site.

All details are here: http://www.blessthislist.com/write-get-paid/ Thanks for sharing your writing gig! Meandra primus says. I enjoyed reading your post on writing. I love writing and overcoat gogol would like to start blogging. How can I find a how to guide to begin blogging?

And with no experience what best choices are there for hiring fresh writers. Hi Meandra, Here is a step-by-step tutorial on how to setup a blog: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/setup-blog/ Good luck and Torture Goes against Domestic Rights Laws keep us posted! Kara Spittal says. I don#8217;t have website but looking and francisco x alarcon love writing. Torture Against Rights Essay. I had been writing on Shuttle Tragedy agony aunts column I enjoy helping other people. Love to follow my dream and do this for Rights a job. A Cycle Of Victimization. With these sort of Goes against Human Rights gigs you don#8217;t need a website. However, if you#8217;re interested in globalisation pro con getting a website for free this article has some good options: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/35-free-resources-to-help-manage-your-business-life/ Good luck on Torture Domestic your writing journey! Hi I live in Slavery: A Cycle India n love to Goes Rights Laws write so please let me know how I can do that . Overcoat Gogol. Thanks.

Hi Damanpreet, Click on the links above and each site will tell you how to apply. Good luck! Angel Johnson says. Looking to get hired. Against Domestic Human. How do I start? Hi Angel, Just click on the links and it will take you to each gig.

Good luck! Hi holly I love to write on life and experience and Shuttle many more but could not find website. As of July 22, 2016 Scary Mommy is no longer offering payment for submissions. Thanks for letting me know, Jessica. Domestic Rights Laws. I#8217;ll take it off the list. Such a bummer! Still a good opportunity to build up a portfolio though :) Its one of the overcoat gogol best posts full of good resources on writing content. I have not visited all of the sites yet but I am going to check them all one by one. Thank you so much.

Glad you enjoyed the list! I have around 7 years of experience in IT currently a stay at home mom with two naughty boys.. I love to write and Torture Goes against Domestic Laws earn a living.. Globalisation Pro Con. what would be the best site for me to start with. Have you written articles before? Or is this your first stab at freelance writing? If you#8217;re new to the game, I#8217;d suggest looking at the ProBlogger job board or Upwork. Get some articles under your belt, then go after higher paying gigs. Hi Holly!

There are a ton of awesome ideas here that I am eager to explore! I recently started a blog that I#8217;m going to against Domestic Human use as a portfolio for my pieces and hopefully will submit them somewhere for pay and future writing gigs. I am currently working in a full time office job and would like to move from this lifestyle that allows me to write remotely on a more flexible schedule. I have just submitted an essay to a contest about my experiences as a person with a disability. About Examining In The Hero. I#8217;m wondering if you have any additional suggestions on where to send my essay, or else any information you can provide as I try to embark upon Goes against Human Rights Essay this difficult career change. Thanks so much! Hi Brittany, Glad you enjoyed the overcoat gogol list! It sounds like you have a good plan in place. Here are some pieces that I think will help you on your journey: Gina Horkey has had tremendous success as a freelance writer and virtual assistant and Domestic Human Essay she gives some great advice in this interview: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/4k-writer/ This article by Katie McDonald has some excellent information on identifying strong freelance leads: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/promising-leads/ Oh, and The Space Shuttle Challenger Essay this article has some advice from four successful freelancers (Carol Tice, Kristi Hines, Mary Jaksch, and Heather Robson) on how to make more money with your writing: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/make-more-money-writing/ This is great, thanks so much!

You#8217;re welcome, Brittany! Thanks for the informative post. I#8217;ve been trying to assess the Torture Goes against Domestic Human Laws Essay validity of the site writingjobz.com for a potential scam without much luck. The Space Challenger Essay. I notice that it isn#8217;t on your list. Have you ever heard anything about them? If not, could you please look into this? I#8217;ve given my info (basic application stuff, but still) and am, sadly, backward fact-checking. Thanks! The one thing that stands out to me is Torture Human Laws Essay, they#8217;re hiring writers, but nowhere on the website are they selling the articles to clients.

Most legit sites have a page for customers and another for writers. They are based in India, not the francisco x alarcon US #8212; I#8217;d steer clear of this one. All this being said if you’re a fast writer, and you don’t spend a lot of Goes Domestic Rights Laws Essay time on each article, maybe you could make minimum wage working on Demand Studio stuff. Which would be cool if you’re working from home and that’s all the money you were looking for. But long-term, other “freelance” writing jobs would be likely to net you a lot more. Blogging is Confrontation, my favorite. I’ve done quite a bit of freelance writing, myself–not the website, but jobs you hunt down for yourself in corporate America–and the income can be excellent, but often requires a lot more personal marketing or a good list of personal contacts. And you’ll need to Torture Goes Rights Laws Essay be able to Confrontation Essay prove you can do the work with a combination of references, education, and samples. You also need to Torture against have the good aptitude for customer service, so you can keep your clients happy. I just stumbled on this informative gift from your stable by luck today. I like to earn from overcoat gogol, writing and online typing.

I#8217;m in Nigeria. Guide me. As long as you#8217;re able to accept payments via PayPal, you should be able to write for Goes against Laws Essay the majority of these sites. Overcoat Gogol. Good luck! I#8217;m also interested in Torture Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay writing #8230;.I#8217;m from Slavery:, India#8230;.how can I be helped#8230;.. Hi Rosy, Most of these sites pay via PayPal, so if you#8217;re able to against Domestic Human Rights Essay accept payment via PayPal #8212; just start pitching and applying.

Good luck! I am interested in writing about women#8217;s life experiences. A Cycle Of Victimization. Its been suggested to me because of my sense of humor and the way I look at Torture against Rights Laws, life, especially mine!! Blogging has been suggested but boy I feel lost and not so sure. Main ideas? Hi Paula, This post will give you a great place to start: https://www.theworkathomewoman.com/setup-blog/ Let me know if you have further questions #8212; happy to get you going in the right direction. Shuttle Challenger Tragedy Essay. I also have had a lot of luck scoring paid contracts on freelancing websites like Upwork. I t#8217;s tough to build up a profile initially, but after about a year I was able to make solid money between $500-$1000 per week.

It#8217;s all about building up a profile and reputation, just like any business. Thanks for these tips! That#8217;s great #8212; congrats on your writing success! Hi, I am Rashid from India.Just recently I had started blogging and I had published two based on my personal experience.Now I am willing to write a short fictional story.Can you suggest me any site where I could begin with? Diane Carroll says. Against Domestic Essay. I#8217;m interested in writing in several categories: my worldwide travel experiences; the 23+ years of meeting, taking pictures and talking to hundreds of celebrities in NYC. Overcoat Gogol. I#8217;m also interested in writing book, TV and movie reviews. I#8217;ve done quite a few travel reviews on TripAdvisor. I#8217;ve written a couple of book reviews and Human Rights received thank you notes from the author.

Can you give me some advice where I can do this and Civil The Inevitable get paid for it? Thank you. Hi Diane, Have you thought about starting a review blog? I#8217;d appreciate knowing about your favorite freelance writing opportunities for elementary educators. Thanks! Hi Lesley, Have you thought about curriculum writing or instructional design? Really, the sky#8217;s the limit, you can write for education blogs, magazines, newsletters. It just depends on your area of expertise within the education field and what type of writing interests you. This may seem a rather daft question, and it is, but: I#8217;m a man. Now, can men, even incredibly heterosexual ones such as me (lol), utilize and Torture Goes Human Rights take advantage of these services as a means to market their writerly talents? Also, I have found that, for me personally, nonfiction writing is easier than fiction.

However, I must strongly emphasize that this opinion is tempered by and only Tragedy, true of those times when one finds that they can be just as creative and imaginative and fluid and free and freewheeling in their nonfiction as they are in their fiction. Goes Against Domestic Human Essay. To that end, I have furthermore discovered that, for me personally, in addition to The American The Inevitable Confrontation Essay the writing of certain essays and ersatz/satirical articles and the prosy like, poetry is also relatively easy to write. Indeed, it is Goes Human Laws Essay, EASIER to write. At least, it is for francisco x alarcon me, anyway. Now, don#8217;t get me wrong, I also like to Torture Goes against Human Rights fiction, but I can#8217;t write it as speedily and with as much insouciant ease as I can various forms of essay and overcoat gogol poetry. Again, that#8217;s just me, though.

Thank you for allowing me the opportunity of using this forum as a means of Goes Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay getting a few things off my chest. However, I have one last query to advance: As I have recently written a great, semiautobiographical (or perhaps pseudoautobiographical) seriocomical/jocoserious short story that has a great deal of erotic imagery, action and description in it, I wonder where I might publish this story? It is not, I must stress, despite it#8217;s sexual nature and the intrinsic, crucial importance of the eroticism therein, a bona fide erotic story. X Alarcon. It is Goes Human, not erotica, as they call it. It is far above and beyond the trashy simplicity of pro con erotica. Yet, as I said, the middle section of it is a sex scene, but one that I twist and manipulate every sort of human emotion out of, and that sex scene is not gratuitous, it is essential to the story and the plot. I am not one to, even in the writing of the very few forays into erotica and eroticism that I have attempted over the past seven years, write of sexuality overmuch, or at all, or gratuitously, but as this was integral, I saw no reason to withhold the sexual from the bounds of my prose. Regardless, and for comedic effect a few very dirty vulgarities and smutty colloquialisms are used within the context of my tale, but still I wonder: Who would publish such an esoteric, unidentifiable, eclectic work? I am rightly proud of the story, it being one of the best and funniest yet most strangely sad stories I#8217;ve ever written, and long to see it in all the Goes against Domestic Rights unbounded glory of print. (I did not mean this thing to turn out to be some abridged story of my life, but as the next revelation that I am about to Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization parenthetically reveal is against Human Rights Essay, somewhat imperative, I feel I must, if only as a means to create an understanding of me, my works and, most especially, my STYLE and TECHNIQUE as a writer, share the following bit of The American Confrontation semi-personal data with you: Namely, that I am an avid reader in general and in Torture Goes Domestic Rights Laws particular of the greatest Anglo-American/European/Russian/Near-Eastern/Mediterranean writers of all manner of overcoat gogol prose of the Torture Goes Rights past several millennia, but with an especial focus on the greatest writers of the 1700#8217;s-1960#8217;s: and before and beyond: and it is them and their monumental and intellectually-stimulating, descriptive, sublime works that inform all my writing#8230;.therefore, that#8217;s why I#8217;ve elected to write in the way in overcoat gogol which I#8217;ve done here#8230;.not to impress, except by diffusion and osmosis, but rather because it is just the general, natural way I always have of Torture Goes against Domestic Essay speaking and, most especially, writing. Thank you bearing with me through this difficult digression#8230;.which, if I was going to submit and A Cycle of Victimization Essay publish this essay-length comment, I think that would make an Torture Human Rights Laws excellent title for it! lol)

Yes, these opportunities are applicable to francisco x alarcon both women and men. I m interest in writing. Can u plss give me the instruction?? I am interested in a stay at home career in writing. I am a mother of two and I have been writing for many years. Nothing has been published. I write short stories, children#8217;s stories and against Domestic Rights some poetry. can you please let me know in which direction I should be looking to get started.

It depends. Do you want to set up a business? Or are you just looking for a little extra side cash? Here are some hand-picked articles that can help guide your way: Good luck and keep us posted! Wow! Thank you so much for this blog post! I have never seen so much accurate and francisco x alarcon helpful information in Torture Goes against Human Rights Laws Essay one post! I have bookmarked this page and will be checking all of The Inevitable Confrontation Essay them out! Thank you so very much! Glad you enjoyed the list, Courtney!

Katherine Anne Ganley says. Goes Against Domestic. My passions include being a life long runner and outdoor enthusiast, having owned a fairly large business in that niche. In addition, healthy pro-active nutrition, and Slavery: of Victimization Essay politics are included. Do you have any recommendations as to what writing industries or companies to pursue? I#8217;m interested in doing reviews, blogs, copywriting but open to suggestions. Thank you very much! Hi Kathy, What about Torture Live Strong? They are always hiring writers in a variety of categories. Also, check out your favorite brands and War: Confrontation companies and research their blog posts.

Maybe they haven#8217;t added any new content in a long time, and you can send them a proposal, or you can pitch them a few ideas that they haven#8217;t covered. Good luck! I#8217;m used to write in french. I tried upwork but i#8217;m paid 5 dollars per 1000 words or 7 dollars#8230; Can you suggest me a website where i can write in french but having good salary like those websites you posts on your blog ? And can you suggest me VA in french website please ? Good luck and keep me posted! Hey i would love to write. Im pretty good with short stories (usually fiction), what would you suggest? I#8217;m sadia and Human Rights please suggest me any job . Civil War: Confrontation Essay. Hi Sadia, These articles will give you a great place to start your WAH job search: I just wanted to let you know that you are my muse for extensive thoroughness with my writing. I#8217;m just getting started, and Domestic Human Rights Laws you#8217;re my go-to gal for inspiration and encouragement. As of right now I#8217;m trying to learn the pro con technical ropes and migrate my site to a new host.

I#8217;d love to have you in my network! Any tips you could share would be immensely appreciated! Hi Ashley, Thanks for your kind words #8212; they made my day! I#8217;m not a tech person. I use a web programmer for all of my tech issues.

Her name is Susan from http://octoberskies.com. Torture Goes Human Rights Laws Essay. I#8217;ve also heard great things about A Cycle Grayson Bell at https://www.imarkinteractive.com/author/imark/. I#8217;m on Torture Goes against Domestic all the major social channels if you#8217;d like to connect. Thanks for stopping by and leaving such a nice comment! Story writing is globalisation, my hobby and want to share it more to Goes Human Laws you. Though I need my real chance to War: The Inevitable start for you. This is a great website thank you!

I have just graduated with a first but want a writing job from Torture Goes Human Laws, home part time to go alongside another full time job. I like beauty/fashion/baking but having done psychology degree I like to write about current issues, including personal ones such as copying with anxiety etc. About Examining. Do you recommend where I could start writing? As retirement approaches, a lifelong desire to simply create, write, and explore avenues that have always proven themselves a true interest and Goes against Domestic Human Laws passion is Shuttle Challenger Essay, rapidly pulling me in to my most deepest desires of these areas. Torture Against Laws Essay. Admittedly, there are so many areas that are catching my attention, so the question now is, #8220;Where to begin?#8221; Thank you so very much. Civil War: Confrontation Essay. Holy smokes this is Torture Human Rights Essay, one heck of a list, Holly! Thanks for putting it together for us. Overcoat Gogol. You know I#8217;m sharing this one! Hope all is well. :) Happy small Friday! Glad you enjoyed the Goes Human Laws list, Cori.

Love that, happy small Friday! Same to pro con you! [#8230;] Reisem Hanna is the publisher of the award-winning blog, The Work at Home Woman. Stop by to Torture Goes against Human find out more about paid writing [#8230;] By using this site, you are agreeing to the site's terms of use .

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Do teachers assign too much homework? How much is too much? As school is starting, children’s daily schedules will be booked not only with classroom time, but also with extracurriculars and several hours of completing homework and Torture studying for standardized tests. The Space Tragedy? While a 2003 Brookings Institution study showed that only a small percentage of children experience unmanageable levels of homework, a University of Michigan survey found that the Torture Domestic Human Essay, amount of time spent on homework has, nevertheless, increased by Shuttle, nearly 90 minutes since 1981. To help students meet soaring expectations, families who can afford it often invest in private tutoring, a business that grows larger each year.

Some argue that a lot of Goes against Domestic Human Essay homework encourages students to study independently, while others counter that it causes them to The American Confrontation Essay become overly reliant on paid helpers. Cindy Goldrich, ADHD Parenting Coach, Teacher Trainer, Author. Since the population of Goes against Domestic Laws people I work with are parents of children with ADHD, I would like to address the concerns around homework with that population in mind. Separate from the issues many of these children face with remembering to write down their homework and bring home their materials, for children with ADHD, homework presents them with significant and somewhat unique challenges. They often need more time than their peers to complete the same work. They may be on medication to help them focus during the day. As this medication wears off, they will likely find it challenging to overcoat gogol attend to the work and process what they must to learn. For many of these children, taking a booster med after school is impractical (they may not have eaten enough, they may want a break from the feeling of the meds, or they may stay up too late if they take additional medication) The child may just need a break from having done everything they could to keep it together at Torture against Human, school and work as hard as they did just to keep up. During the globalisation pro con, lower grades, it might be helpful and Goes Rights Laws Essay possible for teachers to modify the amount of homework required of the student (perhaps reducing the number of overcoat gogol problems to be answered).

Some students do not want this option. Torture Human Rights Essay? Much as adults may try to help them see this as a positive option, the reality is The American Civil Confrontation Essay, that some children don't want to feel that they are not capable of doing as others do. They also don't want others to know they are held to different standards. As the students reach higher grades, often the homework assigned is not as easily modified. Some of the Goes Human Rights Essay, work is to globalisation pro con help prepare students for the upcoming lessons. Other work may involve fewer problems but require greater depth of time, effort and production. Either way, modifying the required work is not generally possible. As this important debate continues along regarding the amount of homework that students are assigned, I hope that teachers and administrators consider the impact not just on Goes Human Essay typical students, but those who are perhaps equally bright, but face additional challenges due to their neurobiology. Here is an additional article I have written regarding doing homework for globalisation pro con, students who have ADHD: http://www.ptscoaching.com/articles/what-is-so-difficult-about-doing-homework/ Colleen Clemens, College Professor, Writer, Editor, Tutor Parent. This question should be on the lips of Goes Domestic Human Rights Essay all parents and educators.

In a time when our students are more and more stressed, how do we help them manage and in The Alternative Hero also encourage their academic lives? Teachers have many expectations and pressures put on Domestic Human Rights them to ensure student success--and school funding. So I am not sure if we should be asking if teachers are giving too much. Instead, is the system itself demanding too much of our students? At the college level, I expect students to be self-motivated and pro con understand how to manage their work.

I see students who never did homework and Goes against Domestic Human Laws I see students stifled by the desire of perfection. There must be a balance or learning--and the student--suffers. Students, teachers, parents, administrators, and The Space Tragedy Essay staff need to work together to find a balance for Domestic Human Rights, their students. And need to Essay Examining Clive, Alternative Hero ensure their voices are heard when politicians place too much emphasis on Goes against Human Laws Essay test scores and not enough emphasis on developing lifelong learners with an intrinsic love of knowledge. Defusing the situation a bit by asking students to pick their own books for independent outside reading can help kids love to read.

Forcing students only--I am not saying they shouldn't be assigned reading--to read what others hand them makes their reading homework drudgery. I hear students tell me all of the time that they hate reading. My reply? You just aren't reading the pro con, right things. If we can help students make choices, we can make homework feel less like work and Domestic Human Laws Essay more like leisure. My child is x alarcon, not old enough to be assigned homework, but I am already dreading the day when she has to slog through hours of homework every night instead of against Domestic Rights spending time with us. All of us in the system need to consider how to release the pressure valve on our kids, and perhaps assigning less homework is a great start. Amanda Morris, College Professor, Writer, Advisor, Writing Coach. So many great responses here! I will chime in as a writing professor. A lot of this debate focuses on reading homework and memorizing facts for francisco x alarcon, tests. but how much writing homework are students given?

Based on what I see at the college level, I'm going to suggest that too many students are not getting enough writing homework. And when I say writing, I mean writing original material AND revising it substantially, sometimes involving research, sometimes involving creative work. As Colleen says in Human Laws Essay her response, a lot of her students hate reading? Well, I think double goes for me. Francisco? Almost every student I've taught at two universities in two different states over the past nine years has, to Goes Domestic Rights Laws a person, told me in The American Essay their first-day get to know ya in-class interviews that they hate writing. I can count on one hand how many students in that same time frame have said they love writing.

In fact, I led a study last year in our university to Goes Domestic Laws Essay determine what kind of relationship students had with both reading and francisco writing before entering their first year composition course. Overwhelmingly, the Torture Goes, responses were negative. In fact, over 50% of globalisation pro con 1,100 respondents admitted that they wrote ZERO research papers in Goes Rights Laws high school and pro con the same amount said they wrote NOTHING during their senior years. Zero? Nothing? This is highly unacceptable. When it comes to writing, I would argue that students in high school (at least) need to be writing more - and Human Rights Essay yes, at home. Either through an assignment or as a revision of an existing assignment, or as journal writing. something to get them writing more so that they are better prepared to handle the about Clive, in The, writing assignments that their professors will assign during that first crucial semester away from home. Students will be more successful in college and in any career if they are encouraged to write more during their K-12 years. Lois Weiner, Professor, researcher, former high school teacher. The question we should ask is what kind? of homework is being assigned.

Is it interesting? Does it connect the against Laws Essay, subject matter with the student's life outside the classroom so s/he sees the of Victimization, subject's relevance? Does it assume (incorrectly) an adult will be available to help? Reading for pleasure can be homework, if the teacher makes sure everyone has access to appropriate materials to read. So can interviewing family or neighbors about their experiences or beliefs. Most kids are already bored in school. Let's not extend the drudgery. Time at home should be restorative - for kids and parents.

Dylan Ferniany, gifted and talented education administrator and Torture against Human Laws Essay advocate, interested in developing creativity innovation in teachers and students. Homework, like many elements of school is all in the implementation and utility. Homework for the sake of homework, or for grade fillers can be detrimental to learning. An example might be a student who is about Examining the Protagonist, in The Alternative, advanced in Goes against Domestic Human Laws Essay math, who is given a practice of A Cycle 20 problems all of which are easy for them. The student may be unmotivated by the homework and get a poor grade on Torture against Domestic Human Rights Essay it, even though they have mastered the overcoat gogol, material. Homework should also not be treated as summative, or as any kind of final grade. Many students have support at Rights Laws, home to help get through tough homework assignments, while other students may not. If homework is a practice that students can come in and work through with their teacher after giving it a try, then it can be very worthwhile. The strongest use of homework I've seen is when it is well aligned to final assessments but the The American Civil War: Confrontation Essay, homework is not graded.

Assessments (projects, tests, quizzes) hold a great weight in the class. Students have the choice whether or not to do the work, but the skills are integral to success in the class. That way students who truly get it can move on to more challenging work, and others that need the practice can get it through homework. Hopefully the class is rigorous enough that all students need to complete the Goes against Human Rights Laws, practice exercises to be successful in the course. Amy McElroy, SMU Law School graduate, Writer, Editor, and francisco x alarcon Parent of Two. I have two primary concerns about the level of homework assigned to today's students. Goes Domestic Human Essay? The first has been addressed, in part, by The American Civil Confrontation Essay, other experts, above--the quantity and quality of the homework. Goes Against Laws Essay? Is the overcoat gogol, homework simply busywork to fulfill a certain number of hours of homework per class (for example, multiple choice worksheets)? If not, the teacher needs to be prepared to spend an adequate amount of time grading the Goes against Domestic Rights Essay, work put into homework, whether it be the work product of math problems or written essays.

Second, with the globalisation pro con, busy extra-curricular schedules and complex home lives of children today, less next-day homework and more weekly, every-other day, or scheduled, project-based homework would benefit students in several ways. Torture Human Rights Laws? Not only would students have a greater opportunity to turn assignments in on-time, they would learn valuable time-management skills if they were given the opportunity to plan ahead in their assignments. Gina Badalaty, Parent of 2 kids with disabilities, Professional Blogger. My children attend a school where assigning homework is francisco, frowned upon but projects are regularly done and required at home. Since my kids have learning disabilities, it is challenging for them to do periodic project work when they are not used to doing schoolwork at home. It also makes it difficult for them to study when they have a quiz or test. They rely heavily on routine and projects and study sessions seem out of the norm for them. While I would normally not want homework, I do request teachers that my girls have some sort of Goes Rights very brief homework to establish a routine and good practices that will serve them in high school and higher education. Vielka Cecilia Hoy, Founder/Director at Vielka Hoy Consulting, Teacher, and Parent. In the last seven years, I have had to address this question many times. As a school administrator at a school with highly motivated but under-achieving students, we used a formula that worked backwards from the homework expectations in college.

This looked like ninth graders spending about forty-five minutes per night/per subject on review/homework increasing to about two hours per Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization, night/per subject in the twelfth grade. Mathematically, this is not possible, so we asked students to think about using the remaining time in class, weekends, and the quality of the time they spent on homework differently. Having returned to the classroom and teaching AP and Goes Domestic Human Rights honors courses in recent years, this question came up again as families became concerned about the lack of family time or the inability of students to spend time participating in extra-curricular activities. Examining Clive, In The? As a teacher, I found it difficult to cover all of the material without some practice at home, and I always feel that the larger lesson of learning to prioritize is essential. But I also recognize (especially with my own son) that there are ways to review, teach students the soft skill of prioritizing, cover all of the material in the curriculum, and Goes Essay maintain family support. I use quite a bit of technology, including the Google Classroom to flip the globalisation pro con, classroom, provide extended and rolling due dates, and schedule work days as part of class time. I do believe the benefits of homework are important to keep so there is Torture Goes against Domestic Human, such thing as quality homework. But we've advanced enough with pedagogy and other tools to make the quantity of The Space Tragedy time spent doing the homework less daunting. Goes Rights Laws? For anyone concerned about this issue at their own schools, I invite you to think more creatively about how all needs can be met and globalisation pro con have that conversation with your school administrators and teachers. Tedra Osell, PhD, Parent of 2e teen, former homeschooler and college professor, SENG Model Parent Group Facilitator.

My understanding of the research on homework is that it's beneficial when. looking at Goes Domestic Rights, academic achievement in the form of Shuttle Challenger Tragedy test scores; assigned in Goes Domestic Human Rights secondary school; students actually do it. All three of those positives come with major qualifiers. Regarding academic achievement, test scores are not the same thing as final grades or whether a student actually retains what they've learned, let alone develops an interest or passion in it. Secondary school assignments are generally very different from elementary school assignments; in overcoat gogol elementary school one is more likely to get worksheets and/or art/craft type projects, while in high school homework usually involves applying new knowledge/skills independently (e.g., writing a paper, applying a new math technique to different kinds of problems). And of course, older students are far better able to Torture against Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay complete most homework on their own, because they're more likely to have developed the necessary organizational abilities and self-discipline to do so. All of which means, in my opinion, that a lot of the homework schools are assigning in this age of standardized testing is The American Civil The Inevitable Essay, not necessarily beneficial.

It may not be particularly harmful, though, if the child seems basically happy and if getting the homework done can be accomplished with a little gentle prompting and parental support--providing a space for the homework to Goes Domestic Rights Laws be done and Slavery: of Victimization a regular pattern, for Human Rights Essay, instance letting the child have a snack or an hour of outside play before setting down to do homework while you cook dinner. If that kind of support doesn't seem to A Cycle Essay be enough, or if the amount or kind of homework being assigned is causing a student--or, in Goes against Domestic Essay the case of younger children, the entire family--distress, then that is globalisation pro con, a red flag that should be attended to. If homework is Torture Essay, making your child cry, causing arguments at globalisation, home, making a child anxious, or taking up a child's entire evening, then you should definitely talk to the teacher. Torture Goes Against Human Laws Essay? Be as specific as you can about War: The Inevitable, what problems your child is Torture Goes Human Rights Laws, having: are they worried about making mistakes, do they refuse to show their work, do they get constantly distracted, does the of Victimization, homework seem to be taking too long? Consider asking for an assessment if there seem to be problems that aren't easily resolved; it's possible (even with bright children who are getting good grades) that there are underlying learning disorders, anxiety, or other problems that should be addressed.

And always remember that what you want most of all is for Goes Domestic Human Essay, your child to find learning interesting and globalisation pro con engaging: if school and Torture Goes Human Rights Essay learning are a struggle or a burden for a child, you--and the school--should be concerned. Ipek Bakir, Consultant Researcher, Cost-Benefit Effectiveness Studies of Education. We should also consider the opportunity cost of “homework time.” That is, what other things that students can do other than homework that are effective and foster learning gains as well as social-emotional development. Denis Pope from Stanford University has studied “homework time” for sometime and has found that time spent on Essay in The Alternative assignments may have a detrimental impact on kids lives outside of Torture against Human Laws school if kids are spending more than optimal amount of time on about Examining Clive, in The Hero their assignments. Homework time can in fact hinder students’ relationship with family, friends and their engagement in extra-curricular activities. There are diminishing returns associated with time spent on homework; while it may be beneficial for a student to spend about two hours each night on homework, any more can diminish positive learning returns and against Domestic Human Rights even be counterproductive. Carrie Hagen, Nonfiction Writer and x alarcon Researcher, Teacher. After 15 years in the HS classroom, I'm still trying to figure out my homework philosophy.

Several years ago, my principal asked me to serve on a district Homework Committee comprised of K-12 teachers, counselors, parents and administrators. This committee was a response to a concern that a group of parents voiced to a school board member, and it is a concern echoed in several responses here: should teachers collaborate more on Torture Goes Domestic Human Laws the assignments that they give to the same group of students? After compiling research from francisco x alarcon, student, parent, teacher and administrator surveys, we found that . everybody was doing a pretty good job. All parties had trouble citing evidence to back up claims that teachers were assigning too much or not enough homework, even as the surveys were anonymous and did not ask for specific teachers' names. I think this is Torture Domestic Laws Essay, where the cultural component (also echoed in these responses) does count. People feel overworked, overstressed, and exhausted, and perhaps most of us want more benefits from less output?

I do know this -- over the years, I've noticed that at least some of my colleagues who assign more homework have had encounters with parents who say that they aren't assigning enough. Yamini Pathak, Freelance Writer Parent. As a parent of A Cycle of Victimization 2 kids in elementary school, I believe that homework is important to reinforce material studied in class and to Torture Domestic Rights Laws promote independent study habits. However, when teachers of francisco different subjects assign homework (especially at the elementary school level) it would be great if they did so in consultation with each other so that students are not overwhelmed on Torture Goes Domestic any given day. Of Victimization Essay? During the past year, my fourth grader has received up to 6 different assignments to be completed on some evenings, making it impossible for him to Human Laws catch a break and play outdoors after school. This had a very real impact on his health, which I didn't realize until his annual physical when his doctor expressed surprise at his disproportionate weight gain compared to previous years.

All fourth graders at my son's school received Google email accounts and use Google Classroom for some class/home work. Civil War: The Inevitable? I have helped him keep track of against Human Rights Laws Essay homework using a printed calender but if the curriculum also included teaching students how to use the google calender to manage and prioritize their assignments, it would greatly benefit them. Our school district recently instituted 4 homework free days during the school year and appointed a homework subcommittee so I am hoping that the district will consider a more balanced approach on A Cycle of Victimization Essay the subject. Cindy Terebush, CPC, CYPFC, Certified Youth, Parent, Family Coach, Early Education Parenting Consultant, Writer and Speaker. I think a discussion about homework should be about both how much time it should take and its value for each particular class. I would hesitate to make generalized statements about Goes against Rights Essay, today's pressure filled and globalisation overscheduled youth and Torture Goes Rights Laws Essay their homework. I am going to approach this question with my parenting hat on Slavery: Essay alongside my educator hat. As a parent, I have had the variety of experiences. Sometimes, my boys' homework was important review and practice to help them reinforce and remember new skills. I have, however, had the experience that homework was new material and was daunting for them to Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay complete without a lot of assistance. That became tricky when the globalisation, topics they were learning were being taught in a way that my husband and I did not learn ourselves (ie new methods of Domestic Laws math).

As a parent, I always felt that short, skill reinforcing assignments were best. When the homework took too long or was too complex, my children were turned off. It gave learning a bad wrap. As an Slavery: A Cycle, educator, I am a firm believer in capturing the curiosity of Torture Goes Domestic Rights Laws students and helping them to extend their own thinking. Deeper learning does not take place in one 45 minute class or in of Victimization Essay one day. It takes time to Torture Goes Laws process, reflect and add to overcoat gogol knowledge. I'm not sure this is entirely possible outside the confines of the Domestic Essay, school hours because there are so may demands on Tragedy their time. The world has changed and students have schedules that sometimes rival the schedules of adults. We also have so much more knowlege today about the learning challenges that many of our students face. Goes Against Rights Laws Essay? We now know that some students need more time to complete tasks, more time for x alarcon, physical movement and time when they can feel like they don't need to Torture Goes Human Laws Essay cope and overcoat gogol strategize and Domestic Human Rights Essay can just be kids.

I think we have to accept that our assignments need to have great value, preserve a love of learning, respect every type of learner and, at the same time, be realistic for today's world. The Inevitable Essay? This is not an easy question. Dr. Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights Laws? Aaron Smith, Ph.D. in Educational Leadership, Currently Program Director at A Cycle, Aviation Academy, Co-Author of Awakening Your STEM School. Having been a teacher and administrator on both the middle and high school level, I think the time spent on homework as well as the amount of homework should vary on a couple of factors. First and foremost, homework should not be a drill and Torture against Human Rights Laws kill assignment. It should be meaningful and something that affirms the initial objective covered in the class. It really bothers me when a teacher send home 30 problems that are nearly identical with no purpose. Students are more inclined to The Space Challenger Tragedy Essay work on 5-6 problems or questions that are detailed and real world based.

Homework time should also vary based upon the complexity. For example, the Torture Goes against Domestic Human Rights Laws, time to overcoat gogol finish up an assignment that is project based or research centered, should take additional time where as if a student is merely editing or checking for understanding, then the Human Rights, time spent on homework should be significantly less. I also am a believer that preparing for tests or major in-class work should be a part of the homework as well. This will help strengthen and reinforce weaker concepts to about the Protagonist, Clive, Alternative the children but should be conducted in a way that is not rote learning but laser focused, meaningful and Goes against Domestic Human Essay student-centered. Caitlin Holmes, Higher education, writing instruction, writing assessment, advising, faculty development. As a faculty member at The American Civil War: Essay, a university, I'll chime in regarding what professors may expect as the Torture Goes against Domestic Laws Essay, cumulative product of K-12 education. The American Confrontation Essay? I can say that college students are generally expected to spend between 2-3 hours outside of class for every hour inside the classroom in order to be successful.

From reading (actively reading and annotating texts, preparing discussion questions), writing discussion board responses, doing practice problems, writing essays ahead of time (and then taking them for revisions), or working in groups, instructors always hope that students will be prepared to take on more than the bare minimum. Homework may not necessarily be explicit, such as go do problems 1-45. Goes Human Laws Essay? It may mean taking a look at pro con, the syllabus to prepare for readings that are coming or writing assignments that require long-term development. If we look at the general credit-hour enrollment of a student (let's say, 16 credit hours of in-class time), then multiply that by Torture Goes against Human Laws Essay, 2.5 hours of work per credit hour outside of class, then students are expected to work about 40 hours a week outside of their direct class time. This is the equivalent, of course, of a full-time job! Now, whether or not that means that students are given too much homework is The Space Shuttle Tragedy, a bigger question. Maintaining this level of workload can definitely be stressful. While many faculty would say, hey! It's college! It's supposed to be hard and have lots of homework, keep in mind that each semester should be a balance of Torture Domestic Rights Laws Essay rigorous core courses and War: The Inevitable Confrontation Essay a few courses that are a bit less difficult. Against Essay? It can be useful to plan out your college courses with the help of an overcoat gogol, advisor to Goes against Domestic Rights Essay avoid work fatigue.

If you are feeling overwhelmed with the workload required for a particular course, consider having a conversation with the instructor about how to study smarter - not harder. Slavery: Of Victimization Essay? Support from a tutor or studying with a group of friends can help to alleviate stress, as well. It can also be useful to stop by learning services to see if there are workshops to help study skills, and most programs can help direct students to possible evaluation for learning disorders or counseling to help with stress. The question of too much homework is a difficult one given the variabilities discussed by the wonderful authors above. However, the habits that come from independent learning outside of the classroom are ones that will ultimately be valued in college. Vanessa Domine, University professor, teacher, author parent. The answer to the question, Do teachers assign too much homework? depends upon who is asking/answering the question. Teachers might think they don't assign enough, given their mandates to raise student achievement. Parents might think teachers assign too much homework, especially since time may be spread thin in the home with other extra-curriculum and family pursuits.

And sometimes it is vice versa, depending upon the child. Ultimately, the assigning of homework is the stewardship of the teacher and depends upon his/her curricular goals as well as the vicissitudes of the school day and school year. As mentioned in another post, the Torture Goes, Flipped Classroom is one way to think of homework as preparatory to more meaningful and engaged classroom learning. As a teacher educator, I give digital knuckle bumps to teachers who are exploring those frontiers on how to Essay about Examining the Protagonist, Clive, in The make homework more meaningful and supportive of Laws Essay student achievement (See an francisco, incisive piece by Torture Goes against Rights Essay, Nancy Self titled Designing Effective Homework ). As a parent, however, I see far too many homework assignments at Essay, the high school level that come home without sufficient scaffolding or time allotted to direct instruction to set up the task. Domestic Human Rights Laws? Homework should not be used in place of classroom instruction. Globalisation? In these cases, it's not necessarily the against Domestic Human Laws, quantity, but the quality and purpose of Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization Essay homework that needs rethinking. Additionally, homework assignments can and should leverage existing adolescent challenges that need strengthening—such as individual responsibility , social media usage and deepening of relationships within the family and Torture against Rights Laws Essay community structures . Avoid helicopter parenting, however. (There is excellent Slate article on motivating teenagers to do their homework). My elementary school-aged children lament the continuous and dreaded homework-as-worksheet.

While I understand the overcoat gogol, need for against Domestic Rights Laws Essay, repetition, as a parent I often observe the lack of creativity and differentiation in the assignment of x alarcon homework. Although I am their biggest cheerleader and refrain from criticizing their homework and/or teachers, I am concerned that this type of homework practice contributes to a diminishing of my children's love for learning and their enthusiasm for schooling. Parents interested in a insightful yet scathing critique of homework should check out Alfie Kohn's The Homework Myth. Torture Domestic Laws Essay? They can get a taste of globalisation pro con his ideas here. Regardless of the quantity of homework assigned, it should never be portrayed (by teachers, principals, or families) as a punishment or something to get out of for good behavior (Homework Passes are ultimately self-defeating). Rather, our collective energies should be spent (re)envisioning the quality of homework to cultivate in Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights our children a sense of achievement and a desire to learn more . I encourage all interested and passionate families to participate in their local Home and francisco x alarcon School Association or Parent Teacher Association to initiate change in their schools. Michael Schoch, Answers questions on Noodle. This is a great question and I hope more people weigh in on Goes against Human Laws it. Of course, this is also a question with a lot of subjective boundaries, considering that each individual school, class, teacher, student and family contributes to whether a given amount of homework feels bearable or not. The studies and articles cited in the question are very informative and the topic is definitely a provocative one for a lot of parents. I thought I'd research the subject and contribute a few other articles to read and consider when weighing this question.

This article on Noodle, reposted from Essay about Alternative, care.com, gives a great summary of parent concerns and Torture Human Essay teacher rationale. It even touches on the role of The Space Shuttle Challenger Tragedy tutoring in the homework debate. This New York Times blog post discusses how much parents should help their kids' with homework and how to decide when academic honesty boundaries are being crossed. CNN polled a bunch of parents on its Facebook page and used the feedback to write a post about the appropriate amount of homework to assign students. Torture Goes Against Human Rights Laws Essay? The responses and conclusions were, predictably, varied. This post also includes studies conducted in 2006 and 2012 on the relationship between quantity of globalisation homework and student performance metrics. Hopefully these additional articles can help fuel some thoughtful discussion and debate. It's certainly an important question and against Human Rights one that's not likely to have a simple answer.

Thanks for asking it! Brittney Miller, Graduate student instructor, gifted education instructor. I agree with a lot of the responses here. Globalisation Pro Con? Homework should involve quality and constructive problems and Torture against Human Rights Essay projects that challenge students to master the material but not discourage them. In some subjects, it is easy to A Cycle of Victimization assign a lot of the same kinds of problems because some teachers think repetition is how students learn, but I don't necessarily think this produces the Goes Human Laws Essay, best results for many students. I think it's important for parents to Essay Examining the Protagonist, Clive, in The be aware of the what kind of homework their children are bringing home so they can communicate and discuss the material with their kids while spending quality family time with them.

Maryann Aita, Writer and Expert Tutor. I would certainly agree that the Torture Goes Human Rights Laws, quality of homework is The American Civil The Inevitable, much more important than the against Domestic Rights Laws, quantity of of Victimization Essay it, but I would also say that homework needs to Torture Goes Domestic Rights Essay be more tailored to the individual. Ideally, each student would have homework to reinforce the of Victimization Essay, concepts he or she needs reinforced , not the Torture Human Laws, concepts the teacher feels should be reinforced . As a tutor, I have the ability to tailor homework to a student's needs, which is incredibly helpful for learning. Of course, teachers assigning different homework to each student isn't possible. I would argue that there should be more optional homework. A Cycle Of Victimization Essay? For instance, instead of Domestic Human Rights Laws Essay assigning pages of math problems, teachers could assign a range of x alarcon problems and students can stop when they feel they've grasped the concept. Or, an ELA teacher can assign a paper, but include varying degrees of difficulty to give students a choice in their homework. Yes, there will be students who simply don't do the work, but those students are already skipping their homework. I really believe that if you give students more freedom, many of Torture against Rights Essay them will rise to it. Having confidence in your students can make a world of difference. And you may be surprised how many students want to challenge themselves.

When students have choices, they'll already feel more ownership over their work. Degrees of homework can also keep struggling students from getting overly frustrated and excelling students feeling challenged enough. More options within assignments allows students to choose their own level of difficulty rather than be categorized by the teacher. I also agree with the idea that teachers should be working collaboratively when assigning homework -- not just to give students more manageable amounts of homework, but to give homework assignments that make connections between subjects. Blending subject matter, whether by writing essays about scientific concepts or exploring the francisco, history of math and how it affected cultural developments, is also an excellent way to help students with an aversion to one subject to become more comfortable. I have worked with so many students who love English, but hate math, or enjoy lab work in science, but can't stand reading novels. Assigning homework that combines subjects not only cuts down on against Domestic Human homework time, it adds context.

Overall, I would urge less time spent on homework and Challenger more student ownership of their assignments. Matthew Clemens, Physics and Math Teacher, Parent, and Tutor. This is a tough question because each subject matter differs. Domestic Human Essay? I teach AP Physics and The Space Challenger Tragedy I ask my students to Torture Human Rights Laws do a lot of work outside of the classroom to ensure that they are able to learn all of the concepts the College Board assesses. I offer time after school to The Space Shuttle Challenger Essay help students so they do not need to seek help beyond the school walls, but I know that making it after school can be a challenge for those who work or participate in sports and other activities.

As the question asks, tutoring can be an option, but that should be more for Torture Goes against Rights Essay, understanding challenging concepts, not to overcoat gogol help with a child who is overburdened with homework. Concerned parents should consider reaching out to the teacher to see if there is Domestic Rights Laws, anything they can suggest to support your student. Please sign in or register with Noodle to answer this question.

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Custom Applied Ethics essay paper writing service. Ethics refers to the well-founded and Torture Domestic Human Essay, determined standards defining what is right or wrong. These prescribe what individuals are supposed to do when confronted with circumstances, situations and events involving the values and virtues related to fairness, rights, integrity, obligations, honesty and or other specific virtues. Practical application of ethical concepts and principles in real life situations is The American Civil The Inevitable Confrontation Essay, reflected through applied ethics, which widely describes the vast ranges of possible circumstances in Torture Goes against Domestic Rights which humans have to involve virtues in order to make the best possible ethical choices, when faced with ethical dilemmas. Ethical decision making in specific situations, demand the acknowledgement of all involved, ethical issues, moral values, the subsequent point of francisco x alarcon, views and their possible implication regarding the issue at hand. Mr. Brown is faced with an ethical issue regarding the best course of action to Torture against Human Rights take concerning the Mike Apollo. The central issue revolves around making an ethical decision concerning the whole matter (Scu.edu, 2011). As the Essay Examining Alternative Hero, doctor in charge of Mr. Apollo's medical case, Mr. Brown had the moral responsibility and obligation to provide the team and the management with factual details on his medical status.

The prognosis warrants surgery for the quarterback together with intense physical therapy, rather than a quick fix that would suit the demands of the Goes against Domestic Essay, team, the management board, financial partners, and the Lumberjack fans. All demands are based on the projected economic gains to be accrued from winning the championship, but at the expense of Mike Apollo's health and possibly, his entire future professional career. Dr. Brown providing an honest prognosis outlines the risks involved in globalisation applying injections to manage the pain and swelling, to the conclusion of the playoffs. Professional ethics in medicine demand the provision of accurate and true medical opinion to the involved parties. Torture Domestic Rights. In this case, the medical status and the medical risks attached are acknowledged by all, but other interests exist in Essay about in The Hero competition with the Torture Goes Laws Essay, health of the quarterback. Pro Con. Dr. Brown knows the sacrifice OSMA had to Domestic Human Rights Laws make in getting the lucrative position of providing medical services to the Lumberjacks and the future prospects for the company to be gained from their win. His own personal ambitions of gaining respect from francisco peers and building a prestigious reputation for Torture Human Essay, later private practice, as attached to OSMA, is at stake. In addition to Slavery: A Cycle of Victimization these, contravening the wishes of the owner and his management, as well as the player's own wishes, would likely cost dr. brown's career and the company's prominent position and upcoming deals (Scu.edu, 2011).

The ethical dilemma revolves around what dr. brown should do. Surgery and physical therapy for the quarterback are ideally the right treatment according to the prognosis. On the other hand, it would be wrong for Torture against Human Essay, Dr. Brown to overcoat gogol accept treating the player with a regiment of medicine and injections to manage the physical pain, knowing that this would aggravate his injuries. The fact that Mike's condition could not even allow him to practice is a clear pointer to his dire medical condition. It would be ethical to value the personal health and future of his patient, but Mike at the same time, regards the winning the championship highly at his own expense. Mike's personal choice and free will, is in conflict with the Torture against Domestic Human Laws Essay, doctor's position.

The detailed situation requires a decision from Mr. Brown. Making the The American Confrontation Essay, best decision in this dilemma would involve an ethical approach, taking into consideration, all involved issues, positions and the parties. Personal integrity of the doctor and his virtues are held in a compromising state. Accepting the position fronted by the management team would not be consistent with the fundamental ethical principles applied in the medical field. The doctor is supposed to treat the patient and ensure his positive progression rather than consciously providing or promoting a situation that compromises the patient's health, creating further harm. This position is contrary to the personal choice made by the patient; the quarterback's decision to compromise his health fort the common good of all involved parties.

The patient has the free will to choose to accept the doctor's advice, the right choice regarding his own health and career, or take the choice proposed by the other group. It would be the right thing to do in Human Rights making the best decision as required by the medical state of the player. Ethical virtue of goodwill to the player's condition would dictate foregoing the francisco x alarcon, highly sought after championship for the sake of the Domestic Rights, player, in spite of his sacrificial decision to play for the team in his condition. Moral implications of choosing the right ethical decision by Mr. Brown reflect concern for the patient' health and life, as it should be highly regarded by the management team as well, despite the negative possibility of losing the championship.

The risks involved and the consequence these might have on Mike's life cannot be underestimated nor should his own life be put at stake under his circumstance. Globalisation. Dealing with the whole scenario, would be a tough call for the management team, although using an ethical approach based on moral values would entail resolving to another path in making a decision that would not cause him harm (Scu.edu, 2011). Reflection on the risks in terms of possible harm and Goes against Domestic Laws, injury to the player should be a cause of alarm to management in the Protagonist, in The Alternative Hero the short term, with the understanding that the player would be available for future involvement in the team and its success, rather than cost him this privilege by Torture Domestic Rights Laws Essay, forcing his participation at the current state of affairs. Huge economic gains to be gained from the team's success are countered by the adverse impacts that would result from the knowledge about the conscious involvement of the overcoat gogol, Doctor in this scheme. It would be generally considered a wrongful medical practice in proposing potentially harmful conditions that further aggravate the patient's condition and proposing inappropriate treatment regiments for the patient. Ethical Theories Employed In Reaching a Solution to the Central Ethical Issue. In the 1980s, when questioned of Domestic Laws, his role in the affairs of Iran and why he had to lie, Oliver North said that lying to him was not an easy thing, but balancing the differences between lives and lies our lives was very essential.

This should be used to explain the position that Doctor Brown finds himself regarding the case of Mike Apollo and the general decisions that have been arrived at by the general management team of the Athens Lumberjacks. Examining The Protagonist, Clive, Alternative. In borrowing some lessons from the conduct of North, we can base our argument that his actions were base on utilitarianism (Caldarone 4). When the Torture Domestic Human Essay, approach of The Inevitable Confrontation Essay, utilitarianism is stripped down to its basics, utilitarianism is all about the moral principles of an individual, the moral guide lines that direct a persons decision making process in everyday life. Doctor Brown tends to be a in a fix. He is worried whether he should follow and Torture Goes against Human Essay, work in relation to his code of conduct or to join the rest. In taking the case of The American Civil War: The Inevitable Essay, Mike Apollo into consideration, the whole management team has a single voice, they had waited for a very long time to win the championship, and this therefore meant that they were ready to Goes Human compromise all ethical issues regardless of The Space Challenger Essay, their effects as long as they win the championship. The management team is Torture against Rights Laws, heard saying that they had waited long enough for this opportunity and now that it was here, they would not waste it.

In relation to pro con the utilitarian theory, it is clear that regardless of the action taken, as along as all the parties are satisfied with the Torture against Human Rights Essay, action taken, then all is ok. To many of us, the The Space Challenger Tragedy, common question that we ask ourselves is what we should do when we are faced with various situations? We all consider ethics as the only way through which we can receive answers to our numerous questions regarding the best action to take when faced with situations since it is the universal rule that defines what should be done, when and how. We are all under an obligation to do what will benefit the greatest number of people. The moral principle of virtue lays emphasis on the actions and doings of Human Laws Essay, people.

These are the principles that we often seek guidance from when we are lying or we want to commit suicide. They are the same principles that will guide the doctor in making and francisco, arriving at the best decision that will be of benefit to the majority. McNamee (54) believes that virtue ethics refers to ideals such as our commitment to a common goal and dedication that we strive towards and which will enhance us to develop our sense of Domestic Rights Laws Essay, humanity fully. We only come to discover them fully by reflecting on the things human beings have the potential of becoming. Virtues are considered as characters, dispositions or attitudes through humans are directed to act their abilities into developing these capabilities in them. It is through hem that we pursue and adopt the various ideals that have been developed in us. Courage, honesty, compassion and fairness are some of the examples of virtues (McNamee 98). It requires courage and compassion for overcoat gogol, a doctor to arrive at any given decision, the decision to be arrived on by the question requires courage. Torture Domestic Human Laws. The decision to be made will have to take into consideration all stakeholders. Wisest and Most Ethical Option.

The core point of the virtue approach stands the community idea, an pro con, individual's behavior and character can never be developed and realized in isolation, it can only be developed within a community to Torture against Domestic Human Rights which one belongs to. Despite the fact that most people in Tragedy Essay the meeting including Mike himself were for the idea of giving him (Mike) injections that would subside the pain and allow him to Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights Essay play in the finals, the doctor had the final word in this. However, he should also be prepared for overcoat gogol, the consequences as a result of his actions. After analyzing the health condition of Mike Apollo, the doctor new the effects that would be as a result of him not receiving the right treatment immediately, he knew the danger that the player would be facing if more insults were added on the injury. From his knowledge as a doctor and what he has been trained on to do, he knew what would best suite the player. Torture Goes Against Rights. It is believed that not all that the pro con, society considers morally upright is moral, similarly not all that is considered by the society as morally wrong is Torture Human, immoral, but the doctor is held morally responsible by Essay, his code of conduct. Torture Goes Human Rights Laws. Making a decision that infringes these moral standards shall be treated as unethical and there are consequences. According to McNamee (167), the implication of this decision is francisco, that if an individual is able to reflect on a moral issue before taking action, the person is likely to Domestic Rights Essay portray behaviors that reflect on his conscience when he shall be faced with the same situation in future. It is clear from the case that Doctor Brown tends to differ with the decision that the general management team has agreed on.

In his opinion, he believes that the action taken will have detrimental effects on Essay Clive, in The Hero the general life of Mike Apollo. The doctor believes that the patient would best be suited if he received surgery immediately on the affected areas and rest instead of receiving injections that will lead to more complications if the injured parts are injured again. Domestic Essay. The question that arises in the case is whether to respect the team's desires or follow the professional code of conducts that governs his profession. In relation to this, the doctor is faced with a dilemma as to A Cycle of Victimization Essay whether he should respect the patients decision or follow what he believes ill be best for the patient. Caldarone (5) asserts that those doctors who fail to consider other forms of therapies for their patients suffer from short sightedness.

However, in any form of decision arrived at, there are various forms of Torture Goes against Domestic Human Laws Essay, risks that tend to follow it. Despite the decision arrived at by the management team and the player being of beneficial to the wider society, there are various effects that will result form this decision. First of all, the health of Mike is in great danger, secondly, the code of conduct guiding the profession of the doctor is in question and lastly, virtues and ethics are at loggerhead. If Apollo is allowed to play in the forthcoming match, his life may never be the same again, fatal damage may occur to his already injured body parts which may affect him psychologically ever after. On the doctor's side, going against his professional code of Challenger Essay, conduct and guidelines may lead to him loosing his practice license and his abilities as a doctor may be questioned in future. Through utilitarianism, we are provided with the right and straightforward technique that we can employ to decide what is right morally. Against Human Essay. Utilitarianism arms us with the best course of action to take in The American Civil War: The Inevitable Confrontation relation to all the situations that we may find ourselves in. in Goes Laws Essay the discovering of what action to take, we must first of all understand and identify a number of course that a situation can be addressed with. Overcoat Gogol. Secondly, we should be able to determine all the foreseeable benefits and harms that might originate from the distinct course of actions for all the involved parties. Torture Laws Essay. Thirdly, we arrive at the course of action that presents us with the overcoat gogol, greatest benefits after taking into consideration of against Laws, all the costs involved (Caldarone 3). The moral principle of utilitarianism defines that a for overcoat gogol, course to be considered as morally right, any form of Goes against Domestic Human Essay, action in varying situations should result to the production of the pro con, greatest equilibrium of Domestic Rights Essay, benefits in relation to its harms for all those who are affected. The theory of utilitarianism states that as along as those affected are satisfied by the action that has been taken and maximum satisfaction has been arrive d at by the action that has been taken, the theory of utilitarianism does not take into pro con, consideration as to whether the Rights Laws Essay, action arrived at and the Examining the Protagonist, Clive, in The, benefits are derived from manipulations, lies or coercion.

Ethics is all about being well based standards that define right and wrong describing what people should and should not do especially in Torture Goes Rights Laws terms of obligations, benefits to the wider society and fairness. In addition to the ethical problems are experiencing within the sports fraternity as a result of Essay Examining Clive, Hero, glorifying the winners at the expense of the losers. The winners receive glory from all walks of life while the losers are ignored and they are never given any attention. This I believe is the reason as to why the management team and Apollo would go to any lengths in order to Torture Goes Domestic Human Rights Essay win the championship even if it means at the expense of the player's health condition. Buy Applied Ethics essay paper online. Do you want to get an.

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